WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximum conditions locations

  1. Maximum Likelihood Learning of Conditional MTE Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a procedure for inducing conditional densities within the mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTE) framework. We analyse possible conditional MTE specifications and propose a model selection scheme, based on the BIC score, for partitioning the domain of the conditioning variables....... Finally, experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the learning procedure as well as the expressive power of the conditional MTE distribution....

  2. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  3. Maximum Entropy and Probability Kinematics Constrained by Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lukits

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two open questions of inductive reasoning are solved: (1 does the principle of maximum entropy (PME give a solution to the obverse Majerník problem; and (2 isWagner correct when he claims that Jeffrey’s updating principle (JUP contradicts PME? Majerník shows that PME provides unique and plausible marginal probabilities, given conditional probabilities. The obverse problem posed here is whether PME also provides such conditional probabilities, given certain marginal probabilities. The theorem developed to solve the obverse Majerník problem demonstrates that in the special case introduced by Wagner PME does not contradict JUP, but elegantly generalizes it and offers a more integrated approach to probability updating.

  4. Estimation of wave conditions at Liseleje location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgarino, Bruno; Brorsen, Michael

    This report present the near-shore waves conditions at Liseleje. This study has been carried out as a first step to evaluate the possibility of installing an overtopping wave energy converter at Liseleje. The offshore conditions have first been calculated, using 30 years recorded wind data. Then ...

  5. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  6. Spatial and Temporal Trends in the Location of the Lifetime Maximum Intensity of Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Tennille

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The climatology of tropical cyclones is an immediate research need, specifically to better understand their long-term patterns and elucidate their future in a changing climate. One important pattern that has recently been detected is the poleward shift of the lifetime maximum intensity (LMI of tropical cyclones. This study further assessed the recent (1977–2015 spatial changes in the LMI of tropical cyclones, specifically those of tropical storm strength or stronger in the North Atlantic and northern West Pacific basins. Analyses of moving decadal means suggested that LMI locations migrated south in the North Atlantic and north in the West Pacific. In addition to a linear trend, there is a cyclical migration of LMI that is especially apparent in the West Pacific. Relationships between LMI migration and intensity were explored, as well as LMI location relative to landfall. The southerly trend of LMI in the North Atlantic was most prevalent in the strongest storms, resulting in these storms reaching their LMI farther from land. The relationship between intensity and LMI migration in the West Pacific was not as clear, but the most intense storms have been reaching LMI closer to their eventual landfall location. This work adds to those emphasizing the importance of understanding the climatology of the most intense hurricanes and shows there are potential human impacts resulting from any migration of LMI.

  7. Time Reversal Migration for Passive Sources Using a Maximum Variance Imaging Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    The conventional time-reversal imaging approach for micro-seismic or passive source location is based on focusing the back-propagated wavefields from each recorded trace in a source image. It suffers from strong background noise and limited acquisition aperture, which may create unexpected artifacts and cause error in the source location. To overcome such a problem, we propose a new imaging condition for microseismic imaging, which is based on comparing the amplitude variance in certain windows, and use it to suppress the artifacts as well as find the right location for passive sources. Instead of simply searching for the maximum energy point in the back-propagated wavefield, we calculate the amplitude variances over a window moving in both space and time axis to create a highly resolved passive event image. The variance operation has negligible cost compared with the forward/backward modeling operations, which reveals that the maximum variance imaging condition is efficient and effective. We test our approach numerically on a simple three-layer model and on a piece of the Marmousi model as well, both of which have shown reasonably good results.

  8. Time Reversal Migration for Passive Sources Using a Maximum Variance Imaging Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H.

    2017-05-26

    The conventional time-reversal imaging approach for micro-seismic or passive source location is based on focusing the back-propagated wavefields from each recorded trace in a source image. It suffers from strong background noise and limited acquisition aperture, which may create unexpected artifacts and cause error in the source location. To overcome such a problem, we propose a new imaging condition for microseismic imaging, which is based on comparing the amplitude variance in certain windows, and use it to suppress the artifacts as well as find the right location for passive sources. Instead of simply searching for the maximum energy point in the back-propagated wavefield, we calculate the amplitude variances over a window moving in both space and time axis to create a highly resolved passive event image. The variance operation has negligible cost compared with the forward/backward modeling operations, which reveals that the maximum variance imaging condition is efficient and effective. We test our approach numerically on a simple three-layer model and on a piece of the Marmousi model as well, both of which have shown reasonably good results.

  9. The Location-Scale Mixture Exponential Power Distribution: A Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnamaei, Z.; Nematollahi, N.; Farnoosh, R.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an alternative skew-slash distribution by using the scale mixture of the exponential power distribution. We derive the properties of this distribution and estimate its parameter by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. By a simulation study we compute the mentioned estimators and their mean square errors, and we provide an example on real data to demonstrate the modeling strength of the new distribution.

  10. The Location-Scale Mixture Exponential Power Distribution: A Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rahnamaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an alternative skew-slash distribution by using the scale mixture of the exponential power distribution. We derive the properties of this distribution and estimate its parameter by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. By a simulation study we compute the mentioned estimators and their mean square errors, and we provide an example on real data to demonstrate the modeling strength of the new distribution.

  11. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Search Method Using Temperature Measurements in Partial Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroczka Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels have a non-linear current-voltage characteristics to produce the maximum power at only one point called the maximum power point. In the case of the uniform illumination a single solar panel shows only one maximum power, which is also the global maximum power point. In the case an irregularly illuminated photovoltaic panel many local maxima on the power-voltage curve can be observed and only one of them is the global maximum. The proposed algorithm detects whether a solar panel is in the uniform insolation conditions. Then an appropriate strategy of tracking the maximum power point is taken using a decision algorithm. The proposed method is simulated in the environment created by the authors, which allows to stimulate photovoltaic panels in real conditions of lighting, temperature and shading.

  12. Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) for Road Condition Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    McCullouch, Bob G.; Leung, Michelle; Kang, Wonjin

    2009-01-01

    This project developed an AVL system for INDOT that utilized the statewide wireless network, SAFE-T. This option was chosen after doing a cost analysis of commercial AVL systems that use cellular data communications. The system developed provides real time information collected during snow and ice removal. Information includes weather and road conditions, truck speed, amount of chemicals spread, time, location, plow position, and road temperature. This information is displayed on INDOT GIS ma...

  13. Statistics of the first passage time of Brownian motion conditioned by maximum value or area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Michael J; Majumdar, Satya N

    2014-01-01

    We derive the moments of the first passage time for Brownian motion conditioned by either the maximum value or the area swept out by the motion. These quantities are the natural counterparts to the moments of the maximum value and area of Brownian excursions of fixed duration, which we also derive for completeness within the same mathematical framework. Various applications are indicated. (paper)

  14. Performance analysis of the lineal model for estimating the maximum power of a HCPV module in different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Sarmah, Nabin; Mallick, Tapas; Sanchez, Iñigo; Cuadra, Juan M.; Soria-Moya, Alberto; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    A model based on easily obtained atmospheric parameters and on a simple lineal mathematical expression has been developed at the Centre of Advanced Studies in Energy and Environment in southern Spain. The model predicts the maximum power of a HCPV module as a function of direct normal irradiance, air temperature and air mass. Presently, the proposed model has only been validated in southern Spain and its performance in locations with different atmospheric conditions still remains unknown. In order to address this issue, several HCPV modules have been measured in two different locations with different climate conditions than the south of Spain: the Environment and Sustainability Institute in southern UK and the National Renewable Energy Center in northern Spain. Results show that the model has an adequate match between actual and estimated data with a RMSE lower than 3.9% at locations with different climate conditions.

  15. A Two-Stage Maximum Entropy Prior of Location Parameter with a Stochastic Multivariate Interval Constraint and Its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage maximum entropy prior to elicit uncertainty regarding a multivariate interval constraint of the location parameter of a scale mixture of normal model. Using Shannon’s entropy, this study demonstrates how the prior, obtained by using two stages of a prior hierarchy, appropriately accounts for the information regarding the stochastic constraint and suggests an objective measure of the degree of belief in the stochastic constraint. The study also verifies that the proposed prior plays the role of bridging the gap between the canonical maximum entropy prior of the parameter with no interval constraint and that with a certain multivariate interval constraint. It is shown that the two-stage maximum entropy prior belongs to the family of rectangle screened normal distributions that is conjugate for samples from a normal distribution. Some properties of the prior density, useful for developing a Bayesian inference of the parameter with the stochastic constraint, are provided. We also propose a hierarchical constrained scale mixture of normal model (HCSMN, which uses the prior density to estimate the constrained location parameter of a scale mixture of normal model and demonstrates the scope of its applicability.

  16. Performance analysis and comparison of an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs under maximum power and maximum power density conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.-Y.; Hou, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, performance analysis and comparison based on the maximum power and maximum power density conditions have been conducted for an Atkinson cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The Atkinson cycle is internally reversible but externally irreversible, since there is external irreversibility of heat transfer during the processes of constant volume heat addition and constant pressure heat rejection. This study is based purely on classical thermodynamic analysis methodology. It should be especially emphasized that all the results and conclusions are based on classical thermodynamics. The power density, defined as the ratio of power output to maximum specific volume in the cycle, is taken as the optimization objective because it considers the effects of engine size as related to investment cost. The results show that an engine design based on maximum power density with constant effectiveness of the hot and cold side heat exchangers or constant inlet temperature ratio of the heat reservoirs will have smaller size but higher efficiency, compression ratio, expansion ratio and maximum temperature than one based on maximum power. From the view points of engine size and thermal efficiency, an engine design based on maximum power density is better than one based on maximum power conditions. However, due to the higher compression ratio and maximum temperature in the cycle, an engine design based on maximum power density conditions requires tougher materials for engine construction than one based on maximum power conditions

  17. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  18. Influence of the Target Vessel on the Location and Area of Maximum Skin Dose during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Fuda, K.; Kagaya, Y.; Saito, H.; Takai, Y.; Kohzuki, M.; Takahash i, S.; Yamada, S.; Zuguchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A number of cases involving radiation-associated patient skin injury attributable to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been reported. Knowledge of the location and area of the patient's maximum skin dose (MSD) in PCI is necessary to reduce the risk of skin injury. Purpose: To determine the location and area of the MSD in PCI, and separately analyze the effects of different target vessels. Material and Methods: 197 consecutive PCI procedures were studied, and the location and area of the MSD were calculated by a skin-dose mapping software program: Caregraph. The target vessels of the PCI procedures were divided into four groups based on the American Heart Association (AHA) classification. Results: The sites of the MSD for AHA no.1-3, AHA no.4, and AHA no.11-15 were located mainly on the right back skin, the lower right or center back skin, and the upper back skin areas, respectively, whereas the MSD sites for the AHA no. 5-10 PCI were widely spread. The MSD area for the AHA no. 4 PCI was larger than that for the AHA no. 11-15 PCI (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Although the radiation associated with PCI can be widely spread and variable, we observed a tendency regarding the location and area of the MSD when we separately analyzed the data for different target vessels. We recommend the use of a smaller radiation field size and the elimination of overlapping fields during PCI

  19. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED OF THE MAXIMUM PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER TRACTIOQG UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Labbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency.In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is proposed for maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panel, are used to generate the optimal MPP, such that solar panel maximum power is generated under different operating conditions. A photovoltaic system including a solar panel and PSO MPP tracker is modelled and simulated, it has been has been carried out which has shown the effectiveness of PSO to draw much energy and fast response against change in working conditions.

  20. Making Conditional Cash Transfer Programs More Efficient : Designing for Maximum Effect of the Conditionality

    OpenAIRE

    de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs are now used extensively to encourage poor parents to increase investments in their children's human capital. These programs can be large and expensive, motivating a quest for greater efficiency through increased impact of the programs' imposed conditions on human capital formation. This requires designing the programs' targeting and calibration rules spe...

  1. Downstream-Conditioned Maximum Entropy Method for Exit Boundary Conditions in the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Dottori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for modeling outflow boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM based on the maximization of the local entropy is presented. The maximization procedure is constrained by macroscopic values and downstream components. The method is applied to fully developed boundary conditions of the Navier-Stokes equations in rectangular channels. Comparisons are made with other alternative methods. In addition, the new downstream-conditioned entropy is studied and it was found that there is a correlation with the velocity gradient during the flow development.

  2. Conditions for maximum isolation of stable condensate during separation in gas-condensate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivus, N.A.; Belkina, N.A.

    1969-02-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is made of the gas-liquid separation process in order to determine the relationship between conditions of maximum stable condensate separation and physico-chemical nature and composition of condensate. The analysis was made by considering the multicomponent gas-condensate fluid produced from Zyrya field as a ternary system, composed of methane, an intermediate component (propane and butane) and a heavy residue, C/sub 6+/. Composition of 5 ternary systems was calculated for a wide variation in separator conditions. At each separator pressure there is maximum condensate production at a certain temperature. This occurs because solubility of condensate components changes with temperature. Results of all calculations are shown graphically. The graphs show conditions of maximum stable condensate separation.

  3. Maximum power point tracking for PV systems under partial shading conditions using current sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach for tracking the maximum power point of photovoltaic systems. • Able to handle both the uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. • Maximum power point tracking based on current sweeping. - Abstract: Partial shading on photovoltaic (PV) arrays causes multiple peaks on the output power–voltage characteristic curve and local searching technique such as perturb and observe (P&O) method could easily fail in searching for the global maximum. Moreover, existing global searching techniques are still not very satisfactory in terms of speed and implementation complexity. In this paper, a fast global maximum power point (MPPT) tracking method which is using current sweeping for photovoltaic arrays under partial shading conditions is proposed. Unlike conventional approach, the proposed method is current based rather than voltage based. The initial maximum power point will be derived based on a current sweeping test and the maximum power point can be enhanced by a finer local search. The speed of the global search is mainly governed by the apparent time constant of the PV array and the generation of a fast current sweeping test. The fast current sweeping test can easily be realized by a DC/DC boost converter with a very fast current control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global searching scheme

  4. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can......As photovoltaic (PV) integration increases in distribution systems, to investigate the maximum allowable PV integration capacity for a district distribution system becomes necessary in the planning phase, an optimization model is thus proposed to evaluate the maximum PV integration capacity while...

  5. WMAXC: a weighted maximum clique method for identifying condition-specific sub-network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayarbaatar Amgalan

    Full Text Available Sub-networks can expose complex patterns in an entire bio-molecular network by extracting interactions that depend on temporal or condition-specific contexts. When genes interact with each other during cellular processes, they may form differential co-expression patterns with other genes across different cell states. The identification of condition-specific sub-networks is of great importance in investigating how a living cell adapts to environmental changes. In this work, we propose the weighted MAXimum clique (WMAXC method to identify a condition-specific sub-network. WMAXC first proposes scoring functions that jointly measure condition-specific changes to both individual genes and gene-gene co-expressions. It then employs a weaker formula of a general maximum clique problem and relates the maximum scored clique of a weighted graph to the optimization of a quadratic objective function under sparsity constraints. We combine a continuous genetic algorithm and a projection procedure to obtain a single optimal sub-network that maximizes the objective function (scoring function over the standard simplex (sparsity constraints. We applied the WMAXC method to both simulated data and real data sets of ovarian and prostate cancer. Compared with previous methods, WMAXC selected a large fraction of cancer-related genes, which were enriched in cancer-related pathways. The results demonstrated that our method efficiently captured a subset of genes relevant under the investigated condition.

  6. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  7. Location condition of nuclear power generation at a viewpoint of location area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kazuharu

    1999-01-01

    In the thirty years memorial meeting of the National Nuclear Power Generation located Commune Conference (NNGC) held in October, 1998, an extremely important fact was clarified, relation deeply to main aim of NNGC that permanent development was not promised at the location area even if a nuclear power plant was constructed there. Therefore, it is required that Japan government receives operation of three laws on electric source development as soon as possible, establishes a basic target on permanent area promotion in the nuclear power generation located commune, realizes some examples on development of the commune together with nuclear power generation and intends to promoted its location. (G.K.)

  8. Multicore PSO Operation for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Distributed Photovoltaic System under Partially Shading Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Min Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the partial shading problem of a PV module using the one-diode model and simulating the characteristics exhibiting multiple-peak power output condition that is similar to a PV array. A modified particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm based on the suggested search-agent deployment, retracking condition, and multicore operation is proposed in order to continuously locate the global maximum power point for the PV system. Partial shading simulation results for up to 16 modules in series/parallel formats are presented. A distributed PV system consisting of up to 8 a-silicon thin film PV panels and also having a dedicated DC/DC buck converter on each of the modules is tested. The converter reaches its steady state voltage output in 10 ms. However for MPPT operation, voltage, and current measurement interval is set to 20 ms to avoid unnecessary noise from the entire electric circuit. Based on the simulation and experiment results, each core of the proposed PSO operation should control no more than 4 PV modules in order to have the maximum tracking accuracy and minimum overall tracking time. Tracking for the global maximum power point of a distributed PV system under various partial shading conditions can be done within 1.3 seconds.

  9. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Maximum Power Point Tracking Controllers under Partial Shaded Conditions in a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramaprabha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mismatching effects due to partial shaded conditions are the major drawbacks existing in today’s photovoltaic (PV systems. These mismatch effects are greatly reduced in distributed PV system architecture where each panel is effectively decoupled from its neighboring panel. To obtain the optimal operation of the PV panels, maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques are used. In partial shaded conditions, detecting the maximum operating point is difficult as the characteristic curves are complex with multiple peaks. In this paper, a neural network control technique is employed for MPPT. Detailed analyses were carried out on MPPT controllers in centralized and distributed architecture under partial shaded environments. The efficiency of the MPPT controllers and the effectiveness of the proposed control technique under partial shaded environments was examined using MATLAB software. The results were validated through experimentation.

  11. Discrete maximum principle for Poisson equation with mixed boundary conditions solved by hp-FEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejchodský, Tomáš; Šolín, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 201-214 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0496; GA ČR GA102/05/0629 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete maximum principle * hp-FEM * Poisson equation * mixed boundary conditions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Maximum Likelihood Method for Predicting Environmental Conditions from Assemblage Composition: The R Package bio.infer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester L. Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the R package bio.infer, a set of scripts that facilitates the use of maximum likelihood (ML methods for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition. Environmental conditions can often be inferred from only biological data, and these inferences are useful when other sources of data are unavailable. ML prediction methods are statistically rigorous and applicable to a broader set of problems than more commonly used weighted averaging techniques. However, ML methods require a substantially greater investment of time to program algorithms and to perform computations. This package is designed to reduce the effort required to apply ML prediction methods.

  13. Kinyarwanda locative applicatives and the Minimal Link Condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... element β of the same type which is closer to K. We show that the theme cannot move in Kinyarwanda locative applicatives because the applied object is closer to the potential landing site. However, in contexts in which the applied object has been moved 'out of the way', the MLC no longer blocks movement of the theme.

  14. Maximum run-up behavior of tsunamis under non-zero initial velocity condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran AYDIN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami run-up problem is solved non-linearly under the most general initial conditions, that is, for realistic initial waveforms such as N-waves, as well as standard initial waveforms such as solitary waves, in the presence of initial velocity. An initial-boundary value problem governed by the non-linear shallow-water wave equations is solved analytically utilizing the classical separation of variables technique, which proved to be not only fast but also accurate analytical approach for this type of problems. The results provide important information on maximum tsunami run-up qualitatively. We observed that, although the calculated maximum run-ups increase significantly, going as high as double that of the zero-velocity case, initial waves having non-zero fluid velocity exhibit the same run-up behavior as waves without initial velocity, for all wave types considered in this study.

  15. Conditional maximum-entropy method for selecting prior distributions in Bayesian statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2014-11-01

    The conditional maximum-entropy method (abbreviated here as C-MaxEnt) is formulated for selecting prior probability distributions in Bayesian statistics for parameter estimation. This method is inspired by a statistical-mechanical approach to systems governed by dynamics with largely separated time scales and is based on three key concepts: conjugate pairs of variables, dimensionless integration measures with coarse-graining factors and partial maximization of the joint entropy. The method enables one to calculate a prior purely from a likelihood in a simple way. It is shown, in particular, how it not only yields Jeffreys's rules but also reveals new structures hidden behind them.

  16. Thermodynamic and Dynamic Causes of Pluvial Conditions During the Last Glacial Maximum in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Carrie; Lowry, Daniel P.; Hoell, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    During the last glacial period, precipitation minus evaporation increased across the currently arid western United States. These pluvial conditions have been commonly explained for decades by a southward deflection of the jet stream by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Here analysis of state-of-the-art coupled climate models shows that effects of the Laurentide Ice Sheet on the mean circulation were more important than storm track changes in generating wet conditions. Namely, strong cooling by the ice sheet significantly reduced humidity over land, increasing moisture advection in the westerlies due to steepened humidity gradients. Additionally, the removal of moisture from the atmosphere by mass divergence associated with the subtropical high was diminished at the Last Glacial Maximum compared to present. These same dynamic and thermodynamic factors, working in the opposite direction, are projected to cause regional drying in western North America under increased greenhouse gas concentrations, indicating continuity from past to future in the mechanisms altering hydroclimate.

  17. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  18. Changes in atmospheric circulation between solar maximum and minimum conditions in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Nyung

    2008-10-01

    Statistically significant climate responses to the solar variability are found in Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and in the tropical circulation. This study is based on the statistical analysis of numerical simulations with ModelE version of the chemistry coupled Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The low frequency large scale variability of the winter and summer circulation is described by the NAM, the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of geopotential heights. The newly defined seasonal annular modes and its dynamical significance in the stratosphere and troposphere in the GISS ModelE is shown and compared with those in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In the stratosphere, the summer NAM obtained from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis as well as from the ModelE simulations has the same sign throughout the northern hemisphere, but shows greater variability at low latitudes. The patterns in both analyses are consistent with the interpretation that low NAM conditions represent an enhancement of the seasonal difference between the summer and the annual averages of geopotential height, temperature and velocity distributions, while the reverse holds for high NAM conditions. Composite analysis of high and low NAM cases in both the model and observation suggests that the summer stratosphere is more "summer-like" when the solar activity is near a maximum. This means that the zonal easterly wind flow is stronger and the temperature is higher than normal. Thus increased irradiance favors a low summer NAM. A quantitative comparison of the anti-correlation between the NAM and the solar forcing is presented in the model and in the observation, both of which show lower/higher NAM index in solar maximum/minimum conditions. The summer NAM in the troposphere obtained from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis has a dipolar zonal structure with maximum

  19. Most likely failure location during severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Allison, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from which finite element calculation results are used in conjunction with analytical calculation results to predict failure in different LWR vessel designs during a severe accident. Detailed analyses are being performed to investigate the relative likelihood of a BWR vessel and drain line penetration to fail during a wide range of severe accident conditions. Analytically developed failure maps, which were developed in terms of dimensionless groups, are applied to consider geometries and materials occurring in other LWR vessel designs. Preliminary numerical analysis results indicate that if ceramic debris relocates within the BWR drain line to a distance below the lower head, the drain line will reach failure temperatures before the vessel fails. Application of failure maps for these debris conditions to other LWR geometries indicate that in-vessel tube melting will occur in either BWR or PWR vessel designs. Furthermore, if this melt is assumed to fill the entire penetration flow area, the melt is predicted to travel well below the lower head in any of the reference LWR penetrations. However, failure maps suggest the result that ex-vessel tube temperatures exceed the penetration's ultimate strength is specific to the BWR drain line because of its material composition and relatively large effective diameter for melt flow

  20. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  1. Determination of maximum power transfer conditions of bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, a method to find the maximum power transfer conditions in bimorph piezoelectric-based harvesters is proposed. Explicitly, we derive a closed form expression that relates the load resistance to the mechanical parameters describing the bimorph based on the electromechanical, single degree of freedom, analogy. Further, by taking into account the intrinsic capacitance of the piezoelectric harvester, a more descriptive expression of the resonant frequency in piezoelectric bimorphs was derived. In interest of impartiality, we apply the proposed philosophy on previously published experimental results and compare it with other reported hypotheses. It was found that the proposed method was able to predict the actual optimum load resistance more accurately than other methods reported in the literature. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Maximum Evaporation Rates of Water Droplets Approaching Obstacles in the Atmosphere Under Icing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, H. H.

    1953-01-01

    When a closed body or a duct envelope moves through the atmosphere, air pressure and temperature rises occur ahead of the body or, under ram conditions, within the duct. If cloud water droplets are encountered, droplet evaporation will result because of the air-temperature rise and the relative velocity between the droplet and stagnating air. It is shown that the solution of the steady-state psychrometric equation provides evaporation rates which are the maximum possible when droplets are entrained in air moving along stagnation lines under such conditions. Calculations are made for a wide variety of water droplet diameters, ambient conditions, and flight Mach numbers. Droplet diameter, body size, and Mach number effects are found to predominate, whereas wide variation in ambient conditions are of relatively small significance in the determination of evaporation rates. The results are essentially exact for the case of movement of droplets having diameters smaller than about 30 microns along relatively long ducts (length at least several feet) or toward large obstacles (wings), since disequilibrium effects are then of little significance. Mass losses in the case of movement within ducts will often be significant fractions (one-fifth to one-half) of original droplet masses, while very small droplets within ducts will often disappear even though the entraining air is not fully stagnated. Wing-approach evaporation losses will usually be of the order of several percent of original droplet masses. Two numerical examples are given of the determination of local evaporation rates and total mass losses in cases involving cloud droplets approaching circular cylinders along stagnation lines. The cylinders chosen were of 3.95-inch (10.0+ cm) diameter and 39.5-inch 100+ cm) diameter. The smaller is representative of icing-rate measurement cylinders, while with the larger will be associated an air-flow field similar to that ahead of an airfoil having a leading-edge radius

  3. Isotopic evidence for climatic conditions in Southeast Asia at the last glacial maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Gibson, J.J.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Froehlich, K.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of dated groundwater archives from the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand and Bangladesh trace changes in monsoon conditions, primarily rainout processes between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and present day in southeast Asia. Today, isotope-climate relations are well established by the IAEA/WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation survey which reveals more depleted δ 18 O and δ 2 H for the Pacific Ocean monsoon regime than for the Indian Ocean monsoon regime, primarily due to proximal ocean sources and subdued continental moisture recycling for the latter region. Groundwater archives, reflecting past isotopic composition of precipitation, strongly suggest that this distinction was preserved or slightly enhanced at the time of the LGM, despite an apparent weakening of the summer monsoon and associated rainout processes. Overall, precipitation and moisture recycling, and enhanced continental effects are inferred to be the primary controls on δ 18 O signals in groundwater in southeast Asia. Comparison of groundwater isotope signatures and an ECHAM4 model simulation of the isotopic distribution in precipitation at 21ka reveal similar patterns, but the impacts of increased air mass contributions from high latitudes and reduced Eurasian moisture recycling at the LGM are shown to be potentially greater for the Pacific region than predicted by the model. (author)

  4. Selection of full-sib families of Panicum maximum Jacq under low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mochi Victor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values ​​(GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance

  5. Continuity and boundary conditions in thermodynamics: From Carnot's efficiency to efficiencies at maximum power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, H.; Apertet, Y.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2015-07-01

    object of the article is thus to cover some of the milestones of thermodynamics, and show through the illustrative case of thermoelectric generators, our model heat engine, that the shift from Carnot's efficiency to efficienc ies at maximum power explains itself naturally as one considers continuity and boundary conditions carefully; indeed, as an adaptation of Friedrich Nietzche's quote, we may say that the thermodynamic demon is in the details. This article is supplemented with comments by J.M.R. Parrondo and a final reply by the authors.

  6. Reconstructing Oceanographic Conditions From the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.

    2015-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled 7 sites in the Bay of Bengal, providing a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the link between glacial cycles, tropical oceanographic changes, and monsoon strength. Deep-sea sediment cores of the Bengal Fan fluctuate between sand, hemipelagic and terrestrial sediment layers. All but one of the sites (U1454) contain a layer of calcareous clay in the uppermost part of the core that is late Pleistocene in age. During Expedition 354 site U1452C was sampled at high resolution (every 2cm) by a broad group of collaborators with the goal of reconstructing monsoon strength and oceanographic conditions using a variety of proxies. The top 480 cm of site U1452C (8ºN, 87ºE, 3671m water depth) contains primarily nannofossil rich calcareous clay. The relatively high abundance of foraminifera will allow us to generate a high resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) using standard foraminifera proxies. We will present oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Mg/Ca data of mixed layer planktonic foraminifera from the top 70cm of the core, representing the Holocene to the last glacial maximum. δ18O of planktonic foraminifera records global ice volume and local SST and SSS, while Mg/Ca of foraminifera is a proxy for SST. The paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements on the same samples of foraminifera, together with published estimates with global ocean δ18O, can be used to reconstruct both SST and local δ18O of seawater, which is a function of the evaporation/precipitation balance. In future work, the local SSS and SST during the LGM will be paired with terrestrial and other oceanic proxies to increase our understanding of how global climate is connected to monsoon strength.

