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Sample records for maximum clot firmness

  1. Comparison of standard fibrinogen measurement methods with fibrin clot firmness assessed by thromboelastometry in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucelic, Dragica; Jesic, Rada; Jovicic, Snezana; Zivotic, Maja; Grubor, Nikica; Trajkovic, Goran; Canic, Ivana; Elezovic, Ivo; Antovic, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The Clauss fibrinogen method and thrombin clotting time (TCT) are still routinely used in patients with cirrhosis to define fibrinogen concentration and clotting potential. The thromboelastometric functional fibrinogen FIBTEM assay evaluates the strength of fibrin-based clots in whole blood, providing information on both quantitative deficit and fibrin polymerization disorders. To compare these three methods of assessing fibrinogen in patients with cirrhosis of different aetiologies, characterized by impairment in fibrinogen concentration as well as functional aberrance. Sixty patients with alcoholic and 24 patients with cholestatic cirrhosis were included (Child-Pugh score (CPs)A, n=24; B, n=32; C, n=28). All parameters were compared with those from a control group. Maximum clot firmness (MCF) in the FIBTEM test was assessed in regard to its relevance in detection of qualitative fibrinogen disorders in comparison with results obtained by standard measurement methods, i.e. the Clauss fibrinogen method and TCT. With increased cirrhosis severity, fibrinogen and FIBTEM-MCF levels significantly declined (p=0.002), while TCT was significantly prolonged (p=0.002). In all CPs groups, fibrinogen strongly correlated with FIBTEM-MCF (r=0.77, r=0.72, r=0.74; pmeasurement in cirrhotic patients, especially in evaluating fibrin polymerization disorders in these patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of this assay in predicting bleeding complications in cirrhotic patients as well as monitoring replacement treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE FLOCCULATION MAXIMUM (pH) OF FIBRINOGEN AND SOME OTHER BLOOD-CLOTTING REAGENTS. (RELATIVE TURBIDIMETRY WITH THE EVELYN PHOTOELECTRIC COLORIMETER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J H

    1942-03-20

    By means of a novel adaptation of the Evelyn photoelectric colorimeter to the measurement of relative turbidities, the question of the flocculation maximum (F.M.) in acetate buffer solutions of varying pH and salt content has been studied on (a) an exceptionally stable prothrombin-free fibrinogen and its solutions after incipient thermal denaturation and incomplete tryptic proteolysis, (b) plasma, similarly treated, (c) prothrombin, thrombin, and (brain) thromboplastin solutions. All the fibrinogens show a remarkable uniformity of the precipitation pattern, viz. F.M. =4.7 (+/-0.2) pH in salt-containing buffer solutions and pH = 5.3 (+/-0.2) in salt-poor buffer (N/100 acetate). The latter approximates the isoelectric point (5.4) obtained by cataphoresis (14). There is no evidence that denaturation or digestion can produce any "second maximum." The data support the view that fibrin formation (under the specific influence of thrombin) is intrinsically unrelated to denaturation and digestion phenomena, although all three can proceed simultaneously in crude materials. A criticism is offered, therefore, of Wöhlisch's blood clotting theory. Further applications of the photoelectric colorimeter to coagulation problems are suggested, including kinetic study of fibrin formation and the assay of fibrinogen, with a possible sensitivity of 7.5 mg. protein in 100 cc. solution.

  3. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting for long periods. If you travel by airplane, walk the aisle periodically. For long car trips, ... Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016. What causes excessive ...

  4. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Immobility (including prolonged inactivity, long trips by plane or car ) Smoking Oral contraceptives Certain cancers Trauma Certain surgeries Age (increased risk for people over age 60) A family history of blood clots Chronic inflammatory diseases Diabetes High ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  7. The effect of sepsis and septic shock on the viscoelastic properties of clot quality and mass using rotational thromboelastometry: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gareth R; Lawrence, Matthew; Pillai, Suresh; Mills, Gavin M; Aubrey, Robert; Thomas, Dafydd; Williams, Rhodri; Morris, Keith; Evans, Phillip Adrian

    2018-04-01

    The study purpose was to define changes in coagulation across the sepsis spectrum using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Sepsis patients were recruited on admission to the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Units of a large teaching hospital in Wales. ROTEM markers of clot development and fibrinolysis were determined, as well as standard coagulation markers. A healthy control group matched for age and gender was also recruited (n=44). 100 patients were recruited (50 sepsis, 20 severe sepsis and 30 septic shock). Maximum clot firmness was significantly higher in the sepsis (p<0.001) and severe sepsis (p=0.012) groups than the healthy control (71.6±4.5 and 70.4±4.1 vs 64.4 respectively). In septic shock there was prolonged clot development; however, maximum clot firmness remained normal. Fibrinolytic function was significantly impaired in septic shock, which was also significantly associated with 28-day mortality (p<0.001). ROTEM indicated significantly enhanced clot structural development in sepsis and severe sepsis, which could be indicative of a hypercoagulable phase. In septic shock, despite there being a prolongation of clotting pathways and impaired fibrinolysis, clot mass was comparably normal, suggestive of the development of a clot with healthy characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ... potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a ... Blood clots are also potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... 2018 by American Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... of practicing hematologists in your area. Learn more AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY 2021 L Street NW, Suite ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... presentations, that can help you make an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from ... Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or in the ...

  18. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Fetal Ultrasound Scanning Additional Content Medical News Postpartum Blood Clots By Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD, Associate Professor ... Professional Version Postdelivery Period Overview of the Postdelivery (Postpartum) Period Postpartum Infections Postpartum Infections of the Uterus ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during ... Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about ... 2018 by American Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about your risks and prevention. Depending on your condition, your OB-GYN may refer you to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in treating blood conditions. back to top ...

  6. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  7. Endogenous fibrinolysis facilitates clot retraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P

    2017-12-07

    Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Aaron L; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.

  9. New Firm Survival: Industry versus Firm Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); P. Houweling (Patrick); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies show that the likelihood of survival differs significantly across firms. Both firm and industry characteristics are hypothesized to account for this heterogenity. Using a longitudinal database of manufacturing firms we investigate whether firm or industry characteristics

  10. Ultrastructure of clots during isometric contraction

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    We explored the retraction or contraction of platelet-fibrin clots under isometric conditions. In the presence of micromolar calcium clots of normal platelet-rich plasma developed tension at an initial rate of 0.1 to 0.2 g/min per cm2 (initial cross-sectional area). Electron microscopy of clots fixed after attaining a force of 1.6 g/cm2 revealed platelets with elongated bodies and pseudopods in close apposition to fibrin strands which were oriented in cablelike fashion in the direction of ten...

  11. Limitations of using synthetic blood clots for measuring in vitro clot capture efficiency of inferior vena cava filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald A Robinson, Luke H Herbertson, Srilekha Sarkar Das, Richard A Malinauskas, William F Pritchard, Laurence W GrossmanOffice of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the clot capture efficiency and capture location of six currently-marketed vena cava filters in a physiological venous flow loop, using synthetic polyacrylamide hydrogel clots, which were intended to simulate actual blood clots. After observing a measured anomaly for one of the test filters, we redirected the focus of the study to identify the cause of poor clot capture performance for large synthetic hydrogel clots. We hypothesized that the uncharacteristic low clot capture efficiency observed when testing the outlying filter can be attributed to the inadvertent use of dense, stiff synthetic hydrogel clots, and not as a result of the filter design or filter orientation. To study this issue, sheep blood clots and polyacrylamide (PA synthetic clots were injected into a mock venous flow loop containing a clinical inferior vena cava (IVC filter, and their captures were observed. Testing was performed with clots of various diameters (3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 mm, length-to-diameter ratios (1:1, 3:1, 10:1, and stiffness. By adjusting the chemical formulation, PA clots were fabricated to be soft, moderately stiff, or stiff with elastic moduli of 805 ± 2, 1696 ± 10 and 3295 ± 37 Pa, respectively. In comparison, the elastic moduli for freshly prepared sheep blood clots were 1690 ± 360 Pa. The outlying filter had a design that was characterized by peripheral gaps (up to 14 mm between its wire struts. While a low clot capture rate was observed using large, stiff synthetic clots, the filter effectively captured similarly sized sheep blood clots and soft PA clots. Because the stiffer synthetic clots remained straight when approaching the

  12. Pre-analytical variation in glucose concentration due to atmospheric temperature and clot in blood specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Masud, K.; Khan, J.A.; Bhatti, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of temperature and contact of clot with serum on laboratory results of glucose concentration in blood. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: December 2014 to August 2015 at the laboratory of Shoaib Hospital, Fateh Jang, Attock Pakistan. Material and Methods: Samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose (Random) concentration from patients reporting to the hospital. Blood specimens (n=94) of such volunteers were analyzed for glucose level. Each sample was put up in five tubes. When the blood clotted the serum from tube-1 was analyzed for glucose level within 30 minutes. In tube-2 and tube-3 serum was kept for 24 hours at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. In tube-4 and tube-5 serum was not separated from clot and kept at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. The value of tube 1 was taken as reference value for comparison with other parts of the specimen. The equipment used for blood glucose level estimation was semi auto chemistry analyzer (Rayto, China). The kit used for analysis was Glucose - Liquizyme (Germany). Results: The difference between the mean reference value (tube-1) and refrigerated serum without clot (tube-3) was 4.63 mg/100 ml while that of unrefrigerated portion (tube-2) had a difference of 10.68 mg/100 ml. The mean of unrefrigerated (tube-4) and refrigerated (tube-5) portions of serum kept with the clot had difference of 42.05 mg/100 ml and 25.84 mg/100 ml respectively. The fall in the blood glucose level in all (n=94) the samples in the tube number 3 (serum separated and kept at refrigerated temperature) was 4.63 mg/100 ml +- 3.68 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 0 to 20 mg/100 ml whereas fall was maximum in the tube number 4 (serum with clotted blood and kept at room temperature) was 42.04 mg/100 ml +- 10.61 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 13 to 82 mg/100 ml. The sample in

  13. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  14. Procurement with specialized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms' cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low (high)

  15. Formation of blood clot on biomaterial implants influences bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Goss, Ben; Lutton, Cameron; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2014-12-01

    The first step in bone healing is forming a blood clot at injured bones. During bone implantation, biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood, leading to a blood clot formation on its surface prior to bone regeneration. Despite both situations being similar in forming a blood clot at the defect site, most research in bone tissue engineering virtually ignores the important role of a blood clot in supporting healing. Dental implantology has long demonstrated that the fibrin structure and cellular content of a peri-implant clot can greatly affect osteoconduction and de novo bone formation on implant surfaces. This article reviews the formation of a blood clot during bone healing in relation to the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gels. It is implicated that PRP gels are dramatically altered from a normal clot in healing, resulting in conflicting effect on bone regeneration. These results indicate that the effect of clots on bone regeneration depends on how the clots are formed. Factors that influence blood clot structure and properties in relation to bone healing are also highlighted. Such knowledge is essential for developing strategies to optimally control blood clot formation, which ultimately alter the healing microenvironment of bone. Of particular interest are modification of surface chemistry of biomaterials, which displays functional groups at varied composition for the purpose of tailoring blood coagulation activation, resultant clot fibrin architecture, rigidity, susceptibility to lysis, and growth factor release. This opens new scope of in situ blood clot modification as a promising approach in accelerating and controlling bone regeneration.

  16. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  17. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci for fibrin clot phenotypes: the EuroCLOT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Frances M K; Carter, Angela M; Kato, Bernet

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibrin makes up the structural basis of an occlusive arterial thrombus, and variability in fibrin phenotype relates to cardiovascular risk. The aims of the current study from the EU consortium EuroCLOT were to (1) determine the heritability of fibrin phenotypes and (2) identify QTLs as...

  19. Fiber-based optic sensor for detecting human blood clot: present and future revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikeri, Nada; Bakhtiar, Hazri

    2018-05-01

    Sustaining human’s life-frame away from being impeded by the clot - ghost term, we attempt to approach a mobile fiber-based optical sensor (f-s) for detecting blood clot in a blood vessel (intra-arteries/veins). Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body, thus their significance of being protected arise to the monograph focus. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), X-rays and other medical instruments are diagnostic immobility techniques with a slackest interval. The corer causation of fiber-based optical sensor is to detect a clump of blood in the bloodstream by providing a prompt mobile diagnostic intervals preserving last-minutes-breath of human’s life. The detector (f-s) has been etched by diluting sulphuric acid ~10% at certain zone to sensate its function. The in-vitro monograph peaks its maximal monitoring when the sensor is attached to Raman Spectroscopy (RS) setup. RS quantifies the relative intensities of fibrinogen bond, which is the first type of blood coagulation elements of blood plasma. Blood coagulation parameters are the major concern of the monograph investigation, such as total haemoglobin (tHb), clotting reaction time (t), clot progression time (t2), maximum clot amplitude (ma) and mean refractive index (r). A blood sample will be drawn from the patient and after centrifugation to separate blood plasma from its constituents, then an immediate sloshing of blood plasma in the (f-s) packet which has its plug-in to RS. Estimating the quantitative analysis of blood sample concentration, RS will determine the presence of coagulation in terms of intensity and medical procedures will dominate the treatment process. Thus, the suggestive monograph provides a definite instrument for investigating blood coagulation intra-arteries/veins promptly.