  7. Location of the valence band maximum in the band structure of anisotropic 1 T'-ReSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickholt, P.; Noky, J.; Schwier, E. F.; Shimada, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Datzer, C.; Drüppel, M.; Krüger, P.; Rohlfing, M.; Donath, M.

    2018-04-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a focus of current research due to their fascinating optical and electronic properties with possible technical applications. ReSe2 is an interesting material of the TMDC family, with unique anisotropic properties originating from its distorted 1 T structure (1 T '). To develop a fundamental understanding of the optical and electric properties, we studied the underlying electronic structure with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) as well as band-structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT)-local density approximation (LDA) and GdW approximations. We identified the Γ ¯M¯1 direction, which is perpendicular to the a axis, as a distinct direction in k space with the smallest bandwidth of the highest valence band. Using photon-energy-dependent ARPES, two valence band maxima are identified within experimental limits of about 50 meV: one at the high-symmetry point Z , and a second one at a non-high-symmetry point in the Brillouin zone. Thus, the position in k space of the global valence band maximum is undecided experimentally. Theoretically, an indirect band gap is predicted on a DFT-LDA level, while quasiparticle corrections lead to a direct band gap at the Z point.

  8. Optimal control problems with delay, the maximum principle and necessary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankena, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we consider a rather general optimal control problem involving ordinary differential equations with delayed arguments and a set of equality and inequality restrictions on state- and control variables. For this problem a maximum principle is given in pointwise form, using variational

  9. Warm and wet conditions in the Arctic region during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Donders, T.H.; Schoon, P.L.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Kim, J.-H.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several episodes of abrupt and transient warming, each lasting between 50,000 and 200,000 years, punctuated the long-term warming during the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene (58 to 51 Myr ago) epochs1,2. These hyperthermal events, such as the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (EMT2) that took place about

  10. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  11. Examining the Functional Specification of Two-Parameter Model under Location and Scale Parameter Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    The functional specification of mean-standard deviation approach is examined under location and scale parameter condition. Firstly, the full set of restrictions imposed on the mean-standard deviation function under the location and scale parameter condition are made clear. Secondly, the examination based on the restrictions mentioned in the previous sentence derives the new properties of the mean-standard deviation function on the applicability of additive separability and the curvature of ex...

  12. A New Technique for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point of PV Arrays Operating Under Partial-Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under partial-shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (MPPs). In this paper, a new method to track the global MPP is presented, which is based on controlling a dc/dc converter connected at the PV array...

  13. The MMS Dayside Magnetic Reconnection Locations During Phase 1 and Their Relation to the Predictions of the Maximum Magnetic Shear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R.; Eriksson, S.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Gomez, R. G.; Grimes, E. W.; Lewis, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Petrinec, S. M.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Trenchi, L.; Wilder, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have validated the accuracy of the maximum magnetic shear model to predict the location of the reconnection site at the dayside magnetopause. These studies found agreement between model and observations for 74% to 88% of events examined. It should be noted that, of the anomalous events that failed the prediction of the model, 72% shared a very specific parameter range. These events occurred around equinox for an interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle of about 240°. This study investigates if this remarkable grouping of events is also present in data from the recently launched MMS. The MMS magnetopause encounter database from the first dayside phase of the mission includes about 4,500 full and partial magnetopause crossings and flux transfer events. We use the known reconnection line signature of switching accelerated ion beams in the magnetopause boundary layer to identify encounters with the reconnection region and identify 302 events during phase 1a when the spacecraft are at reconnection sites. These confirmed reconnection locations are compared with the predicted location from the maximum magnetic shear model and revealed an 80% agreement. The study also revealed the existence of anomalous cases as mentioned in an earlier study. The anomalies are concentrated for times around the equinoxes together with IMF clock angles around 140° and 240°. Another group of anomalies for the same clock angle ranges was found during December events.

  14. Simulation study on the maximum continuous working condition of a power plant boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Han, Jiting; Sun, Haitian; Cheng, Jiwei; Jing, Ying'ai; Li, Wenbo

    2018-05-01

    First of all, the boiler is briefly introduced to determine the mathematical model and the boundary conditions, then the boiler under the BMCR condition numerical simulation study, and then the BMCR operating temperature field analysis. According to the boiler actual test results and the hot BMCR condition boiler output test results, the simulation results are verified. The main conclusions are as follows: the position and size of the inscribed circle in the furnace and the furnace temperature distribution and test results under different elevation are compared and verified; Accuracy of numerical simulation results.

  15. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  16. Methodology for selection of attributes and operating conditions for SVM-Based fault locator's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Johan Arredondo Arteaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Energy distribution companies must employ strategies to meet their timely and high quality service, and fault-locating techniques represent and agile alternative for restoring the electric service in the power distribution due to the size of distribution services (generally large and the usual interruptions in the service. However, these techniques are not robust enough and present some limitations in both computational cost and the mathematical description of the models they use. Method: This paper performs an analysis based on a Support Vector Machine for the evaluation of the proper conditions to adjust and validate a fault locator for distribution systems; so that it is possible to determine the minimum number of operating conditions that allow to achieve a good performance with a low computational effort. Results: We tested the proposed methodology in a prototypical distribution circuit, located in a rural area of Colombia. This circuit has a voltage of 34.5 KV and is subdivided in 20 zones. Additionally, the characteristics of the circuit allowed us to obtain a database of 630.000 records of single-phase faults and different operating conditions. As a result, we could determine that the locator showed a performance above 98% with 200 suitable selected operating conditions. Conclusions: It is possible to improve the performance of fault locators based on Support Vector Machine. Specifically, these improvements are achieved by properly selecting optimal operating conditions and attributes, since they directly affect the performance in terms of efficiency and the computational cost.

  17. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can...

  18. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.

    2016-01-01

    of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated...

  19. Exact sampling from conditional Boolean models with applications to maximum likelihood inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Zwet, van E.W.

    2001-01-01

    We are interested in estimating the intensity parameter of a Boolean model of discs (the bombing model) from a single realization. To do so, we derive the conditional distribution of the points (germs) of the underlying Poisson process. We demonstrate how to apply coupling from the past to generate

  20. The maximum allowable temperature of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding under dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, M.; Yoshiki, S.; Yasuda, T.; Nakatsuka, M.

    1990-09-01

    Japan plans to reprocess and reutilise the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power generation. However, the temporary storage of spent fuel is assuming increasing importance as a means of ensuring flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our investigations of various methods of storage have shown that casks are the most suitable means of storing small quantities of spent fuel of around 500 t, and research and development are in progress to establish dry storage technology for such casks. The soundness of fuel cladding is being investigated. The most important factor in evaluating soundness in storage under inert gas as currently envisaged is creep deformation and rupture, and a number of investigations have been made of the creep behaviour of cladding. The present study was conducted on the basis of existing in-house results in collaboration with Nippon Kakunenryo Kaihatsu KK (Nippon Nuclear Fuel Department Co.), which has hot lab facilities. Tests were run on the creep deformation behaviour of irradiated cladding, and the maximum allowable temperature during dry storage was investigated. (author)

  1. A Study of a Two Stage Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of a Photovoltaic System under Partially Shaded Insolation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio

    A photovoltaic array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the Current-Power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum points mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. In addition, simulated experiment confirms fundament al operation of the two stage MPPT control.

  2. A study of a two stage maximum power point tracking control of a photovoltaic system under partially shaded insolation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Ichiro; Sawada, Yoshio [Kogakuin University, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan)

    2006-11-23

    A photovoltaic (PV) array shows relatively low output power density, and has a greatly drooping current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is used to maximize the output power of the PV array. Many papers have been reported in relation to MPPT. However, the current-power (I-P) curve sometimes shows multi-local maximum point mode under non-uniform insolation conditions. The operating point of the PV system tends to converge to a local maximum output point which is not the real maximal output point on the I-P curve. Some papers have been also reported, trying to avoid this difficulty. However, most of those control systems become rather complicated. Then, the two stage MPPT control method is proposed in this paper to realize a relatively simple control system which can track the real maximum power point even under non-uniform insolation conditions. The feasibility of this control concept is confirmed for steady insolation as well as for rapidly changing insolation by simulation study using software PSIM and LabVIEW. (author)

  3. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  4. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kageyama

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or future conditions, to investigate the potential impact of a partial melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The most compelling examples of climatic changes potentially related to AMOC abrupt variations, however, are found in high resolution palaeo-records from around the globe for the last glacial period. To study those more specifically, more and more fresh water hosing experiments have been performed under glacial conditions in the recent years. Here we compare an ensemble constituted by 11 such simulations run with 6 different climate models. All simulations follow a slightly different design, but are sufficiently close in their design to be compared. They all study the impact of a fresh water hosing imposed in the extra-tropical North Atlantic. Common features in the model responses to hosing are the cooling over the North Atlantic, extending along the sub-tropical gyre in the tropical North Atlantic, the southward shift of the Atlantic ITCZ and the weakening of the African and Indian monsoons. On the other hand, the expression of the bipolar see-saw, i.e., warming in the Southern Hemisphere, differs from model to model, with some restricting it to the South Atlantic and specific regions of the southern ocean while others simulate a widespread southern ocean warming. The relationships between the features common to most models, i.e., climate changes over the north and tropical Atlantic, African and Asian monsoon regions, are further quantified. These suggest a tight correlation between the temperature and precipitation changes over the extra-tropical North Atlantic, but different pathways for the teleconnections between the AMOC/North Atlantic region

  5. Comprehensive performance analyses and optimization of the irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) under maximum power (MP) and maximum power density (MPD) conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Parlak, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents comprehensive performance analyses and comparisons for air-standard irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines (TCE) based on the power output, power density, thermal efficiency, maximum dimensionless power output (MP), maximum dimensionless power density (MPD) and maximum thermal efficiency (MEF) criteria. Internal irreversibility of the cycles occurred during the irreversible-adiabatic processes is considered by using isentropic efficiencies of compression and expansion processes. The performances of the cycles are obtained by using engine design parameters such as isentropic temperature ratio of the compression process, pressure ratio, stroke ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, exhaust temperature ratio, cycle temperature ratio and cycle pressure ratio. The effects of engine design parameters on the maximum and optimal performances are investigated. - Highlights: • Performance analyses are conducted for irreversible thermodynamic cycle engines. • Comprehensive computations are performed. • Maximum and optimum performances of the engines are shown. • The effects of design parameters on performance and power density are examined. • The results obtained may be guidelines to the engine designers

  6. Structural conditions of achieving maximum ductility of two-phase Ni-NiO alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabin, V.V.; Dabizha, E.V.; Movchan, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of increasing ductility of two-phase Ni-NiO alloys, proJuced by traditional technology: ingot smelting, rolling and corresponding annealing for production of grain with certain size. The correlation of mechanical properties of Ni-NiO alloys and pure nickel shows that completion of the structural conJition D--lambda (where D - the average grain diameter, lambda - the value of free path between particles) in two-phase alloys enables: to increase the ultimate strength 1.5 times and preserve the basic level of pure nickel plasticity - at 20 deg C; to increase plasticity 1.4-1.5 times with preserved basic level of pure nickel plasticity - at 800 deg C. The conclusions testify to possibility of controlling mechanical properties of two-phase alloys using structural D and lambda parameters It is proposed that creation of structures with more unifor m particle distribution with respect to sizes will the accompanied by further increase of plasticity under D=lambda condition

  7. Characterization and selection of location for resistance to sugarcane brown rust disease under cuban conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Montalván Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane brown rust disease is caused by fungus Puccinia melanocephala Sydow & P. Sydow and it is one of the more importance diseases. The environment where the sugarcane is cultivated is constituted by numerous factors and its combination contributes to the formation of different development and production conditions, what influences in the varietal disease resistance. With the objective of to characterize and to define the resistance tests location to the brown rust disease were carried out experiments in 6 location of the country. Eleven varieties and six patterns were studied. The climatic variables were analyzed during the period in each location and they were carried out evaluations in different ages of the plant and number of the leaves. The quantity of pustules, long of the most frequent pustules, size of the biggest pustules and area per - centage occupied by pustules were evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically. Differential behavior of the locations and the importance of the relative humidity and the temperatures in the manifestation of the disease symptoms were proven. All the locations were important although similarity exists between Matanzas and Villa Clara and between Camagüey and Holguín. Mayabeque and Santiago de Cuba didn’t present similarity with any other one. These 6 locations can be used for the resistance tests and to define the progenitors’ Santiago de Cuba, Holguín, Villa Clara and Mayabeque

  8. Locational conditions, cooperation, and innovativeness: evidence from research and company spin-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Lejpras, Anna; Stephan, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper has two goals. First, it analyzes the extent to which the innovativeness of spin-offs, either born from a research facility or from another company, is influenced by locational conditions. Second, it provides evidence on how important local cooperation links are in comparison to nonlocal ones. Using a sample of approximately 1,500 East German firms from knowledge-intensive sectors, we estimate a structural equation model applying the partial least squares method. We find that proxi...

  9. Impact of Size and Geographic Location on the Financial Condition of Spanish Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto CABALEIRO CASAL

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the financial condition of Spanish municipalities is analyzed, due to its complex nature, through an integrated approach. In order to achieve that, the frameworks developed by the International City/County Management Association and the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants were taken as reference. Moreover, the authors used several indicators and a large sample of Spanish municipalities; the methodology used in the study objectifies the process of use of indicators. The study highlights the influence of population size and geographic location of local government on some dimensions of the financial condition of Spanish municipalities.

  10. Object-Location Training Elicits an Overlapping but Temporally Distinct Transcriptional Profile from Contextual Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Giese, Karl P.; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has received less attention. In this study, we used the object-location memory task and studied gene expression at two time points after learning in a high-throughput manner using a microfluidic qPCR approach. We found that expression of the classic immediate-early genes changes after object-location training in a fashion similar to that observed after contextual fear conditioning. However, the temporal dynamics of gene expression are different between the two tasks, with object-location memory producing gene expression changes that last at least 2 hours. Our findings indicate that different training paradigms may give rise to distinct temporal dynamics of gene expression after learning. PMID:25242102

  11. Object-location training elicits an overlapping but temporally distinct transcriptional profile from contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Shane G; Schoch, Hannah; Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D; Walsh, Jennifer L; Giese, Karl P; Abel, Ted

    2014-12-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has received less attention. In this study, we used the object-location memory task and studied gene expression at two time points after learning in a high-throughput manner using a microfluidic qPCR approach. We found that expression of the classic immediate-early genes changes after object-location training in a fashion similar to that observed after contextual fear conditioning. However, the temporal dynamics of gene expression are different between the two tasks, with object-location memory producing gene expression changes that last at least 2 hours. Our findings indicate that different training paradigms may give rise to distinct temporal dynamics of gene expression after learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Shareef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  13. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  14. Analysis of Geodynamical Conditions of Region of Burning Coal Dumps Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, Andrian; Musina, Valeria; Golovko, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal dumps and their impact on the environment of mining regions remain important environmental problem, in spite of the measures that are being taken. The paper presents the hypothesis, which states that the location of coal dumps at the boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks promotes the appearance of conditions for their combustion. At present geodynamically active crust faults that affect the operating conditions of engineering facilities are observed not only in the areas of tectonic activity, but also on platforms. According to the concept of geodynamical zoning, geodynamically dangerous zones for engineering structures can be not only large, well-developed crust faults, but also just formed fractures that appear as boundaries of geodynamically impacting and hierarchically ordered crust blocks. The purpose of the study is to estimate the linkage of burning dumps to boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks (geodynamically dangerous zones) for subsequent development of recommendations for reducing environmental hazard. The analysis of 27 coal dumps location was made for one of the Eastern Donbass regions (Russia). Nine of sixteen burning dumps are located in geodynamically dangerous zones, which, taking into account relatively small area occupied by all geodynamically dangerous zones, results that there is a concentration (pcs/km2) of burning dumps, which is 14 times higher than the baseline value. While the probability of accidental obtaining of such a result is extremely low, this can be considered as the evidence of the linkage of burning dumps to geodynamically dangerous zones. Taking into account the stressed state of the rock massif in this region, all geodynamically dangerous zones can be divided into compression and tension zones. The statistic is limited, but nevertheless in tension zones the concentration of burning dumps is 2 times higher than in compression zones. Available results of thermal monitoring of

  15. Effects of partial shading conditions on maximum power points and mismatch losses in silicon-based photovoltaic power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, A.

    2013-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generators can be used for converting the energy of solar radiation directly into electrical energy without any moving parts. The operation of the generators is highly affected by operating conditions, most importantly irradiances and temperatures of PV cells. PV power generators are prone to electrical losses if the operating conditions are non-uniform such as in a case where part of the modules of a generator are shaded while the rest are receiving the global solar radiation. These conditions are called partial shading conditions and they have been recognized as a major cause of energy losses in PV power generators. In this thesis, the operation of silicon-based PV power generators under partial shading conditions is studied using Matlab Simulink simulation model. The operation of the model has been verified by measurements of electrical characteristics of a PV module under several different operating conditions and also under partial shading conditions. A systematic approach to study the effects of partial shading conditions has been developed and used. In addition to the systematic approach, a vast amount of data measured from the Tampere University of Technology (TUT) Solar Photovoltaic Power Station Research Plant are analyzed and used as input for the simulation model to study operation of PV power generators under actual operating conditions. Partial shading conditions have severe effects on the electrical characteristics of PV power generators and can cause multiple maximum power points (MPPs) to the power-voltage curve of the generators. In most cases, partial shading conditions lead to the occurrence of multiple MPPs, but also only one MPP can be present despite of partial shading. Reasons for this phenomenon are presented and analyzed in this thesis. Because of multiple MPPs, a considerable amount of available electrical energy may be lost when the generator is operating at a local MPP with low power instead of the global MPP. In

  16. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2016-01-01

    and associated pulsations as a function of the incoming flow structures were measured by strain gauges. The flow condition in front of the rotor was measured with high temporal accuracy using LDA and power coefficients were determine as function of tip speed ratio for different obstacle positions. Furthermore......Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence......, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity...

  17. Environmental conditions of interstadial (MIS 3 and features of the last glacial maximum on the King George island (West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Verkulich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interstadial marine deposits stratum was described in the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island due to field and laboratory investigations during 2008–2011. The stratum fragments occur in the west and north-west parts of peninsula in following forms: sections of soft sediments, containing fossil shells, marine algae, bones of marine animals and rich marine diatom complexes in situ (11 sites; fragments of shells and bones on the surface (25 sites. According to the results of radiocarbon dating, these deposits were accumulated within the period 19–50 ky BP. Geographical and altitude settings of the sites, age characteristics, taxonomy of fossil flora and fauna, and good safety of the soft deposits stratum allow to make following conclusions: during interstadial, sea water covered significant part of King George Island up to the present altitude of 40 m a.s.l., and the King George Island glaciation had smaller size then; environmental conditions for the interstadial deposit stratum accumulation were at least not colder than today; probably, the King George island territory was covered entirely by ice masses of Last glacial maximum not earlier than 19 ky BP; during Last glacial maximum, King George Island was covered by thin, «cold», not mobile glaciers, which contribute to conservation of the soft marine interstadial deposits filled with fossil flora and fauna.

  18. About condition of soil ground at locations of the former Azgir nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.; Ermatov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Soil condition after underground nuclear explosions at locations of the test sites is considered. The region is situated in the zone of northern deserts and characterized by prevalence of greyish-brown soils in conditions of sharply continental climate and presence of salt in soil-formative complex including tertiary clays, loess-like loam, loam sands and sands. There are small quantity of humus in such soil. During investigation of soil characteristics and ability of soil particles to form conglomerates, possessing of different properties, it is necessary to know both element and phase composition, determining, in the most extent, such physical and mechanical macro-characteristics as: density, stickiness, air and water penetrability, solubility, chemical resistance, granulometric set and others. Phase composition of soil samples can be, to a sufficient extent, determined by the X-ray diffractometry methods using ordinary X-ray experimental facilities. Phase composition of soil includes gypsum, quartz, calcium, potash feldspar hematite, kaolin, peach and mica in different quantities. Data on element composition of soil samples were obtained from the territory of technological locations of test site using the method of X-ray-fluorescent analysis. Granulometric composition of soil ground has been investigated using the methods of dry sieving and wet sieving for determination of radionuclide distribution in different fractions of soil particles. By the method of the dry sieving of soil ground samples there are taken place a sticking the small together of fine fractions and an adhesion of stuck-together particles to more large ones. Therefore, fine fractions cannot be separate completely at dry sieving. As distinct from the dry sieving an use of water jet in the sieving allows to overcome defects of the dry method and, by a sufficiently effective separation of granulometric fractions, to obtain more precise results of investigations of granulometric

  19. Conditions of milk production of family farms located in the municipality of Alegre – ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvalho Nascimento Neta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the conditions and practices of production of raw milk used by farmers, as well as the conditions of storage and of the facilities and structures of the locations of the four collective cooling tanks, in the municipality of Alegre – ES. Data on sanitization procedures and physical structure of barns, source and treatment of water, hygiene practices and health status of milkers, udder cleaning and disinfection procedures and sanitary control of the herd was collected. The physical structure of the locations of the tanks was also assessed. The barns were ventilated, protected from moisture and had covers, and few had cemented floor and milking parlor. A low percentage of producers performed pre (21% and post (6% dipping procedures. Only 1/4 of the farmers used the mug test. All equipment and tools were washed after milking, but few farmers (5% used sanitizers and 94% of the farms used untreated water. Only 8% of the milkers had the habit of washing their hands before milking, and 9% of them were aware of IN 62 regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. None of the facilities had protection against the entrance of insects, rodents and environmental contaminants. They were poorly sized, did not allow the application of adequate sanitary measures and sanitary conditions were deficient. The high level of nonconformities regarding good manufacturing practices for milk production reinforced the need for the implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in rural farms for the purpose of obtaining milk produced according to the quality standards, preventing losses and ensuring the sustainability of dairy production in the region.

  20. Influence of Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions on the global water isotope distribution in an atmospheric general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharammal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the validity of δ18O proxy records as indicators of past temperature change, a series of experiments was conducted using an atmospheric general circulation model fitted with water isotope tracers (Community Atmosphere Model version 3.0, IsoCAM. A pre-industrial simulation was performed as the control experiment, as well as a simulation with all the boundary conditions set to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM values. Results from the pre-industrial and LGM simulations were compared to experiments in which the influence of individual boundary conditions (greenhouse gases, ice sheet albedo and topography, sea surface temperature (SST, and orbital parameters were changed each at a time to assess their individual impact. The experiments were designed in order to analyze the spatial variations of the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecip in response to individual climate factors. The change in topography (due to the change in land ice cover played a significant role in reducing the surface temperature and δ18Oprecip over North America. Exposed shelf areas and the ice sheet albedo reduced the Northern Hemisphere surface temperature and δ18Oprecip further. A global mean cooling of 4.1 °C was simulated with combined LGM boundary conditions compared to the control simulation, which was in agreement with previous experiments using the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM3. Large reductions in δ18Oprecip over the LGM ice sheets were strongly linked to the temperature decrease over them. The SST and ice sheet topography changes were responsible for most of the changes in the climate and hence the δ18Oprecip distribution among the simulations.

  1. The environmental conditionings of the location of primeval settlements in the Wieprz River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Marcin; Kozieł, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The Wieprz River along the section currently occupied by the Nadwieprzański Landscape Park (NLP) constituted a convenient place of human settlement from the moment of retreat of the last ice sheet. Depending on the types of economy preferred by representatives of individual archaeological cultures, the river valley from Spiczyn to Dorohucza offered continuous access to water. This obviously gained additional importance from the moment of appearance of Neolithic cultures, particularly the Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture with semi-nomadic style of life, dealing with breeding. Neolithic hunters-gatherers exploited the animal resources available in the river and its vicinity. The further role of fishing, i.e. providing a diet element or supplementation already in the conditions of agricultural-breeding economy, seems to be evidenced by findings of fishing hooks at Lusatian and Wielbark sites. Another factor affecting the location of settlements in NLP was also its close vicinity to the crops of the Rejowiec flint. According to archaeologists, this is particularly obvious in the case of the Late Palaeolithic and the turn of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. The communication function of the river could also be of importance: in the case of seasonal animal migrations of animals and hunters (Late Palaeolithic); livestock and shepherds (Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture); or people alone (migration of the population of the Wielbark culture to the Red Sea). The fact that a commercial trail fragment was located along the Wieprz River is probably evidenced by the abundance of import from various parts of Europe at site 53 in Spiczyn. Fertile soils (black soils, silt-peat soils) prevailing in the valley also favoured the settlement of cultures with an agricultural-breeding model of economy, providing good conditions for horticulture. Meadows near the river could be used as pastures.

  2. Maximum entropy state of the quasi-geostrophic bi-disperse point vortex system: bifurcation phenomena under periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funakoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Tomoyoshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi, E-mail: funakosi@miyazaki.mce.uec.ac.jp, E-mail: miyazaki@mce.uec.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics of quasi-geostrophic point vortices of mixed sign (bi-disperse system) numerically and theoretically. Direct numerical simulations under periodic boundary conditions are performed using a fast special-purpose computer for molecular dynamics (GRAPE-DR). Clustering of point vortices of like sign is observed and two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium states are formed. It is shown that they are the solutions of the 2D mean-field equation, i.e. the sinh-Poisson equation. The sinh-Poisson equation is generalized to study the 3D nature of the equilibrium states, and a new mean-field equation with the 3D Laplace operator is derived based on the maximum entropy theory. 3D solutions are obtained at very low energy level. These solution branches, however, cannot be traced up to the higher energy level at which the direct numerical simulations are performed, and transitions to 2D solution branches take place when the energy is increased. (paper)

  3. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities.

  4. Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm based on I-V characteristic of PV array under uniform and non-uniform conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Iman-Eini, H.; Asaei, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm based on characteristic equation of solar cells to determine the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of PV modules under partially shaded conditions (PSC). To achieve this goal, an analytic condition is introduced to determine uniform or non-uniform atmospheric condition...

  5. Performance and wake conditions of a rotor located in the wake of an obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, I. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2016-09-01

    Obstacles like forests, ridges and hills can strongly affect the velocity profile in front of a wind turbine rotor. The present work aims at quantifying the influence of nearby located obstacles on the performance and wake characteristics of a downstream located wind turbine. Here the influence of an obstacle in the form of a cylindrical disk was investigated experimentally in a water flume. A model of a three-bladed rotor, designed using Glauert's optimum theory at a tip speed ratio λ = 5, was placed in the wake of a disk with a diameter close to the one of the rotor. The distance from the disk to the rotor was changed from 4 to 8 rotor diameters, with the vertical distance from the rotor axis varied 0.5 and 1 rotor diameters. The associated turbulent intensity of the incoming flow to the rotor changed 3 to '6% due to the influence of the disk wake. In the experiment, thrust characteristics and associated pulsations as a function of the incoming flow structures were measured by strain gauges. The flow condition in front of the rotor was measured with high temporal accuracy using LDA and power coefficients were determine as function of tip speed ratio for different obstacle positions. Furthermore, PIV measurements were carried out to study the development of the mean velocity deficit profiles of the wake behind the wind turbine model under the influence of the wake generated by the obstacle. By use of regression techniques to fit the velocity profiles it was possible to determine velocity deficits and estimate length scales of the wake attenuation.

  6. Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Della, M.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. Various methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) were developed and finally implemented in solar power electronic controllers to increase the efficiency in the electricity production originate from renewables. In this paper we compare using Matlab tools Simulink, two different MPP tracking methods, which are, fuzzy logic control (FL) and sliding mode control (SMC), considering their efficiency in solar energy production.

  7. Wingtip Vortices and Free Shear Layer Interaction in the Vicinity of Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio Lift Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammad Omar

    Cost-effective air-travel is something everyone wishes for when it comes to booking flights. The continued and projected increase in commercial air travel advocates for energy efficient airplanes, reduced carbon footprint, and a strong need to accommodate more airplanes into airports. All of these needs are directly affected by the magnitudes of drag these aircraft experience and the nature of their wingtip vortex. A large portion of the aerodynamic drag results from the airflow rolling from the higher pressure side of the wing to the lower pressure side, causing the wingtip vortices. The generation of this particular drag is inevitable however, a more fundamental understanding of the phenomenon could result in applications whose benefits extend much beyond the relatively minuscule benefits of commonly-used winglets. Maximizing airport efficiency calls for shorter intervals between takeoffs and landings. Wingtip vortices can be hazardous for following aircraft that may fly directly through the high-velocity swirls causing upsets at vulnerably low speeds and altitudes. The vortex system in the near wake is typically more complex since strong vortices tend to continue developing throughout the near wake region. Several chord lengths distance downstream of a wing, the so-called fully rolled up wing wake evolves into a combination of a discrete wingtip vortex pair and a free shear layer. Lift induced drag is generated as a byproduct of downwash induced by the wingtip vortices. The parasite drag results from a combination of form/pressure drag and the upper and lower surface boundary layers. These parasite effects amalgamate to create the free shear layer in the wake. While the wingtip vortices embody a large portion of the total drag at lifting angles, flow properties in the free shear layer also reveal their contribution to the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft. Since aircraft rarely cruise at maximum aerodynamic efficiency, a better understanding of the balance

  8. Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Selvam; S. Senthil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit c...