  20. Essays on Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haoyong

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation examines corporate performance and capital structure of family firms, contributing to the limited empirical research on family firms. Family firms are prevalent in national economies all over the world. It is the prevalence that makes family firms receive increasing attentions from academia. The dissertation consists of an introduction and three chapters. Each chapter is an independent paper. The first chapter is a joint work with Professor Morten Bennedsen and...

  1. Transformation of Manufacturing Firms to Servitisation Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Ma, Zheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial for the manufacturing SMEs to reconsider their business strategy in order to be able to launch customer-centric solutions. This ability is associated with a paradigm shift from a product-orientation to service-orientation. One of the major challenges to success in transforming...... a traditional manufacturing firm to service-oriented firms is the conspicuous lack of publications in this research stream. Applying a case study research approach, this study explores the transformation model for manufacturing SMEs to servitisation firms by adopting a network approach, and reveals...

  2. Clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Huang Haixiao; Ou Hongling; Xiong Guolin; Zhao Yanfang; Xie Ling; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Zhang Xueguang; Luo Qingliang; Cong Yuwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays after treatment with supportive care, or supportive care and combined cytokines. Methods: Sixteen beagles were divided into irradiation control group, Supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group. Platelet aggregation test, thrombelastography (TEG) and the time measurement were analyzed in vitro. Results: In irradiation group and supportive care group, the platelet aggregation rates in beagles were decreased markedly and the k value of TEG was increased 7 d post-irradiation, while those indexes in combined cytokines treatment group changed little. At 14 d post-irradiation, each parameter of TEG in irradiated group changed obviously. The values of r, k, r + k and M were elevated significantly, clotting time and the maximum coagulation time of thrombus delayed, the Ma value was decreased markedly, and the maximum elasticity amplitude of thrombus was diminished. All parameters in combined cytokines treatment group were better than those in supportive care group. The thrombin time was prolonged obviously in irradiated group 14 d post-irradiation, while the thrombin time was the longest at 2-3 weeks post irradiation in supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Cytokines could improve the platelet aggregation and the blood clotting functions of beagles suffering from acute radiation sickness. (authors)

  3. Case series: Bladder clot evacuation using a prostate morcellation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, Karen M; Navetta, Andrew F; Bird, Erin T; El Tayeb, Marawan M

    2017-07-01

    We sought to provide a technical update on the use of a prostate morcellator device (PMD) to manage organized blood clots of the bladder following laser prostatectomy. Herein, we describe our experience in using the Wolf Piranha morcellator in managing organized bladder blood clots supplemented with a retrospective chart review of the patients in whom this procedure was performed. Six patients, all male with a mean age of 75 ± 8.9 years, had organized bladder clots following either holmium laser enucleation or photoselective vaporization of the prostate managed with a PMD. Clots were recognized based on hematuria or urinary retention a median of 3.5 days following the aforementioned procedures. Initial management was attempted with more conservative measures, including a three-way Foley catheter, followed by cystoscopy with an Ellik evacuator, or a glass Tommey syringe. Morcellation times were a mean of 10.2 ± 6.15 minutes (range 2-18). This technique was able to manage clots that were an average of 173.3 ± 115.9 cc in size. The procedure was well-tolerated. No patients experienced intraoperative or morcellator-related complications. Benign prostatic hypertrophy frequently requires surgical endoscopic management and can be complicated by hematuria and bladder blood clot formation. When these clots become organized, this can lead to urinary retention and the required management, evacuation, may be difficult. The use of a Wolf Piranha PMD is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective in evacuating organized blood clots of the bladder.

  4. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  5. Inter-firm and intra-firm efficiency measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Silva, E.; Stefanou, S.

    2001-01-01

    Intra-firm efficiency involves computing a particular firm's efficiency degree over time relative to the firm-specific production frontier. Inter-firm efficiency reveals a particular firm's performance over time relative to the ``best practice frontier'' among the set of comparable firms. These

  6. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21-80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  7. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  8. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  9. Capital market financing, firm growth, and firm size distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Didier Brandao,Tatiana; Levine,Ross Eric; Schmukler,Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    How many and which firms issue equity and bonds in domestic and international markets, how do these firms grow relative to non-issuing firms, and how does firm performance vary along the firm size distribution? To evaluate these questions, a new data set is constructed by matching data on firm-level capital raising activity with balance sheet data for 45,527 listed firms in 51 countries. T...

  10. Evaluation of the effects of levobupivacaine on clotting and fibrinolysis using thromboelastography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S A

    2012-02-03

    Amide local anaesthetics inhibit platelet function. We hypothesized that residual anaesthetic in the epidural space could decrease efficacy of an epidural blood patch in preventing postdural puncture headache. Levobupivacaine has recently been approved for epidural anaesthesia. Its effects on coagulation have not previously been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of levobupivacaine on clotting using thromboelastography. Ten ASA Class I volunteers were studied. Venous blood samples were analysed using a Haemoscope 2000D TEG analyser. Whole blood, a 50% saline control and two levobupivacaine solutions (2.5 mg mL(-1) and 2.5 microg mL(-1) in blood) were compared. The former reproduces that produced in the epidural space by blood (20 mL for an epidural blood patch) and levobupivacaine 0.5% (20 mL). The latter approximates plasma concentrations following epidural injection of levobupivacaine 0.5% (20 mL). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Maximum amplitude (MA), a measure of clot strength, is decreased by levobupivacaine 2.5 mg mL(-1). Levobupivacaine 2.5 mg mL(-1) decreases clot strength and may reduce efficacy of a prophylactic epidural blood patch.

  11. Strong Firms Lobby, Weak Firms Bribe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Feldmann, Sven E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    that are larger, older, exporting, government-owned, are widely held and/or have fewer competitors, have more political influence, perceive corruption to be less of a problem and pay bribes less often; (c) influence increases sales and government subsidies and in general makes the firm have a more positive view...

  12. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying...

  13. The market for firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome Dean; Keiding, Hans

    2010-01-01

    and as a consequence a higher sales value of the firm. Buyers take this signaling into consideration, but irrespective of their countermoves, the equilib- rium result may be a lowering of ex ante product prices, and an ex post market overvaluation of the firm. This model is utilized to suggest possible explanations...

  14. Procurement with Specialized Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms in a setting where the procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and cares about quality as well as price. Low type firms are cheaper than high type firms in providing low quality but more expensive when

  15. Location of New Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie

    2017-01-01

    characteristics, such as the commuting experience. Our results show that commuting influences the firm location choice. The probability of establishing a firm in the work municipality increases if the entrepreneur is a commuter, holding constant the type of region and unobservable and observable individual...

  16. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Two strains of fungi were isolated and identified as Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium pinophilum ... for milk clotting enzymes by fermentation at acid pH on culture medium containing whey ..... Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4749.

  17. Clotting of mammalian fibrinogens by papain: A re-examination

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, RF

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Papain has long been known to cause the gelation of mammalian fibrinogens. It has also been reported that papain-fibrin is insoluble in dispersing solvents like strong urea or sodium bromide solutions, similar to what is observed with thrombin-generated clots in the presence of factor XIIIa and calcium. In those old studies, both the gelation and subsequent clot stabilization were attributed to papain, although the possibility that the second step might be du...

  18. Circulating Microparticles Alter Formation, Structure, and Properties of Fibrin Clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairova, Laily D; Nabiullina, Roza M; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Zuev, Yuriy F; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Litvinov, Rustem I; Weisel, John W

    2015-12-04

    Despite the importance of circulating microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis, there is limited evidence for potential causative effects of naturally produced cell-derived microparticles on fibrin clot formation and its properties. We studied the significance of blood microparticles for fibrin formation, structure, and susceptibility to fibrinolysis by removing them from platelet-free plasma using filtration. Clots made in platelet-free and microparticle-depleted plasma samples from the same healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. Microparticles accelerate fibrin polymerisation and support formation of more compact clots that resist internal and external fibrinolysis. These variations correlate with faster thrombin generation, suggesting thrombin-mediated kinetic effects of microparticles on fibrin formation, structure, and properties. In addition, clots formed in the presence of microparticles, unlike clots from the microparticle-depleted plasma, contain 0.1-0.5-μm size granular and CD61-positive material on fibres, suggesting that platelet-derived microparticles attach to fibrin. Therefore, the blood of healthy individuals contains functional microparticles at the levels that have a procoagulant potential. They affect the structure and stability of fibrin clots indirectly through acceleration of thrombin generation and through direct physical incorporation into the fibrin network. Both mechanisms underlie a potential role of microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis as modulators of fibrin formation, structure, and resistance to fibrinolysis.

  19. Where Gibrat meets Zipf: Scale and scope of French firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    The proper characterization of the size distribution and growth of firms represents an important issue in economics and business. We use the Maximum Entropy approach to assess the plausibility of the assumption that firm size follows Lognormal or Pareto distributions, which underlies most recent works on the subject. A comprehensive dataset covering the universe of French firms allows us to draw two major conclusions. First, the Pareto hypothesis for the whole distribution should be rejected. Second, by discriminating across firms based on the number of products sold and markets served, we find that, within the class of multi-product companies active in multiple markets, the distribution converges to a Zipf's law. Conversely, Lognormal distribution is a good benchmark for small single-product firms. The size distribution of firms largely depends on firms' diversification patterns.

  20. Factors Affecting the Growth and Production of Milk-Clotting Enzyme by Amylomyces rouxii in Rice Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jing Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylomyces rouxii is one of the main fungi usually coexisting with yeasts in Chinese yeast ball, the starter of chiu-niang, a traditional Chinese fermented product from rice. In the present study, growth and production of milk-clotting enzyme (MCE in gelatinous rice liquid culture of A. rouxii as influenced by waxy (gelatinous rice content in the medium (5–20 %, temperature (25–40 °C, cultivation time (1–6 days, shaking speeds (0–150 rpm and metal ions (Na+, K+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ were investigated. Results revealed that rice content in the medium, shaking speed, temperature and cultivation time all affected the mycelial propagation and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by A. rouxii in the rice liquid culture. The maximum milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.22 unit/mL of medium was observed in the 3-day static culture of test organism grown at 30 °C in the medium containing 20 % of gelatinous rice, while mycelial propagation increased with the increase of cultivation time and shaking speed. Furthermore, a significant increase (p<0.05 in the milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.90 unit/mL of medium, which was about 1.55-fold of the control, was observed when Al3+ was added to the rice liquid medium.

  1. Firming Up Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Song; David J. Price; Fatih Guvenen; Nicholas Bloom; Till von Wachter

    2015-01-01

    Earnings inequality in the United States has increased rapidly over the last three decades, but little is known about the role of firms in this trend. For example, how much of the rise in earnings inequality can be attributed to rising dispersion between firms in the average wages they pay, and how much is due to rising wage dispersion among workers within firms? Similarly, how did rising inequality affect the wage earnings of different types of workers working for the same employer—men vs. w...