  9. Sensitivity of South American tropical climate to Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions: focus on teleconnections with tropics and extratropics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodri, M.; Kageyama, M.; Roche, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Proxy data over tropical latitudes for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has been interpreted as a southward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and so far linked to a mechanism analogous to the modern day “meridional-mode” in the Atlantic Ocean. Here we have explored alternative mechanisms, related to the direct impact of the LGM global changes in the dry static stability on tropical moist deep convection. We have used a coupled ocean-atmosphere model capable of capturing the thermodynamical structure of the atmosphere and the tropical component of the Hadley and Walker circulations. In each experiment, we have applied either all the LGM forcings, or the individual contributions of greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations, ice sheet topography and/or albedo to explore the hydrological response over tropical latitudes with a focus on South America. The dominant forcing for the LGM tropical temperature and precipitation changes is found to be due to the reduced GHG, through the direct effect of reduced radiative heating (Clausius-Clapeyron relationship). The LGM GHG is also responsible for increased extra-tropical static stability which strengthens the Hadley Cell. Stronger subsidence over northern tropics then produces an amplification of the northern tropics drying initially due to the direct cooling effect. The land ice sheet is also able to promote the Hadley cell feedback mostly via the topographic effect on the extra-tropical dry static stability and on the position of the subtropical jets. Our results therefore suggest that the communication between the extratropics and the tropics is tighter during LGM and does not necessarily rely on the “meridional-mode” mechanism. The Hadley cell response is constrained by the requirement that diabatic heating in the tropics balances cooling in subtropics. We show that such extratropics-tropics dependence is stronger at the LGM because of the stronger perturbation of northern extra tropical thermal and

  10. Estimation of radiating conditions in the reservoirs located close uranium mining of regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtin, M.; Kazymbet, P.; Akhmetova, Z.

    2010-01-01

    to 1750 Bk/kg. On a level of radioactive and chemical pollution the open foundation ditch uranium mining SKHK concerns to a category of special - dangerous objects, requires the constant control and supervision over service of radiating and toxic safety of the enterprise. The drying cards, they should be constantly filled with water. In the shallow reservoirs located near GMZ and in landlocked reservoirs Manibay and Culukamisk of thalwegs concentration radionuclides in water, ground deposits nand in hydrobionts is much higher in comparison with parameters of conditionally control reservoir. On the basis of the analysis of a level of radioactive pollution of potable water and open reservoirs loading for various groups of the population is designed. On the basis of the received data principles of the organization and use radiobioecological monitoring of open reservoirs in uranium regions of Kazakhstan are offered.

  11. Predicting location-specific extreme coastal floods in the future climate by introducing a probabilistic method to calculate maximum elevation of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of water level variations and wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijala, Ulpu; Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Johansson, Milla M.; Pellikka, Havu

    2017-04-01

    Future coastal management continuously strives for more location-exact and precise methods to investigate possible extreme sea level events and to face flooding hazards in the most appropriate way. Evaluating future flooding risks by understanding the behaviour of the joint effect of sea level variations and wind waves is one of the means to make more comprehensive flooding hazard analysis, and may at first seem like a straightforward task to solve. Nevertheless, challenges and limitations such as availability of time series of the sea level and wave height components, the quality of data, significant locational variability of coastal wave height, as well as assumptions to be made depending on the study location, make the task more complicated. In this study, we present a statistical method for combining location-specific probability distributions of water level variations (including local sea level observations and global mean sea level rise) and wave run-up (based on wave buoy measurements). The goal of our method is to obtain a more accurate way to account for the waves when making flooding hazard analysis on the coast compared to the approach of adding a separate fixed wave action height on top of sea level -based flood risk estimates. As a result of our new method, we gain maximum elevation heights with different return periods of the continuous water mass caused by a combination of both phenomena, "the green water". We also introduce a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the properties and functioning of our method. The sensitivity test is based on using theoretical wave distributions representing different alternatives of wave behaviour in relation to sea level variations. As these wave distributions are merged with the sea level distribution, we get information on how the different wave height conditions and shape of the wave height distribution influence the joint results. Our method presented here can be used as an advanced tool to minimize over- and

  12. Analysis of Natural Ventilation in a Passive House Located in Cold Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    in Vejle during cooling season, in the months of June, July and August. The dwelling belongs to a Danish project of passive houses denominated Komfort Husene, where its occupants claim there is no thermal comfort in summer time. The results show that the use of natural ventilation helps to reduce......This article shows the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive method of cooling buildings that are located in cold climate countries using Denmark as a case study. The energy saving potential of natural ventilation is found by performing thermal simulations of a household located...

  13. Influence of Noise Resulting From the Location and Conditions of Classrooms and Schools in Upper Egypt on Teachers' Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ketaki Vasant; Abo-Hasseba, Ahmed; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2018-05-03

    Teachers are professional voice users, always at high risk of developing voice disorders due to high vocal demand and unfavorable environmental conditions. This study aimed at identifying possible correlations between teachers' voice symptoms and their perception of noise, the location of schools, as well as the location and conditions of their classrooms. One hundred forty teachers (ages 21-56) from schools in Upper Egypt participated in this study. They filled out a questionnaire including questions about the severity and frequency of their voice symptoms, noise perception, and the location and conditions of their schools and classrooms. Questionnaire responses were statistically analyzed to identify possible correlations. There were significant correlations (P Egyptian schools. This study may help future studies that focus on developing guidelines for the better planning of Egyptian schools in terms of improved infrastructure and architecture, thus considering the general and vocal health of teachers. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative efficiency of joint-model and full-conditional-specification multiple imputation when conditional models are compatible: The general location model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Shaun R; Hughes, Rachael A

    2018-06-01

    Estimating the parameters of a regression model of interest is complicated by missing data on the variables in that model. Multiple imputation is commonly used to handle these missing data. Joint model multiple imputation and full-conditional specification multiple imputation are known to yield imputed data with the same asymptotic distribution when the conditional models of full-conditional specification are compatible with that joint model. We show that this asymptotic equivalence of imputation distributions does not imply that joint model multiple imputation and full-conditional specification multiple imputation will also yield asymptotically equally efficient inference about the parameters of the model of interest, nor that they will be equally robust to misspecification of the joint model. When the conditional models used by full-conditional specification multiple imputation are linear, logistic and multinomial regressions, these are compatible with a restricted general location joint model. We show that multiple imputation using the restricted general location joint model can be substantially more asymptotically efficient than full-conditional specification multiple imputation, but this typically requires very strong associations between variables. When associations are weaker, the efficiency gain is small. Moreover, full-conditional specification multiple imputation is shown to be potentially much more robust than joint model multiple imputation using the restricted general location model to mispecification of that model when there is substantial missingness in the outcome variable.

  15. Estimation of fracture conditions of ceramics by thermal shock with laser beams based on the maximum compressive stress criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Shigeru; Amada, Shigeyasu.

    1992-01-01

    Structural ceramics are attracting attention in the development of space planes, aircraft and nuclear fusion reactors because they have excellent wear-resistant and heat-resistant characteristics. However, in some applications it is anticipated that they will be exposed to very-high-temperature environments of the order of thousands of degrees. Therefore, it is very important to investigate their thermal shock characteristics. In this report, the distributions of temperatures and thermal stresses of cylindrically shaped ceramics under irradiation by laser beams are discussed using the finite-element computer code (MARC) with arbitrary quadrilateral axisymmetric ring elements. The relationships between spot diameters of laser beams and maximum values of compressive thermal stresses are derived for various power densities. From these relationships, a critical fracture curve is obtained, and it is compared with the experimental results. (author)

  16. Object-Location Training Elicits an Overlapping but Temporally Distinct Transcriptional Profile from Contextual Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Poplawski, Shane G.; Schoch, Hannah; Wimmer, Mathieu; Hawk, Joshua D.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Giese, Karl P.; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning is known to induce changes in gene expression, but information on gene expression differences between different learning paradigms that require the hippocampus is limited. The bulk of studies investigating RNA expression after learning use the contextual fear conditioning task, which couples a novel environment with a footshock. Although contextual fear conditioning has been useful in discovering gene targets, gene expression after spatial memory tasks has recei...

  17. Environmental conditions for the formation of insoluble Tc in water ponds located above paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Koiso, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the formation of insoluble Tc (Tc in >0.2 μm size fraction) were studied using a microcosm including water ponds above a paddy field to understand Tc behavior in such fields. In the microcosm, soluble TcO 4 - was converted to insoluble forms, but no changes in the form of Tc were observed in filtered microcosm samples which were microorganisms-free. The formation of insoluble Tc was inhibited by the addition of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. In addition, the reduction of soluble Tc(VII)O 4 - to low-valence oxide was not observed in the filtered microcosm samples, although reducing conditions were present. These results indicated that bacteria were involved in the formation of insoluble Tc. Since oxidizing conditions influence bacterial metabolism, the formation of insoluble Tc by bacteria was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results showed that anaerobic conditions were favorable for the formation of insoluble Tc. In addition, the addition of formate as an electron donor to a microcosm sample facilitated the formation of insoluble Tc. The results suggested that insoluble Tc in the water ponds above paddy fields was caused by bacteria, which were shown to couple the oxidation of formate to the reduction of Tc(VII) during anaerobic respiration

  18. A Comparative Frequency Analysis of Maximum Daily Rainfall for a SE Asian Region under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velautham Daksiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changing climate on the frequency of daily rainfall extremes in Jakarta, Indonesia, is analysed and quantified. The study used three different models to assess the changes in rainfall characteristics. The first method involves the use of the weather generator LARS-WG to quantify changes between historical and future daily rainfall maxima. The second approach consists of statistically downscaling general circulation model (GCM output based on historical empirical relationships between GCM output and station rainfall. Lastly, the study employed recent statistically downscaled global gridded rainfall projections to characterize climate change impact rainfall structure. Both annual and seasonal rainfall extremes are studied. The results show significant changes in annual maximum daily rainfall, with an average increase as high as 20% in the 100-year return period daily rainfall. The uncertainty arising from the use of different GCMs was found to be much larger than the uncertainty from the emission scenarios. Furthermore, the annual and wet seasonal analyses exhibit similar behaviors with increased future rainfall, but the dry season is not consistent across the models. The GCM uncertainty is larger in the dry season compared to annual and wet season.

  19. Formation and Change of Chloroplast-Located Plant Metabolites in Response to Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is the central energy conversion process for plant metabolism and occurs within mature chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are also the site of various metabolic reactions involving amino acids, lipids, starch, and sulfur, as well as where the production of some hormones takes place. Light is one of the most important environmental factors, acting as an essential energy source for plants, but also as an external signal influencing their growth and development. Plants experience large fluctuations in the intensity and spectral quality of light, and many attempts have been made to improve or modify plant metabolites by treating them with different light qualities (artificial lighting or intensities. In this review, we discuss how changes in light intensity and wavelength affect the formation of chloroplast-located metabolites in plants.

  20. [Comparative studying of anaerobic bacteria located in woman's reproductive ways in normal condition and dysbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishko, T N; Sirokvasha, E A; Klokov, V V; Vinnikov, A I

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriological investigation of obligate anaerobic bacteria located in UGT of two groups of the observed women has shown: that the microbiocoenosis of UGT of women of the group 1 can be determined as normal. Identification of these anaerobic bacteria revealed the presence of representatives of the following species: Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., Peptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp. The microbiocoenosis of UGT of the women of group 2 is diagnosed as vaginosis, thus in addition to the listed previously bacteria is added another one, Clostridium spp. Characteristic feature of Vaginosis is from one side a considerable decrease in the frequency of finding (cultivation) and concentration of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and from another side--a considerable increase of frequency finding (cultivation) and concentration of Bacteroides spp. In addition, there is change of metabolism of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp resulting in decrease in specific intensity of secretion of acids.

  1. Upper cervical bronchogenic cyst: A rare condition at a rare location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Kumar Jha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraspinal bronchogenic cyst (SBC is a rare but important cause of spinal cord compression, commonly seen in the cervicothoracic spine. We report a case of a 43-year-old male, presenting with complaints of neck pain, radiating to right shoulder, with numbness of right hand and fingers. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an intradural extramedullary, ventral cystic lesion extending from C2 to C4 vertebral levels. Complete surgical excision was performed, and the patient had a complete relief of symptoms postoperatively. Only 11 cases of SBCs have been reported in literature. We discuss the peculiar location of this lesion, possible embryological reasons and the overall surgical outcome of SBC.

  2. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape-location and unsupervised intensity priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Toshiyuki; Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape-location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape-location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. Copyright © 2015

  3. Conditions of lighting in reading-rooms located in public and school libraries in Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sitek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reading-room is a place where special lighting conditions are required to make the reader feel comfortable and satisfied.. Lighting requirements are enclosed in the Polish Standard PN-EN 12464-1:2004. Accordingly, illuminance in the reading-rooms should be 500 lx. The aim of the study was to measure illuminance in reading-rooms in various libraries and make relative comparisons to standard values. Material and methods: Measurements of illuminance were performed in 22 reading-rooms in Silesia Voivodeship. Half of them were made in public libraries and half in reading-rooms at junior lower high schools. Illuminance was measured in 5 measurement points in reading-rooms by digital lux meter Lx-105 manufactured by Lutron. Furthermore , 100 readers of school libraries and 89 readers of public libraries completed a questionnaire on lighting conditions in these places. Results: Only 5 out of 22 reading-rooms meet the requirements of the Polish Standard concerning illuminance. Only in one reading room at junior lower high school illuminance exceeded 500 lx. In two other reading places the requirements were met due to additional desk lamps. Despite the results, 76.4% of approached readers of public libraries and 60% of pupils think that lighting in readingrooms is satisfactory and almost 63% of the readers and 53% of the pupils don’t demand additional lighting. Conclusions: Most of the scrutinized reading rooms do not meet lighting requirements according to the Polish Standard. Lighting conditions in school libraries are worse than in public libraries. According to the respondents lighting in public libraries is adequate.

  4. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  5. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, D.M.; Himanen, S.J.; Nissinen, A.; Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    In field O 3 -enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O 3 on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O 3 -fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O 3 and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O 3 -enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O 3 will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella

  6. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  7. Decree of the 6 May 2017 defining the conditions of additional remuneration of electricity produced by electricity production installations using wind mechanical energy with a maximum of 6 wind turbines. Decree of the 9 May 2014 defining purchase and additional remuneration conditions for the electricity produced by installations using mainly biogas produced by methanization of matters resulting from urban or industrial waste water treatment. Decree of the 9 May 2017 defining purchase conditions for electricity produced by installations implanted on building and using photovoltaic solar energy, with an installed power less than or equal to 100 kilowatts as those concerned at the 3. of the article D.314-15 of the Code of Energy, and located in continental metropolitan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene; Sapin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers three legal texts which respectively define and eventually give elements and methods of calculation of conditions of additional remuneration or purchase of electricity produced by limited wind energy installations, by biogas-based electricity production installations, and by photovoltaic installations mounted on buildings

  8. Multidetector computed tomography of the head in acute stroke: predictive value of different patterns of the dense artery sign revealed by maximum intensity projection reformations for location and extent of the infarcted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadda, Davide; Vannucchi, Letizia; Niccolai, Franco; Neri, Anna T.; Carmignani, Luca; Pacini, Patrizio [Ospedale del Ceppo, U.O. Radiodiagnostica, Pistoia (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Maximum intensity projections reconstructions from 2.5 mm unenhanced multidetector computed tomography axial slices were obtained from 49 patients within the first 6 h of anterior-circulation cerebral strokes to identify different patterns of the dense artery sign and their prognostic implications for location and extent of the infarcted areas. The dense artery sign was found in 67.3% of cases. Increased density of the whole M1 segment with extension to M2 of the middle cerebral artery was associated with a wider extension of cerebral infarcts in comparison to M1 segment alone or distal M1 and M2. A dense sylvian branch of the middle cerebral artery pattern was associated with a more restricted extension of infarct territory. We found 62.5% of patients without a demonstrable dense artery to have a limited peripheral cortical or capsulonuclear lesion. In patients with a 7-10 points on the Alberta Stroke Early Programme Computed Tomography Score and a dense proximal MCA in the first hours of ictus the mean decrease in the score between baseline and follow-up was 5.09{+-}1.92 points. In conclusion, maximum intensity projections from thin-slice images can be quickly obtained from standard computed tomography datasets using a multidetector scanner and are useful in identifying and correctly localizing the dense artery sign, with prognostic implications for the entity of cerebral damage. (orig.)

  9. Occurrence and zonal drifts of small-scale ionospheric irregularities over an equatorial station during solar maximum - Magnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muella, M. T. A. H.; de Paula, E. R.; Kantor, I. J.; Rezende, L. F. C.; Smorigo, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    A statistical study of L-band amplitude scintillations and zonal drift velocity of Fresnel-scale ionospheric irregularities is presented. Ground-based global positioning system (GPS) data acquired at the equatorial station of São Luís (2.33°S, 44.21°W, dip latitude 1.3°S), Brazil, during the solar maximum period from March 2001 to February 2002 are used in the analysis. The variation of scintillations and irregularity drift velocities with local time, season and magnetic activity are reported. The results reveal that for the near overhead ionosphere (satellite elevation angle >45°) a broad maximum in the occurrence of scintillation is seen from October to February. In general, weak scintillations (S 4 90%) during equinox (March-April; September-October) and December solstice (November-February) quiet time conditions and, many of the scintillations, occurred during pre-midnight hours. The mean zonal velocities of the irregularities are seen to be ˜30 m s -1 larger near December solstice, while during the equinoctial period the velocities decay faster and the scintillations tend to cease earlier. On geomagnetically disturbed nights, scintillation activity seems to be strongly affected by the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric fields and disturbance dynamo effects. On disturbed days, during the equinox and December solstice seasons, the scintillations tend to be suppressed in the pre-midnight hours, whereas during June solstice months (May-August) the effect is opposite. In the post-midnight period, the mostly marked increase in the scintillation occurrence is observed during the equinox months. The results show that during disturbed conditions only one type of storm (when the main phase maximum takes place during the daytime hours) agrees with the Aarons' description, that is the suppression of L-band scintillations in the first recovery phase night. The results also reveal that the storm-time irregularity drifts become more spread in velocity and

  10. Development of natural cellulase inhibitor mediated intensified biological pretreatment technology using Pleurotus florida for maximum recovery of cellulose from paddy straw under solid state condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, Manickam; Ravikumar, Rajarathinam; Thenmozhi, Senniyappan; Kirupa Sankar, Muthuvelu

    2017-11-01

    Inhibitor mediated intensified bio-pretreatment (IMBP) technology using natural cellulase inhibitor (NCI) for maximum cellulose recovery from paddy straw was studied. Pretreatment was carried out under solid state condition. Supplementation of 8% NCI in pretreatment medium improves cellulose recovery and delignification by 1.2 and 1.5-fold respectively, compared to conventional bio-pretreatment due to inhibition of 61% of cellulase activity in IMBP. Further increase in NCI concentration showed negative effect on Pleurotus florida growth and suppress the laccase productivity by 1.1-fold. Laccase activity in IMBP was found to be 2.0U/mL on 19 th day, which is higher than (1.5U/mL) conventional bio-pretreatment. Physico-chemical modifications in paddy straw before and after pretreatment were analysed by SEM, ATR-FTIR, XRD and TGA. According to these findings, the IMBP technology can be a viable eco-friendly technology for sustainable production of bioethanol with maximum cellulose recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of conditions of service to maximum demand in decennial horizon; Avaliacao das condicoes de atendimento a demanda maxima em horizonte decenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Flavio Borsato; Nasser, Ivana Costa [Wise Systems, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Danielle Bueno de; Machado, Renato Simoes; Morozowski Filho, Marciano [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Planning the future hydro capacity in Brazil includes considering power reinforcements in the peak hours due to the increasing numbers of run-of-river plants. It means that the Brazilian's reservoir profile has been changing over the years from five years regularization to monthly regularization. This article presents a deterministic methodology to evaluate the capacity reserve of the Brazilian power system. It is based on the 'capacity reserve margin' calculation done by a monthly comparison between peak availability and maximum peak load. This methodology was applied to the Decennial Energy Expansion Plan 2019 (PDE 2019) and its final results are shown here through Peak Balances considering different operation conditions and the whole inflows historical records. Additionally, it is presented a suggestion about the evolution of peak evaluation criteria to be applied to the Brazilian power system on its expansion planning. (author)

  12. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  13. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  14. Optimizing lengths of confidence intervals: fourth-order efficiency in location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, C.; Venetiaan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under regularity conditions the maximum likelihood estimator of the location parameter in a location model is asymptotically efficient among translation equivariant estimators. Additional regularity conditions warrant third- and even fourth-order efficiency, in the sense that no translation

  15. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Approach for Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions Using a Modified Genetic Algorithm and the Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm for photovoltaic systems under rapidly changing partial shading conditions (PSCs. The proposed algorithm integrates a genetic algorithm (GA and the firefly algorithm (FA and further improves its calculation process via a differential evolution (DE algorithm. The conventional GA is not advisable for MPPT because of its complicated calculations and low accuracy under PSCs. In this study, we simplified the GA calculations with the integration of the DE mutation process and FA attractive process. Results from both the simulation and evaluation verify that the proposed algorithm provides rapid response time and high accuracy due to the simplified processing. For instance, evaluation results demonstrate that when compared to the conventional GA, the execution time and tracking accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be, respectively, improved around 69.4% and 4.16%. In addition, in comparison to FA, the tracking speed and tracking accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be improved around 42.9% and 1.85%, respectively. Consequently, the major improvement of the proposed method when evaluated against the conventional GA and FA is tracking speed. Moreover, this research provides a framework to integrate multiple nature-inspired algorithms for MPPT. Furthermore, the proposed method is adaptable to different types of solar panels and different system formats with specifically designed equations, the advantages of which are rapid tracking speed with high accuracy under PSCs.

  16. Determinación de compuestos hidrocarbonados en la pared celular de P. maximum y L. leucocephala en silvopastoreo Determination of hydrocarbonated compounds in the cell wall from P. maximum and L. leucocephala under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la concentración de n-alcanos y alcoholes de cadena larga en la pared celular de Panicum maximum cv. Likoni y Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, se realizó un estudio en una asociación de gramíneas mejoradas y leucaena de 10 años de establecida, la cual ocupa un área de 1,6 ha. Se seleccionaron dichas especies por ser las más representativas en la composición florística. Las muestras se colectaron de enero a diciembre del 2005 y se secaron. La concentración de n-alcanos de cadena impar fue de 167,97 y 222,96 mg/kg de MS y 134,11 y 137,27 mg/kg de MS para guinea y leucaena, en el período poco lluvioso y en el lluvioso, respectivamente. A su vez la concentración de alcoholes de cadena par para la leucaena presentó un valor mayor(2 754,60 y 3 830,18 mg/kg de MS para el período poco lluvioso y lluvioso, respectivamente, que en la guinea (2 571,73-3 679,65 mg/kg de MS para cada período, respectivamente. Se concluye que la concentración de n-alcanos de cadena larga impar fue baja para P. maximum y L. leucocephala en ambos períodos del año; sin embargo, presentaron concentraciones elevadas de alcoholes de cadena larga par, que pudieran ser utilizados como marcadores naturales en las dos especies.With the objective of determining the concentration of n-alkanes and long-chain alcohols in the cell wall of Panicum maximum cv. Likoni and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham, a study was conducted in an association of improved grasses and leucaena ten years after being established, which occupies an area of 1,6 ha. Such species were selected for being the most representative ones in the floristic composition. The samples were collected from January to December, 2005 and were dried. The concentration of odd-chain n-alkanes was 167,97 and 222,96 mg/kg DM and 134,11 and 137,27 mg/kg DM for Guinea grass and leucaena in the dry and rainy season, respectively. In turn, the concentration of even-chain alcohols for

  17. Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum – Part 2: feedbacks with emphasis on the location of the ITCZ and mid- and high latitudes heat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of coupled ocean-atmosphere(-vegetation simulations using state of the art climate models is now available for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the Mid-Holocene (MH through the second phase of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP2. Here we quantify the latitudinal shift of the location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the tropical regions during boreal summer and the change in precipitation in the northern part of the ITCZ. For both periods the shift is more pronounced over the continents and East Asia. The maritime continent is the region where the largest spread is found between models. We also clearly establish that the larger the increase in the meridional temperature gradient in the tropical Atlantic during summer at the MH, the larger the change in precipitation over West Africa. The vegetation feedback is however not as large as found in previous studies, probably due to model differences in the control simulation. Finally, we show that the feedback from snow and sea-ice at mid and high latitudes contributes for half of the cooling in the Northern Hemisphere for the LGM, with the remaining being achieved by the reduced CO2 and water vapour in the atmosphere. For the MH the snow and albedo feedbacks strengthen the spring cooling and enhance the boreal summer warming, whereas water vapour reinforces the late summer warming. These feedbacks are modest in the Southern Hemisphere. For the LGM most of the surface cooling is due to CO2 and water vapour.

  18. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  19. Differences between dentitions with palatally and labially located maxillary canines observed in incisor width, dental morphology and space conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, L; Larsen, H J; Sørensen, H B

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the interrelationship between incisor width, deviations in the dentition and available space in the dental arch in palatally and labially located maxillary ectopic canine cases.......To analyze the interrelationship between incisor width, deviations in the dentition and available space in the dental arch in palatally and labially located maxillary ectopic canine cases....

  20. Lightning Location System Data from Wind Power Plants Compared to Meteorological Conditions of Warm- and Cold Thunderstorm Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Lopez, Javier; Garolera, Anna Candela

    2016-01-01

    of topography, height above mean sea level (AMSL), and average ground flash density. For three sites, the most severe lightning events have been identified during the warm and cold months whereas the other two locations exhibit severe lightning detections mainly during the warm months. In this work severity......Five years of Lightning Location System (LLS) data from five different wind turbine sites in Europe are analysed. The sites are located in Croatia, Italy, Spain, France and one offshore wind power plant in the North sea. Each location exhibits individual characteristic properties in terms...... of such an episode can vary from tens of minutes to several hours in the case of new storms being continuously developed in the same area. The distance of the charge separating -10◦ C and the ground is usually larger than 3000 meters. This analyse provides information about the different thunderstorm types which...

  1. The essential conditions for the choice of location for a long-term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.

    1964-10-01

    The paper deals with a long-term storage of radioactive wastes with a special reference to the parameters to be considered in choosing the location. It gives a short account of methods for disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes used in nuclear centers in the world. The possibilities of radioactive wastes disposal in our country using the methods investigated are also presented (author)

  2. Electronic apex locator: A comprehensive literature review — Part II: Effect of different clinical and technical conditions on electronic apex locator′s accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate the effects of different clinical and technical conditions on the accuracy of electronic apex locators (EALs. Materials and Methods: "Tooth apex," "dental instrument," "odontometry," "electronic medical," and "electronic apex locator" were searched as primary identifiers via Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus data base up to 30 July 2013. Original articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Results: Out of 402 relevant studies, 183 were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In this part, 75 studies are presented. Pulp vitality conditions and root resorption, types of files and irrigating materials do not affect an EAL′s accuracy; however, the file size and foramen diameter can affect its accuracy. Conclusions: Various clinical conditions such as the file size and foramen diameter may affect EALs′ accuracy. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed for definitive conclusion.

  3. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  4. Pump absorption in coiled and twisted double-clad hexagonal fiber: effect of launching conditions and core location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalidet, Romain; Peterka, Pavel; Doya, Valérie; Aubrecht, Jan; Koška, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Ever extending applications of fiber lasers require energy efficient, high-power, small footprint and reliable fiber lasers and laser wavelength versatility. To meet these demands, next generation of active fibers for high-power fiber lasers is coming out that will eventually offer tailored spectroscopic properties, high robustness and reduced cooling requirements and improved efficiency through tailored pump absorption. We report on numerical modelling of the efficiency of the pump absorption in double clad active fibers with hexagonal shape of the inner cladding cross section and rare-earth-doped core. We analyze both the effect of different radii of the spool on which the fiber is coiled and different fiber twisting rates. Two different launching conditions were investigated: the Gaussian input pump beam and a speckle pattern that mimics the output of the pump laser diode pigtail. We have found that by asymmetric position of the rare-earth-doped core we can significantly improve the pump absorption.

  5. Artificial neural network-based model for the prediction of optimal growth and culture conditions for maximum biomass accumulation in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Archana; Prakash, Om; Mehrotra, Shakti; Khan, Feroz; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2017-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling approach is used to determine the synergistic effect of five major components of growth medium (Mg, Cu, Zn, nitrate and sucrose) on improved in vitro biomass yield in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica. The back propagation neural network (BPNN) was employed to predict optimal biomass accumulation in terms of growth index over a defined culture duration of 35 days. The four variable concentrations of five media components, i.e. MgSO 4 (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mM), ZnSO 4 (0, 15, 30, 60 μM), CuSO 4 (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 μM), NO 3 (20, 30, 40, 60 mM) and sucrose (1, 3, 5, 7 %, w/v) were taken as inputs for the ANN model. The designed model was evaluated by performing three different sets of validation experiments that indicated a greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset. The results of the modelling experiment suggested that 1.5 mM Mg, 30 μM Zn, 0.1 μM Cu, 40 mM NO 3 and 6 % (w/v) sucrose were the respective optimal concentrations of the tested medium components for achieving maximum growth index of 1654.46 with high centelloside yield (62.37 mg DW/culture) in the cultured multiple shoots. This study can facilitate the generation of higher biomass of uniform, clean, good quality C. asiatica herb that can efficiently be utilized by pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Comparison of EHR-based diagnosis documentation locations to a gold standard for risk stratification in patients with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby; Wagner, Jesse; Lupulescu-Mann, Nicoleta; Ramsey, Katrina; Cohen, Aaron; Graven, Peter; Weiskopf, Nicole G; Dorr, David A

    2017-08-02

    To measure variation among four different Electronic Health Record (EHR) system documentation locations versus 'gold standard' manual chart review for risk stratification in patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Adults seen in primary care with EHR evidence of at least one of 13 conditions were included. EHRs were manually reviewed to determine presence of active diagnoses, and risk scores were calculated using three different methodologies and five EHR documentation locations. Claims data were used to assess cost and utilization for the following year. Descriptive and diagnostic statistics were calculated for each EHR location. Criterion validity testing compared the gold standard verified diagnoses versus other EHR locations and risk scores in predicting future cost and utilization. Nine hundred patients had 2,179 probable diagnoses. About 70% of the diagnoses from the EHR were verified by gold standard. For a subset of patients having baseline and prediction year data (n=750), modeling showed that the gold standard was the best predictor of outcomes on average for a subset of patients that had these data. However, combining all data sources together had nearly equivalent performance for prediction as the gold standard. EHR data locations were inaccurate 30% of the time, leading to improvement in overall modeling from a gold standard from chart review for individual diagnoses. However, the impact on identification of the highest risk patients was minor, and combining data from different EHR locations was equivalent to gold standard performance. The reviewer's ability to identify a diagnosis as correct was influenced by a variety of factors, including completeness, temporality, and perceived accuracy of chart data.

  7. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  8. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  9. Sequential pattern recognition by maximum conditional informativity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 39-45 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Keywords : Multivariate statistics * Statistical pattern recognition * Sequential decision making * Product mixtures * EM algorithm * Shannon information Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Sci ence Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/grim-0428565.pdf

  10. A Canadian qualitative study exploring the diversity of the experience of family caregivers of older adults with multiple chronic conditions using a social location perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison; Sethi, Bharati; Duggleby, Wendy; Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Peacock, Shelley; Ghosh, Sunita

    2016-03-02

    A little-studied issue in the provision of care at home by informal caregivers is the increase in older adult patients with chronic illness, and more specifically, multiple chronic conditions (MCC). We know little about the caregiving experience for this population, particularly as it is affected by social location, which refers to either a group's or individual's place/location in society at a given time, based on their intersecting demographics (age, gender, education, race, immigration status, geography, etc.). We have yet to fully comprehend the combined influence of these intersecting axes on caregivers' health and wellbeing, and attempt to do this by using an intersectionality approach in answering the following research question: How does social location influence the experience of family caregivers of older adults with MCC? The data presented herein is a thematic analysis of a qualitative sub-set of a large two-province study conducted using a repeated-measures embedded mixed method design. A survey sub-set of 20 survey participants per province (n = 40 total) were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. In the first stage of data analysis, Charmaz's (2006) Constructivist Grounded Theory Method (CGTM) was used to develop initial codes, focused codes, categories and descriptive themes. In the second and the third stages of analysis, intersectionality was used to develop final analytical themes. The following four themes describe the overall study findings: (1) Caregiving Trajectory, where three caregiving phases were identified; (2) Work, Family, and Caregiving, where the impact of caregiving was discussed on other areas of caregivers' lives; (3) Personal and Structural Determinants of Caregiving, where caregiving sustainability and coping were deliberated, and; (4) Finding Meaning/Self in Caregiving, where meaning-making was highlighted. The intersectionality approach presented a number of axes of diversity as comparatively more important

  11. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  12. Interplanetary variability recorded by the sled instrument aboard the Phobos spacecraft during that period of solar cycle 22 characterized by a transition from solar minimum- to solar maximum-dominated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.M.P. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland)); Afonin, V.V.; Gringauz, K.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Space Research Inst.) (and others)

    Twin telescope particle detector systems SLED-1 and SLED-2, with the capability of monitoring electron and ion fluxes within an energy range spanning approximately 30 keV to a few megaelectron volts, were individually launched on the two spacecraft (Phobos-2 and Phobos-1, respectively) of the Soviet Phobos Mission to Mars and its moons in July 1988. A short description of the SLED instrument and a preliminary account of representative solar-related particle enhancements recorded by SLED-1 and SLED-2 during the Cruise Phase, and by SLED-1 in the near Martian environment (within the interval 25 July 1988-26 March 1989) are presented. These observations were made while the interplanetary medium was in the course of changing over from solar minimum- to solar maximum-dominated conditions and examples are presented of events associated with each of these phenomenological states. (author).

  13. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  14. Accurate Maximum Power Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems Affected by Partial Shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Guerriero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum power tracking algorithm exploiting operating point information gained on individual solar panels is presented. The proposed algorithm recognizes the presence of multiple local maxima in the power voltage curve of a shaded solar field and evaluates the coordinated of the absolute maximum. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evidenced by means of circuit level simulation and experimental results. Experiments evidenced that, in comparison with a standard perturb and observe algorithm, we achieve faster convergence in normal operating conditions (when the solar field is uniformly illuminated and we accurately locate the absolute maximum power point in partial shading conditions, thus avoiding the convergence on local maxima.

  15. Predicting User Acceptance and Continuance Behaviour Towards Location-based Services: The Moderating Effect of Facilitating Conditions on Behavioural Intention and Actual Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamamd Alamgir Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish and examine the significance of a consumer acceptance and continuance model for location-based services (LBSs through the integration of perceived entertainment gratification (PEG and perceived application quality (PAQ with the technology acceptance model (TAM. By arguing that behavioural intention (BI does not automatically lead to actual use (AU, we investigated the moderating effect of facilitating conditions (FC on the relationship between BI and AU. A quantitative study was conducted in Australia and Bangladesh; data were obtained from multiple sources by systematic sampling of the distribution of questionnaires. For data analysis we applied the partial least square (PLS method. The results indicate that, in both Australia and Bangladesh, perceived usefulness (PU, PEG and PAQ have significant influence on user attitude (UA, which has a subsequent effect on BI. Interestingly, perceived ease of use (PEoU does not have a direct effect on UA but indirectly influences it through PU—confirming the mediating effect of PU. Further, FC has a moderating effect between BI and AU. The implications of these findings and directions for future research directions are also discussed.

  16. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  17. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  18. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  19. LOCAT - A Data Retrieval Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    onoitode of scified location - P C RADIUS - maximum distance between specified location and C file locationsC . ’ CONNON /LOCN/ LOCLAT, LOCLNG, RADIUS...rrr’, ,r:.- r -’ - r- rJ Z. . . , . -.-. - - - - - - -- , -• .. . . FILMED 8-85 DTIC .-. ... , ,- . . . . ...: .--. :,.:. ..-..-- ,-, .-..-...

  20. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  1. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  2. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  3. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  4. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  5. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  6. Cambios en la estructura, la población y la composición de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum sometidas a pastoreo CIAT-184 Changes in the structure, population and composition of 19 Panicum maximum accessions under grazing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar los cambios y la tendencia de indicadores relacionados con la estructura, la población y la composición en 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum cuando fueron sometidas a condiciones de pastoreo simulado. Las rotaciones se hicieron cada 32-40 días en el periodo lluvioso y 60-70 días en el poco lluvioso, con intensidad de pastoreo de 80-135 UGM/ha/día (los dos primeros años y 120-160 UGM/ha/día (tercer año. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Aunque en todos los tratamientos disminuyó la relación vástagos vivos/vástagos muertos, este cociente fue superior a uno, por lo que el ritmo de sustitución de vástagos fue favorable. En el 84,2% de los tratamientos se incrementó el número de macollas con relación a el estatus inicial. El porcentaje de arvenses aumentó con las rotaciones, pero ninguno de los tratamientos alcanzó un estado de deterioro avanzado. En este indicador se destacaron los tipos gigantes CIH-13, SIH-697, CIH-3, CC-1146 y SIH-10, con valores que variaron entre 4,6 y 14,1%, así como los tipos medianos CIH-15 y Tardío pequeño, con 10 y 12,3%, respectivamente. Se concluye que el germoplasma evaluado mostró valores adecuados, en función de los indicadores relacionados con la estructura de la macolla, la población y el porcentaje de invasión de las especies arvenses, aunque se identificó un alto contraste entre los tipos gigantes y medianos y dentro de estos grupos. Se sugiere analizar el resto de los indicadores productivos y con ello determinar los tipos más sobresalientes, sobre la base de los resultados en todos los indicadores incluidos.The objective of this work was to characterize the changes and trend of indicators related to the structure, population and composition in 19 Panicum maximum accessions under simulated grazing conditions. The rotations took place every 32-40 days in the rainy season and 60-70 days in the dry season, with

  7. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.; Ito, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  8. Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine

    KAUST Repository

    Izumida, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.

  9. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  10. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  11. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  12. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  13. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  14. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  15. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  17. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  19. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  20. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  1. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  2. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  3. Improving a maximum horizontal gradient algorithm to determine geological body boundaries and fault systems based on gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kha, Tran; Van Vuong, Hoang; Thanh, Do Duc; Hung, Duong Quoc; Anh, Le Duc

    2018-05-01

    The maximum horizontal gradient method was first proposed by Blakely and Simpson (1986) for determining the boundaries between geological bodies with different densities. The method involves the comparison of a center point with its eight nearest neighbors in four directions within each 3 × 3 calculation grid. The horizontal location and magnitude of the maximum values are found by interpolating a second-order polynomial through the trio of points provided that the magnitude of the middle point is greater than its two nearest neighbors in one direction. In theoretical models of multiple sources, however, the above condition does not allow the maximum horizontal locations to be fully located, and it could be difficult to correlate the edges of complicated sources. In this paper, the authors propose an additional condition to identify more maximum horizontal locations within the calculation grid. This additional condition will improve the method algorithm for interpreting the boundaries of magnetic and/or gravity sources. The improved algorithm was tested on gravity models and applied to gravity data for the Phu Khanh basin on the continental shelf of the East Vietnam Sea. The results show that the additional locations of the maximum horizontal gradient could be helpful for connecting the edges of complicated source bodies.

  4. Location On Natural Valuable Areas As A Condition For The Development Of Enterprises Based On The Use Of Natural Resources – The Lublin Voivodeship (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwolińska-Ligaj Magdalena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify opportunities and constraints of the development of companies whose business is based on the exploitation of natural resources resulting from their location in areas of natural value. The study area consisted of 40 municipalities. Five companies were selected for the study in each municipality. The study used the method of diagnostic survey using a questionnaire interview. The results obtained give rise to a finding that economic activity based on the use of local natural resources, taking into account the need to protect the natural environment, is a legitimate direction and an opportunity for the development of local economies of areas of natural value. However, given the limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas, it requires support, mainly with information and finance. The most important limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas include the lack of preferential financial instruments, difficulties of the investment process and the lack of financial compensation for profits lost due to the location.

  5. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  6. Assessing rear-end crash potential in urban locations based on vehicle-by-vehicle interactions, geometric characteristics and operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Loukas; Stylianou, Katerina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2018-03-01

    Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes. In this study rear-end crash potential was estimated based on stopping distance between two consecutive vehicles, and four rear-end crash potential cases were developed. The results indicated that 66.4% of the observations were estimated as rear-end crash potentials. It was also shown that rear-end crash potential was presented when traffic flow and speed standard deviation were higher. Also, locational characteristics such as lane of travel and location in the network were found to affect drivers' car following decisions and additionally, it was shown that speeds were lower and headways higher when Heavy Goods Vehicles lead. Finally, a model-based behavioral analysis based on Multinomial Logit regression was conducted to systematically identify the statistically significant variables in explaining rear-end risk potential. The modeling results highlighted the significance of the explanatory variables associated with rear-end crash potential, however it was shown that their effect varied among different model configurations. The outcome of the results can be of significant value for several purposes, such as real-time monitoring of risk potential, allocating enforcement units in urban networks and designing targeted proactive safety policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  8. Maximum entropy tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The new entropy concept for the collective magnetic equilibria is applied to the description of the states of a tokamak subject to ohmic and auxiliary heating. The condition for the existence of steady state plasma states with vanishing entropy production implies, on one hand, the resilience of specific current density profiles and, on the other, severe restrictions on the scaling of the confinement time with power and current. These restrictions are consistent with Goldston scaling and with the existence of a heat pinch. (author)

  9. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  10. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  11. Ecological conditions of ponds situated on blast furnace slag deposits located in South Gare Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Teesside, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, E; Davies, S; Perkins, B; Lamb, H; Hermanson, M; Soares, A; Stephenson, T

    2015-06-01

    Slag, a by-product from the iron and steel industry, has a range of applications within construction and is used in wastewater treatment. Historically considered a waste material, little consideration was given to the environmental impacts of its disposal. South Gare (a Site of Special Scientific Interest) located at the mouth of the Tees estuary, UK, formed on slag deposits used to create a sea wall and make the land behind permanent. Over time, ponds formed in depressions with the water chemistry, being significantly impacted by the slag deposits. Calcium levels reached 504 mg/L, nitrate 49.0 mg/L and sulphate 1,698 mg/L. These levels were also reflected in the composition of the sediment. pH (5.10-9.90) and electrical conductivity (2,710-3,598 µS/cm) were variable but often notably high. Pb, Cu and Cd were not present within the water, whilst Zn ranged from 0.027 to 0.37 mg/L. Heavy metal levels were higher in surface sediments. Zinc was most dominant (174.3-1,310.2 mg/L) followed by Pb (9.9-431 mg/L), Cu (8.4-41.8 mg/L) and Cd (0.4-1.1 mg/L). A sediment core provided a historical overview of the ponds. The ponds were unfavourable for aquatic biodiversity and unsuitable for drinking water abstraction.

  12. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  13. Grape and wine amino acid composition from Carignan noir grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in the Maule Valley, Chile: Effects of location and rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Martínez-Gil, A M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Garde-Cerdán, T; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines. In general, Carignan noir grapevines grafted over País showed lower grape amino acid content respect to ungrafted vines. Cool night index (CI) was inversely correlated to several amino acids, showing that their plant synthesis or accumulation increased with lower minimum temperatures during the last month before harvest. Truquilemu (Tru) and Ciénaga de Name (Cdn) sites showed the highest concentration for several amino acids and total amino acid content in grapes, which led to a faster alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Decree of the Ministry of Health about conditions of irradiation of food, permissible additional substances or other food components, which can be subjected to ionizing radiation action, their specification, maximum irradiation doses as well as about requirements for marking and introducing into turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions of irradiation of food and its components for radappertization and radurization using gamma radiation from cobalt 60 or cesium 137, X radiation or electron beam up to maximum total medium absorbed dose 10 kGy

  15. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  16. 13 CFR 107.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 107.840... COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any...

  17. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  18. The maximum significant wave height in the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouws, E.; Tolman, H.L.; Holthuijsen, L.H.; Eldeberky, Y.; Booij, N.; Ferier, P.

    1995-01-01

    The maximum possible wave conditions along the Dutch coast, which seem to be dominated by the limited water depth, have been estimated in the present study with numerical simulations. Discussions with meteorologists suggest that the maximum possible sustained wind speed in North Sea conditions is

  19. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  20. Location Intelligence Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Location Intelligence (LI) means using the spatial dimension of information as a key to support business processes. This spatial dimension has to be defined by geographic coordinates. Storing these spatial objects in a database allows for attaching a 'meaning' to them, like 'current position', 'border', 'building' or 'room'. Now the coordinates represent real-world objects, which can be relevant for the measurement, documentation, control or optimization of (parameters of) business processes aiming at different business objectives. But LI can only be applied, if the locations can be determined with an accuracy (in space and time) appropriate for the business process in consideration. Therefore the first step in any development of a LI solution is the analysis of the business process itself regarding its requirements for spatial and time resolution and accuracy. The next step is the detailed analysis of the surrounding conditions of the process: Does the process happen indoor and/or outdoor? Are there moving objects? If yes, how fast are they? How does the relevant environment look like? Is technical infrastructure available? Is the process restricted by regulations? As a result, a proper Location Detection Technology (LDT) has to be chosen in order to get reliable and accurate positions of the relevant objects. At the highly challenging conditions of the business processes IAEA inspectors are working with, the chosen LDTs have to deliver reliable positioning on ''room-level'' accuracy, even if there is no location enabling infrastructure in place, the objects (people) mostly are indoors and have to work under strong regulations. The presentation will give insights into innovative LI solutions based on technologies of different LDT providers. Pros and cons of combinations of different LDT (like multi- GNSS, IMU, camera, and human interaction based positioning) will be discussed from the

  1. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  2. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  3. Aplicação da relaxação lagrangeana e do algoritmo genético construtivo na solução do problema probabilístico de localização-alocação de máxima cobertura Application of lagrangian relaxation and the constructive genetic algorithm to solve the probabilistic problem of maximum location-allocation coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Corrêa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O problema de localização de máxima cobertura (MCLP procura localizar facilidades visando a maximizar a população atendida, considerando uma dada distância ou tempo padrão de serviço. Várias extensões desse modelo têm sido propostas para aumentar a sua aplicabilidade. Entre elas, existem modelos probabilísticos para localização-alocação de máxima cobertura com restrições no tempo de espera ou no comprimento da fila para sistemas congestionados, que levam em conta um ou vários servidores por facilidade. A proposta deste trabalho é a de resolver um modelo para um servidor por facilidade por meio da relaxação lagrangeana e do Algoritmo Genético Construtivo. Os resultados dos testes obtidos nessas abordagens são apresentados e comparados.The Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP seeks to locate facilities in order to maximize the serviced population, considering a given distance or standard service time. Various extensions of this model have been proposed to enhance its applicability, e.g., probabilistic models for maximum location-allocation coverage with waiting time or queue length constraints for congested systems, taking into account one or more servers per service center. In this paper we present two procedures for solving a probabilistic model, which considers one server per center, using Lagrangian relaxation and the Constructive Genetic Algorithm. Extensive tests of these approaches are presented and their results compared.

  4. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  5. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  6. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  7. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  8. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  9. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  10. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  11. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  12. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  13. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  14. Fault location in underground cables using ANFIS nets and discrete wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa Barakat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an accurate algorithm for locating faults in a medium voltage underground power cable using a combination of Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS and discrete wavelet transform (DWT. The proposed method uses five ANFIS networks and consists of 2 stages, including fault type classification and exact fault location. In the first part, an ANFIS is used to determine the fault type, applying four inputs, i.e., the maximum detailed energy of three phase and zero sequence currents. Other four ANFIS networks are utilized to pinpoint the faults (one for each fault type. Four inputs, i.e., the maximum detailed energy of three phase and zero sequence currents, are used to train the neuro-fuzzy inference systems in order to accurately locate the faults on the cable. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as different fault locations, different fault inception angles and different fault resistances.

  15. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  16. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  17. Mathematical analysis of maximum power generated by photovoltaic systems and fitting curves for standard test conditions Modelo matemático da potência máxima gerada por sistemas fotovoltaicos e curvas de ajuste às condições de teste em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís R. A. Gabriel Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The rural electrification is characterized by geographical dispersion of the population, low consumption, high investment by consumers and high cost. Moreover, solar radiation constitutes an inexhaustible source of energy and in its conversion into electricity photovoltaic panels are used. In this study, equations were adjusted to field conditions presented by the manufacturer for current and power of small photovoltaic systems. The mathematical analysis was performed on the photovoltaic rural system I-100 from ISOFOTON, with power 300 Wp, located at the Experimental Farm Lageado of FCA/UNESP. For the development of such equations, the circuitry of photovoltaic cells has been studied to apply iterative numerical methods for the determination of electrical parameters and possible errors in the appropriate equations in the literature to reality. Therefore, a simulation of a photovoltaic panel was proposed through mathematical equations that were adjusted according to the data of local radiation. The results have presented equations that provide real answers to the user and may assist in the design of these systems, once calculated that the maximum power limit ensures a supply of energy generated. This real sizing helps establishing the possible applications of solar energy to the rural producer and informing the real possibilities of generating electricity from the sun.A eletrificação rural é caracterizada pela dispersão geográfica da população, baixo consumo, alto investimento por consumidor e elevado custo operacional. Por outro lado, a radiação solar constitui-se numa inesgotável fonte energética, e para sua conversão em energia elétrica são utilizados painéis fotovoltaicos. Neste trabalho, foram determinadas equações ajustadas às condições de campo apresentadas pelo fabricante para corrente e potência de sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte. A análise matemática foi feita sobre o sistema fotovoltaico rural I-100 da

  18. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  19. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  20. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  1. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  2. Onderzoek Location Based Marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based

  3. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  4. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  5. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  6. Location | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  7. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  8. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  9. LOCATING LEAKS WITH ACOUSTIC TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water distribution systems in this country are almost 100 years old. About 26 percent of piping in these systems is made of unlined cast iron or steel and is in poor condition. Many methods that locate leaks in these pipes are time-consuming, costly, disruptive to operations...

  10. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  11. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  12. Probabilistic maximum-value wind prediction for offshore environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staid, Andrea; Pinson, Pierre; Guikema, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    statistical models to predict the full distribution of the maximum-value wind speeds in a 3 h interval. We take a detailed look at the performance of linear models, generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines models using meteorological covariates such as gust speed, wind speed......, convective available potential energy, Charnock, mean sea-level pressure and temperature, as given by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecasts. The models are trained to predict the mean value of maximum wind speed, and the residuals from training the models are used to develop...... the full probabilistic distribution of maximum wind speed. Knowledge of the maximum wind speed for an offshore location within a given period can inform decision-making regarding turbine operations, planned maintenance operations and power grid scheduling in order to improve safety and reliability...

  13. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  14. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, or such that the maximum weighted distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we...... give solution procedures. When the circle to be located is restricted to be a great circle, some simplifications are possible....

  15. Maximum likelihood of phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay; Snir, Sagi; Tuller, Tamir

    2006-11-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is believed to be ubiquitous among bacteria, and plays a major role in their genome diversification as well as their ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. In light of its evolutionary significance and implications for human health, developing accurate and efficient methods for detecting and reconstructing HGT is imperative. In this article we provide a new HGT-oriented likelihood framework for many problems that involve phylogeny-based HGT detection and reconstruction. Beside the formulation of various likelihood criteria, we show that most of these problems are NP-hard, and offer heuristics for efficient and accurate reconstruction of HGT under these criteria. We implemented our heuristics and used them to analyze biological as well as synthetic data. In both cases, our criteria and heuristics exhibited very good performance with respect to identifying the correct number of HGT events as well as inferring their correct location on the species tree. Implementation of the criteria as well as heuristics and hardness proofs are available from the authors upon request. Hardness proofs can also be downloaded at http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~tamirtul/MLNET/Supp-ML.pdf

  16. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  17. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  18. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  19. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...... that illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  20. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  1. Internet Geo-Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    INTERNET GEO-LOCATION DUKE UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2014 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNET GEO-LOCATION 5a. CONTRACT...of SpeedTest servers that are used by end users to measure the speed of their Internet connection. The servers log the IP address and the location

  2. Optimization of hip joint replacement location to decrease maximum von Mi ses Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourjamali, H.; Najarian, S.; Katoozian, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    Hip replacement is used for inoperable femur head injuries and femur fractures where internal fixation can not be used. This operation is one of the most common orthopedic operations that many research have been done about it. Among these we can mention implant and cement materials and composites optimization and also implant shape optimization. This study was designed to optimize artificial hip joint position (placement) to decrease maximal von mi sees stress. First, a model of femur and implant were made and then a computer program was written with the ability to change the position of implant through an acceptable range in the femur. In each of these positions, the program simulated femur and implant according to finite element method and made, applied forces were weight and muscle traction. Our findings show that a small deviation of the implant from femur bone center causes a considerable decrease in von mi sees stress that consequently results in longer maintenance of the implant

  3. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  4. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  5. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  6. Green facility location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velázquez Martínez, J.C.; Fransoo, J.C.; Bouchery, Y.; Corbett, C.J.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.

    2017-01-01

    Transportation is one of the main contributing factors of global carbon emissions, and thus, when dealing with facility location models in a distribution context, transportation emissions may be substantially higher than the emissions due to production or storage. Because facility location models

  7. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  8. Locating a circle on a sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a spherical circle with respect to existing facilities on a sphere, such that the sum of distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized or such that the maximum distance is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and we give solution...... procedures. When the circle to be located is restricted to be a great circle, some simplifications are possible. The models may be used in preliminary studies on the location of large linear facilities on the earth's surface, such as superhighways, pipelines, and transmission lines, or in totally different...

  9. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  10. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  11. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  12. MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE FOR SUBSONIC FLOW WITH VARIABLE ENTROPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sizykh Grigory

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximum principle for subsonic flow is fair for stationary irrotational subsonic gas flows. According to this prin- ciple, if the value of the velocity is not constant everywhere, then its maximum is achieved on the boundary and only on the boundary of the considered domain. This property is used when designing form of an aircraft with a maximum critical val- ue of the Mach number: it is believed that if the local Mach number is less than unit in the incoming flow and on the body surface, then the Mach number is less then unit in all points of flow. The known proof of maximum principle for subsonic flow is based on the assumption that in the whole considered area of the flow the pressure is a function of density. For the ideal and perfect gas (the role of diffusion is negligible, and the Mendeleev-Clapeyron law is fulfilled, the pressure is a function of density if entropy is constant in the entire considered area of the flow. Shows an example of a stationary sub- sonic irrotational flow, in which the entropy has different values on different stream lines, and the pressure is not a function of density. The application of the maximum principle for subsonic flow with respect to such a flow would be unreasonable. This example shows the relevance of the question about the place of the points of maximum value of the velocity, if the entropy is not a constant. To clarify the regularities of the location of these points, was performed the analysis of the com- plete Euler equations (without any simplifying assumptions in 3-D case. The new proof of the maximum principle for sub- sonic flow was proposed. This proof does not rely on the assumption that the pressure is a function of density. Thus, it is shown that the maximum principle for subsonic flow is true for stationary subsonic irrotational flows of ideal perfect gas with variable entropy.

  13. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  14. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  15. OAS :: Our Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Human Resources of the OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's contract and travel control measure reports, the applicable procurement rules and regulations, and the Charter Organizational Charts Organizational List Authorities Our Locations Contact Us Telephone: +1 (202

  16. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  17. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  18. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  19. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  20. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  1. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  2. AFRICOM: Does Location Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Decision Model,” 242-244. 26 Susan Hesse Owen & Mark S. Daskin , “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research...Susan Hesse & Mark S. Daskin . “Strategic Facility Location: A Review,” European Journal of Operational Research 111 (1998), 423-447. Paye-Layeleh...ES) N/ A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and

  3. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  4. The potential benefits of location-specific biometeorological indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Wang, Jinfeng; Yin, Qian; Chen, Si; Lai, Poh Chin

    2017-09-01

    It is becoming popular to use biometeorological indexes to study the effects of weather on human health. Most of the biometeorological indexes were developed decades ago and only applicable to certain locations because of different climate types. Merely using standard biometeorological indexes to replace typical weather factors in biometeorological studies of different locations may not be an ideal research direction. This research is aimed at assessing the difference of statistical power between using standard biometeorological indexes and typical weather factors on describing the effects of extreme weather conditions on daily ambulance demands in Hong Kong. Results showed that net effective temperature and apparent temperature did not perform better than typical weather factors in describing daily ambulance demands in this study. The maximum adj- R 2 improvement was only 0.08, whereas the maximum adj- R 2 deterioration was 0.07. In this study, biometeorological indexes did not perform better than typical weather factors, possibly due to the differences of built environments and lifestyles in different locations and eras. Regarding built environments, the original parameters for calculating the index values may not be applicable to Hong Kong as buildings in Hong Kong are extremely dense and most are equipped with air conditioners. Regarding lifestyles, the parameters, which were set decades ago, may be outdated and not suitable to modern lifestyles as using hand-held electrical fans on the street to help reduce heat stress are popular. Hence, it is ideal to have tailor-made updated location-specific biometeorological indexes to study the effects of weather on human health.