  2. 14-Day thawed plasma retains clot enhancing properties and inhibits tPA-induced fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Shepherd-Singh, Raymond; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory R; Nunns, Geoffrey R; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-11-01

    Plasma-first resuscitation attenuates trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC); however, the logistics of plasma-first resuscitation require thawed plasma (TP) be readily available due to the obligatory thawing time of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The current standard is storage of TP for up to 5 days at 4°C, based on factor levels at outdate, for use in patients at risk for TIC, but there remains a 2.2% outdated wastage rate. However, the multitude of plasma proteins in attenuating TIC remains unknown. We hypothesize that TP retains the ability to enhance clotting and reduce tPA-induced fibrinolysis at 14-day storage. FFP was thawed and stored at 4°C at the following intervals: 14, 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1-day prior to the experiment. Healthy volunteers underwent blood draws followed by 50% dilution with TP stored at previously mentioned intervals as well as FFP, normal saline (NS), albumin, and whole blood (WB) control. Samples underwent tPA-modified (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography (TEG) with analysis of R-time, angle, maximum amplitude (MA), and LY30. TEG properties did not change significantly over the thawed storage. 14-day TP retained the ability to inhibit tPA-induced hyperfibrinolysis (median LY30% 9.6%) similar to FFP (5.6%), WB (14.6%), and superior to albumin (59.3%) and NS (58.1%). 14-day TP also retained faster clot formation (median angle, 66.2°) and superior clot strength (MA, 61.5 mm) to albumin (34.8°, 21.6 mm) and NS (41.6°, 32.2 mm). TP plasma stored for 14 days retains clot-enhancing ability and resistance to clot degradation similar to FFP. A clinical trial is needed to validate these in vitro results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global Sourcing and Firm Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms.......We analyze the sourcing strategies of firms active in the Spanish manufacturing sector. We show that firms that select strategies of vertical integration and of foreign sourcing ex post tend to have been more productive, ex ante, than other firms....

  4. Firms, crowds, and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, Teppo; Lakhani, Karim R; Tushman, Michael L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a (preliminary) taxonomy and research agenda for the topic of "firms, crowds, and innovation" and to provide an introduction to the associated special issue. We specifically discuss how various crowd-related phenomena and practices-for example, crowdsourcing, crowdfunding, user innovation, and peer production-relate to theories of the firm, with particular attention on "sociality" in firms and markets. We first briefly review extant theories of the firm and then discuss three theoretical aspects of sociality related to crowds in the context of strategy, organizations, and innovation: (1) the functions of sociality (sociality as extension of rationality, sociality as sensing and signaling, sociality as matching and identity), (2) the forms of sociality (independent/aggregate and interacting/emergent forms of sociality), and (3) the failures of sociality (misattribution and misapplication). We conclude with an outline of future research directions and introduce the special issue papers and essays.

  5. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...... is an organizational model called the collaborative community of firms. This chapter addresses an important organizational role in a collaborative community, that of the shared services provider. The shared services provider acts as a facilitator in the community, helping member firms collaborate with one another...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....

  6. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap...... by developing a model that allows for two "pure" explanations for the wage premium. The first is a heterogenous-worker explanation along the lines of Yeaple (2005), where firms that select more scaleintensive technologies select ex-ante more productive workers. In this case, the wage premium is a pure selection...... phenomenon. The second explanation builds on the heterogeneous-firm model of Melitz (2003) combined with on-the-job learning as in Markusen (2001). Productivity differences between firms are internalized by ex-ante homogeneous workers, so the wage premium is a pure learning phenomenon due to ex-post higher...

  7. Entrepreneurship and the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    While characteristically "Austrian" themes such as entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge and the temporal structure of capital are clearly relevant to the business firm, Austrian economists have said relatively little about management, organization and strategy. This work features...

  8. Corruption and firm behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...

  9. Firms, Technology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Sanchez, Aida

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation studies the effect of economic integration on the performance of firms. The ongoing process of global economic integration has been characterized by dismantling of trade barriers and openness to foreign direct investments (FDI). These changes have not only brought opportunities to firms in terms of market access and the possibility to learn about foreign technologies brought in by foreign counterparts. The new economic environment has also posed new challenges throu...

  10. Supervision in Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Vafaï , Kouroche

    2012-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/bandeau-haut/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2012.84 - ISSN : 1955-611X; To control, evaluate, and motivate their agents, firms employ supervisors. As shown by empirical investigations, biased evaluation by supervisors linked to collusion is a persistent feature of firms. This paper studies how deceptive supervision affects agency relationships. We consider a three-leve...

  11. Executive compensation and firm performance: Evidence from Indian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Raithatha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between executive compensation and firm performance among Indian firms. The evidence suggests that firm performance measured by accounting, as well as market-based measures, significantly affects executive compensation. We also test for the presence of persistence in executive compensation by employing the system-generalised methods of moments (GMM estimator. We find significant persistence in executive compensation among the sample firms. Further, we report the absence of pay–performance relationship among the smaller sample firms and business group affiliated firms. Thus, our findings cast doubts over the performance-based executive compensation practices of Indian business group affiliated firms.

  12. Some Important Milestones in the Field of Blood Clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2016-01-01

    Several different kinds of 'milestone' in the field of blood coagulation are described from the middle decades of the 20th century. Although viewed from the standpoint of clotting per se, attention is also given to implications for innate immunity. The first milestone considered is the protracted saga of clotting dependence on vitamin K, an adventure that spanned more than five decades beginning in the 1920s. The second has to do with the discovery of a half-dozen 'new' clotting factors during the period immediately following World War II. A third pursues a narrower focus and examines the once mysterious transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin. Finally, the clinical treatment of classical hemophilia had a remarkable turning point in the 1960s as the result of simple but sensible measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N; Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  14. Whom do new firms hire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Klepper, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Using the matched employer-employee data set for Denmark and information on the founders of new firms, we analyze the hiring choices of all new firms that entered from 2003 to 2010. We develop a theoretical model in which the quality of a firm’s employees determines its average cost, a firm......, and firm size influence the wages firms pay to their early hires. We find that beginning with the time of entry, larger firms consistently pay higher wages to their new hires. These are firms with greater survival prospects at the time of entry based on the pre-entry backgrounds of their founders...

  15. Leverage, Investment, and Firm Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Larry Lang; Eli Ofek; Rene M. Stulz

    1995-01-01

    We show that there is a negative relation between leverage and future growth at the firm level and, for diversified firms, at the segment level. Further, this negative relation between leverage and growth holds for firms with low Tobin's q, but not for high-q firms or firms in high-q industries. Therefore, leverage does not reduce growth for firms known to have good investment opportunities, but is negatively related to growth for firms whose growth opportunities are either not recognized by ...

  16. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.

    2008-01-01

    ), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. RESULTS: Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1......:42,500 was used. The CV for the different variables varied from 3 to 13 percent with no significant differences between assays. Storage of citrated WB significantly affected the TEG variables in a hypercoagulable direction. Only the R, however, was significantly affected (12%) when samples rested for 0 and 30...... minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. CONCLUSION: The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except...

  17. Modern Competitive Strategy Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of an ever increasing number of cases of successful application of old combat strategies in business practice. Nevertheless, the author refuses the so called “direct conflict“ of firms, when it is really fought for victory on the market. His approach is based on the philosophy of “victory without fight“, in other words – of achieving the aim without direct conflict with the rival firm.In the end he comes to the conclusion that combat philosophies are more and more often incorporated into classical approach of strategic firm control and become the integral part of philosophy of management. At the close happens to opinion that the one from basic factors absolutely necessary to creation such strategy at company, is necessary present so-called „creative intelligence“.

  18. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....

  19. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  20. The Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn; Hull Kristensen, Peer; Whitley, Richard

    . These processes occur at a number of levels which are explored in different empirical settings. Firstly, at the level of governance, multinational firms may develop conflicts between investors from different national contexts, for example between the arms-length orientation of Anglo-Saxon institutional investors...

  1. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    Both small and medium-size entrepreneurial firms face liabilities such as resource scarcity and scale diseconomies, making it difficult for them to innovate on a continuous basis. In response, experimentation with new ways of organizing for innovation has increased. One successful result is an or...

  2. Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Jayakody, J R A C; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2011-04-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K.

  3. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two strains of fungi were isolated and identified as Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium pinophilum which showed good enzymatic activity on casein, 1933.33U and 1822, 21U, respectively. The search for milk clotting enzymes by fermentation at acid pH on culture medium containing whey and, after purification by molecular ...

  4. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Biochem. Soc. Trans. 10:285. Hashem AM (2000). Purification and properities of a milk-clotting enzyme produced by Penicillium oxalicum. J. Bioresour. Technol. 75:219-222. Laemmli UK (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227: 680-685.

  5. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Margaret T; Rickles, Frederick R; Armstrong, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  6. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret T Armstrong

    Full Text Available In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin. The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  7. Comparative evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 and Aloe variegata milk-clotting enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a milk clotting enzyme (MCE produced by bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 were investigated and compared to those of rennet extracted from a plant (Aloe variegata. Production of MCE by B. licheniformis 5A5 was better in static than in shaken cultures. Maximum activity (98.3 and 160.3 U/ml of clotting was obtained at 75ºC and 80ºC with bacterial and plant rennet, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the clotting activity of Aloe MCE was found to be less sensitive to heat inactivation up to 80ºC for 75 min, retaining 63.8% of its activity, while bacterial MCE was completely inhibited. CaCl2 stimulated milk clotting activity (MCA up to 2% and 1.5% for bacterial and plant enzymes. NaCl inhibited MCA for both enzymes, even at low concentration (1%. Plant MCE was more sensitive to NaCl at 3% concentration it retained 30.2% of its activity, whereas bacterial MCE retained 64.1%. Increasing skim milk concentration caused a significant increase in MCA up to 6% for both enzymes. Mn2+ stimulated the activity of bacterial and plant enzymes to 158.6 and 177.9%, respectively. EDTA and PMSF increased the activity of plant MCE by 34.4 and 41.1%, respectively, which is higher than those for the bacterial MCE (19.1 and 20.9%. Some natural materials activated MCE, the highest activation of bacterial MCE (128.1% was obtained in the presence of Fenugreek (with acid extraction. However Lupine Giza 1 (with neutral extraction gave the highest activation of plant MCE (137.9%. All extracts from Neem plant increased MCA at range from 105.6% to 136.4%. Plant MCE exhibited much better stability when stored at room temperature (25-30ºC for 30 days, retaining 51.2% of its activity. Bacterial MCE was highly stabile when stored under freezing (-18ºC, retaining 100% of its activity after 30 days. Moreover, bacterial MCE was highly tolerant to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of activity for 8 months.

  8. A French National Survey on Clotting Disorders in Mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, Ana B; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Canioni, Danielle; Brouzes, Chantal; Gyan, Emmanuel; Durupt, Stéphane; Durieu, Isabelle; Cathebras, Pascal; Costédoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Launay, David; Pilmis, Benoit; Barete, Stephane; Frenzel, Laurent; Lortholary, Olivier; Hermine, Olivier; Hermans, Cedric; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia

    2015-10-01

    Mastocytosis is characterized by a clonal mast cell proliferation with organ infiltration and uncontrolled degranulation. Although not characteristic and poorly explained, some patients develop clotting abnormalities. We retrospectively identified patients with established diagnosis of mastocytosis and related clotting abnormalities (clinical and/or biological) using the national French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. From our cohort of 14 adult patients with clotting abnormalities (median age 46 years [range 26-75]), 4 had a presentation suggestive of a primary hemostasis disorder alone (by their symptoms and/or abnormal clotting tests [PFA, von Willebrand's disease [vWD] screening]) and 10 had a laboratory impairment of secondary hemostasis. Among these, 7 had bleeds characteristic of a coagulation cascade disorder (severe/life-threatening in 5 and mild in 2 patients). Clotting abnormalities were of variable severity, typically related to intense crisis of degranulation, such as anaphylactic reactions, and/or to severe organ infiltration by mast cells. Importantly, classical hemostatic management with platelet transfusion, fresh frozen plasma, or vitamin K infusions was unsuccessful, as opposed to the use of agents inhibiting mast cell activity, particularly steroids. This illustrates the crucial role of mast cell mediators such as tryptase and heparin, which interfere both with primary (mainly via inhibition of von Willebrand factor) and secondary hemostasis. There was interestingly an unusually high number of aggressive mastocytosis (particularly mast cell leukemia) and increased mortality in the group with secondary hemostasis disorders (n = 5, 36% of the whole cohort). Mast cell degranulation and/or high tumoral burden induce both specific biologic antiaggregant and anticoagulant states with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening bleeds. Hemostatic control is achieved by mast cell inhibitors such as steroids.

  9. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting aspartic proteinase from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Berta E; Brutti, Cristina B; Caffini, Néstor O

    2004-12-29

    The study of proteinase expression in crude extracts from different organs of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) disclosed that enzymes with proteolytic and milk-clotting activity are mainly located in mature flowers. Maximum proteolytic activity was recorded at pH 5.0, and inhibition studies showed that only pepstatin, specific for aspartic proteinases, presented a significant inhibitory effect. Such properties, in addition to easy enzyme inactivation by moderate heating, make this crude protease extract potentially useful for cheese production. Adsorption with activated carbon, together with anion exchange and affinity chromatography, led to the isolation of a heterodimeric milk-clotting proteinase consisting of 30- and 15-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF MS of the 15-kDa chain determined a 15.358-Da mass, and the terminal amino sequence presented 96% homology with the smaller cardosin A subunit. The amino terminal sequence of the 30-kDa chain proved to be identical to the larger cardosin A subunit. Electrophoresis evidenced proteinase self-processing that was confirmed by immunoblots presenting 62-, 30-, and 15-kDa bands.