  5. Influence of boundary conditions on the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation during the last glacial maximum Influência das condições de fronteira na circulação atmosférica do Hemisfério Sul durante o último máximo glacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Justino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based upon coupled climate simulations driven by present day and glacial boundary conditions, we demonstrate that although the ice sheet topography modifications during the glacial period are primarily placed in the Northern Hemisphere (NH, a climate simulation that employs the ICE-5G glacial topography delivers significantly enhanced climate anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere (SH as well. These conditions, in association with climate anomalies produced by the modification of the atmospheric CO² concentration characteristic of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM interval, are shown to be the primary forcing of the SH climate during this epoch. Climate anomalies up to -6°C over the Antarctic region and -4°C over South America are predicted to occur in respect to present day conditions. Accompanying the SH cooling in the LGM simulation there exists a remarkable reduction in the specific humidity, which in turn enforces the overall Southern Hemisphere cooling due to the weaker greenhouse capacity of the dry atmosphere.Com base em simulações numéricas conduzidas com condições de fronteiras características dos períodos glaciais e atual, demonstra-se que embora as maiores anomalias da topografia da Terra no período glacial estejam no Hemisfério Norte, esta inclusão dos blocos de gelo leva a substanciais mudanças na circulação atmosférica austral para aquela época, indicando uma forte teleconexão inter-hemisférica. Em associação com a redução nos níveis de carbono atmosférico para 200 ppm, anomalias de temperatura de -6°C em torno da região antártica, e -4°C no continente sul-americano são simuladas para o último máximo glacial (UMG em relação a condições atuais. Concomitantemente, o UMG é caracterizado por uma drástica redução na umidade específica, que por sua vez intensifica o esfriamento inicial devido à mais fraca capacidade de estufa da atmosfera mais seca.

  6. Simulation model study of limitation on the locating distance of a ground penetrating radar; Chichu tansa radar no tansa kyori genkai ni kansuru simulation model no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauchi, T; Tsunasaki, M; Kishi, M; Hayakawa, H [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Various simulations were carried out under various laying conditions to obtain the limitation of locating distance for ground penetrating radar. Recently, ground penetrating radar has been remarked as location technology of obstacles such as the existing buried objects. To enhance the theoretical model (radar equation) of a maximum locating distance, the following factors were examined experimentally using pulse ground penetrating radar: ground surface conditions such as asphalt pavement, diameter of buried pipes, material of buried pipes, effect of soil, antenna gain. The experiment results well agreed with actual field experiment ones. By adopting the antenna gain and effect of the ground surface, the more practical simulation using underground models became possible. The maximum locating distance was more improved by large antenna than small one in actual field. It is assumed that large antenna components contributed to improvement of gain and reduction of attenuation during passing through soil. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Novel TPPO Based Maximum Power Point Method for Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABBASI, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system has a great potential and it is installed more when compared with other renewable energy sources nowadays. However, the PV system cannot perform optimally due to its solid reliance on climate conditions. Due to this dependency, PV system does not operate at its maximum power point (MPP. Many MPP tracking methods have been proposed for this purpose. One of these is the Perturb and Observe Method (P&O which is the most famous due to its simplicity, less cost and fast track. But it deviates from MPP in continuously changing weather conditions, especially in rapidly changing irradiance conditions. A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method, Tetra Point Perturb and Observe (TPPO, has been proposed to improve PV system performance in changing irradiance conditions and the effects on characteristic curves of PV array module due to varying irradiance are delineated. The Proposed MPPT method has shown better results in increasing the efficiency of a PV system.

  8. Paving the road to maximum productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C

    1998-01-01

    "Job security" is an oxymoron in today's environment of downsizing, mergers, and acquisitions. Workers find themselves living by new rules in the workplace that they may not understand. How do we cope? It is the leader's charge to take advantage of this chaos and create conditions under which his or her people can understand the need for change and come together with a shared purpose to effect that change. The clinical laboratory at Arkansas Children's Hospital has taken advantage of this chaos to down-size and to redesign how the work gets done to pave the road to maximum productivity. After initial hourly cutbacks, the workers accepted the cold, hard fact that they would never get their old world back. They set goals to proactively shape their new world through reorganizing, flexing staff with workload, creating a rapid response laboratory, exploiting information technology, and outsourcing. Today the laboratory is a lean, productive machine that accepts change as a way of life. We have learned to adapt, trust, and support each other as we have journeyed together over the rough roads. We are looking forward to paving a new fork in the road to the future.

  9. Bayesian interpretation of Generalized empirical likelihood by maximum entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Rochet , Paul

    2011-01-01

    We study a parametric estimation problem related to moment condition models. As an alternative to the generalized empirical likelihood (GEL) and the generalized method of moments (GMM), a Bayesian approach to the problem can be adopted, extending the MEM procedure to parametric moment conditions. We show in particular that a large number of GEL estimators can be interpreted as a maximum entropy solution. Moreover, we provide a more general field of applications by proving the method to be rob...

  10. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  11. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is minim......In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  12. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be...... possible. The practical contribution is my creation of the LBG Visions of Sara. People continue to play this game in Odense more than two years after its launch, and DJEEO uses it as a showcase, enabling the company to sell similar LBGs....

  13. MICROGRIDS: THE AGRIA TEST LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krkoleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the pilot Microgrid in Macedonia, developed within the framework of the MOREMICROGRIDS (EU EP6 projecet, contract No. SES6-019864 project. This Microgrid is the first of its kind being developed in the Western Balkan region and serves as pilot site for introduction and examination of the Microgrids concept in non European Union conditions. The test network consists of a part of the low voltage grid, located on a pig farm. The main electricity source for the Microgrid is a small biogas plant, which uses the biogas produced by a waste water treatment process. The paper addresses the Microgrid design, development of test scenarios and test results from the pilot location.

  14. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  15. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  16. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  17. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  18. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  19. Location of New Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual...

  20. On locating steganographic payload using residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2011-02-01

    Locating steganographic payload usingWeighted Stego-image (WS) residuals has been proven successful provided a large number of stego images are available. In this paper, we revisit this topic with two goals. First, we argue that it is a promising approach to locate payload by showing that in the ideal scenario where the cover images are available, the expected number of stego images needed to perfectly locate all load-carrying pixels is the logarithm of the payload size. Second, we generalize cover estimation to a maximum likelihood decoding problem and demonstrate that a second-order statistical cover model can be used to compute residuals to locate payload embedded by both LSB replacement and LSB matching steganography.

  1. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  2. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  3. Maximum power point tracker based on fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, A.; Midoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    The solar energy is used as power source in photovoltaic power systems and the need for an intelligent power management system is important to obtain the maximum power from the limited solar panels. With the changing of the sun illumination due to variation of angle of incidence of sun radiation and of the temperature of the panels, Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) enables optimization of solar power generation. The MPPT is a sub-system designed to extract the maximum power from a power source. In the case of solar panels power source. the maximum power point varies as a result of changes in its electrical characteristics which in turn are functions of radiation dose, temperature, ageing and other effects. The MPPT maximum the power output from panels for a given set of conditions by detecting the best working point of the power characteristic and then controls the current through the panels or the voltage across them. Many MPPT methods have been reported in literature. These techniques of MPPT can be classified into three main categories that include: lookup table methods, hill climbing methods and computational methods. The techniques vary according to the degree of sophistication, processing time and memory requirements. The perturbation and observation algorithm (hill climbing technique) is commonly used due to its ease of implementation, and relative tracking efficiency. However, it has been shown that when the insolation changes rapidly, the perturbation and observation method is slow to track the maximum power point. In recent years, the fuzzy controllers are used for maximum power point tracking. This method only requires the linguistic control rules for maximum power point, the mathematical model is not required and therefore the implementation of this control method is easy to real control system. In this paper, we we present a simple robust MPPT using fuzzy set theory where the hardware consists of the microchip's microcontroller unit control card and

  4. Discontinuity of maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Ji, Zhengfeng; Yu, Nengkun; Zeng, Bei; Li, Chi-Kwong; Poon, Yiu-Tung; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Duanlu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the connection between two genuinely quantum phenomena—the discontinuity of quantum maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions at zero temperature. It is shown that the discontinuity of the maximum entropy inference of local observable measurements signals the non-local type of transitions, where local density matrices of the ground state change smoothly at the transition point. We then propose to use the quantum conditional mutual information of the ground state as an indicator to detect the discontinuity and the non-local type of quantum phase transitions in the thermodynamic limit. (paper)

  5. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  6. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  7. Web cache location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffey Brian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress placed on network infrastructure by the popularity of the World Wide Web may be partially relieved by keeping multiple copies of Web documents at geographically dispersed locations. In particular, use of proxy caches and replication provide a means of storing information 'nearer to end users'. This paper concentrates on the locational aspects of Web caching giving both an overview, from an operational research point of view, of existing research and putting forward avenues for possible further research. This area of research is in its infancy and the emphasis will be on themes and trends rather than on algorithm construction. Finally, Web caching problems are briefly related to referral systems more generally.

  8. Location based services

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Cong Nam

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices (tablets, smart phones, laptops) are proving themselves to be the main means of accessing information of the future. The embodiment of Recommender Systems (RSs) into mobile environments, as a matter of fact, has come about to serve as a way to solve the nuisances of data overwhelming. RSs' main advantage is their ability to allow users to find useful information according to the users' preferences and location. Even though they are not free of shortcoming such as the limitation...

  9. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  10. On the Use of Maximum Force Criteria to Predict Localised Necking in Metal Sheets under Stretch-Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Morales-Palma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The maximum force criteria and their derivatives, the Swift and Hill criteria, have been extensively used in the past to study sheet formability. Many extensions or modifications of these criteria have been proposed to improve necking predictions under only stretching conditions. This work analyses the maximum force principle under stretch-bending conditions and develops two different approaches to predict necking. The first is a generalisation of classical maximum force criteria to stretch-bending processes. The second approach is an extension of a previous work of the authors based on critical distance concepts, suggesting that necking of the sheet is controlled by the damage of a critical material volume located at the inner side of the sheet. An analytical deformation model is proposed to characterise the stretch-bending process under plane-strain conditions. Different parameters are considered, such as the thickness reduction, the gradient of variables through the sheet thickness, the thickness stress and the anisotropy of the material. The proposed necking models have been successfully applied to predict the failure in different materials, such as steel, brass and aluminium.

  11. MAXIMUM POWEWR POINT TRACKING SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing attention towards the use of renewable energy sources. Among them solar energy is one of the most promising green energy resources due to its environment sustainability and inexhaustibility. However photovoltaic systems (PhV suffer from big cost of equipment and low efficiency. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is nonlinear and varies with irradiation and temperature. In general, there is a unique point of PhV operation, called the Maximum Power Point (MPP, in which the PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum output power. The location of the MPP is not known in advance, but can be located, either through calculation models or by search algorithms. Therefore MPPT techniques are important to maintain the PV array’s high efficiency. Many different techniques for MPPT are discussed. This review paper hopefully will serve as a convenient tool for future work in PhV power conversion.

  12. Bayesian statistics applied to the location of the source of explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccorotti, G.; Chouet, B.; Martini, M.; Scarpa, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present a method for determining the location and spatial extent of the source of explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, based on a Bayesian inversion of the slowness vector derived from frequency-slowness analyses of array data. The method searches for source locations that minimize the error between the expected and observed slowness vectors. For a given set of model parameters, the conditional probability density function of slowness vectors is approximated by a Gaussian distribution of expected errors. The method is tested with synthetics using a five-layer velocity model derived for the north flank of Stromboli and a smoothed velocity model derived from a power-law approximation of the layered structure. Application to data from Stromboli allows for a detailed examination of uncertainties in source location due to experimental errors and incomplete knowledge of the Earth model. Although the solutions are not constrained in the radial direction, excellent resolution is achieved in both transverse and depth directions. Under the assumption that the horizontal extent of the source does not exceed the crater dimension, the 90% confidence region in the estimate of the explosive source location corresponds to a small volume extending from a depth of about 100 m to a maximum depth of about 300 m beneath the active vents, with a maximum likelihood source region located in the 120- to 180-m-depth interval.

  13. Rate maximum calculation of Dpa in CNA-II pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascitti, J. A

    2012-01-01

    The maximum dpa rate was calculated for the reactor in the following state: fresh fuel, no Xenon, a Boron concentration of 15.3 ppm, critical state, its control rods in the criticality position, hot, at full power (2160 MW). It was determined that the maximum dpa rate under such conditions is 3.54(2)x10 12 s -1 and it is located in the positions corresponding to θ=210 o in the azimuthal direction, and z=20 cm and -60 cm respectively in the axial direction, considering the calculation mesh centered at half height of the fuel element (FE) active length. The dpa rate spectrum was determined as well as the contribution to it for 4 energy groups: a thermal group, two epithermal groups and a fast one. The maximum dpa rate considering the photo-neutrons production from (γ, n) reaction in the heavy water of coolant and moderator was 3.93(4)x10 12 s -1 that is 11% greater than the obtained without photo-neutrons. This verified significant difference between both cases, suggest that photo-neutrons in large heavy water reactors such as CNA-II should not be ignored. The maximum DPA rate in the first mm of the reactor pressure vessel was calculated too and it was obtained a value of 4.22(6)x10 12 s -1 . It should be added that the calculation was carried out with the reactor complete accurate model, with no approximations in spatial or energy variables. Each value has, between parentheses, a percentage relative error representing the statistical uncertainty due to the probabilistic Monte Carlo method used to estimate it. More representative values may be obtained with this method if equilibrium burn-up distribution is used (author)

  14. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  15. Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pitchford

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs, and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.

  16. Modeling multisite streamflow dependence with maximum entropy copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic streamflows at different sites in a river basin are needed for planning, operation, and management of water resources projects. Modeling the temporal and spatial dependence structure of monthly streamflow at different sites is generally required. In this study, the maximum entropy copula method is proposed for multisite monthly streamflow simulation, in which the temporal and spatial dependence structure is imposed as constraints to derive the maximum entropy copula. The monthly streamflows at different sites are then generated by sampling from the conditional distribution. A case study for the generation of monthly streamflow at three sites in the Colorado River basin illustrates the application of the proposed method. Simulated streamflow from the maximum entropy copula is in satisfactory agreement with observed streamflow.

  17. On the maximum entropy distributions of inherently positive nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taavitsainen, A., E-mail: aapo.taavitsainen@gmail.com; Vanhanen, R.

    2017-05-11

    The multivariate log-normal distribution is used by many authors and statistical uncertainty propagation programs for inherently positive quantities. Sometimes it is claimed that the log-normal distribution results from the maximum entropy principle, if only means, covariances and inherent positiveness of quantities are known or assumed to be known. In this article we show that this is not true. Assuming a constant prior distribution, the maximum entropy distribution is in fact a truncated multivariate normal distribution – whenever it exists. However, its practical application to multidimensional cases is hindered by lack of a method to compute its location and scale parameters from means and covariances. Therefore, regardless of its theoretical disadvantage, use of other distributions seems to be a practical necessity. - Highlights: • Statistical uncertainty propagation requires a sampling distribution. • The objective distribution of inherently positive quantities is determined. • The objectivity is based on the maximum entropy principle. • The maximum entropy distribution is the truncated normal distribution. • Applicability of log-normal or normal distribution approximation is limited.

  18. Influence of different outdoor design conditions on design cooling load and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktacir, Mehmet Azmi; Bueyuekalaca, Orhan; Bulut, Huesamettin; Yilmaz, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor design conditions are important parameters for energy efficiency of buildings. The result of incorrect selection of outdoor design conditions can be dramatic in view of comfort and energy consumption. In this study, the influence of different outdoor design conditions on air conditioning systems is investigated. For this purpose, cooling loads and capacities of air conditioning equipments for a sample building located in Adana, Turkey are calculated using different outdoor design conditions recommended by ASHRAE, the current design data used in Turkey and the daily maximum dry and wet bulb temperatures of July 21st, which is generally accepted as the design day. The cooling coil capacities obtained from the different outdoor design conditions considered in this study are compared with each other. The cost analysis of air conditioning systems is also performed. It is seen that the selection of outdoor design conditions is a very critical step in calculation of the building cooling loads and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

  19. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  20. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  1. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  2. 48 CFR 319.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 319.202-2 Locating small business sources. (a) OPDIVs shall foster, to the extent practicable, maximum participation by small businesses in HHS acquisitions...

  3. 48 CFR 19.202-2 - Locating small business sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating small business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 19.202-2 Locating small business sources. The contracting officer must, to the extent practicable, encourage maximum participation by small business...

  4. Location Privacy with Randomness Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Location-Based Social Network (LBSN applications that support geo-location-based posting and queries to provide location-relevant information to mobile users are increasingly popular, but pose a location-privacy risk to posts. We investigated existing LBSNs and location privacy mechanisms, and found a powerful potential attack that can accurately locate users with relatively few queries, even when location data is well secured and location noise is applied. Our technique defeats previously proposed solutions including fake-location detection and query rate limits.

  5. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  6. Alterations in Location, Magnitude, and Community Composition of Discrete Layers of Phytoplankton in Cold, Deep Waters Near the 1% Isolume of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan Among Years With Dramatically Different Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, R. L.; Aguilar, C.

    2016-02-01

    Phytoplankton deep populations have dominated both biomass and productivity in deep basins of Lake Michigan for much of the anthropocene. In recent decades, chronically phosphorus-deficient waters have progressed from lower thermocline diatom assemblages in the 2000s to much deeper picocyanobacterial dominance in the late 2000s. Overwhelming establishment of benthic filter-feeding quagga mussels was instrumental in selection for picoplankton in the 2003-2007 time frame, but in 2008 a return to diatom dominance occurred in conjunction with monumental runoff from the Storm of the Century. Picoplankton gradually returned to significance in ensuing years, but suffered after lakewide ice cover and extremely slow spring warming of winters 2013-2015. Extremely calm summer conditions favored the picoplankton, and a decade of 1% light penetration of 50-60m has consistently enabled very deep productivity by several different divisions of algae. An unusual persistent south wind with basin-scale upwelling stimulated a return of fall diatom bloom for the first time in 2015. Repeated expeditions to offshore deep stations (100-150m) with detailed water sampling based on hydrographic observations often include thin peaks of biogenic silica (diatoms, chrysophytes) offset from one or more distinct layers of picocyanobacteria and mixed eucaryotic phytoplankton. In 2014 large, stable populations of the diatom Tabellaria sp. flourished at 50-60m with highly shade-adapted photosynthetic characteristics but assimilation numbers >1. In 2014-2015, picocyanobacterial maxima moved up in the water column and were dissociated from signals in either in vivo fluorescence or transmission. Physical structure, within-year basin physics sequence timing, and now seemingly ammonium availability may each contribute to phytoplankton ecology in this ocean-scale freshwater ecosystem.

  7. Probable maximum flood on the Ha Ha River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damov, D.; Masse, B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a probable maximum flood (PMF) study conducted for various locations along the Ha Ha river, a tributary of the Saguenay River, were discussed. The study was undertaken for use in the design and construction of new hydraulic structures for water supply for a pulp and paper facility, following the Saguenay Flood in July 1996. Many different flood scenarios were considered, including combinations of snow-melt with rainfall. Using computer simulations, it was shown that the largest flood flows were generated by summer-fall PMF. 5 refs., 12 figs

  8. Design and Implementation of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz S. Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  The power supplied by any solar array depends upon the environmental conditions as weather conditions (temperature and radiation intensity and the incident angle of the radiant source. The work aims to study the maximum power tracking schemes that used to compare the system performance without and with different types of controllers. The maximum power points of the solar panel under test studied and compared with two controller's types.  The first controller is the proportional- integral - derivative controller type and the second is the perturbation and observation algorithm controller. The associated converter system is a microcontroller based type, whereas the results studied and compared of greatest power point of the Photovoltaic panels under the different two controllers. The experimental tests results compared with simulation results to verify accurate performance.

  9. Dis-locating innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barba Latta, Iulian I.V.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation dwells on an experimental approach to the emergence of alternative innovations, interrogated through their spatiotemporal and material conditions. Proceeding from the more recent spate of contributions that grant recognition to innovation processes as a common

  10. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-19

    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  11. Endogenous unrestricted locations in markets with network effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies indirect network effects in a market composed by two incompatible intermediaries that choose price (short-term issue) in addition to location (long-term issue). The paper first shows that (i) when the network externality is sufficiently weak, only maximum differentiation prevails, (ii) the location equilibrium can be asymmetric for an intermediate level of the network externality, given that the first entrant locates at the city centre while the follower chooses an extreme (...

  12. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  14. Spatio-temporal observations of the tertiary ozone maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present spatio-temporal distributions of the tertiary ozone maximum (TOM, based on GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars ozone measurements in 2002–2006. The tertiary ozone maximum is typically observed in the high-latitude winter mesosphere at an altitude of ~72 km. Although the explanation for this phenomenon has been found recently – low concentrations of odd-hydrogen cause the subsequent decrease in odd-oxygen losses – models have had significant deviations from existing observations until recently. Good coverage of polar night regions by GOMOS data has allowed for the first time to obtain spatial and temporal observational distributions of night-time ozone mixing ratio in the mesosphere.

    The distributions obtained from GOMOS data have specific features, which are variable from year to year. In particular, due to a long lifetime of ozone in polar night conditions, the downward transport of polar air by the meridional circulation is clearly observed in the tertiary ozone maximum time series. Although the maximum tertiary ozone mixing ratio is achieved close to the polar night terminator (as predicted by the theory, TOM can be observed also at very high latitudes, not only in the beginning and at the end, but also in the middle of winter. We have compared the observational spatio-temporal distributions of the tertiary ozone maximum with that obtained using WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model and found that the specific features are reproduced satisfactorily by the model.

    Since ozone in the mesosphere is very sensitive to HOx concentrations, energetic particle precipitation can significantly modify the shape of the ozone profiles. In particular, GOMOS observations have shown that the tertiary ozone maximum was temporarily destroyed during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events as a result of the HOx enhancement from the increased ionization.

  15. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  16. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  17. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  18. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  19. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  20. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  1. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  2. On location at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  3. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  4. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  5. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  6. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  7. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  8. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  9. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  10. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  11. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  12. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  13. An investigation on effects of amputee's physiological parameters on maximum pressure developed at the prosthetic socket interface using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chitresh; Singh, Amit; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Unune, Deepak Rajendra

    2017-10-23

    Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz. height, weight, and stump length on the pressure development at the transtibial prosthetic limb/socket interface. Initially, the pressure values at the limb/socket interface were clinically measured during stance and walking conditions for different patients using strain gauges placed at critical locations of the stump. The measured maximum pressure data related to patient's physiological parameters was used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The effects of physiological parameters on the pressure development at the limb/socket interface were examined using the ANN model. The analyzed results indicated that the weight and stump length significantly affects the maximum pressure values. The outcomes of this work could be an important platform for the design and development of patient-specific prosthetic socket which can endure the maximum pressure conditions at stance and ambulation conditions.

  14. The effects of climatic conditions and geographical locations on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit flavor compounds were extracted by using ultrasound (US) water bath apparatus and eluted by n-pentane, diethyl ether (1:2) solvent and then analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Fifty-one fruit compounds and fifty fruit compounds ...

  15. Mid-depth temperature maximum in an estuarine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, V. M.; Repina, I. A.; Artamonov, A. Yu; Gorin, S. L.; Lykossov, V. N.; Kulyamin, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The mid-depth temperature maximum (TeM) was measured in an estuarine Bol’shoi Vilyui Lake (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia) in summer 2015. We applied 1D k-ɛ model LAKE to the case, and found it successfully simulating the phenomenon. We argue that the main prerequisite for mid-depth TeM development is a salinity increase below the freshwater mixed layer, sharp enough in order to increase the temperature with depth not to cause convective mixing and double diffusion there. Given that this condition is satisfied, the TeM magnitude is controlled by physical factors which we identified as: radiation absorption below the mixed layer, mixed-layer temperature dynamics, vertical heat conduction and water-sediments heat exchange. In addition to these, we formulate the mechanism of temperature maximum ‘pumping’, resulting from the phase shift between diurnal cycles of mixed-layer depth and temperature maximum magnitude. Based on the LAKE model results we quantify the contribution of the above listed mechanisms and find their individual significance highly sensitive to water turbidity. Relying on physical mechanisms identified we define environmental conditions favouring the summertime TeM development in salinity-stratified lakes as: small-mixed layer depth (roughly, ~wind and cloudless weather. We exemplify the effect of mixed-layer depth on TeM by a set of selected lakes.

  16. The Structure of the Class of Maximum Tsallis–Havrda–Chavát Entropy Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A maximum entropy copula is the copula associated with the joint distribution, with prescribed marginal distributions on [ 0 , 1 ] , which maximizes the Tsallis–Havrda–Chavát entropy with q = 2 . We find necessary and sufficient conditions for each maximum entropy copula to be a copula in the class introduced in Rodríguez-Lallena and Úbeda-Flores (2004, and we also show that each copula in that class is a maximum entropy copula.

  17. Einstein-Dirac theory in spin maximum I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumeyrolle, A.

    1975-01-01

    An unitary Einstein-Dirac theory, first in spin maximum 1, is constructed. An original feature of this article is that it is written without any tetrapod technics; basic notions and existence conditions for spinor structures on pseudo-Riemannian fibre bundles are only used. A coupling gravitation-electromagnetic field is pointed out, in the geometric setting of the tangent bundle over space-time. Generalized Maxwell equations for inductive media in presence of gravitational field are obtained. Enlarged Einstein-Schroedinger theory, gives a particular case of this E.D. theory. E. S. theory is a truncated E.D. theory in spin maximum 1. A close relation between torsion-vector and Schroedinger's potential exists and nullity of torsion-vector has a spinor meaning. Finally the Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory is incorporated in this geometric setting [fr

  18. Optimal Control of Polymer Flooding Based on Maximum Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding is one of the most important technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. In this paper, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems (DPSs for polymer injection strategies is established, which involves the performance index as maximum of the profit, the governing equations as the fluid flow equations of polymer flooding, and the inequality constraint as the polymer concentration limitation. To cope with the optimal control problem (OCP of this DPS, the necessary conditions for optimality are obtained through application of the calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s weak maximum principle. A gradient method is proposed for the computation of optimal injection strategies. The numerical results of an example illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Daniel, E-mail: danieand@math.kth.se; Djehiche, Boualem, E-mail: boualem@math.kth.se [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  20. A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Daniel; Djehiche, Boualem

    2011-01-01

    We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  1. Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.

  2. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  3. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  4. Dealing with Insufficient Location Fingerprints in Wi-Fi Based Indoor Location Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet of Things has accelerated research in the indoor location fingerprinting technique, which provides value-added localization services for existing WLAN infrastructures without the need for any specialized hardware. The deployment of a fingerprinting based localization system requires an extremely large amount of measurements on received signal strength information to generate a location fingerprint database. Nonetheless, this requirement can rarely be satisfied in most indoor environments. In this paper, we target one but common situation when the collected measurements on received signal strength information are insufficient, and show limitations of existing location fingerprinting methods in dealing with inadequate location fingerprints. We also introduce a novel method to reduce noise in measuring the received signal strength based on the maximum likelihood estimation, and compute locations from inadequate location fingerprints by using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Our experiment results show that our proposed method can achieve better localization performance even when only a small quantity of RSS measurements is available. Especially when the number of observations at each location is small, our proposed method has evident superiority in localization accuracy.

  5. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  6. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  7. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  8. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  9. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  10. Investigating cold based summit glaciers through direct access to the glacier base: a case study constraining the maximum age of Chli Titlis glacier, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Hoffmann, Helene; Kerch, Johanna; Sold, Leo; Fischer, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Cold glaciers at the highest locations of the European Alps have been investigated by drilling ice cores to retrieve their stratigraphic climate records. Findings like the Oetztal ice man have demonstrated that small ice bodies at summit locations of comparatively lower altitudes may also contain old ice if locally frozen to the underlying bedrock. In this case, constraining the maximum age of their lowermost ice part may help to identify past periods with minimum ice extent in the Alps. However, with recent warming and consequent glacier mass loss, these sites may not preserve their unique climate information for much longer. Here we utilized an existing ice cave at Chli Titlis (3030 m), central Switzerland, to perform a case study for investigating the maximum age of cold-based summit glaciers in the Alps. The cave offers direct access to the glacier stratigraphy without the logistical effort required in ice core drilling. In addition, a pioneering exploration had already demonstrated stagnant cold ice conditions at Chli Titlis, albeit more than 25 years ago. Our englacial temperature measurements and the analysis of the isotopic and physical properties of ice blocks sampled at three locations within the ice cave show that cold ice still exists fairly unchanged today. State-of-the-art micro-radiocarbon analysis constrains the maximum age of the ice at Chli Titlis to about 5000 years before present. By this means, the approach presented here will contribute to a future systematic investigation of cold-based summit glaciers, also in the Eastern Alps.

  11. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  12. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T ampersand E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit

  13. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  14. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  15. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  16. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  17. 13 CFR 107.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.845 Maximum... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rate of amortization on...

  18. OLBS: Offline location based services

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, P; Ana Aguiar; João Correia Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Most existing location-based services rely on ubiquitous connectivity to deliver location-based contents to the users. However, connectivity is not available anywhere at anytime even in urban centres. Underground, indoors, remote areas, and foreign countries are examples situations where users commonly do not have guaranteed connectivity but could profit from location-based contents. In this work, we propose an open platform for publishing, distributing and maintaining location-based contents...

  19. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  20. Probabilistic properties of the date of maximum river flow, an approach based on circular statistics in lowland, highland and mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Kohnová, Silvia; Banasik, Kazimierz

    2018-04-01

    Probabilistic properties of dates of winter, summer and annual maximum flows were studied using circular statistics in three catchments differing in topographic conditions; a lowland, highland and mountainous catchment. The circular measures of location and dispersion were used in the long-term samples of dates of maxima. The mixture of von Mises distributions was assumed as the theoretical distribution function of the date of winter, summer and annual maximum flow. The number of components was selected on the basis of the corrected Akaike Information Criterion and the parameters were estimated by means of the Maximum Likelihood method. The goodness of fit was assessed using both the correlation between quantiles and a version of the Kuiper's and Watson's test. Results show that the number of components varied between catchments and it was different for seasonal and annual maxima. Differences between catchments in circular characteristics were explained using climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature. Further studies may include circular grouping catchments based on similarity between distribution functions and the linkage between dates of maximum precipitation and maximum flow.

  1. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  2. Design of a wind turbine rotor for maximum aerodynamic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Gaunaa, Mac

    2009-01-01

    The design of a three-bladed wind turbine rotor is described, where the main focus has been highest possible mechanical power coefficient, CP, at a single operational condition. Structural, as well as off-design, issues are not considered, leading to a purely theoretical design for investigating...... maximum aerodynamic efficiency. The rotor is designed assuming constant induction for most of the blade span, but near the tip region, a constant load is assumed instead. The rotor design is obtained using an actuator disc model, and is subsequently verified using both a free-wake lifting line method...

  3. Maximum principles for boundary-degenerate linear parabolic differential operators

    OpenAIRE

    Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2013-01-01

    We develop weak and strong maximum principles for boundary-degenerate, linear, parabolic, second-order partial differential operators, $Lu := -u_t-\\tr(aD^2u)-\\langle b, Du\\rangle + cu$, with \\emph{partial} Dirichlet boundary conditions. The coefficient, $a(t,x)$, is assumed to vanish along a non-empty open subset, $\\mydirac_0!\\sQ$, called the \\emph{degenerate boundary portion}, of the parabolic boundary, $\\mydirac!\\sQ$, of the domain $\\sQ\\subset\\RR^{d+1}$, while $a(t,x)$ may be non-zero at po...

  4. A MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SCHEME FOR A 1kW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    knee point of PV system under variable atmospheric conditions have been ..... of the PV generator module increases, and the maximum power output increases as well. ..... Water Pumping System” A Thesis resented to the. Faculty of California ...

  5. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  6. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  7. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  8. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  9. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  10. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  11. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  12. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  13. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  14. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  15. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  16. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  17. Venus atmosphere profile from a maximum entropy principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Epele

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The variational method with constraints recently developed by Verkley and Gerkema to describe maximum-entropy atmospheric profiles is generalized to ideal gases but with temperature-dependent specific heats. In so doing, an extended and non standard potential temperature is introduced that is well suited for tackling the problem under consideration. This new formalism is successfully applied to the atmosphere of Venus. Three well defined regions emerge in this atmosphere up to a height of 100 km from the surface: the lowest one up to about 35 km is adiabatic, a transition layer located at the height of the cloud deck and finally a third region which is practically isothermal.

  18. A novel maximum power point tracking method for PV systems using fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlis, A.D. [Electrical Machines Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kottas, T.L.; Boutalis, Y.S. [Automatic Control Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical & amp; Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, V. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2007-03-15

    Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an important role in photovoltaic (PV) power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency. This paper presents a novel MPPT method based on fuzzy cognitive networks (FCN). The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any PV array under different conditions such as changing insolation and temperature. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  19. Location, Location, Location: Does Place Provide the Opportunity for Differentiation for Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Emma; Thompson-Whiteside, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The fiercely competitive HE market has led HEIs to invest significant resources in building a distinct identity. An HEI's location forms an inherent part of its identity and the uniqueness of location offers an opportunity to differentiate. However there has been limited examination of how location is used by HEIs and little consideration of how…

  20. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  1. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  2. Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.

  3. The maximum entropy method of moments and Bayesian probability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2013-08-01

    The problem of density estimation occurs in many disciplines. For example, in MRI it is often necessary to classify the types of tissues in an image. To perform this classification one must first identify the characteristics of the tissues to be classified. These characteristics might be the intensity of a T1 weighted image and in MRI many other types of characteristic weightings (classifiers) may be generated. In a given tissue type there is no single intensity that characterizes the tissue, rather there is a distribution of intensities. Often this distributions can be characterized by a Gaussian, but just as often it is much more complicated. Either way, estimating the distribution of intensities is an inference problem. In the case of a Gaussian distribution, one must estimate the mean and standard deviation. However, in the Non-Gaussian case the shape of the density function itself must be inferred. Three common techniques for estimating density functions are binned histograms [1, 2], kernel density estimation [3, 4], and the maximum entropy method of moments [5, 6]. In the introduction, the maximum entropy method of moments will be reviewed. Some of its problems and conditions under which it fails will be discussed. Then in later sections, the functional form of the maximum entropy method of moments probability distribution will be incorporated into Bayesian probability theory. It will be shown that Bayesian probability theory solves all of the problems with the maximum entropy method of moments. One gets posterior probabilities for the Lagrange multipliers, and, finally, one can put error bars on the resulting estimated density function.

  4. Location-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Andrea E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores location-based prospective memory. People often have to remember to do things when in a particular location, such as buying tissues the next time they are in the supermarket. For event cognition theory, location is important for structuring events. However, because event cognition has not been used to examine prospective memory, the question remains of how multiple events will influence prospective memory performance. In our experiments, people delivered messages from store to store in a virtual shopping mall as an ongoing task. The prospective tasks were to do certain activities in certain stores. For Experiment 1, each trial involved one prospective memory task to be done in a single location at one of three delays. The virtual environment and location cues were effective for prospective memory, and performance was unaffected by delay. For Experiment 2, each trial involved two prospective memory tasks, given in either one or two instruction locations, and to be done in either one or two store locations. There was improved performance when people received instructions from two locations and did both tasks in one location relative to other combinations. This demonstrates that location-based event structure influences how well people perform on prospective memory tasks.

  5. Location analysis of the landfill of waste in Loznica

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper regards the landfill of municipal and industrial waste in Loznica, actually its location and environmental hazards. The research was carried out in order to show the consequences of careless and incomplete evaluation of the conditions for a locating of a landfill in the example of Loznica. Besides the fact that it is located at the floodplain of the Drina River, the landfill is normally located to the direction of predominant wind, which has a significant influence o...

  6. Maximum entropy reconstructions for crystallographic imaging; Cristallographie et reconstruction d`images par maximum d`entropie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papoular, R

    1997-07-01

    The Fourier Transform is of central importance to Crystallography since it allows the visualization in real space of tridimensional scattering densities pertaining to physical systems from diffraction data (powder or single-crystal diffraction, using x-rays, neutrons, electrons or else). In turn, this visualization makes it possible to model and parametrize these systems, the crystal structures of which are eventually refined by Least-Squares techniques (e.g., the Rietveld method in the case of Powder Diffraction). The Maximum Entropy Method (sometimes called MEM or MaxEnt) is a general imaging technique, related to solving ill-conditioned inverse problems. It is ideally suited for tackling undetermined systems of linear questions (for which the number of variables is much larger than the number of equations). It is already being applied successfully in Astronomy, Radioastronomy and Medical Imaging. The advantages of using MAXIMUM Entropy over conventional Fourier and `difference Fourier` syntheses stem from the following facts: MaxEnt takes the experimental error bars into account; MaxEnt incorporate Prior Knowledge (e.g., the positivity of the scattering density in some instances); MaxEnt allows density reconstructions from incompletely phased data, as well as from overlapping Bragg reflections; MaxEnt substantially reduces truncation errors to which conventional experimental Fourier reconstructions are usually prone. The principles of Maximum Entropy imaging as applied to Crystallography are first presented. The method is then illustrated by a detailed example specific to Neutron Diffraction: the search for proton in solids. (author). 17 refs.

  7. Analogue of Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals minimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Zelikin

    2016-01-01

    The theorem like Pontryagin's maximum principle for multiple integrals is proved. Unlike the usual maximum principle, the maximum should be taken not over all matrices, but only on matrices of rank one. Examples are given.

  8. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  9. Modelling non-stationary annual maximum flood heights in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maposa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we fit a time-dependent generalised extreme value (GEV distribution to annual maximum flood heights at three sites: Chokwe, Sicacate and Combomune in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique. A GEV distribution is fitted to six annual maximum time series models at each site, namely: annual daily maximum (AM1, annual 2-day maximum (AM2, annual 5-day maximum (AM5, annual 7-day maximum (AM7, annual 10-day maximum (AM10 and annual 30-day maximum (AM30. Non-stationary time-dependent GEV models with a linear trend in location and scale parameters are considered in this study. The results show lack of sufficient evidence to indicate a linear trend in the location parameter at all three sites. On the other hand, the findings in this study reveal strong evidence of the existence of a linear trend in the scale parameter at Combomune and Sicacate, whilst the scale parameter had no significant linear trend at Chokwe. Further investigation in this study also reveals that the location parameter at Sicacate can be modelled by a nonlinear quadratic trend; however, the complexity of the overall model is not worthwhile in fit over a time-homogeneous model. This study shows the importance of extending the time-homogeneous GEV model to incorporate climate change factors such as trend in the lower Limpopo River basin, particularly in this era of global warming and a changing climate. Keywords: nonstationary extremes; annual maxima; lower Limpopo River; generalised extreme value

  10. Quarter Dates Location(s) Purpose Transportation and Travel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Dates. Location(s). Purpose. Transportation and Travel. Accommodation,. Meals and Other. Hospitality. Total. Expenses. Quarter 1. May 15. Ottawa, ON. Meetings. May 20 to 21. Washington DC. Conference. 11,364.93. 3,274.71. 53.50. 14,693.14. May 5 to June 5. Kenya and England. Meetings. June 18 to 21. Winnipeg, MB.

  11. ECONOMIC REASONING MAXIMUM SLOPE IN DESIGN HIGH-SPEED LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNYSHOVA O. S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem The worldwide design standards high-speed lines are somewhat different. This is due to several reasons: different levels of design speed, differences of characteristics of rolling stock and, in particular, the features of the design plan and longitudinal profile, that are associated primarily with the conditions of the relief. In the design of high-speed railways in Ukraine should take into account these features and determine what the maximum slope values can be used in difficult conditions, as well as how it will affect the operational and capital costs. Purpose. To determine the optimal design parameters of the longitudinal profile. Conclusion. The results are based not only on technical, but also economic indicators and allow the assessment of the necessary capital expenditures and expected cost of the railway in the future. Analytical dependences, to predict the expected operating costs of the railway, depending on the maximum slope, its length and the total length of the section.

  12. Maximum and minimum entropy states yielding local continuity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Datta, Nilanjana

    2018-04-01

    Given an arbitrary quantum state (σ), we obtain an explicit construction of a state ρɛ * ( σ ) [respectively, ρ * , ɛ ( σ ) ] which has the maximum (respectively, minimum) entropy among all states which lie in a specified neighborhood (ɛ-ball) of σ. Computing the entropy of these states leads to a local strengthening of the continuity bound of the von Neumann entropy, i.e., the Audenaert-Fannes inequality. Our bound is local in the sense that it depends on the spectrum of σ. The states ρɛ * ( σ ) and ρ * , ɛ (σ) depend only on the geometry of the ɛ-ball and are in fact optimizers for a larger class of entropies. These include the Rényi entropy and the minimum- and maximum-entropies, providing explicit formulas for certain smoothed quantities. This allows us to obtain local continuity bounds for these quantities as well. In obtaining this bound, we first derive a more general result which may be of independent interest, namely, a necessary and sufficient condition under which a state maximizes a concave and Gâteaux-differentiable function in an ɛ-ball around a given state σ. Examples of such a function include the von Neumann entropy and the conditional entropy of bipartite states. Our proofs employ tools from the theory of convex optimization under non-differentiable constraints, in particular Fermat's rule, and majorization theory.

  13. Location Based Services and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Elenis Gorrita Michel; Rónier Sierra Dávila; Samuel Montejo Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Location Based Services (LBS) continue to grow in popularity, effectiveness and reliability, to the extent that applications are designed and implemented taking into account the facilities of the user location information. In this work, some of the main applications are addressed, in order to make an assessment of the current importance of the LBS, as a branch of technology in full swing. In addition, the main techniques for location estimation are studied, essential information to the LBS. B...

  14. Assessment of extreme value distributions for maximum temperature in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alexander; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2015-04-01

    Extreme maximum temperatures highly affect the natural as well as the societal environment Heat stress has great effects on flora, fauna and humans and culminates in heat related morbidity and mortality. Agriculture and different industries are severely affected by extreme air temperatures. Even more under climate change conditions, it is necessary to detect potential hazards which arise from changes in the distributional parameters of extreme values, and this is especially relevant for the Mediterranean region which is characterized as a climate change hot spot. Therefore statistical approaches are developed to estimate these parameters with a focus on non-stationarities emerging in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors like sea level pressure, geopotential heights, atmospheric temperatures and relative humidity. Gridded maximum temperature data from the daily E-OBS dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from January 1950 until December 2012 are the predictands for the present analyses. A s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed in order to reduce data dimension and to retain different regions of similar maximum temperature variability. The grid box with the highest PC-loading represents the corresponding principal component. A central part of the analyses is the model development for temperature extremes under the use of extreme value statistics. A combined model is derived consisting of a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) model and a quantile regression (QR) model which determines the GPD location parameters. The QR model as well as the scale parameters of the GPD model are conditioned by various large-scale predictor variables. In order to account for potential non-stationarities in the predictors-temperature relationships, a special calibration and validation scheme is applied, respectively. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P

  15. Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Setsompop, Kawin; Ye, Huihui; Cauley, Stephen F; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a statistical estimation framework for magnetic resonance (MR) fingerprinting, a recently proposed quantitative imaging paradigm. Within this framework, we present a maximum likelihood (ML) formalism to estimate multiple MR tissue parameter maps directly from highly undersampled, noisy k-space data. A novel algorithm, based on variable splitting, the alternating direction method of multipliers, and the variable projection method, is developed to solve the resulting optimization problem. Representative results from both simulations and in vivo experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach yields significantly improved accuracy in parameter estimation, compared to the conventional MR fingerprinting reconstruction. Moreover, the proposed framework provides new theoretical insights into the conventional approach. We show analytically that the conventional approach is an approximation to the ML reconstruction; more precisely, it is exactly equivalent to the first iteration of the proposed algorithm for the ML reconstruction, provided that a gridding reconstruction is used as an initialization.

  16. The worst case complexity of maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Amir; Musa-Lempel, Noa; Tsur, Dekel; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2014-11-01

    One of the core classical problems in computational biology is that of constructing the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree interpreting an input set of sequences from the genomes of evolutionarily related organisms. We reexamine the classical maximum parsimony (MP) optimization problem for the general (asymmetric) scoring matrix case, where rooted phylogenies are implied, and analyze the worst case bounds of three approaches to MP: The approach of Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, the approach of Hendy and Penny, and a new agglomerative, "bottom-up" approach we present in this article. We show that the second and third approaches are faster than the first one by a factor of Θ(√n) and Θ(n), respectively, where n is the number of species.

  17. Modelling maximum likelihood estimation of availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, R.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Rock, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Suppose the performance of a nuclear powered electrical generating power plant is continuously monitored to record the sequence of failure and repairs during sustained operation. The purpose of this study is to assess one method of estimating the performance of the power plant when the measure of performance is availability. That is, we determine the probability that the plant is operational at time t. To study the availability of a power plant, we first assume statistical models for the variables, X and Y, which denote the time-to-failure and the time-to-repair variables, respectively. Once those statistical models are specified, the availability, A(t), can be expressed as a function of some or all of their parameters. Usually those parameters are unknown in practice and so A(t) is unknown. This paper discusses the maximum likelihood estimator of A(t) when the time-to-failure model for X is an exponential density with parameter, lambda, and the time-to-repair model for Y is an exponential density with parameter, theta. Under the assumption of exponential models for X and Y, it follows that the instantaneous availability at time t is A(t)=lambda/(lambda+theta)+theta/(lambda+theta)exp[-[(1/lambda)+(1/theta)]t] with t>0. Also, the steady-state availability is A(infinity)=lambda/(lambda+theta). We use the observations from n failure-repair cycles of the power plant, say X 1 , X 2 , ..., Xsub(n), Y 1 , Y 2 , ..., Ysub(n) to present the maximum likelihood estimators of A(t) and A(infinity). The exact sampling distributions for those estimators and some statistical properties are discussed before a simulation model is used to determine 95% simulation intervals for A(t). The methodology is applied to two examples which approximate the operating history of two nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Productivity and agronomics characteristics of Panicum maximum and Brachiária brizanta cultured in two of soil class of Tocantins state (Oxisol and Entsoil, conditioned in different water supply. Desenvolvimento e produtividade dos capins mombaça e marandu cultivadas em dois solos típicos do Tocantins com diferentes regimes hídricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Alves de Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and agronomic parameters of Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça and the Brachiária brizanta cv. Marandú grown in Oxisoil, and Entsoil under different water schemes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in EMVZ - School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia / Federal University of Tocantins, campus of Araguaína, TO. The completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (2x4x2, which consisted of two forage species, four levels of water (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the capacity of field, two types of soils, with four repetitions, making 62 experimental units. The production of dry mass of Forage (MSF was linear behavior increasing in line with the increase in the percentage of moisture, for the two cultivars in two production cycles, the two types of soil, being that the clay soil in both cultivars returned relative superiority in comparison with the sandy soil. The mean width of leaves are not differentiated (P>0.05 in three major schemes in two cultivars. The same is observed for size of leaves to Mombaça grass, and for the two major Marandú. There was no (P> 0.05 for comparing stem diameter of the largest schemes. In the measures of time it was observed that plants were higher humidity in two largest (P<0.05. To the greatest number of tillers were higher humidity and is differentiated (P <0.05, while the Mombaça had many in first round. The biggest tillering in both genders occurs in water schemes not stress, and positively influence the characteristics productive, as well as in agronomic stressful when compared to schemes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os parâmetros produtivos e agronômicos do Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça e do Brachiária brizanta cv. Marandú cultivados em Argissolo Vermelho eutroférrico, e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico sob diferentes regimes hídricos. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na EMVZ – Escola de Medicina Veterin

  19. ON THE MAXIMUM MASS OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L.; Bulik, Tomasz; Ruiter, Ashley; Valsecchi, Francesca; Vink, Jorick S.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of maximum BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M bh ∼ 15 M sun in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z sun = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To reach this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of ∼10 -4 M sun yr -1 and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the maximum BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z sun = 0.006) is M bh,max = 30 M sun . This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M bh = 23-34 M sun and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the maximum BH mass can be as high as M bh,max = 80 M sun (Z = 0.01 Z sun = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M sun BH is of the order of ∼10 40 erg s -1 and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these maximum BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.

  20. 7 CFR 1755.508 - Customer access location protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... customer access locations are remote from the borrower's headquarters, use of maximum duty gas tube primary... 1 in. = 25.4 mm. (z) Grounding conductors shall be separated from non-telecommunications company... equivalent statement: “Call the telecommunications company if this connector or grounding conductor is loose...

  1. A maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic-SPE system using a maximum current controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhida, Riza [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Physical Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Park, Minwon; Dakkak, Mohammed; Matsuura, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyoshi, Akira; Michira, Masakazu [Kobe City College of Technology, Nishi-ku, Kobe (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic (PV)-powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis (SPE) are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV-SPE system based on the maximum current searching methods has been designed and implemented. Based on the characteristics of voltage-current and theoretical analysis of SPE, it can be shown that the tracking of the maximum current output of DC-DC converter in SPE side will track the MPPT of photovoltaic panel simultaneously. This method uses a proportional integrator controller to control the duty factor of DC-DC converter with pulse-width modulator (PWM). The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment. (Author)

  2. Maximum Historical Seismic Intensity Map of S. Miguel Island (azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, D.; Gaspar, J. L.; Ferreira, T.; Queiroz, G.

    The Azores archipelago is situated in the Atlantic Ocean where the American, African and Eurasian lithospheric plates meet. The so-called Azores Triple Junction located in the area where the Terceira Rift, a NW-SE to WNW-ESE fault system with a dextral component, intersects the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with an approximate N-S direction, dominates its geological setting. S. Miguel Island is located in the eastern segment of the Terceira Rift, showing a high diversity of volcanic and tectonic structures. It is the largest Azorean island and includes three active trachytic central volcanoes with caldera (Sete Cidades, Fogo and Furnas) placed in the intersection of the NW-SE Ter- ceira Rift regional faults with an E-W deep fault system thought to be a relic of a Mid-Atlantic Ridge transform fault. N-S and NE-SW faults also occur in this con- text. Basaltic cinder cones emplaced along NW-SE fractures link that major volcanic structures. The easternmost part of the island comprises an inactive trachytic central volcano (Povoação) and an old basaltic volcanic complex (Nordeste). Since the settle- ment of the island, early in the XV century, several destructive earthquakes occurred in the Azores region. At least 11 events hit S. Miguel Island with high intensity, some of which caused several deaths and significant damages. The analysis of historical documents allowed reconstructing the history and the impact of all those earthquakes and new intensity maps using the 1998 European Macrosseismic Scale were produced for each event. The data was then integrated in order to obtain the maximum historical seismic intensity map of S. Miguel. This tool is regarded as an important document for hazard assessment and risk mitigation taking in account that indicates the location of dangerous seismogenic zones and provides a comprehensive set of data to be applied in land-use planning, emergency planning and building construction.

  3. Bayesian Maximum Entropy prediction of soil categories using a traditional soil map as soft information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Bogaert, P.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian Maximum Entropy was used to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of soil categories in the Netherlands, and to simulate realizations from the associated multi-point pdf. Besides the hard observations (H) of the categories at 8369 locations, the soil map of the Netherlands 1:50 000 was

  4. Location i det geopolitiske rum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    Hovedformålet med artiklen er at undersøge forholdet mellem genrehåndtering og location i The Night Manager. Genren er thrilleren i den spionudgave, der er kendt fra tidligere John Le Carré-filmatiseringer. Location passer perfekt til genren med valget af glamourøse steder, der har kunnet bruges i...

  5. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  6. Evolutionary economics and industry location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the outlines of an evolutionary economic geography of industry location. We discuss two evolutionary explanations of industry location, that is, one that concentrates on spin-offs, and one that focuses attention on knowledge and agglomeration economies. We claim that both

  7. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  8. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both as sett...... mainly been considered as a practical term in film and television productions....

  9. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  10. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  11. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  12. Maximum entropy principle and hydrodynamic models in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, M.; Reggiani, L.

    2012-01-01

    This review presents the state of the art of the maximum entropy principle (MEP) in its classical and quantum (QMEP) formulation. Within the classical MEP we overview a general theory able to provide, in a dynamical context, the macroscopic relevant variables for carrier transport in the presence of electric fields of arbitrary strength. For the macroscopic variables the linearized maximum entropy approach is developed including full-band effects within a total energy scheme. Under spatially homogeneous conditions, we construct a closed set of hydrodynamic equations for the small-signal (dynamic) response of the macroscopic variables. The coupling between the driving field and the energy dissipation is analyzed quantitatively by using an arbitrary number of moments of the distribution function. Analogously, the theoretical approach is applied to many one-dimensional n + nn + submicron Si structures by using different band structure models, different doping profiles, different applied biases and is validated by comparing numerical calculations with ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and with available experimental data. Within the quantum MEP we introduce a quantum entropy functional of the reduced density matrix, the principle of quantum maximum entropy is then asserted as fundamental principle of quantum statistical mechanics. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive theoretical formalism to construct rigorously a closed quantum hydrodynamic transport within a Wigner function approach. The theory is formulated both in thermodynamic equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, and the quantum contributions are obtained by only assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of ħ 2 , being ħ the reduced Planck constant. In particular, by using an arbitrary number of moments, we prove that: i) on a macroscopic scale all nonlocal effects, compatible with the uncertainty principle, are imputable to high-order spatial derivatives both of the

  13. Maximum mass of magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto; Martínez, Aurora Perez

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the problem of the maximum masses of magnetized white dwarfs (WDs). The impact of a strong magnetic field on the structure equations is addressed. The pressures become anisotropic due to the presence of the magnetic field and split into parallel and perpendicular components. We first construct stable solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for parallel pressures and find that physical solutions vanish for the perpendicular pressure when B ≳ 10 13 G. This fact establishes an upper bound for a magnetic field and the stability of the configurations in the (quasi) spherical approximation. Our findings also indicate that it is not possible to obtain stable magnetized WDs with super-Chandrasekhar masses because the values of the magnetic field needed for them are higher than this bound. To proceed into the anisotropic regime, we can apply results for structure equations appropriate for a cylindrical metric with anisotropic pressures that were derived in our previous work. From the solutions of the structure equations in cylindrical symmetry we have confirmed the same bound for B ∼ 10 13 G, since beyond this value no physical solutions are possible. Our tentative conclusion is that massive WDs with masses well beyond the Chandrasekhar limit do not constitute stable solutions and should not exist. (paper)

  14. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  15. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  16. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R E ) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 x 10 -13 W m -2 Hz -1 at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R E assuming the power falls off as r -2 . A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3

  17. Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-12-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference and for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (MP). In this manuscript, we focus on this method and on ancestral state inference for fully bifurcating trees. In particular, we investigate a conjecture published by Charleston and Steel in 1995 concerning the number of species which need to have a particular state, say a, at a particular site in order for MP to unambiguously return a as an estimate for the state of the last common ancestor. We prove the conjecture for all even numbers of character states, which is the most relevant case in biology. We also show that the conjecture does not hold in general for odd numbers of character states, but also present some positive results for this case.

  18. Analysis and research on Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Array with Fuzzy Logic Control and Three-point Weight Comparison Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Kuang-Jang; LIN; Chii-Ruey

    2010-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array has a best optimal operating point where the array operating can obtain the maximum power.However, the optimal operating point can be compromised by the strength of solar radiation,angle,and by the change of environment and load.Due to the constant changes in these conditions,it has become very difficult to locate the optimal operating point by following a mathematical model.Therefore,this study will focus mostly on the application of Fuzzy Logic Control theory and Three-point Weight Comparison Method in effort to locate the optimal operating point of solar panel and achieve maximum efficiency in power generation. The Three-point Weight Comparison Method is the comparison between the characteristic curves of the voltage of photovoltaic array and output power;it is a rather simple way to track the maximum power.The Fuzzy Logic Control,on the other hand,can be used to solve problems that cannot be effectively dealt with by calculation rules,such as concepts,contemplation, deductive reasoning,and identification.Therefore,this paper uses these two kinds of methods to make simulation successively. The simulation results show that,the Three-point Comparison Method is more effective under the environment with more frequent change of solar radiation;however,the Fuzzy Logic Control has better tacking efficiency under the environment with violent change of solar radiation.

  19. 49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...

  20. 20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52 Total annuity subject to maximum. The total annuity amount which is compared to the maximum monthly amount to...

  1. Half-width at half-maximum, full-width at half-maximum analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    addition to the well-defined parameter full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The distribution of ... optical side-lobes in the diffraction pattern resulting in steep central maxima [6], reduc- tion of effects of ... and broad central peak. The idea of.

  2. Locating solar and wind parks in South-Eastern Nigeria for maximum population coverage: A multi-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene Chidiebere; Schuur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Power outages in the most populous country in the continent of Africa, Nigeria, is one issue that has woefully defied almost all known hypotheses for centuries, as enormous investments over the years have provided no palpable result. Considering that electricity plays a vital role in modern society,

  3. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  4. Maximum values and classifications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The primary means of controlling the use of radiation are safety license procedure and the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions at places of radiation use. In Section 17 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) certain operations are exempted from the safety license. The exemption limits for the licensing of radioactive materials, the radiotoxicity classification of radionuclides related to such exemption limits, the annual limits on intake of radionuclides to be followed when monitoring internal radiation dose, as well as concentration limits in the breathing air are specified in the guide. Also the surface contamination limits which must be followed when monitoring working conditions at places of radiation use are presented. (4 refs., 6 tabs.)