  10. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung TW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tze-Wen Chung,1,3 Pei-Yi Lin,2 Shoei-Shen Wang,2 Yen-Fung Chen31Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 2Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP (ANPs or fibrinogen (FNPs were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP or FNP (clot/FNP were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1±14.0, 251.0±9.8, and 326.5±14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1±0.5, 20.6±1.9, and 15.3±1.5 mV (n=4, respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP, clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt% were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, were significantly (P<0.05 (n=4 shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS (clot/PBS (63.6%±3.1%, 48.3%±6.2%, and 63.2%±4.7%, respectively. The ∆F2

  11. Effects of calcium binding and of EDTA and CaEDTA on the clotting of bovine fibrinogen by thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perizzolo, K E; Sullivan, S; Waugh, D F

    1985-03-01

    Studies were carried out at pH 7.0 and gamma/2 0.15 before addition of CaCl2 or EDTA. Clotting time, tau, at 3.03 microM fibrinogen and 0.91 u/ml thrombin was determined for equilibrium systems. With added Ca2+, tau decreases, from tau 0 at 0 added Ca2+ (mean, 29.7 +/- 3 s), by approximately 3 s at 5 mM added Ca2+. With added EDTA, tau increases sigmoidally from tau 0 at 0 EDTA to a maximum (mean tau m = 142 +/- 23 s) at approximately 200 microM EDTA. tau then decreases slightly to a minimum at approximately 1.3 mM and finally increases to infinity at approximately 10 mM EDTA. Between 0 and 1.3 mM EDTA, effects on clotting time are completely reversed by adding Ca2+ and, after equilibration at 400 microM EDTA, tau is independent of EDTA concentration. Thus, up to 400 microM EDTA, effects on clotting time are attributed to decreasing fibrinogen bound Ca2+. Between 5 mM Ca2+ and 200 microM EDTA it is assumed that an equilibrium distribution of fibrinogen species having 3, 2, 1, or 0 bound calcium ions is established and that a clotting time is determined by the sum of products of species fractional abundance and pure species clotting time. Analysis indicates that pure species clotting times increase proportionately with decreasing Ca2+ binding, binding sites are nearly independent, and the microscopic association constant for the first bound Ca2+ is approximately 4.9 X 10(6) M-1. Effects of adding Ca2+ at times t1 after thrombin addition to systems initially equilibrated at 200 microM EDTA were determined. Analysis of the relation between tau and t1 indicates that as Ca2+ binding decreases, rate constants for release of B peptides decrease less than those for release of A peptides. As EDTA concentration is increased above 1.3 mM, inhibitory effects of EDTA and CaEDTA progressively increase.

  12. Belgian firms visiting CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2009-01-01

    25 – 26 MAY 2009 09.00 to 17.00 Monday 25 May 09.00 to 17.00 Tuesday 26 May Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or from the GS Department web pages here. List of Companies:Automation Services and Consulting BVBA Burrick NV, (PLC) Cissoid DB Engineering Design, Drafting & Services BVBA Entelec Control Systems GILLAM-Fei S.A. HPC ICSENSE IWT – Enterprise Europe Flanders Jema SA Mecasoft SA SA Polmans Rapid-Torc Resarm Engineering Plastics SA Sentera Europa NV SLC BVBA Stocker Industrie SA Technord Tecnubel Winlock BVBA For further information please contact Caroline Laignel (GS-DI 73722) or Karine Robert (GS-SEM-LS 74407).

  13. Servitization in Industrial Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad

    This booklet outlines the breadth and depth of services offered by Danish manufacturing companies, aiming to provide a better understanding of the servitization landscape in Denmark. A total of 1,103 company websites have been checked against 16 service categories. Of these, 939 companies were...... analyzed in more detail, for example with regard to the types of services offered, company size, industry representation, turnover and earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). The analysis presented in this booklet may inspire Danish firms and help them, in their servitization journeys, to position...... themselves in relation to other companies in similar or related industries. In setting out a brief overview of the overall industrial service landscape in Denmark, the following is highlighted: - The extent to which Danish industrial firms are communicating service offerings through their websites...

  14. Innovation in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filser, Matthias; Brem, Alexander; Gast, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , organizational culture and behaviour, resources, and innovation and strategy. Second, based on a thorough literature review the major research avenues are reflected. The comparison of the results of both analyses showed the following areas for future research on family firm innovation: members‘ individual human...... capital and their leadership behaviour, openness to externals, cross-country comparisons, and finally the family‘s functional integrity on innovation performance....

  15. Board diversity in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Menozzi, Anna; Fraquelli, Giovanni; Novara, Jolanda de

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with diversity as a key factor to improve the board of directors’ decision process in family firms. The empirical literature about board diversity points at the positive impact of diversity on board functioning and firm performance. The paper uses a statistical diversity index to capture the heterogeneity of board of directors and put it in relation with firm performance, as measured by firm profitability. The empirical analysis is based on a newly collected panel of 327 famil...

  16. Connected Firms and Investor Myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginglinger, Edith; Hébert, Camille; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Conglomerates, multinational corporations and business groups are non-exclusive forms of complex firms. Often organized as corporate networks, complex firms control a myriad of firms connected through ownership links. We investigate whether parent-subsidiary links within corporate networks enhance

  17. Effect of chitosan and coagulation factors on the wound repair phenotype of bioengineered blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Marchand, Catherine; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Poubelle, Patrice E

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the blood clot phenotype in a surgically prepared wound is an evolving concept in scaffold-guided tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the effect of added chitosan (80% or 95% Degree of Deacetylation, DDA) or coagulation factors (recombinant human Factor VIIa, Tissue Factor, thrombin) on inflammatory factors released by blood clots. We tested the hypothesis that 80% DDA chitosan specifically enhances leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) production. Human or rabbit whole blood was combined with isotonic chitosan solutions, coagulation factors, or lipopolysaccharide, cultured in vitro at 37°C, and after 4hours the serum was assayed for LTB 4 or inflammatory factors. Only 80% DDA chitosan clots produced around 15-fold more LTB 4 over other clots including 95% DDA chitosan clots. All serum contained high levels of PDGF-BB and CXCL8. Normal clots produced very low type I cytokines compared to lipopolysaccharide clots, with even lower IL-6 and IL-12 and more CCL3/CCL4 produced by chitosan clots. Coagulation factors had no detectable effect on clot phenotype. Conclusion In blood clots from healthy individuals, 80% DDA chitosan has a unique influence of inducing more LTB 4 , a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, with similar production of PDGF-BB and CXCL8, and lower type I cytokines, compared to whole blood clots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing Mesoscale Model of Fibrin-Platelet Network Representing Blood Clotting =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueyi; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Bowie, Sam; Alexeev, Alexander; Lam, Wilbur; Myers, David

    Blood clotting disorders which prevent the body's natural ability to achieve hemostasis can lead to a variety of life threatening conditions such as, excessive bleeding, stroke, or heart attack. Treatment of these disorders is highly dependent on understanding the underlying physics behind the clotting process. Since clotting is a highly complex multi scale mechanism developing a fully atomistic model is currently not possible. We develop a mesoscale model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to gain fundamental understanding of the underlying principles controlling the clotting process. In our study, we examine experimental data on clot contraction using stacks of confocal microscopy images to estimate the crosslink density in the fibrin networks and platelet location. Using this data we reconstruct the platelet rich fibrin network and study how platelet-fibrin interactions affect clotting. Furthermore, we probe how different system parameters affect clot contraction. ANSF CAREER Award DMR-1255288.

  19. Clot friction variation with fibrin content; implications for resistance to thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Gillian M; McArdle, Kevin; Mirza, Mahmood; Duffy, Sharon; Gilvarry, Michael; Brouwer, Patrick A

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in the procedural efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with ischemic stroke in recent years, there still remains a portion of the population that does not achieve good recanalization. The reasons for this may be varied. We hypothesized that static friction between the clot and the vessel, or catheter wall might contribute to the difficulty in removing the clot. To determine if there is a relationship between clot composition and the resistance to sliding (friction) which might contribute to resistance to clot removal. As clot composition can vary significantly, we investigated five different types of clot in order to measure their respective frictional properties. To do this, a custom-made testing apparatus was created, consisting of various replaceable low-friction surfaces on which the clots could be placed. The surface was then gradually tilted until the clots began to slide; the angle at which this occurred is related to the coefficient of friction of the clots. The experiment was repeated on a bovine aortic surface in order to confirm the results. We found that fibrin-rich clots (friction than clots with a red blood cell content >20%. This result was confirmed by repeating the experiment on a bovine aortic surface as a representation of the interaction between clots and the arterial wall. The friction properties of clots were found to be related to the content ratio of fibrin to red blood cells. Future imaging techniques that could show fibrin and red blood cell content might help us to predict the 'stickiness' of a clot. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Social security and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; Torm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how social security provision - a key determinant of formality - impacts on small and medium-sized firm performance in Viet Nam. Based on enterprise census data covering all registered firms from 2006 to 2011, the authors find that firms which increase their social...... security coverage by 10 per cent experience a revenue gain of 1.4-2.0 per cent per worker and a profit gain of up to 1.8 per cent, depending on the survival time of the firm. However, given the time lag between 'investment' (in social security contributions) and returns (enhanced firm performance...

  1. Makers of clotting medicine not entitled to liability shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-23

    The Indiana Court of Appeals, Second District, reversed a ruling that protected the manufacturer of a hemophilia blood clotting medicine from legal liability. A boy with hemophilia, known in court records as J.K.B. Jr., contracted HIV from the blood clotting medicine, Factor VIII. His parents sued four pharmaceutical companies, Armour Pharmaceutical Company, Cutter Laboratories, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, and Alpha Therapeutics Corporation, alleging that their products caused J.K.B. Jr.'s death. The companies convinced a Superior Court judge that they were protected under the Indiana Blood Shield Statute. The appeals court ruled that pharmaceutical companies are not included in the Blood Shield Statute. The statute was originally established to protect state-approved blood banks, hospitals, and blood storage facilities because they provide a vital public service.

  2. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude enzymatic extract obtained from five fermentations (300 g of wheat bran) was characterized by a clotting activity of 0.34 ± 0.08 UP/ml with a strength ratio of 1/1: 200. The comparative study of the summaries from 2 purification protocols showed that it is possible to recover 6% of the initial proteins with a 44.54% activity ...

  3. Effects of botropase on clotting factors in healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Shenoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of botropase on various clotting factors in human volunteers. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective open label study conducted on human healthy volunteers. After the baseline screening, subjects fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. On the study day, 1 ml of botropase was administered intravenously and after an hour same dose of botropase (1 ml was given by intramuscular (IM route. The efficacy and safety parameters were monitored up to 72 h from the time of intravenous (IV administration. Results: A total of 15 volunteers, belonging to 24-35 years of age were included in the study. Botropase significantly reduced the plasma level of fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products after 5 min of IV administration (P < 0.05. In addition, factor X was observed to reduce constantly by botropase administration suggesting enhanced turnover between 5 and 20 min of IV administration. Although botropase reduced clotting and bleeding time in all the volunteers, the data remains to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Present study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of botropase in human healthy volunteers. The study has shown that it is a factor X activator and reduces effectively clotting and bleeding time.

  4. Which firms use measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the anatomy of firms which adopt comprehensive performance measurement (PM) systems in order to gain an understanding of how internal (organisational capabilities) and external (perceived environmental uncertainties) factors shape performance...... – This paper concludes that a limited number of internal and external factors have a significant influence on the adoption of PM systems. There is no consistent pattern, however, between the different sub-categories of organisational capabilities/perceived environmental uncertainties and PM adoption...... this study indicate that the relationship between PM adoption and the organisational characteristics/external environment is more complicated than anticipated....