  5. Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex; Taylor, Andy

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior can help with mitigation of noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely subdominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estimates, demonstrating in our simple set-up that shear biases can be reduced by orders of magnitude and potentially to within the requirements of planned space-based surveys at mild signal-to-noise ratio. We find that second-order terms can exhibit significant cancellations at low signal-to-noise ratio when Gaussian noise is assumed, which has implications for inferring the performance of shear-measurement algorithms from simplified simulations. We discuss the viability of our point estimators as tools for lensing inference, arguing that they allow for the robust measurement of ellipticity and shear.

  6. Determining Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration in a Distribution Grid considering Grid Operation Limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    High penetration of photovoltaic panels in distribution grid can bring the grid to its operation limits. The main focus of the paper is to determine maximum photovoltaic penetration level in the grid. Three main criteria were investigated for determining maximum penetration level of PV panels...... for this grid: even distribution of PV panels, aggregation of panels at the beginning of each feeder, and aggregation of panels at the end of each feeder. Load modeling is done using Velander formula. Since PV generation is highest in the summer due to irradiation, a summer day was chosen to determine maximum......; maximum voltage deviation of customers, cables current limits, and transformer nominal value. Voltage deviation of different buses was investigated for different penetration levels. The proposed model was simulated on a Danish distribution grid. Three different PV location scenarios were investigated...

  7. Maximum margin semi-supervised learning with irrelevant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqin; Huang, Kaizhu; King, Irwin; Lyu, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is a typical learning paradigms training a model from both labeled and unlabeled data. The traditional SSL models usually assume unlabeled data are relevant to the labeled data, i.e., following the same distributions of the targeted labeled data. In this paper, we address a different, yet formidable scenario in semi-supervised classification, where the unlabeled data may contain irrelevant data to the labeled data. To tackle this problem, we develop a maximum margin model, named tri-class support vector machine (3C-SVM), to utilize the available training data, while seeking a hyperplane for separating the targeted data well. Our 3C-SVM exhibits several characteristics and advantages. First, it does not need any prior knowledge and explicit assumption on the data relatedness. On the contrary, it can relieve the effect of irrelevant unlabeled data based on the logistic principle and maximum entropy principle. That is, 3C-SVM approaches an ideal classifier. This classifier relies heavily on labeled data and is confident on the relevant data lying far away from the decision hyperplane, while maximally ignoring the irrelevant data, which are hardly distinguished. Second, theoretical analysis is provided to prove that in what condition, the irrelevant data can help to seek the hyperplane. Third, 3C-SVM is a generalized model that unifies several popular maximum margin models, including standard SVMs, Semi-supervised SVMs (S(3)VMs), and SVMs learned from the universum (U-SVMs) as its special cases. More importantly, we deploy a concave-convex produce to solve the proposed 3C-SVM, transforming the original mixed integer programming, to a semi-definite programming relaxation, and finally to a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, which yields the same worst case time complexity as that of S(3)VMs. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed 3C-SVM through systematical experimental comparisons. Copyright

  8. Measurements of iodine monoxide at a semi polluted coastal location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Furneaux

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Point source measurements of IO by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy were made at a semi-polluted coastal location during the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe campaign in September 2006. The site, on the NW French coast in Roscoff, was characterised by extensive intertidal macroalgae beds which were exposed at low tide. The closest known iodine active macroalgae beds were at least 300 m from the measurement point. From 20 days of measurements, IO was observed above the instrument limit of detection on 14 days, of which a clear diurnal profile was observed on 11 days. The maximum IO mixing ratio was 30.0 pptv (10 s integration period during the day, amongst the highest concentrations ever observed in the atmosphere, and 1–2 pptv during the night. IO concentrations were strongly dependent on tidal height, the intensity of solar irradiation and meteorological conditions. An intercomparison of IO measurements made using point source and spatially averaged DOAS instruments confirms the presence of hot-spots of IO caused by an inhomogeneous distribution of macroalgae. The co-incident, point source measurement of IO and ultra fine particles (2.5 nm≥d≥10 nm displayed a strong correlation, providing evidence that IO is involved in the production pathway of ultra fine particles at coastal locations. Finally, a modelling study shows that high IO concentrations which are likely to be produced in a macrolagae rich environment can significantly perturb the concentrations of OH and HO2 radicals. The effect of IO on HOx is reduced as NOx concentrations increase.

  9. A maximum likelihood framework for protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hervé

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of protein design is to predict amino-acid sequences compatible with a given target structure. Traditionally envisioned as a purely thermodynamic question, this problem can also be understood in a wider context, where additional constraints are captured by learning the sequence patterns displayed by natural proteins of known conformation. In this latter perspective, however, we still need a theoretical formalization of the question, leading to general and efficient learning methods, and allowing for the selection of fast and accurate objective functions quantifying sequence/structure compatibility. Results We propose a formulation of the protein design problem in terms of model-based statistical inference. Our framework uses the maximum likelihood principle to optimize the unknown parameters of a statistical potential, which we call an inverse potential to contrast with classical potentials used for structure prediction. We propose an implementation based on Markov chain Monte Carlo, in which the likelihood is maximized by gradient descent and is numerically estimated by thermodynamic integration. The fit of the models is evaluated by cross-validation. We apply this to a simple pairwise contact potential, supplemented with a solvent-accessibility term, and show that the resulting models have a better predictive power than currently available pairwise potentials. Furthermore, the model comparison method presented here allows one to measure the relative contribution of each component of the potential, and to choose the optimal number of accessibility classes, which turns out to be much higher than classically considered. Conclusion Altogether, this reformulation makes it possible to test a wide diversity of models, using different forms of potentials, or accounting for other factors than just the constraint of thermodynamic stability. Ultimately, such model-based statistical analyses may help to understand the forces

  10. The maximum reservoir capacity of soils for persistent organic pollutants: implications for global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Valle, M.; Jurado, E.; Dachs, J.; Sweetman, A.J.; Jones, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of maximum reservoir capacity (MRC), the ratio of the capacities of the surface soil and of the atmospheric mixed layer (AML) to hold chemical under equilibrium conditions, is applied to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface 'skin' (1 mm) of soils. MRC is calculated as a function of soil organic matter (SOM) content and temperature-dependent K OA and mapped globally for selected PCB congeners (PCB-28; -153; -180) and HCB, to identify regions with a higher tendency to retain POPs. It is shown to vary over many orders of magnitude, between compounds, locations and time (seasonally/diurnally). The MRC approach emphasises the very large capacity of soils as a storage compartment for POPs. The theoretical MRC concept is compared to reality and its implications for the global cycling of POPs are discussed. Sharp gradients in soil MRC can exist in mountainous areas and between the land and ocean. Exchanges between oceans and land masses via the atmosphere is likely to be an important driver to the global cycling of these compounds, and net ocean-land transfers could occur in some areas. - Major global terrestrial sinks/stores for POPs are identified and the significance of gradients between them discussed

  11. Evaluation of Tsunami-HySEA for tsunami forecasting at selected locations in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vida, J. M., Sr.; Ortega, S.; Castro, M. J.; de la Asuncion, M.; Arcas, D.

    2017-12-01

    The GPU-based Tsunami-HySEA model (Macias, J. et al., Pure and Applied Geophysics, 1-37, 2017, Lynett, P. et al., Ocean modeling, 114, 2017) is used to test four tsunami events: the January, 13, 2007 earthquake in Kuril islands (Mw 8.1), the September, 29, 2009 earthquake in Samoa (Mw 8.3), the February, 27, 2010 earthquake in Chile (Mw 9.8) and the March, 11, 2011 earthquake in Tohoku (Mw 9.0). Initial conditions have been provided by NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) obtained from DART inversion results. All simulations have been performed using a global 4 arc-min grid of the Ocean Pacific and three nested-meshes levels around the selected locations. Wave amplitudes time series have been computed at selected tide gauges located at each location and maximum amplitudes compared with both MOST model results and observations where they are available. In addition, inundation also has been computed at selected U.S. locations for the 2011 Tohoku and 2009 Samoa events under the assumption of a steady mean high water level. Finally, computational time is also evaluated in order to study the operational capabilities of Tsunami-HySEA for these kind of events. Ackowledgements: This work has been funded by WE133R16SE1418 contract between PMEL (NOAA) and the Universidad de Málaga (Spain).

  12. VT School Locations - K-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  13. Hull properties in location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances....

  14. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...

  15. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  16. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  17. CBP List of Preclearance Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CBP Preclearance provides for the U.S. border inspection and clearance of commercial air passengers and their goods at (15) locations in (6) foreign countries. CBP...

  18. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  19. Directions in locational conflict research: Voting on the location of nuclear waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, F.M.; Murauskas, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    It is clear from empirical evidence that currently significant locational conflicts concerning the siting of nuclear waste disposal facilities cannot be modeled under the standard noxious facility location paradigm that views locational conflict as conflict between regions. Rather, local populations are characterized by sharp disagreements as to whether the proposed facility is in fact salutary or noxious. Thus, conflict concerning nuclear waste disposal must be understood as a conflict among preferences and values, rather than among competing, areally defined interest groups. This has significant implications for the outcomes of political processes leading to siting decisions, as indicated in this paper. Whether intransivity occurs depends on the location and proportion of persons with different preference orderings concerning possible outcomes. Further research on this issue can and should be directed to further mathematical specification of these conditions along with empirical analysis where appropriate

  20. Fumigant dosages below maximum label rate control some soilborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachaf Triky-Dotan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of commercial soil fumigants on some key soilborne pathogens was assessed in sandy loam soil under controlled conditions. Seven soil fumigants that are registered in California or are being or have been considered for registration were used in this study: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS mixed with chloropicrin (Pic (79% DMDS and 21% Pic, Tri-Con (50% methyl bromide and 50% Pic, Midas Gold (33% methyl iodide [MI] and 67% Pic, Midas Bronze (50% MI and 50% Pic, Midas (MI, active ingredient [a.i.] 97.8%, Pic (a.i. 99% trichloronitromethane and Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic and 37% 1,3-dichloropropene [1–3,D]. Dose-response models were calculated for pathogen mortality after 24 hours of exposure to fumigants. Overall, the tested fumigants achieved good efficacy with dosages below the maximum label rate against the tested pathogens. In this study, Pythium ultimum and citrus nematode were sensitive to all the fumigants and Verticillium dahliae was resistant. For most fumigants, California regulations restrict application rates to less than the maximum (federal label rate, meaning that it is possible that the fumigants may not control major plant pathogens. This research provides information on the effectiveness of these alternatives at these lower application rates. The results from this study will help growers optimize application rates for registered fumigants (such as Pic and 1,3-D and will help accelerate the adoption of new fumigants (such as DMDS if they are registered in California.

  1. Stimulus-dependent maximum entropy models of neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Granot-Atedgi

    Full Text Available Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME model-a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

  2. Maximum surface level and temperature histories for Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.; Ha, N.D.; Huisingh, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste resulting from the chemical processing of spent nuclear fuel has been accumulating at the Hanford Site since 1944. This waste is stored in underground waste-storage tanks. The Hanford Site Tank Farm Facilities Interim Safety Basis (ISB) provides a ready reference to the safety envelope for applicable tank farm facilities and installations. During preparation of the ISB, tank structural integrity concerns were identified as a key element in defining the safety envelope. These concerns, along with several deficiencies in the technical bases associated with the structural integrity issues and the corresponding operational limits/controls specified for conduct of normal tank farm operations are documented in the ISB. Consequently, a plan was initiated to upgrade the safety envelope technical bases by conducting Accelerated Safety Analyses-Phase 1 (ASA-Phase 1) sensitivity studies and additional structural evaluations. The purpose of this report is to facilitate the ASA-Phase 1 studies and future analyses of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs) by compiling a quantitative summary of some of the past operating conditions the tanks have experienced during their existence. This report documents the available summaries of recorded maximum surface levels and maximum waste temperatures and references other sources for more specific data

  3. Maximum power point tracking of partially shaded solar photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Shubhajit; Saha, Hiranmay [IC Design and Fabrication Centre, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University (India)

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents the simulation and hardware implementation of maximum power point (MPP) tracking of a partially shaded solar photovoltaic (PV) array using a variant of Particle Swarm Optimization known as Adaptive Perceptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APPSO). Under partially shaded conditions, the photovoltaic (PV) array characteristics get more complex with multiple maxima in the power-voltage characteristic. The paper presents an algorithmic technique to accurately track the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using an APPSO. The APPSO algorithm has also been validated in the current work. The proposed technique uses only one pair of sensors to control multiple PV arrays. This result in lower cost and higher accuracy of 97.7% compared to earlier obtained accuracy of 96.41% using Particle Swarm Optimization. The proposed tracking technique has been mapped onto a MSP430FG4618 microcontroller for tracking and control purposes. The whole system based on the proposed has been realized on a standard two stage power electronic system configuration. (author)

  4. Constraints on pulsar masses from the maximum observed glitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzochero, P. M.; Antonelli, M.; Haskell, B.; Seveso, S.

    2017-07-01

    Neutron stars are unique cosmic laboratories in which fundamental physics can be probed in extreme conditions not accessible to terrestrial experiments. In particular, the precise timing of rotating magnetized neutron stars (pulsars) reveals sudden jumps in rotational frequency in these otherwise steadily spinning-down objects. These 'glitches' are thought to be due to the presence of a superfluid component in the star, and offer a unique glimpse into the interior physics of neutron stars. In this paper we propose an innovative method to constrain the mass of glitching pulsars, using observations of the maximum glitch observed in a star, together with state-of-the-art microphysical models of the pinning interaction between superfluid vortices and ions in the crust. We study the properties of a physically consistent angular momentum reservoir of pinned vorticity, and we find a general inverse relation between the size of the maximum glitch and the pulsar mass. We are then able to estimate the mass of all the observed glitchers that have displayed at least two large events. Our procedure will allow current and future observations of glitching pulsars to constrain not only the physics of glitch models but also the superfluid properties of dense hadronic matter in neutron star interiors.

  5. Local Times of Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity Maximum and Minimum in the Diurnal Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Oh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Diurnal variation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR flux intensity observed by the ground Neutron Monitor (NM shows a sinusoidal pattern with the amplitude of 1sim 2 % of daily mean. We carried out a statistical study on tendencies of the local times of GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum. To test the influences of the solar activity and the location (cut-off rigidity on the distribution in the local times of maximum and minimum GCR intensity, we have examined the data of 1996 (solar minimum and 2000 (solar maximum at the low-latitude Haleakala (latitude: 20.72 N, cut-off rigidity: 12.91 GeV and the high-latitude Oulu (latitude: 65.05 N, cut-off rigidity: 0.81 GeV NM stations. The most frequent local times of the GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum come later about 2sim3 hours in the solar activity maximum year 2000 than in the solar activity minimum year 1996. Oulu NM station whose cut-off rigidity is smaller has the most frequent local times of the GCR intensity maximum and minimum later by 2sim3 hours from those of Haleakala station. This feature is more evident at the solar maximum. The phase of the daily variation in GCR is dependent upon the interplanetary magnetic field varying with the solar activity and the cut-off rigidity varying with the geographic latitude.

  6. A Calculus of Located Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Compagnoni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We define BioScapeL, a stochastic pi-calculus in 3D-space. A novel aspect of BioScapeL is that entities have programmable locations. The programmer can specify a particular location where to place an entity, or a location relative to the current location of the entity. The motivation for the extension comes from the need to describe the evolution of populations of biochemical species in space, while keeping a sufficiently high level description, so that phenomena like diffusion, collision, and confinement can remain part of the semantics of the calculus. Combined with the random diffusion movement inherited from BioScape, programmable locations allow us to capture the assemblies of configurations of polymers, oligomers, and complexes such as microtubules or actin filaments. Further new aspects of BioScapeL include random translation and scaling. Random translation is instrumental in describing the location of new entities relative to the old ones. For example, when a cell secretes a hydronium ion, the ion should be placed at a given distance from the originating cell, but in a random direction. Additionally, scaling allows us to capture at a high level events such as division and growth; for example, daughter cells after mitosis have half the size of the mother cell.

  7. A Capacitated Location-Allocation Model for Flood Disaster Service Operations with Border Crossing Passages and Probabilistic Demand Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzapour, S. A.; Wong, K. Y.; Govindan, K.

    2013-01-01

    , a p-center location problem is considered in order to determine the locations of some relief rooms in a city and their corresponding allocation clusters. This study presents a mixed integer nonlinear programming model of a capacitated facility location-allocation problem which simultaneously considers...... the probabilistic distribution of demand locations and a fixed line barrier in a region. The proposed model aims at minimizing the maximum expected weighted distance from the relief rooms to all the demand regions in order to decrease the evacuation time of people from the affected areas before flood occurrence......Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research...

  8. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  9. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco

    2017-11-13

    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  10. Noncircular Chainrings Do Not Influence Maximum Cycling Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chee-Hoi; Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2017-12-01

    Noncircular chainrings could increase cycling power by prolonging the powerful leg extension/flexion phases, and curtailing the low-power transition phases. We compared maximal cycling power-pedaling rate relationships, and joint-specific kinematics and powers across 3 chainring eccentricities (CON = 1.0; LOW ecc  = 1.13; HIGH ecc  = 1.24). Part I: Thirteen cyclists performed maximal inertial-load cycling under 3 chainring conditions. Maximum cycling power and optimal pedaling rate were determined. Part II: Ten cyclists performed maximal isokinetic cycling (120 rpm) under the same 3 chainring conditions. Pedal and joint-specific powers were determined using pedal forces and limb kinematics. Neither maximal cycling power nor optimal pedaling rate differed across chainring conditions (all p > .05). Peak ankle angular velocity for HIGH ecc was less than CON (p pedal system allowed cyclists to manipulate ankle angular velocity to maintain their preferred knee and hip actions, suggesting maximizing extension/flexion and minimizing transition phases may be counterproductive for maximal power.

  11. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors; Maksimum neutronskog fluksa kod termalnih reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strugar, P V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1968-07-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples.

  12. Maximum entropy production rate in quantum thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo, E-mail: beretta@ing.unibs.i [Universita di Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    In the framework of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, a recent paper [Gheorghiu-Svirschevski 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 054102] reproposes the nonlinear equation of motion proposed by the present author [see Beretta G P 1987 Found. Phys. 17 365 and references therein] for quantum (thermo)dynamics of a single isolated indivisible constituent system, such as a single particle, qubit, qudit, spin or atomic system, or a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac field. As already proved, such nonlinear dynamics entails a fundamental unifying microscopic proof and extension of Onsager's reciprocity and Callen's fluctuation-dissipation relations to all nonequilibrium states, close and far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we propose a brief but self-contained review of the main results already proved, including the explicit geometrical construction of the equation of motion from the steepest-entropy-ascent ansatz and its exact mathematical and conceptual equivalence with the maximal-entropy-generation variational-principle formulation presented in Gheorghiu-Svirschevski S 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 022105. Moreover, we show how it can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of the equation of motion, consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability and of compatibility with general thermodynamics principles. The irreversible term in the equation of motion describes the spontaneous attraction of the state operator in the direction of steepest entropy ascent, thus implementing the maximum entropy production principle in quantum theory. The time rate at which the path of steepest entropy ascent is followed has so far been left unspecified. As a step towards the identification of such rate, here we propose a possible

  13. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    -to-job transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also......I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job...

  14. Long-term effects of OBM cutting discharges at 12 locations on the Dutch continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daan, R.; Mulder, M.

    1996-01-01

    A sampling programme was carried out in 1994 and 1995 covering 12 well sites where OBM cuttings had been discharged 7 to 13 years ago. The locations were selected in areas with different sediment types. In terms of amounts of base oil discharged the discharge loads ranged from 13 to 298 tonnes. The locations included actual production platforms but also abandoned well sites. At each location compendious surveys were carried out, during which 4 stations were sampled at distances between 100 and 2000m from the discharge site. Sediment samples for chemical analysis were collected at all stations and numbers of the OBM-sensitive species Echinocardium cordatum were counted in all samples. Additional macrofauna analyses were performed for 5 locations. The chemical analyses revealed elevated oil concentrations at 5 of the 12 locations, but traces of oil were visually observed in a few samples at another 2 locations. Maximum concentrations, measured over the upper 10 cm layer, were generally in the order of 10-50 mg/kg dry sediment, but at one location a concentration of 200 mg/kg was found, which is comparable to the values found at formerly investigated locations L4-a and P6-b, but considerably lower than at K12-a. This indicates that concentration levels at most locations are generally not as high as found at the locations formerly investigated. Except for one location where oil was found up to 250m from the platform, elevated oil concentrations in surface sediments only occurred at 100m stations. Significant effects on the population densities of E. cordatum were found at 7 of the 12 locations. Further, at 2 locations the abundance pattern of the species was indicative of an effect but there was no statistical significance. Population densities of E. cordaturn appeared to be depressed in the vicinity of two locations where no oil was detected. This indicates that the absence of oil in samples does not necessarily mean that sediment conditions have completely recovered

  15. Determination of the maximum-depth to potential field sources by a maximum structural index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast determination of the limiting depth to the sources may represent a significant help to the data interpretation. To this end we explore the possibility of determining those source parameters shared by all the classes of models fitting the data. One approach is to determine the maximum depth-to-source compatible with the measured data, by using for example the well-known Bott-Smith rules. These rules involve only the knowledge of the field and its horizontal gradient maxima, and are independent from the density contrast. Thanks to the direct relationship between structural index and depth to sources we work out a simple and fast strategy to obtain the maximum depth by using the semi-automated methods, such as Euler deconvolution or depth-from-extreme-points method (DEXP). The proposed method consists in estimating the maximum depth as the one obtained for the highest allowable value of the structural index (Nmax). Nmax may be easily determined, since it depends only on the dimensionality of the problem (2D/3D) and on the nature of the analyzed field (e.g., gravity field or magnetic field). We tested our approach on synthetic models against the results obtained by the classical Bott-Smith formulas and the results are in fact very similar, confirming the validity of this method. However, while Bott-Smith formulas are restricted to the gravity field only, our method is applicable also to the magnetic field and to any derivative of the gravity and magnetic field. Our method yields a useful criterion to assess the source model based on the (∂f/∂x)max/fmax ratio. The usefulness of the method in real cases is demonstrated for a salt wall in the Mississippi basin, where the estimation of the maximum depth agrees with the seismic information.

  16. Maximum principles for boundary-degenerate second-order linear elliptic differential operators

    OpenAIRE

    Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We prove weak and strong maximum principles, including a Hopf lemma, for smooth subsolutions to equations defined by linear, second-order, partial differential operators whose principal symbols vanish along a portion of the domain boundary. The boundary regularity property of the smooth subsolutions along this boundary vanishing locus ensures that these maximum principles hold irrespective of the sign of the Fichera function. Boundary conditions need only be prescribed on the complement in th...

  17. Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Photovoltaic Systems: A Polynomial Fuzzy Model-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakhshan, Mohsen; Vafamand, Navid; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a polynomial fuzzy model (PFM)-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control approach to increase the performance and efficiency of the solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation. The proposed method relies on a polynomial fuzzy modeling, a polynomial parallel......, a direct maximum power (DMP)-based control structure is considered for MPPT. Using the PFM representation, the DMP-based control structure is formulated in terms of SOS conditions. Unlike the conventional approaches, the proposed approach does not require exploring the maximum power operational point...

  18. Weighted Maximum-Clique Transversal Sets of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Min Lee

    2011-01-01

    A maximum-clique transversal set of a graph G is a subset of vertices intersecting all maximum cliques of G. The maximum-clique transversal set problem is to find a maximum-clique transversal set of G of minimum cardinality. Motivated by the placement of transmitters for cellular telephones, Chang, Kloks, and Lee introduced the concept of maximum-clique transversal sets on graphs in 2001. In this paper, we study the weighted version of the maximum-clique transversal set problem for split grap...

  19. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  20. Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Guldstrand

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in a brittle, cohesive Coulomb crust under lithostatic stress conditions. The intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the center of the uplifted area and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption's location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes that are not in active rifts could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

  1. Condições de pH e temperatura para máxima atividade da bromelina do abacaxi (Ananas Comosus L. Merril = Temperature and pH conditions for maximum activity of bromelain extracted from pineapple (Ananas Comosus L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Jorge Elias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A bromelina, enzima presente no abacaxi, hidrolisa ligações peptídicas das proteínas; tem aplicação em diversas áreas envolvendo alimentos e medicina. Visando o aproveitamento da bromelina recuperada, a partir dos resíduos da industrialização do fruto(variedade pérola, foram pesquisadas condições de pH e temperatura para maior atividade, empregando caseína como substrato. O extrato foi obtido pela trituração da casca e do talo interno do fruto. A atividade foi expressa em mmol tirosina L-1 min.-1 pela absorbância a280 nm dos aminoácidos aromáticos gerados na hidrólise da caseína. Os ensaios foram efetuados em duplicata para duas relações enzima/substrato: 1/25 e 1/125 (em massa. Foi estabelecido um planejamento experimental em estrela tendo como ponto central pH em7,0 e temperatura de 35°C. Os resultados foram tratados empregando o aplicativo computacional MINITAB 15 da Minitab Inc. que forneceu as equações do modelo e as superfícies de resposta. As equações foram tratadas matematicamente (cálculo diferencial, fornecendo gráficos da melhor atividade em função da temperatura. Observou-se perda daatividade enzimática com a elevação da temperatura para relação 1/25, atribuída à maior presença de enzima livre em comparação com a relação 1/125.Bromelain, the enzyme found in pineapple, hydrolyzes proteins’ peptide bonds, has several applications in the food industry and in medicine. Temperature and pH conditions for highest activity with casein as substrate were investigated from the bromelain recovered from industrialized pineapple (‘pérola’ variety fruit residues. Extract was obtained by grinding fruit rind and its internal stem. The activity was expressed in mmol tyrosine L-1 min.-1 by absorbance at 280 nm of aromatic amino acids produced in casein hydrolysis. Assays were undertaken in duplicate for two enzyme/substrate with ratios: 1/25 and 1/125 (mass. Eight-pointed experimental design was

  2. ¿Es compatible el máximo rendimiento deportivo con la consecución y mantenimiento de un estado saludable del deportista? (Is compatible the maximum sports performance of the athlete with the attainment and maintenance of a healthy condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Mariño Torrado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo es el de establecer una propuesta de cómo se ha caracterizado en la literatura especializada la relación que pueda existir entre la optimización del rendimiento deportivo y el mantenimiento del estado de salud del deportista. Para conseguir este objetivo se ha desarrollado una exhaustiva búsqueda de documentación bibliográfica que incluían las bases de datos más relevantes de nuestro campo: sportdiscus, pubmed, healthstar, medline, cesic-isoc, teseo, dited, psycinfo, ibecs, y networked digital library. De la combinatoria relacional producida, el número total de documentos encontrados ha sido de 791, reteniendo 115 para su posterior análisis. Los resultados han revelado que aspectos como el equilibrio articular y muscular, la prevención de lesiones, el dopaje y sus efectos nocivos, el control nutricional, dietético y ergogénico, y el control de la composición corporal, pueden ser, a priori, indicadores muy importantes de esta relación en deportistas activos. Por otro lado, indicadores como el proceso de desentrenamiento, la reinserción a la vida “normal”, o los planes de promoción para exdeportistas, pueden ser a priori, indicadores muy importantes de esta relación en deportistas ya retirados hace años. El análisis conjunto de estos indicadores podría ofrecer un importante dato sobre la relación que mantienen el rendimiento y la salud, tanto en la vida activa del deportista como una vez ya retirado. Palabras clave: rendimiento deportivo; salud; doping; desentrenamiento; prevención de lesiones; sociología; equilibrio artromuscular. Abstract The aim of this work is of establishing a proposal of how it has been characterized in the specializing literature the connection that could exist between the optimization of the sports performance and the maintenance of the athlete’s health condition. To achieve this aim it has developed an exhaustive search of bibliographical

  3. Location and activity specific site-management for military locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, L.; Hulst, M. van; Meuken, D.

    2009-01-01

    pace is limited in the Netherlands and military activities, that may cause nuisance or environmental hazards, should therefore be considered and evaluated during the use of military locations. The last few years TNO and Deltares have worked on a research program on environmental effects due to

  4. States of maximum polarization for a quantum light field and states of a maximum sensitivity in quantum interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peřinová, Vlasta; Lukš, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    The SU(2) group is used in two different fields of quantum optics, the quantum polarization and quantum interferometry. Quantum degrees of polarization may be based on distances of a polarization state from the set of unpolarized states. The maximum polarization is achieved in the case where the state is pure and then the distribution of the photon-number sums is optimized. In quantum interferometry, the SU(2) intelligent states have also the property that the Fisher measure of information is equal to the inverse minimum detectable phase shift on the usual simplifying condition. Previously, the optimization of the Fisher information under a constraint was studied. Now, in the framework of constraint optimization, states similar to the SU(2) intelligent states are treated. (paper)

  5. Ambiguity of source location in acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.; Mukherjee, P.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.