  5. Iodine based radiopacity of experimental blood clots for testing of mechanical thrombectomy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhong Hua; Chung, Alex; Choi, Gibok; Lin, Yih Huie; Pang, Huajin; Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Rösch, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Barium sulfate powder used for radiopacity of experimental blood clots (EBCs) for testing mechanical thrombectomy devices (MTD) has negative effects on EBCs mechanical properties. In vitro and in vivo exploration was performed to determine if the iodine based contrast medium will have less negative effects on the EBCs than barium. Fresh blood from 2 swine was used to create fibrinogen enhanced and thrombin initiated EBC in tubes. Iodine radiopacity was achieved by mixing the blood with 65% Iohexol or by soaking the EBCs for 2 or 24 hours in Iohexol. The EBCs opacified with barium served as controls. In vitro study: The EBCs were subjected to four tests, manual elongation, catheter injection, radiopacity and contrast wash out tests. In vivo study: The common carotid arteries of 2 swine were embolized by either barium EBC or EBC soaked for 24 hours in Iohexol. The duration of radiopacity of the different EBCs was compared. The EBCs opacified with Iohexol initially had higher radiopacity than the barium opacified EBCs. However, their opacity rapidly decreased with saline soaking and, particularly, after they were embolized in live animals. The mechanical properties of Iohexol opacified EBCs were inferior to barium opacified EBCs. The Iohexol mixed EBCs were less firm and elastic and half of them fragmented during catheter injection. The Iohexol soaked EBCs exhibited decreased tensile strength and elasticity compared to the barium EBCs. Compared to barium, iodine based contrast medium does not offer any advantage for opacifying EBCs

  6. Female Directors and Firm Performance: Evidence from UK Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pananda Pasaribu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of female directors on firm performance has lacked consistency in the previously conducted empirical studies, which may be due to the endogeneity problem, or certain characteristics (i.e. governance, industry, competition. This study examines the relationship between female directors and firm performance by addressing those problems. This study analyses all non-financial UK listed firms during the period 2004-2012 and employs several econometric models. The regression results indicate that there is little evidence that female directors have a positive and strong relationship with firm performance. But, further analysis reports that the UK’s small listed firms experience a positive significant effect, because small firms do not suffer from the problem of over-monitoring and they have more flexibility in composing their boards of directors.

  7. Danish firms visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2011-01-01

    30 – 31 JANUARY 2012 09:00 to 17:00 Monday 30 January 09:00 to 17:00 Tuesday 31 January Individual interviews will take place in technicians’ offices. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details available from the secretariat of their department or from the GS Department web page. List of Companies: · Axcon APS · BB Electronics A/S · B.Rustfrit Stal A/S · CIM Industrial Systems A/S · Danfysik A/S · Develco A/S · Eletronic A/S · GPV Group · Innoware A/S · JLI Vision A/S · NECAS A/S· NKT Cables A/S · Noliac A/S · Prodan A/S · Röttger’s Vaerktoj A/S · Vengcon APS For further information please contact Claudia Bruggmann Furlan  GS-IS-LS 73312 or Caroline Laignel GS-DI 73722.

  8. Sucralfate protects blood clots from peptic digestion by gastric juice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysaeter, Gunnar; Berstad, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    To test in vitro the ability of sucralfate to protect a blood clot from peptic digestion by gastric juice. Blood clots adhering to the bottom of plastic tubes were exposed to native acidic gastric juice or gastric juice to which Al-Mg antacids, sucralfate or alkali had been added. The tubes were tilted regularly at room temperature and clot digestion monitored by measuring the diameters of the clots. After 15 h, the liquids, but not the adherent clots, were poured out and the tubes refilled with native acidic gastric juice. Further clot digestion was measured, as before. Native gastric juice digested the clots completely during approximately 7 h, while in neutralized gastric juice or in gastric juice containing antacids or sucralfate no digestion was seen. In the second experiment, native gastric juice completely digested all remaining clots, except those previously exposed to sucralfate. A dose-response study indicated that gastric juice containing 3% or more of sucralfate had this long-lasting, clot-protective effect. In vitro, sucralfate adheres to and protects blood clots from digestion by gastric juice pepsin. This unique effect of sucralfate may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Female Directors and Firm Performance: Evidence from UK Listed Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Pananda

    2017-01-01

    The impact of female directors on firm performance has lacked consistency in the previously conducted empirical studies, which may be due to the endogeneity problem, or certain characteristics (i.e. governance, industry, competition). This study examines the relationship between female directors and firm performance by addressing those problems. This study analyses all non-financial UK listed firms during the period 2004-2012 and employs several econometric models. The regression results indi...

  10. Do Peer Firms Affect Firm Corporate Social Responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Shenggang Yang; Heng Ye; Qi Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Peer-firm strategies are a critical factor for corporate finance, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the main trend for evaluating the behavior of firms. On the basis of the connection between peer strategy and CSR, this paper explores the CSR strategies employed by a sample of Chinese firms during the 2008–2015 period. Our two main empirical findings are as follows. First, the CSR strategies of firms have a positive effect on their CSR behavior. Second, when there is the CSR gap be...

  11. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  12. Diversified boundaries of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    We analyze diversification of boundaries of local firms in developing countries under the economic globalization. The globalization has an aspect of homogenization of the world economy, but also has another aspect of diversification through international economic activities. Focusing on boundary-level of the firm, this article shows that the diversification from a comparison with boundaries of foreign firms in developed countries is brought by a disadvantage of technology deficit and a home a...

  13. The financing of innovative firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn H.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent are new and/or innovative firms fundamentally different from established firms, and therefore require a different form of financing? The theoretical background for this proposition is presented, and the empirical evidence on its importance is reviewed. Owing to the intangible nature of their investment, asymmetric-information and moral-hazard, these firms are more likely to be financed by equity than debt and behave in some cases as though they are cash-constrained, especially ...

  14. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  15. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  16. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  17. Cyclicality and Firm Size in Private Firm Defaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thais Lærkholm; Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh

    2017-01-01

    The Basel II/III and CRD IV Accords reduce capital charges on bank loans to smaller firms by assuming that the default probabilities of smaller firms are less sensitive to macroeconomic cycles. We test this assumption in a default intensity framework using a large sample of bank loans to private...

  18. The hydraulic permeability of blood clots as a function of fibrin and platelet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufsus, A R; Macera, N E; Neeves, K B

    2013-04-16

    Interstitial fluid flow within blood clots is a biophysical mechanism that regulates clot growth and dissolution. Assuming that a clot can be modeled as a porous medium, the physical property that dictates interstitial fluid flow is the hydraulic permeability. The objective of this study was to bound the possible values of the hydraulic permeability in clots formed in vivo and present relationships that can be used to estimate clot permeability as a function of composition. A series of clots with known densities of fibrin and platelets, the two major components of a clot, were formed under static conditions. The permeability was calculated by measuring the interstitial fluid velocity through the clots at a constant pressure gradient. Fibrin gels formed with a fiber volume fraction of 0.02-0.54 had permeabilities of 1.2 × 10(-1)-1.5 × 10(-4)μm(2). Platelet-rich clots with a platelet volume fraction of 0.01-0.61 and a fibrin volume fraction of 0.03 had permeabilities over a range of 1.1 × 10(-2)-1.5 × 10(-5)μm(2). The permeability of fibrin gels and of clots with platelet volume fraction of platelet volume fraction of >0.2 were modeled as a Brinkman medium of coarse solids (platelets) embedded in a mesh of fine fibers (fibrin). Our data suggest that the permeability of clots formed in vivo can vary by up to five orders of magnitude, with pore sizes that range from 4 to 350 nm. These findings have important implications for the transport of coagulation zymogens/enzymes in the interstitial spaces during clot formation, as well as the design of fibrinolytic drug delivery strategies. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transmission capacity and market power: the effect on a dominant generation firm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, David M.; Carey, Janis M.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of transmission on a firm's market power by analyzing the optimal dispatch for a dominant firm in a short-run regional electricity generation market. Application of our research to Colorado shows that the dominant firm can strategically congest transmission into the region to receive a maximum price 54.9% of the time. When it does not get the maximum price, the dominant firm can receive an 11.6% average markup over the competitive price. We show how the threat of entry across an enhanced transmission grid can increase competition and limit market power in Colorado. (Author)

  20. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-01-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the 131 I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL -1 (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL -1 , to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products 131 I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get valuable quantitative and

  1. Firm Traits and Web Based Disclosures in Top Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Ayuba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.

  2. A novel clot lysis assay for recombinant plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamialahmadi, Oveis; Fazeli, Ahmad; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant plasminogen activator (r-PA, reteplase) is an engineered variant of alteplase. When expressed in E. coli, it appears as inclusion bodies that require refolding to recover its biological activity. An important step following refolding is to determine the activity of refolded protein. Current methods for enzymatic activity of thrombolytic drugs are costly and complex. Here a straightforward and low-cost clot lysis assay was developed. It quantitatively measures the activity of the commercial reteplase and is also capable of screening refolding conditions. As evidence for adequate accuracy and sensitivity of the current assay, r-PA activity measurements are shown to be comparable to those obtained from chromogenic substrate assay.

  3. Travail et pouvoir d’agir d’Yves Clot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Leplat

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Yves Clot est titulaire de la Chaire de psychologie du travail du Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM au sein duquel il dirige l’équipe de clinique de l’activité. Cet ouvrage est le second qu’il publie dans cette collection, le premier « La fonction psychologique du travail » est paru en 1999. Entre les deux s’inscrivent un grand nombre de publications, dont beaucoup avec d’autres chercheurs, comme on pourra le constater en consultant la bibliographie de ce livre. Ce denier réun...

  4. Stakeholder Governance, Competition and Firm Value

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Marquez, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, the legal system or social norms ensure that firms are stakeholder oriented. We analyze the advantages and disadvantages of stakeholder-oriented firms that are concerned with employees and suppliers compared to shareholder-oriented firms in a model of imperfect competition. Stakeholder firms are more (less) valuable than shareholder firms when marginal cost uncertainty is greater (less) than demand uncertainty. With globalization shareholder firms and stakeholder firms ofte...

  5. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision...

  6. The Internationalisation of Service Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoeva, Denitsa Hazarbassanova

    The question the thesis aims at resolving is: How do the value creation logics of firms impact their internationalisation? The overall aim of this PhD project is to explore and test an approach to understanding the internationalisation of service firms, based not on opposing them to manufacturing...

  7. Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Correia Da Silva, L.

    2004-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows than UK and US firms.However, on a published profits basis, the pattern is reversed.Company law provisions and accounting policies account for these conflicting results.A partial adjustment model is used to estimate the implicit target

  8. Competitive Advantage of Interconnected Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    We model the complex interplay between firm-level variables, notably capabilities and performance, and relationship-level variables: relationship-specific assets and network context. We test how the network context of individual exchange relationships as well as firm-level capabilities jointly af...

  9. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  10. Does internationalization foster firm performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research in this dissertation concerns the impact of internationalization of business activities on several dimensions of firm performance. We show that the productivity ranking by trade status of Dutch manufacturing firms in increasing order of productivity is: non-traders, importers, exporters

  11. Technological Capability and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the relationship between investments in technological capability and economic performance in Brazilian firms. Based on economic development theory and on developed countries history, it is assumed that this relationship is positive. Through key indicators, 133 Brazilian firms have been analyzed. Given the economic circumstances of an emerging economy, which the majority of businesses are primarily based on low and medium-low-technology industries, it is not possible to affirm the existence of a positive relation between technological capability and firm performance. There are other elements that allow firms to achieve such results. Firms of lower technological intensity industries performed above average in the economic performance indicators, adversely, they invested below average in technological capability. These findings do not diminish the merit of firms’ and country’s success. They in fact confirm a historical tradition of a country that concentrates its efforts on basic industries.

  12. Thermal Blood Clot Formation and use in Microfluidic Device Valving Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shi, Wendian (Inventor); Guo, Luke (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of forming a blood-clot microvalve by heating blood in a capillary tube of a microfluidic device. Also described are methods of modulating liquid flow in a capillary tube by forming and removing a blood-clot microvalve.

  13. 42 CFR 410.63 - Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors... Other Health Services § 410.63 Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions... under § 410.10, subject to the specified conditions: (a) Hepatitis B vaccine: Conditions. Effective...

  14. A constitutive model for developing blood clots with various compositions and their nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Thomas H S; Donders, Wouter P; van de Vosse, Frans N; Peters, Gerrit W M

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical properties determine to a large extent the functioning of a blood clot. These properties depend on the composition of the clot and have been related to many diseases. However, the various involved components and their complex interactions make it difficult at this stage to fully understand and predict properties as a function of the components. Therefore, in this study, a constitutive model is developed that describes the viscoelastic behavior of blood clots with various compositions. Hereto, clots are formed from whole blood, platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma to study the influence of red blood cells, platelets and fibrin, respectively. Rheological experiments are performed to probe the mechanical behavior of the clots during their formation. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the mature clots is characterized using a large amplitude oscillatory shear deformation. The model is based on a generalized Maxwell model that accurately describes the results for the different rheological experiments by making the moduli and viscosities a function of time and the past and current deformation. Using the same model with different parameter values enables a description of clots with different compositions. A sensitivity analysis is applied to study the influence of parameter variations on the model output. The relative simplicity and flexibility make the model suitable for numerical simulations of blood clots and other materials showing similar behavior.