    1996-01-01

    Location of acoustic emission (AE) source in a plane is detected from the difference of the arrival times of the AE signal to at least three sensors placed on it. The detected location may not be unique in all cases. In this paper, the condition for the unambiguous solution for the location of the source has been deduced mathematically in terms of arrival times of the AE signal, the coordinate of the three sensors and the acoustic velocity. (author)

  6. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  7. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness. PMID:29439408

  8. Flow Control in Wells Turbines for Harnessing Maximum Wave Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekube, Jon; Garrido, Aitor J; Garrido, Izaskun; Otaola, Erlantz; Maseda, Javier

    2018-02-10

    Oceans, and particularly waves, offer a huge potential for energy harnessing all over the world. Nevertheless, the performance of current energy converters does not yet allow us to use the wave energy efficiently. However, new control techniques can improve the efficiency of energy converters. In this sense, the plant sensors play a key role within the control scheme, as necessary tools for parameter measuring and monitoring that are then used as control input variables to the feedback loop. Therefore, the aim of this work is to manage the rotational speed control loop in order to optimize the output power. With the help of outward looking sensors, a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is employed to maximize the system efficiency. Then, the control decisions are based on the pressure drop measured by pressure sensors located along the turbine. A complete wave-to-wire model is developed so as to validate the performance of the proposed control method. For this purpose, a novel sensor-based flow controller is implemented based on the different measured signals. Thus, the performance of the proposed controller has been analyzed and compared with a case of uncontrolled plant. The simulations demonstrate that the flow control-based MPPT strategy is able to increase the output power, and they confirm both the viability and goodness.

  9. Relative azimuth inversion by way of damped maximum correlation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A.T.; Edwards, J.D.; Hutt, C.R.; Shelly, F.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal seismic data are utilized in a large number of Earth studies. Such work depends on the published orientations of the sensitive axes of seismic sensors relative to true North. These orientations can be estimated using a number of different techniques: SensOrLoc (Sensitivity, Orientation and Location), comparison to synthetics (Ekstrom and Busby, 2008), or by way of magnetic compass. Current methods for finding relative station azimuths are unable to do so with arbitrary precision quickly because of limitations in the algorithms (e.g. grid search methods). Furthermore, in order to determine instrument orientations during station visits, it is critical that any analysis software be easily run on a large number of different computer platforms and the results be obtained quickly while on site. We developed a new technique for estimating relative sensor azimuths by inverting for the orientation with the maximum correlation to a reference instrument, using a non-linear parameter estimation routine. By making use of overlapping windows, we are able to make multiple azimuth estimates, which helps to identify the confidence of our azimuth estimate, even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, our algorithm has been written as a stand-alone, platform independent, Java software package with a graphical user interface for reading and selecting data segments to be analyzed.

  10. Damage Detection/Locating System Providing Thermal Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas W. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Qamar, A. Shams (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A damage locating system also provides thermal protection. An array of sensors substantially tiles an area of interest. Each sensor is a reflective-surface conductor having operatively coupled inductance and capacitance. A magnetic field response recorder is provided to interrogate each sensor before and after a damage condition. Changes in response are indicative of damage and a corresponding location thereof.

  11. Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate modeling and maximum power point detection of photovoltaic ... Determination of MPP enables the PV system to deliver maximum available power. ..... adaptive artificial neural network: Proposition for a new sizing procedure.

  12. Maximum power per VA control of vector controlled interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thakur Sumeet Singh

    2018-04-11

    Apr 11, 2018 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New ... The MPVA operation allows maximum-utilization of the drive-system. ... Permanent magnet motor; unity power factor; maximum VA utilization; ...

  13. Electron density distribution in Si and Ge using multipole, maximum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Si and Ge has been studied using multipole, maximum entropy method (MEM) and ... and electron density distribution using the currently available versatile ..... data should be subjected to maximum possible utility for the characterization of.

  14. New Location Improves Efficiency | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The physical proximity of the SAIC-Frederick Intellectual Property (IP) Office to the NCI Technology Transfer Center (NCI-TTC) is one of the many benefits of being at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), according to Courtney Silverthorn, Ph.D. Being in one location “has increased the effectiveness of both informal communication and

  15. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  16. Locating a buried magnetic dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1977-01-01

    The theoretical basis and required computations for locating a buried magnetic dipole are outlined. The results are compared with measurements made with a tiltable coil lowered to a depth of 20 m in a vertical borehole within a three-layered earth. this work has application to the rescue of trapped miners. 3 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  17. Interaction in activity location scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, V.; Vries, de B.; Dijkstra, J.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction in activity location scheduling which is the main subject of an ongoing research project called "User Simulation of Space Utilization". The aim of this research project is to develop an overall model for the simulation of human movement and utilization of

  18. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  19. The Location of Digital Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Walker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative researchers interested in digitally-located social and cultural practices have struggled with ways in which to design studies that can account for the digital aspect of cultural practices while also taking into account that those digital practices do not exist as separate (or separable in terms of our research from other social and cultural practices. As such, one of the primary and ongoing challenges facing internet-based ethnographic research is the question of how to construct the location of a project when the sites, technologically-mediated practices, and people we study exist and flow through a wider information ecology that is neither fixed nor can easily be located as “online” or “offline.” This is as much a methodological challenge as a theoretical one. If one accepts that a rigid distinction between online and offline makes little theoretical sense, then drawing a methodological line between online and offline only reifies such a dualism. While there is a developing body of internet-related ethnographic literature which is attempting to take into account the fluid nature of our information ecology (e.g. Burrell, 2009, Leander and McKim, 2003, Hine, 2007, we continue to operate on shifting ground. This article uses the case of my own work on city-specific discussion forums in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to highlight the complexities of locating digital ethnographic work and also argue for the necessity of accounting for both movement and placed-ness.

  20. Small Business Location and Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    As an approach to teaching small-business location and layout, this publication contains material for teaching one session of a basic course. The sections of the publication are as follows: (1) The Lesson Plan--an outline of the material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: an outline of the presentation, and a…

  1. Competition in spatial location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Models of spatial competition are designed and analyzed to describe the fact that space, by its very nature, is a source of market power. This field of research, lying at the interface of game theory and economics, has attracted much interest because location problems are related to many aspects of

  2. The topside ionosphere above Arecibo at equinox during sunspot maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The coupled time-dependent 0 + and H + continuity and momentum equations and 0 + , H + and electron heat balance equations are solved simultaneously within the L = 1.4 (Arecibo) magnetic flux tube between an altitude of 120 km and the equatorial plane. The results of the calculations are used in a study of the topside ionosphere above Arecibo at equinox during sunspot maximum. Magnetically quiet conditions are assumed. The results of the calculations show that the L = 1.4 magnetic flux tube becomes saturated from an arbitrary state within 2-3 days. During the day the ion content of the magnetic flux tube consists mainly of 0 + whereas 0 + and H + are both important during the night. There is an altitude region in the topside ionosphere during the day where ion-counterstreaming occurs with H + flowing downward and 0 + flowing upward. The conditions causing this ion-counterstreaming are discussed. There is a net chemical gain of H + at the higher altitudes. This H + diffuses both upwards and downwards whilst 0 + diffuses upwards from its solar e.u.v. production source which is most important at the lower altitudes. During the night the calculated 0 + and H + temperatures are very nearly equal whereas during the day there are occasions when the H + temperature exceeds the 0 - temperature by about 300 K. (author)

  3. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-05-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (˜1049erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.MNRAA40035-8711 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 1048-1049erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  4. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (∼10 49 erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10 48 -10 49 erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  5. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity are applicable to... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a representative...

  6. 7 CFR 3565.210 - Maximum interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum interest rate. 3565.210 Section 3565.210... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.210 Maximum interest rate. The interest rate for a guaranteed loan must not exceed the maximum allowable rate specified by the Agency in...

  7. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

    2017-01-01

    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...

  8. Smart location system; Sistema de localizacao inteligente Smart Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da; Antunes, Rodrigo de Castro; Azevedo, Fabio Augusto Ferreira de [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Orlando de Jesus Ribeiro [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matsuura, Minoru; Santa Cruz, Sergio de Freitas [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jose Alberto Costa dos; Hashiguchi, Decio Issao [GDK Engenharia (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the technology used in the Intelligent Location System developed by Pipeway and includes some of the results already obtained optimizing repair time and logistic costs during the location of anomalies detected by intelligent pigs, a joint operation within the scope of the contract for Sub sea Pipeline Recovery in the Guanabara Bay with PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO and GDK Engenharia. The system uses the ELF (Extra Low Frequency) transmission and reception technology at points near a pipe, with or without concrete coating, whose signals are recorded in the inspection tool memory to accurately establish reference points, thus preventing excessive dig work or dredging when human and operational risks tend to be high. (author)

  9. Conditioning of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method of conditioning the fuel of a nuclear reactor core to minimize failure of the fuel cladding comprising increasing the fuel rod power to a desired maximum power level at a rate below a critical rate which would cause cladding damage is given. Such conditioning allows subsequent freedom of power changes below and up to said maximum power level with minimized danger of cladding damage. (Auth.)

  10. Earthquake location in island arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Dewey, J.W.; Fujita, K.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive data set of selected teleseismic P-wave arrivals and local-network P- and S-wave arrivals from large earthquakes occurring at all depths within a small section of the central Aleutians is used to examine the general problem of earthquake location in island arcs. Reference hypocenters for this special data set are determined for shallow earthquakes from local-network data and for deep earthquakes from combined local and teleseismic data by joint inversion for structure and location. The high-velocity lithospheric slab beneath the central Aleutians may displace hypocenters that are located using spherically symmetric Earth models; the amount of displacement depends on the position of the earthquakes with respect to the slab and on whether local or teleseismic data are used to locate the earthquakes. Hypocenters for trench and intermediate-depth events appear to be minimally biased by the effects of slab structure on rays to teleseismic stations. However, locations of intermediate-depth events based on only local data are systematically displaced southwards, the magnitude of the displacement being proportional to depth. Shallow-focus events along the main thrust zone, although well located using only local-network data, are severely shifted northwards and deeper, with displacements as large as 50 km, by slab effects on teleseismic travel times. Hypocenters determined by a method that utilizes seismic ray tracing through a three-dimensional velocity model of the subduction zone, derived by thermal modeling, are compared to results obtained by the method of joint hypocenter determination (JHD) that formally assumes a laterally homogeneous velocity model over the source region and treats all raypath anomalies as constant station corrections to the travel-time curve. The ray-tracing method has the theoretical advantage that it accounts for variations in travel-time anomalies within a group of events distributed over a sizable region of a dipping, high

  11. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelatury, Sudarshan R.; Gray, Robert

    2013-05-01

    The voltage and current characteristic of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is highly nonlinear and operating a PV cell for maximum power transfer has been a challenge for a long time. Several techniques have been proposed to estimate and track the maximum power point (MPP) in order to improve the overall efficiency of a PV panel. A strategic use of the mean value theorem permits obtaining an analytical expression for a point that lies in a close neighborhood of the true MPP. But hitherto, an exact solution in closed form for the MPP is not published. This problem can be formulated analytically as a constrained optimization, which can be solved using the Lagrange method. This method results in a system of simultaneous nonlinear equations. Solving them directly is quite difficult. However, we can employ a recursive algorithm to yield a reasonably good solution. In graphical terms, suppose the voltage current characteristic and the constant power contours are plotted on the same voltage current plane, the point of tangency between the device characteristic and the constant power contours is the sought for MPP. It is subject to change with the incident irradiation and temperature and hence the algorithm that attempts to maintain the MPP should be adaptive in nature and is supposed to have fast convergence and the least misadjustment. There are two parts in its implementation. First, one needs to estimate the MPP. The second task is to have a DC-DC converter to match the given load to the MPP thus obtained. Availability of power electronics circuits made it possible to design efficient converters. In this paper although we do not show the results from a real circuit, we use MATLAB to obtain the MPP and a buck-boost converter to match the load. Under varying conditions of load resistance and irradiance we demonstrate MPP tracking in case of a commercially available solar panel MSX-60. The power electronics circuit is simulated by PSIM software.

  12. The Maximum Flux of Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Clutterbuck, Julie

    2018-04-01

    The importance of radiation pressure feedback in galaxy formation has been extensively debated over the last decade. The regime of greatest uncertainty is in the most actively star-forming galaxies, where large dust columns can potentially produce a dust-reprocessed infrared radiation field with enough pressure to drive turbulence or eject material. Here we derive the conditions under which a self-gravitating, mixed gas-star disc can remain hydrostatic despite trapped radiation pressure. Consistently taking into account the self-gravity of the medium, the star- and dust-to-gas ratios, and the effects of turbulent motions not driven by radiation, we show that galaxies can achieve a maximum Eddington-limited star formation rate per unit area \\dot{Σ }_*,crit ˜ 10^3 M_{⊙} pc-2 Myr-1, corresponding to a critical flux of F*, crit ˜ 1013L⊙ kpc-2 similar to previous estimates; higher fluxes eject mass in bulk, halting further star formation. Conversely, we show that in galaxies below this limit, our one-dimensional models imply simple vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and that radiation pressure is ineffective at driving turbulence or ejecting matter. Because the vast majority of star-forming galaxies lie below the maximum limit for typical dust-to-gas ratios, we conclude that infrared radiation pressure is likely unimportant for all but the most extreme systems on galaxy-wide scales. Thus, while radiation pressure does not explain the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, it does impose an upper truncation on it. Our predicted truncation is in good agreement with the highest observed gas and star formation rate surface densities found both locally and at high redshift.

  13. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Impact of Locality on Location Aware Unit Disk Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kranakis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance for studies oi wireless networks, recent years have seen a surge of activity on the design of local algorithms for the solution of a variety of network tasks. We study the behaviour of algorithms with very low localities. Despite of this restriction we propose local constant ratio approximation algorithms for solving minimum dominating and connected dominating set, maximum independent set and minimum vertex cover in location aware Unit Disk Graphs. We also prove the first ever lower bounds for local algorithms for these problems with a given locality in the location aware setting.

  15. Weakened acute type condition for tetrahedral triangulations and the discrete maximum principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korotov, S.; Křížek, Michal; Neittaanmäki, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 233 (2001), s. 107-119 ISSN 0025-5718 Grant - others:GA Academy of Finland(FI) 752205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.990, year: 2001

  16. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Singarayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or

  17. Determination of maximum power transfer conditions of bimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Alshareef, Husam N.; Elshurafa, Amro M.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    the bimorph based on the electromechanical, single degree of freedom, analogy. Further, by taking into account the intrinsic capacitance of the piezoelectric harvester, a more descriptive expression of the resonant frequency in piezoelectric bimorphs

  18. Maximum likelihood PSD estimation for speech enhancement in reverberant and noisy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuklasinski, Adam; Doclo, Simon; Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of the estimator is in speech enhancement algorithms, such as the Multi-channel Wiener Filter (MWF) and the Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) beamformer. We evaluate these two algorithms in a speech dereverberation task and compare the performance obtained using the proposed and a competing PSD...... estimator. Instrumental performance measures indicate an advantage of the proposed estimator over the competing one. In a speech intelligibility test all algorithms significantly improved the word intelligibility score. While the results suggest a minor advantage of using the proposed PSD estimator...

  19. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    rate (F, l h-1), W (g), and L (mm) as described by the equations: FW = aWb and FL = cLd, respectively. This is done by using available and new experimental laboratory data on M. edulis obtained by members of the same research team using different methods and controlled diets of cultivated algal cells...

  20. Determination of times maximum insulation in case of internal flooding by pipe break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varas, M. I.; Orteu, E.; Laserna, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the process followed in the preparation of the Manual of floods of Cofrentes NPP to identify the allowed maximum time available to the central in the isolation of a moderate or high energy pipe break, until it affects security (1E) participating in the safe stop of Reactor or in pools of spent fuel cooling-related equipment , and to determine the recommended isolation mode from the point of view of the location of the break or rupture, of the location of the 1E equipment and human factors. (Author)

  1. At site and regional analysis of maximum annual and seasonal discharges and precipitation depths in the upper Hron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohnova, S.; Hlavcova, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors deal with the regional analysis of maximum annual and seasonal discharges and precipitation depths in the upper Hron region (Slovak Republic). This work has two objectives: (1) At site and regional analysis of annual and seasonal maximum design discharges in the upper Hron region; (2) Analysis of annual and seasonal maximum design precipitations in the connection of extreme runoff condition in the upper Hron region

  2. 40 CFR 1042.140 - Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cylinders having an internal diameter of 13.0 cm and a 15.5 cm stroke length, the rounded displacement would... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum engine power, displacement... Maximum engine power, displacement, power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. This section describes...

  3. Variation of Probable Maximum Precipitation in Brazos River Basin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, N.; Singh, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Brazos River basin, the second-largest river basin by area in Texas, generates the highest amount of flow volume of any river in a given year in Texas. With its headwaters located at the confluence of Double Mountain and Salt forks in Stonewall County, the third-longest flowline of the Brazos River traverses within narrow valleys in the area of rolling topography of west Texas, and flows through rugged terrains in mainly featureless plains of central Texas, before its confluence with Gulf of Mexico. Along its major flow network, the river basin covers six different climate regions characterized on the basis of similar attributes of vegetation, temperature, humidity, rainfall, and seasonal weather changes, by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Our previous research on Texas climatology illustrated intensified precipitation regimes, which tend to result in extreme flood events. Such events have caused huge losses of lives and infrastructure in the Brazos River basin. Therefore, a region-specific investigation is required for analyzing precipitation regimes along the geographically-diverse river network. Owing to the topographical and hydroclimatological variations along the flow network, 24-hour Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) was estimated for different hydrologic units along the river network, using the revised Hershfield's method devised by Lan et al. (2017). The method incorporates the use of a standardized variable describing the maximum deviation from the average of a sample scaled by the standard deviation of the sample. The hydrometeorological literature identifies this method as more reasonable and consistent with the frequency equation. With respect to the calculation of stable data size required for statistically reliable results, this study also quantified the respective uncertainty associated with PMP values in different hydrologic units. The corresponding range of return periods of PMPs in different hydrologic units was

  4. It's All about Location, Location, Location: Children's Memory for the "Where'' of Personally Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Doydum, Ayzit O.; Pathman, Thanujeni; Larkina, Marina; Guler, O. Evren; Burch, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the ability to recall specific past events located in a particular time and place. Over the preschool and into the school years, there are clear developmental changes in memory for when events took place. In contrast, little is known about developmental changes in memory for where events were experienced. In the…

  5. Location, Location, Location: How Would a High-Performing Charter School Network Fare in Different States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Chris; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the authors do not examine different operating strategies for charter schools or analyze the impact of their often educationally intensive models on finance. Instead, because public charter schools are funded predominantly by public dollars, they simply ask what impact location--and its associated variances in public funding and the…

  6. An extended heterogeneous car-following model accounting for anticipation driving behavior and mixed maximum speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengxin; Wang, Jufeng; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2018-02-01

    The optimal driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. In the optimal velocity function of the optimal velocity (OV) model, the maximum speed vmax is an important parameter determining the optimal driving speed. A vehicle with higher maximum speed is more willing to drive faster than that with lower maximum speed in similar situation. By incorporating the anticipation driving behavior of relative velocity and mixed maximum speeds of different percentages into optimal velocity function, an extended heterogeneous car-following model is presented in this paper. The analytical linear stable condition for this extended heterogeneous traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulted from the cooperation between anticipation driving behavior and heterogeneous maximum speeds in the optimal velocity function. The analytical and numerical results all demonstrate that strengthening driver's anticipation effect can improve the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, and increasing the lowest value in the mixed maximum speeds will result in more instability, but increasing the value or proportion of the part already having higher maximum speed will cause different stabilities at high or low traffic densities.

  7. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  8. Locating an Imaging Radar in Canada for Identifying Spaceborne Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    of residents. Daskin (11:48) extended that model to account for the chance that when a demand arrives at the system it will not be covered since all...Journal of Operational Research, 50: 280-297 (February 1991). 11. Daskin , Mark S. " A Maximum Expected Covering Location Model: Formulation...continue with this thesis-, and Dr. William Wiesel for his instruction and help in developing a satellite coordinate frame and understanding the mechanics

  9. Increasing the maximum daily operation time of MNSR reactor by modifying its cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Hainoun, A.; Al Halbi, W.; Al Isa, S.

    2006-08-01

    thermal-hydraulic natural convection correlations have been formulated based on a thorough analysis and modeling of the MNSR reactor. The model considers detailed description of the thermal and hydraulic aspects of cooling in the core and vessel. In addition, determination of pressure drop was made through an elaborate balancing of the overall pressure drop in the core against the sum of all individual channel pressure drops employing an iterative scheme. Using this model, an accurate estimation of various timely core-averaged hydraulic parameters such as generated power, hydraulic diameters, flow cross area, ... etc. for each one of the ten-fuel circles in the core can be made. Furthermore, distribution of coolant and fuel temperatures, including maximum fuel temperature and its location in the core, can now be determined. Correlation among core-coolant average temperature, reactor power, and core-coolant inlet temperature, during both steady and transient cases, have been established and verified against experimental data. Simulating various operating condition of MNSR, good agreement is obtained for at different power levels. Various schemes of cooling have been investigated for the purpose of assessing potential benefits on the operational characteristics of the syrian MNSR reactor. A detailed thermal hydraulic model for the analysis of MNSR has been developed. The analysis shows that an auxiliary cooling system, for the reactor vessel or installed in the pool which surrounds the lower section of the reactor vessel, will significantly offset the consumption of excess reactivity due to the negative reactivity temperature coefficient. Hence, the maximum operating time of the reactor is extended. The model considers detailed description of the thermal and hydraulic aspects of cooling the core and its surrounding vessel. Natural convection correlations have been formulated based on a thorough analysis and modeling of the MNSR reactor. The suggested 'micro model

  10. Creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' object premises condition to support the works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postil, S.D.; Ermolenko, A.I.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kotlyarov, V.T.

    2002-01-01

    A technology for creation of integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' Object premises conditions was developed on the basis of geoinformation system AutoCad. DB Access and instrumental utility 3D MAX. Information models and database for conditions of 'Ukryttia' object's premises located between 0.000 and 67.000 marks in axes 41-52, row G-T, were created. Using integrated information model of 'Ukryttia' object premises conditions, 3D surface distribution of radiation field in the object premises on level 0.000 has been received. It is revealed that maximum values of radiation field are concentrated over the clusters of fuel-containing materials

  11. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  12. Akzeptanz von Location Based Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans H.; Haber, Tobias E.; Reichardt, Tina; Bökamp, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Die enormen Investitionen in UMTS-Lizenzen und den Aufbau einer neuen Netzinfrastruktur zwingen die Mobilfunkanbieter zur Erschließung neuer Umsatzpotenziale. Durch Entwicklung neuer mobiler Mehrwertdienste hoffen sie, die „Killerapplikation“ der 3. Mobilfunkgeneration zu finden, die ähnlich wie der Short Message Service (SMS) für GSM, zum Treiber des UMTS-Markterfolges werden kann. Nach Meinung vieler Marktbeobachter könnten Location Based Services, d.h. mobile Dienste, die ...

  13. Distribution of Snow and Maximum Snow Water Equivalent Obtained by LANDSAT Data and Degree Day Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K.; Ochiai, H.; Takeuchi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Maximum snow water equivalence and snowcover distribution are estimated using several LANDSAT data taken in snowmelting season over a four year period. The test site is Okutadami-gawa Basin located in the central position of Tohoku-Kanto-Chubu District. The year to year normalization for snowmelt volume computation on the snow line is conducted by year to year correction of degree days using the snowcover percentage within the test basin obtained from LANDSAT data. The maximum snow water equivalent map in the test basin is generated based on the normalized snowmelt volume on the snow line extracted from four LANDSAT data taken in a different year. The snowcover distribution on an arbitrary day in snowmelting of 1982 is estimated from the maximum snow water equivalent map. The estimated snowcover is compared with the snowcover area extracted from NOAA-AVHRR data taken on the same day. The applicability of the snow estimation using LANDSAT data is discussed.

  14. Location, location, location: does early cancer in Barrett's esophagus have a preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enestvedt, Brintha K; Lugo, Ricardo; Guarner-Argente, Carlos; Shah, Pari; Falk, Gary W; Furth, Emma; Ginsberg, Gregory G

    2013-09-01

    Early cancer (high-grade dysplasia [HGD] and intramucosal carcinoma [ImCa]) associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE) may have a circumferential spatial predilection. To describe the esophageal circumferential location of early cancer in BE. Retrospective study, single tertiary referral center. One hundred nineteen patients were referred for endoscopic eradication therapy for early cancer associated with BE. Endoscopic images and reports and pathology were reviewed. Circumferential location designation of early cancer in BE by using a clock-face orientation. One hundred nineteen of 131 patients referred for endoscopic eradication therapy had a location designation for their advanced histology (91.9%). There were a total of 57 patients (47.9%) with HGD and 62 patients (52.1%) with ImCa. There was a significantly higher rate of early cancer (HGD or ImCa) in the right hemisphere (12 to 6 o'clock location) compared with the left hemisphere (84.9% vs 15.1%, P cancer was found in the 12 to 3 o'clock quadrant (64.7%); 71.9% of HGD and 58.1% of ImCa lesions were located in the 12 to 3 o'clock quadrant. Retrospective design, single center. Early cancer associated with BE is far more commonly found in the right hemisphere of the esophagus (12 to 6 o'clock) with the highest rate in the 12 to 3 o'clock quadrant. These findings support enhanced scrutiny of the right hemisphere of the esophagus during surveillance and endoscopic treatment of patients with BE. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of fuzzy logic and neural network in maximum power point tracker for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salah, Chokri; Ouali, Mohamed [Research Unit on Intelligent Control, Optimization, Design and Optimization of Complex Systems (ICOS), Department of Electrical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Sfax, BP. W, 3038, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking using a fuzzy logic and a neural network controllers for photovoltaic systems. The two maximum power point tracking controllers receive solar radiation and photovoltaic cell temperature as inputs, and estimated the optimum duty cycle corresponding to maximum power as output. The approach is validated on a 100 Wp PVP (two parallels SM50-H panel) connected to a 24 V dc load. The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any photovoltaic array under different conditions such as changing solar radiation and PV cell temperature. From the simulation and experimental results, the fuzzy logic controller can deliver more power than the neural network controller and can give more power than other different methods in literature. (author)

  16. Location, Location: Jurisdiction & Conflicts in Transborder Contract Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    In transborder contract litigation place-based factors are often decisive, both as regards jurisdiction to adjudicate as well as the rules which determine the applicable substantive law. Relevant locations include the place where the contract was made, where the parties reside, transact business...... or own property, the place of delivery, payment or other performance etc. Using concrete case-based examples, Professor Lookofsky explains how rules of jurisdiction and contract conflicts in Europe are tied to rigidly defined, single-place-based factors. In the United States, by contrast...

  17. The maximum entropy production and maximum Shannon information entropy in enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Markovič, Rene; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate that the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) serves as a physical selection principle for the description of the most probable non-equilibrium steady states in simple enzymatic reactions. A theoretical approach is developed, which enables maximization of the density of entropy production with respect to the enzyme rate constants for the enzyme reaction in a steady state. Mass and Gibbs free energy conservations are considered as optimization constraints. In such a way computed optimal enzyme rate constants in a steady state yield also the most uniform probability distribution of the enzyme states. This accounts for the maximal Shannon information entropy. By means of the stability analysis it is also demonstrated that maximal density of entropy production in that enzyme reaction requires flexible enzyme structure, which enables rapid transitions between different enzyme states. These results are supported by an example, in which density of entropy production and Shannon information entropy are numerically maximized for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase.

  18. Solar Maximum Mission Experiment - Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry on the Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.; Gurman, J. B.; Hyder, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft is described. It is pointed out that the instrument, which operates in the wavelength range 1150-3600 A, has a spatial resolution of 2-3 arcsec and a spectral resolution of 0.02 A FWHM in second order. A Gregorian telescope, with a focal length of 1.8 m, feeds a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter comprising rotating Mg F2 waveplates can be inserted behind the spectrometer entrance slit; it permits all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Among the observing modes are rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry. Examples of initial observations made since launch are presented.

  19. Maximum Principle for General Controlled Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yuecai; Hu Yaozhong; Song Jian

    2013-01-01

    We obtain a maximum principle for stochastic control problem of general controlled stochastic differential systems driven by fractional Brownian motions (of Hurst parameter H>1/2). This maximum principle specifies a system of equations that the optimal control must satisfy (necessary condition for the optimal control). This system of equations consists of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by both fractional Brownian motions and the corresponding underlying standard Brownian motions. In addition to this backward equation, the maximum principle also involves the Malliavin derivatives. Our approach is to use conditioning and Malliavin calculus. To arrive at our maximum principle we need to develop some new results of stochastic analysis of the controlled systems driven by fractional Brownian motions via fractional calculus. Our approach of conditioning and Malliavin calculus is also applied to classical system driven by standard Brownian motions while the controller has only partial information. As a straightforward consequence, the classical maximum principle is also deduced in this more natural and simpler way.

  20. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.