  15. A targeted ferritin-microplasmin based thrombolytic nanocage selectively dissolves blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Junyoung; Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Jee, Jun-Goo; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Heon; Kim, Soyoun; Kim, In-San

    2018-04-01

    The use of thrombolytic therapies is limited by an increased risk of systemic hemorrhage due to lysis of hemostatic clots. We sought to develop a plasmin-based thrombolytic nanocage that efficiently dissolves the clot without causing systemic fibrinolysis or disrupting hemostatic clots. Here, we generated a double chambered short-length ferritin (sFt) construct that has an N-terminal region fused to multivalent clot targeting peptides (CLT: CNAGESSKNC) and a C-terminal end fused to a microplasmin (μPn); CLT recognizes fibrin-fibronectin complexes in clots, μPn efficiently dissolves clots, and the assembly of double chambered sFt (CLT-sFt-μPn) into nanocage structure protects the activated-μPn from its circulating inhibitors. Importantly, activated CLT-sFt-μPn thrombolytic nanocage showed a prolonged circulatory life over activated-μPn and efficiently lysed the preexisting clots in both arterial and venous thromboses models. Thus, CLT-sFt-μPn thrombolytic nanocage platform represents the prototype of a targeted clot-busting agent with high efficacy and safety over existing thrombolytic therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning and expression of clt genes encoding milk-clotting proteases from Myxococcus xanthus 422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Sieiro, C; Villa, T G

    2004-10-01

    The screening of a gene library of the milk-clotting strain Myxococcus xanthus 422 constructed in Escherichia coli allowed the description of eight positive clones containing 26 open reading frames. Only three of them (cltA, cltB, and cltC) encoded proteins that exhibited intracellular milk-clotting ability in E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris expression systems.

  17. A constitutive model for developing blood clots with various compositions and their nonlinear viscoelastic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, T. H. S.; Donders, W. P.; van de Vosse, F. N.; Peters, G. W. M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties determine to a large extent the functioning of a blood clot. These properties depend on the composition of the clot and have been related to many diseases. However, the various involved components and their complex interactions make it difficult at this stage to fully

  18. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  19. Heat transfer analysis on peristaltically induced motion of particle-fluid suspension with variable viscosity: Clot blood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M M; Zeeshan, A; Ellahi, R

    2016-12-01

    In this article, heat transfer analysis on clot blood model of the particle-fluid suspension through a non-uniform annulus has been investigated. The blood propagating along the whole length of the annulus was induced by peristaltic motion. The effects of variable viscosity and slip condition are also taken into account. The governing flow problem is modeled using lubrication approach by taking the assumption of long wavelength and creeping flow regime. The resulting equation for fluid phase and particle phase is solved analytically and closed form solutions are obtained. The physical impact of all the emerging parameters is discussed mathematically and graphically. Particularly, we considered the effects of particle volume fraction, slip parameter, the maximum height of clot, viscosity parameter, average volume flow rate, Prandtl number, Eckert number and fluid parameter on temperature profile, pressure rise and friction forces for outer and inner tube. Numerical computations have been used to determine the behavior of pressure rise and friction along the whole length of the annulus. The present study is also presented for an endoscope as a special case of our study. It is observed that greater influence of clot tends to rise the pressure rise significantly. It is also found that temperature profile increases due to the enhancement in Prandtl number, Eckert number, and fluid parameter. The present study reveals that friction forces for outer tube have higher magnitude as compared to the friction forces for an inner tube. In fact, the results for present study can also be reduced to the Newtonian fluid by taking ζ → ∞. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P

  1. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  2. Reduced clot debris size using standing waves formed via high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifang; Du, Xuan; Wang, Xin; Lu, Shukuan; Shi, Aiwei; Xu, Shanshan; Bouakaz, Ayache; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to induce thrombolysis has been demonstrated previously. However, clinical concerns still remain related to the clot debris produced via fragmentation of the original clot potentially being too large and hence occluding downstream vessels, causing hazardous emboli. This study investigates the use of standing wave fields formed via HIFU to disintegrate the thrombus while achieving a reduced clot debris size in vitro. The results showed that the average diameter of the clot debris calculated by volume percentage was smaller in the standing wave mode than in the travelling wave mode at identical ultrasound thrombolysis settings. Furthermore, the inertial cavitation dose was shown to be lower in the standing wave mode, while the estimated cavitation bubble size distribution was similar in both modes. These results show that a reduction of the clot debris size with standing waves may be attributed to the particle trapping of the acoustic potential well which contributed to particle fragmentation.

  3. The Role of Firm Ownership on Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobdari, Bersant; Gregoric, Aleksandra; Sinani, Evis

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how different types of owners influence the extent of firm internationalization, measured by the share of firm exports in total sales. The results of the analysis carried out using firm level data of Estonian and Slovenian firms, show that the firms under the control...... in internationalization process. Finally, high market share also leads to increased internationalization through exports as firms seek to expand in foreign markets after having dominated the domestic ones....

  4. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  6. Organizational change in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    HENDRIKX, Karolien; VOORDECKERS, Wim; LAMBRECHTS, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Many organizational change efforts don’t live up to their expectations, with inefficiencies in the interaction process between organizational actors as one of the main potential reasons for this failure. Therefore, this paper will focus on the impact of interaction processes on change within the specific organizational context of family firms. Family firms are particularly interesting for organizational change research since they have several unique characteristics that may facilitate or hind...

  7. Growth of hydroxyapatite on physiologically clotted fibrin capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, T P; Sundaraseelan, J; Swarnalatha, K; Sobhana, S S Liji; Makheswari, M Uma; Sekar, S; Mandal, A B

    2008-01-01

    The growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on physiologically clotted fibrin (PCF)-gold nanoparticles is presented for the first time by employing a wet precipitation method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the characteristic functionalities of PCF and HAp in the PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown cuboidal nanostructures having a size in the range of 70-300 nm of HAp, whereas 2-50 nm sized particles were visualized in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have confirmed the presence of HAp. These results show that gold nanoparticles with PCF acted as a matrix for the growth of HAp, and that PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite is expected to have better osteoinductive properties

  8. Clotting of mammalian fibrinogens by papain: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2014-10-28

    Papain has long been known to cause the gelation of mammalian fibrinogens. It has also been reported that papain-fibrin is insoluble in dispersing solvents like strong urea or sodium bromide solutions, similar to what is observed with thrombin-generated clots in the presence of factor XIIIa and calcium. In those old studies, both the gelation and subsequent clot stabilization were attributed to papain, although the possibility that the second step might be due to contaminating factor XIII in fibrinogen preparations was considered. I have revisited this problem in light of knowledge acquired over the past half-century about thiol proteases like papain, which mostly cleave peptide bonds, and transglutaminases like factor XIIIa that catalyze the formation of ε-lysyl-γ-glutamyl cross-links. Recombinant fibrinogen, inherently free of factor XIII and other plasma proteins, formed a stable gel when treated with papain alone. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the intermolecular cross-linking in papain-fibrin leads to γ-chain dimers, trimers, and tetramers, just as is the case with thrombin-factor XIIIa-stabilized fibrin. Mass spectrometry of bands excised from gels showed that the cross-linked material is quite different from what occurs with factor XIIIa, however. With papain, the cross-linking occurs between γ chains in neighboring protofibrils becoming covalently linked in a "head-to-tail" fashion by a transpeptidation reaction involving the α-amino group of γ-Tyr1 and a papain cleavage site at γ-Gly403 near the carboxy terminus, rather than by the (reciprocal) "tail-to-tail" manner that occurs with factor XIIIa and that depends on cross-links between γ-Lys406 and γ-Gln398.

  9. Firm Exit, Technological Progress and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in the new heterogeneous-firms trade literature. In fact, several of the predictions on firm survival and exit stemming from this new class of models are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productiv......The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in the new heterogeneous-firms trade literature. In fact, several of the predictions on firm survival and exit stemming from this new class of models are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher...... productivity firms survive longer, most firm closures are young firms, higher productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export compared to less productive exporters and market exits as well as firm closures are typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. The present paper shows...... liberalization on export market exit and firm closure....

  10. PEMANFAATAN MILK CLOTTING ENZYME DARI Lactobacillus casei D11 UNTUK PEMBUATAN KEJU MOZZARELLA [Utilization of Milk Clotting Enzyme from Lactobacillus casei D11 for Mozzarella Cheese Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatussolihat -

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk Clotting Enzyme (MCE is an active agent for cheese making which may be produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB. MCE activity differs according to the LAB strains used. Lactobacillus casei D11 could produced MCE when it is grown in MRS broth medium. In this study, MCE of L. casei D11 with the addition of rennet is used and optimized for the production of mozzarella cheese using Response Surface Method (RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD. The organoleptic properties were determined by hedonics test involving 30 respondents and analyzed statistically which was followed by a Duncan's test. Furthermore, a proximate analysis of mozzarella cheese was conducted. Our results show that the MCE activity produced by L. casei D11 was 8.471 Soxhlet Unit with protease activity of 3.28 U/mL. The ANOVA results showed that the concentration of MCE significantly influence the production of curd. Theoptimum concentration of MCE and rennet for the production of curd suited for the production of mozzarella cheese were 20 and 0.002%, respectively, with a maximum predicted curd yield of 14.996% (g/100 mL milk which is increased by 13.9% as compared to the curd yield before optimization. The statistical analysis on taste, color, flavor, and cheese texture by respondents shows that mozzarella cheese made by a combination of 15% of MCE and 0.00079 and 0.0015% of rennet, were organoleptically superior to the commercial mozzarella used in this experiment. The proximate analysis shows that mozzarella produced has a moisture content of 33.34%(w/w, 3.48% ash, 30.44% fat, 25.12% protein, 7.53% carbohydrate and energy of 404 kkal/100g.

  11. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  12. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  13. Pengaruh Family Control, Firm Size, Firm Risk, Dan Firm Life Cycle Terhadap Profitabilitas Dan Nilai Perusahaan Sektor Industri Barang Konsumsi

    OpenAIRE

    Servin, Servin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of family control, firm size, firm risk, and firm lifecycle towards profitability and firm's value. Sampels were taken from 27 consumer goodscompanies, listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, ranging from 2010 – 2012. The hypotheseswere tested using multiple regression analysis. In this study, profitability was measured byROA (Return on Asset) and firm's value was measured by Tobin's q. The result were, familycontrol and life cycle stage-growth had negative i...

  14. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  15. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  16. High Milk-Clotting Activity Expressed by the Newly Isolated Paenibacillus spp. Strain BD3526

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL−1 of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in κ-casein was located at the Met106–Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  17. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  18. 40 CFR 745.89 - Firm certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm certification. 745.89 Section 745... § 745.89 Firm certification. (a) Initial certification. (1) Firms that perform renovations for compensation must apply to EPA for certification to perform renovations or dust sampling. To apply, a firm must...

  19. Selection of workers and firm heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA model based on differences between workers regarding their preferences for wage and leisure drives the heterogeneity of firms result. The more industrious workers are driven to small firms due to free riding in large firms. An industry consisting of small and large firms turns out to

  20. Process Ambidexterity for Entrepreneurial Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology-based entrepreneurial firms must effectively support both mainstream exploitation and new-stream exploration in order to remain competitive for the long term. The processes that support exploitation and exploration initiatives are different in terms of logistics, payoff horizons, and capabilities. Few firms are able to strike a balance between the two, where mainstream exploitation usually trumps new-stream exploration. The ultimate goal is for the firm to operate effectively in a repeatable, scalable, and systematic manner, rather than relying on good luck and hoping either to come up with the next innovation or for the product to function according to its requirements. This article builds on the author’s years of experience in building businesses and transforming medium and large-sized, entrepreneurial technology firms, leading large-scale breakthrough and sustained performance improvements by using and evolving Lean Six Sigma methodologies, and reviews of technology innovation management and entrepreneurship literature. This article provides a process-based perspective to understanding and addressing the issues on balancing mainstream exploitation and new-stream exploration in medium and large-sized entrepreneurial firms and extending it to startups. The resulting capability is known as process ambidexterity and requires disciplined, agile, and lean business management.

  1. Family firm research – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Part I of the article discusses the fundaments of family firms: the prevalence of and the agency conflicts within family firms. Part II summarizes the findings of recent U.S. family firm studies. It reviews the evidence on the family firm premium (how, which, and when family firms are associated with a valuation premium, the manifestation of the agency conflict between majority and minority shareholders in family firms, earnings quality and corporate disclosure, and the determinants of family ownership and control. Part III discusses the prevalence and characteristics of Chinese family firms and reviews the findings of related studies. The article concludes with some suggestions for future research.

  2. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density......Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...

  3. Knowledge management in the firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to innovation and illustrates how combinations of these might benefit firm performance. It also stresses the preconditions of employee involvement and participation to knowledge management and not least the importance of interaction with environmental resources. To improve performance firms should be aware......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set focus on, and discuss the concept of knowledge, and show how the interrelations between knowledge and other concepts, such as learning, have become a decisive element in managing human resources and firm performance. Design....../methodology/approach – The dimensions of knowledge management are identified and related to learning, organizational configurations, human resources management and institutional environments in order to identify and percent the most important approaches to knowledge management and the development over time. Findings – Creating...

  4. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  5. Stakeholder capitalism, corporate governance and firm value

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Marquez, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In countries such as Germany, the legal system is such that firms are necessarily stakeholder oriented. In others like Japan social convention achieves a similar effect. We analyze the advantages and disadvantages of stakeholder-oriented firms that are concerned with employees and suppliers compared to pure shareholder-oriented firms. We show that in a context of imperfect competition stakeholder firms have higher prices and lower output than shareholder-oriented firms. Surprisingly, we also ...

  6. The Verdoorn law, firm strategy and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartigh, den E.; Langerak, F.; Zegveld, M.A.; Geenhuizen, van M.; Trzmielak, D.M.; Gibson, D.V.; Urbaniak, M.

    2009-01-01

    In many markets and firms, positive feedback effects play an important role. Positive feedback effects mean that there is a tendency for that which is ahead to get further ahead, and for that which loses advantage to lose further advantage (Arthur, 1996). Such positive feedback effects result from

  7. Audit firm rotation, audit firm tenure and earnings conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, S.T.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Vasileiou, K.Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the debate around the possibility of mandating audit firm rotation. Specifically, it examines conservatism as an attribute of earnings quality, which has not attracted particular attention in the auditor rotation research. Applying regression analyses on a sample,

  8. Firm-Specific Learning and the Nature of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2007-01-01

    that a conjoint research program, encompassing both transaction costs and capabilities, must be developed and tested empirically. Cet article discute les limites d'une explication de l'existence de la firme fondée exclusivement sur les coûts de transaction en indiquant quelques facteurs additionnels susceptibles...... d'intervenir. Un modèle heuristique simple montre que les effets d'apprentissage spécifiques à la firme peuvent surmonter les coûts de surveillance des employés et expliquer l'existence de la firme même en l'absence de coûts de transaction liés au mode d'organisation de marché. Une comparaison de l......'importance relative des explications fondées sur les coûts de transaction et celles fondées sur les compétences en ce qui concerne l'existence de la firme montre qu'il n'y a aucune raison a priori de supposer la suprématie d'un type d'explication à l'autre. Nous soutenons qu'un programme de recherche conjoint...

  9. Firm Culture and Leadership as Firm Performance Predictors : a Resource-Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, C.P.M.; van den Berg, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we tested part of the resource-based view of the firm by examining two 'soft' resources, firm culture and top leadership, as predictors of 'hard' or bottom-line firm performance.Transformational top leadership was found to predict firm performance directly while the link between firm

  10. The Relationship between Offshoring Strategies and Firm Performance: Impact of innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Roza-van Vuren (Marja)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHow do offshoring strategies impact firm performance? And how are innovation, absorptive capacity and firm size influencing this relationship? This research investigates how firms of varying size, well-established firms and growing firms may profit from relocating business activities to

  11. Fibrin Clots Are Equilibrium Polymers That Can Be Remodeled Without Proteolytic Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Chernysh, Irina N.; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Purohit, Prashant K.; Weisel, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin polymerization is a necessary part of hemostasis but clots can obstruct blood vessels and cause heart attacks and strokes. The polymerization reactions are specific and controlled, involving strong knob-into-hole interactions to convert soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. It has long been assumed that clots and thrombi are stable structures until proteolytic digestion. On the contrary, using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we demonstrate here that the...

  12. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe; Eunice Leonora Chaplin; Maria das Graças de Souza Paiva; Nilton Rogério Santos Silva; Flávio A. Pacheco Araújo; Elinor Fortes

    1992-01-01

    The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  13. Why Do Distressed Firms Acquire?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Zhang (Quxian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAcquisitions made by distressed firms in recent years are economically important. This paper explores the rationale behind such acquisitions using a natural experiment. Exploiting a recent tax change which reduces debt restructuring costs for certain creditors and decreases bankruptcy

  14. Small firm transformation through IS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, Margi; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Globally, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are encouraged, particularly by governments, to embrace c-business. Fully adopting e-business involves substantial change in firms, both internally and externally. However, there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which such business

  15. Firm default and aggregate fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper

    This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes

  16. Improving the firm's environmental conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2001-01-01

    lead to strategic advantage and, thus, economic gains at the firm level. In view of the great importance of this claim, the purpose of the present article was to apply resource-based insights in order to develop this reasoning further and provide an empirical test of three hypotheses related...

  17. Disability Management in Small Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David

    1991-01-01

    Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…

  18. Drivers of Discretionary Firm Donations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.

  19. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  20. The application of large amplitude oscillatory stress in a study of fully formed fibrin clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, T. F.; Thomas, B. R.; Curtis, D. J.; Badiei, N.; Williams, P. R.; Hawkins, K.

    2017-12-01

    The suitability of controlled stress large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOStress) for the characterisation of the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fully formed fibrin clots is investigated. Capturing the rich nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of the fibrin network is important for understanding the structural behaviour of clots formed in blood vessels which are exposed to a wide range of shear stresses. We report, for the first time, that artefacts due to ringing exist in both the sample stress and strain waveforms of a LAOStress measurement which will lead to errors in the calculation of nonlinear viscoelastic properties. The process of smoothing the waveforms eliminates these artefacts whilst retaining essential rheological information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of LAOStress for characterising the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fibrin clots in response to incremental increases of applied stress up to the point of fracture. Alternating LAOStress and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements provide detailed information of reversible and irreversible structural changes of the fibrin clot as a consequence of elevated levels of stress. We relate these findings to previous studies involving large scale deformations of fibrin clots. The LAOStress technique may provide useful information to help understand why some blood clots formed in vessels are stable (such as in deep vein thrombosis) and others break off (leading to a life threatening pulmonary embolism).

  1. The Phosphatase Inhibitor Calyculin-A Impairs Clot Retraction, Platelet Activation, and Thrombin Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Hudák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin-A (CLA, on clot formation and on the procoagulant activity of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP samples were preincubated with buffer or CLA and subsequently platelets were activated by the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1 activator, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP. Clot retraction was detected by observing clot morphology up to 1 hour, phosphatidylserine- (PS- expression was studied by flow cytometry, and thrombin generation was measured by a fluorimetric assay. For the intracellular Ca2+ assay, platelets were loaded with calcium-indicator dyes and the measurements were carried out using a ratiometric method with real-time confocal microscopy. CLA preincubation inhibited clot retraction, PS-expression, and thrombin formation. TRAP activation elicited Ca2+ response and PS-expression in a subset of platelets. The activated PRP displayed significantly faster and enhanced thrombin generation compared to nonactivated samples. CLA pretreatment abrogated PS-exposure and clot retraction also in TRAP-activated samples. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect on calcium elevation and PS-expression, CLA significantly downregulated thrombin generation in PRP. Our results show that CLA pretreatment may be a useful tool to investigate platelet activation mechanisms that contribute to clot formation and thrombin generation.

  2. Mechanical Stability and Fibrinolytic Resistance of Clots Containing Fibrin, DNA, and Histones*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Colin; Varjú, Imre; Sótonyi, Péter; Szabó, László; Krumrey, Michael; Hoell, Armin; Bóta, Attila; Varga, Zoltán; Komorowicz, Erzsébet; Kolev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA and associated proteins produced by nucleosome release from activated neutrophils in response to infection stimuli and have recently been identified as key mediators between innate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. The interaction of DNA and histones with a number of hemostatic factors has been shown to promote clotting and is associated with increased thrombosis, but little is known about the effects of DNA and histones on the regulation of fibrin stability and fibrinolysis. Here we demonstrate that the addition of histone-DNA complexes to fibrin results in thicker fibers (increase in median diameter from 84 to 123 nm according to scanning electron microscopy data) accompanied by improved stability and rigidity (the critical shear stress causing loss of fibrin viscosity increases from 150 to 376 Pa whereas the storage modulus of the gel increases from 62 to 82 pascals according to oscillation rheometric data). The effects of DNA and histones alone are subtle and suggest that histones affect clot structure whereas DNA changes the way clots are lysed. The combination of histones + DNA significantly prolongs clot lysis. Isothermal titration and confocal microscopy studies suggest that histones and DNA bind large fibrin degradation products with 191 and 136 nm dissociation constants, respectively, interactions that inhibit clot lysis. Heparin, which is known to interfere with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, appears to prolong lysis time at a concentration favoring ternary histone-DNA-heparin complex formation, and DNase effectively promotes clot lysis in combination with tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:23293023

  3. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...... analysis of the various owner types, we discuss how each owner group’s main objectives, risk behavior and provision of resources influence their internationalization strategies and decisions (i.e. scale, scope and speed decisions)....

  4. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  5. Entrepreneurship and the Economics of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The study of entrepreneurship and the study of economic organizing lack contact. In fact, the modern theory of the firm virtually ignores entrepreneurship, while the literature on entrepreneurship often sees little value in the economic theory of the firm. In contrast, we argue in this chapter...... that entrepreneurship theory and the theory of the firm can be usefully integrated, and that doing so would improve both bodies of theory. Adding the entrepreneur to the theory of the firm provides a dynamic view that the overly static analysis of firm organizing cannot support. Moreover, adding the firm to the study...... of the entrepreneur provides important clues to how we can understand entrepreneurship....

  6. Do family CEOs impact firm value? An empirical analysis of Indian family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the association between family CEO and firm value on a sample of 288 family firms during the 6-year period, from 2009 to 2014. The sample is drawn from domestic private companies belonging to non-financial services sector included in the NSE CNX 500 index. We find that family CEO has no significant association with firm value, when the family is not the majority shareholder. Family shareholding has positive relationship with firm value, but does not moderate the relationship of family CEO with firm value. We show that family CEO and firm value are negatively related when the family does not hold majority equity stake in the family firm. While family shareholding has no significant relationship with firm value, it has a negative interaction effect on the relationship between family CEO and firm value. The research findings have important implications for family firms as well as the nonfamily investors in the family firms.

  7. Multiple Blockholder Structures and Family Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum-Guedri, Asma; Guedri, Zied; Delmar, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    This study examines how multiple blockholder structures affect family firm performance. Building on arguments from both principal–principal agency and familiness perspectives, we suggest that asymmetrical distribution of voting power among family and nonfamily blockholders hurts firm performance....

  8. Heterogeneity in Firm Performance During Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens to firms during periods of deep economic crisis? Did different types of firms perform differently under the economic crisis? With the aid of a rich database and focusing on the literature regarding the growth of firms, this paper investigates the relative profitability performance of Italian firms during the current economic crisis, exploring those factors, which help certain firms to do relatively better even in the slowdown period. Some preliminary results show that the Italian firms that are relatively young in age, with relatively better current liquidity and more focused on domestic market have performed better than other firms. Furthermore, firms operating in high-tech and in highly concentrated sectors have enjoyed a better performance in this period.

  9. An Aspirational Community Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    propose an aspirational community theory of the firm (ACT) as a candidate theory by conceptualizing the firm as an aspirational community, the core of which is a group of like-minded people sharing similar or same aspiration/vision. To explain the existence of the firm, we make a distinction between......All of the three major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, knowledge-based theory and the entrepreneurship theory, offer some insightful analyses of the nature of the firm. However, they all have limitations and weaknesses in answering the fundamental question of the existence...... of the firm. In addition, they are all partial due to their particular focus on the multifaceted phenomenon of the firm. We argue that it is necessary and sufficient to develop a comprehensive yet integrative theory of the firm that combines the three competing yet complementary logics. Toward this end, we...

  10. Reproducing the Firm : Routines, Networks, and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Chong-Simandjuntak, Liza; Geurts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Firm survival or reproduction does not occur as a matter of course. Especially under circumstances in which uncertainty and equivocality prevail is firm reproduction potentially problematic. Uncertainty prevails when there is insufficient or inadequate information to assess a situation, equivocality

  11. How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis...... may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all...... these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes...

  12. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  13. Firm Decisions: Determinants of Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The investment decision is part of a companies’ investment strategy. Defined as a logical set of technical and economic information, the investment strategy determines the main objectives of the firm regarding its investments, based on studies, analysis and simulations. It also establishes the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the objectives, methods of achieving them, sources of funding and resource allocation methods. Still, all these are influenced by several factors. The invest...

  14. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  15. The firm-nature relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Taking the stakeholder concept of the firm as a starting point, the paper presents data and analyses from a longitudinal study initiated in 1995 and repeated every four years. In discussing state-of-the-art insights and experiences, the paper identifies challenges which, if adequately addressed......, reducing it to a question of self-regulated eco-modernist actions. In closing, the paper addresses implications for academia and industry....

  16. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  17. Addition of a sequence from α2-antiplasmin transforms human serum albumin into a blood clot component that speeds clot lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gataiance Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma protein α2-antiplasmin (α2AP is cross-linked to fibrin in blood clots by the transglutaminase factor XIIIa, and in that location retards clot lysis. Competition for this effect could be clinically useful in patients with thrombosis. We hypothesized that fusion of N-terminal portions of α2-antiplasmin to human serum albumin (HSA and production of the chimeric proteins in Pichia pastoris yeast would produce a stable and effective competitor protein. Results Fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was efficiently secreted from transformed yeast and purified preparations contained within a mixed population the full-length intact form, while fusions with longer α2AP moieties were inefficiently secreted and/or degraded. The α2AP(13-42-HSA protein, but not recombinant HSA, was cross-linked to both chemical lysine donors and fibrin or fibrinogen by factor XIIIa, although with less rapid kinetics than native α2AP. Excess α2AP(13-42-HSA competed with α2AP for cross-linking to chemical lysine donors more effectively than a synthetic α2AP(13-42 peptide, and reduced the α2AP-dependent resistance to fibrinolysis of plasma clots equally effectively as the peptide. Native α2AP was found in in vivo clots in rabbits to a greater extent than α2AP(13-42, however. Conclusion In this first report of transfer of transglutamination substrate status from one plasma protein to another, fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was shown to satisfy initial requirements for a long-lasting, well-tolerated competitive inhibitor of α2-antiplasmin predicted to act in a clot-localized manner.

  18. International taxation and multinational firm location decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  19. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial...

  20. Clot formation and lysis in platelet rich plasma of healthy donors and patients with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Patalakh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemostatic balance in blood is affected by numerous factors, including coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins, the wide spectrum of their inhibitors, and blood cells. Since platelets can participate in contradictory processes, they significantly complicate the whole picture. Therefore, nowadays the development of global assays of hemostasis, which can reflect the physiological process of hemostasis and can be used for point-of-care diagnosis of thrombosis, is crucial. This paper outlines a new approach we used to analyze the capabilities of clot waveform analysis tools to distinguish the response of platelet-rich plasma from healthy donors and patients with arterial hypertension caused by stimulation of coagulation and lysis (with exogenous thrombin and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, respectively. In donor plasma, when the clot degradation was accompanied by 40 IU/ml of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, platelets potentiated fibrinolysis more than coagulation, which ultimately shifts the overall balance to a profibrinolytic state. At the same time, for patients with hypertension, platelets, embedded in clot obtained from platelet-rich plasma, showed a weaker ability to stimulate fibrinolysis. The obtained data gives the evidence that platelets can act not only as procoagulants but also as profibrinolytics. By simultaneously amplifying coagulation and fibrinolysis, making their rates comparable, platelets would control plasma procoagulant activity, thereby regulating local hemostatic balance, the size and lifetime of the clot. Moreover, clot waveform analysis may be used to distinguish the effects of platelet-rich plasma on clotting or lysis of fibrin clots in healthy donors and patients with essential hypertension.

  1. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  2. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  3. Does Firm Innovation Affect Corporate Social Responsibility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Shen (Rui); Y. Tang (Yi); Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the relationship between firm innovation and CSR. Stakeholders’ concern over transaction-specific investments exacerbates when firms engage heavily in innovation activities. To secure stakeholders’ support, firms adopt CSR effectively as an ex ante signal of

  4. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  5. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published

  6. The Dividend Policy of German Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andres, C.; Betzer, A.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as

  7. 7 CFR 51.893 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.893 Section 51.893 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.893 Firm. Firm means...

  8. 7 CFR 51.705 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.705 Section 51.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.705 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as applied to common oranges, means that the fruit may be slightly...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1551 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.1551 Section 51.1551 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1551 Firm. Firm means that the potato is not shriveled...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1831 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1831 Section 51.1831 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1831 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the...

  11. 7 CFR 51.696 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.696 Section 51.696 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.696 Firm. Firm as applied to common oranges, means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably...

  12. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm commitments. 200.47 Section 200.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm...

  13. 7 CFR 51.774 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.774 Section 51.774 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.774 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1156 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.1156 Section 51.1156 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1156 Firm. Firm as applied to common... oranges of the Mandarin group (Satsumas, King, Mandarin), “firm” means that the fruit is not extremely...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2843 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.2843 Section 51.2843 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the onion may yield slightly to moderate pressure but is not...

  16. 7 CFR 51.634 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.634 Section 51.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.634 Firm. Firm means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby, and the skin...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1012 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1012 Section 51.1012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1012 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit is...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1353 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.1353 Section 51.1353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1353 Firm. Firm means that the pear is fairly solid and...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3204 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.3204 Section 51.3204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3204 Fairly firm. Fairly firm...

  20. 78 FR 70987 - Proxy Advisory Firm Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Firm Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable discussion... advisory firms. The panel will be asked to discuss topics including the current state of proxy advisory firm use by investment advisers and institutional investors and potential changes that have been...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1006 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.1006 Section 51.1006 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1006 Firm. Firm means that the fruit is not soft or...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1824 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.1824 Section 51.1824 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Definitions § 51.1824 Firm. Firm means that the flesh is not soft...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1167 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.1167 Section 51.1167 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1167 Fairly firm. Fairly firm as...

  4. 7 CFR 51.765 - Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm. 51.765 Section 51.765 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.765 Firm. Firm means that the fruit is not soft...

  5. 7 CFR 51.643 - Fairly firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly firm. 51.643 Section 51.643 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...) Definitions § 51.643 Fairly firm. Fairly firm means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised, and...

  6. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  7. FOOD ENTREPRENEUR SUSTAINABLE ORIENTATION AND FIRM PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Gagnon; Pamela A. Heinrichs

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory research examines the relationship between food entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices in a mixed methods format. In particular we seek to address if entrepreneur behavior and firm practices are congruent with founding entrepreneur espoused support of sustainability. Our survey findings with thirty specialty food entrepreneurs suggest tenuous empirical support for the relationship of entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm ...

  8. Effect of low frequency ultrasound on combined rt-PA and eptifibatide thrombolysis in human clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Holland, Christy K; Pancioli, Arthur M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are used to treat thrombotic disease such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. Interest in increasing efficacy and reducing side effects has led to the study of adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and ultrasound (US) enhanced thrombolysis. Currently, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor and fibrinolytic treatment are often used in AMI, and are under investigation for stroke treatment. However, little is known of the efficacy of combined GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor, fibrinolytic and ultrasound treatment. We measure the lytic efficacy of rt-PA, eptifibatide (Epf) and 120 kHz ultrasound treatment in an in-vitro human clot model. Blood was drawn from 15 subjects after IRB approval. Clots were made in 20 microL pipettes, and placed in a water tank for microscopic visualization during lytic treatment. Clots were exposed to control, rt-PA (rt-PA), eptifibatide (Epf), or rt-PA+eptifibatide (rt-PA + Epf), with (+US) or without (-US) ultrasound for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C in human plasma. Clot lysis was measured over time, using a microscopic imaging technique. The fractional clot loss (FCL) and initial lytic rate (LR) were used to quantify lytic efficacy. LR values for (- US) treated clots were 0.8+/-0.1(control), 1.8+/-0.3 (Epf), 1.5+/-0.2 (rt-PA), and 1.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA + Epf) (% clot width/minute) respectively. In comparison, the (+ US) group exhibited LR values of 1.6+/-0.2 (control), 4.3+/-0.4 (Epf), 6.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA), and 4.6+/-0.6 (rt-PA + Epf). For (- US) treated clots, FCL was 6.0+/-0.8 (control), 9.2+/-2.5 (Epf), 15.6+/-1.7 (rt-PA), and 28.0+/-2.2% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. FCL for (+ US) clots was 13.5+/-2.4 (control), 20.7+/-6.4 (Epf), 44.4+/-3.6 (rt-PA) and 30.3+/-3.6% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. Although the addition of eptifibatide enhances the in-vitro lytic efficacy of rt-PA in the absence of ultrasound, the efficacy of ultrasound and rt-PA is greater than that of combined

  9. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I

  10. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  11. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  12. Political uncertainty and firm risk in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danglun Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The political uncertainty surrounded by the turnover of government officials has a major impact on local economies and local firms. This paper investigates the relationship between the turnover of prefecture-city officials and the inherent risk faced by local firms in China. Using data from 1999 to 2012, we find that prefecture-city official turnovers significantly increased firm risk. Our results show that the political risk was mitigated when new prefecture-city officials were well connected with their provincial leaders. In addition, the impact of political uncertainty was more pronounced for regulated firms and firms residing in provinces with low market openness.

  13. Firm Leverage and the Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Altunok; Arif Oduncu

    2014-01-01

    The firm growth dynamics is an important topic since the growth performance of firms is the main source of the economic growth in countries. Generally, crises produce a sharp decline in firms’ growth and this leads to a decline in both the level of employment and the income of households. This paper focuses on the role of firm leverage on the growth performance of the firm during the global financial crisis. We investigate whether the firms that experienced a large leverage increase before th...

  14. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pozzoli, Dario; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    /education significantly enhances firm performance as measured by firm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results – both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative effects on firm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative effects, coming from communication and integration...... costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive effects of diversity on firm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we find that ethnic diversity is valuable for firms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade...... openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and access to global markets....

  15. Do Treasure Islands Create Firm Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    They do! Otherwise, their use would not have been so prevalent among firms. How much firm value they create, however, is still an open question. Exploiting a political event in the U.K. that suddenly raised the cost of using tax havens, we find that there was a 0.87% reduction in cumulative...... abnormal return (CAR) among the sampled firms, corresponding to about £532 million in market capitalization. The firms of stronger corporate governance registered a stronger reduction in CAR. A simple linear extrapolation suggests that the firm value contributed by tax havens can be as much as £31 billion....

  16. Toward an Integrative Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    understand the nature and behaviors of the firm, we need a comprehensive yet integrative theory. Toward this end, this paper proposes a relationship-based theory of the firm (R’BT) which claims that it is the relationships between the entrepreneur and other individuals or firms that determine the existence......This paper argues that the existing four major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, resource-based view, the entrepreneurial theory, and the stakeholder theory, are all insightful yet partial because each of them has a particular focus on the phenomenon of the firm. To better...

  17. Women in Top Management and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    -observations for all Danish firms with more than 50 employees over the period 1994-2003, the analysis suggests that the proportion of women in top management jobs has from none to positive influence on firm performance. However, the results show that the strength of the effects of women in top management depends...... on how top CEOs are defined and on the method of estimation of the model. Next, the results point towards a positive influence on firm performance of the staff representation in the supervisory board of the firm but more women representing the shareholders in the supervisory board of the firm seems...

  18. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  19. Division of Labor, Transaction Cost, Emergence of the Firm and Firm Size

    OpenAIRE

    Pak-Wai Liu; Xiaokai Yang

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a general equilibrium model is constructed to explain the emergence of firms and change in firm size by the tradeoff between economies of specialization and transaction cost. We show that firms emerge from the development of division of labor if the transaction efficiency for labor is smaller than that for intermediate goods. Given the emergence of firms, change in the average size of firms (average employment) will depend on the change in transaction efficiency for intermediate...

  20. Firm Innovation and the Ratchet Effect Among Consumer Packaged Goods Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Moorman; Simone Wies; Natalie Mizik; Fredrika J. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    We consider how public firms influence their stock market valuations by timing the introduction of innovative new products. Our focus is on innovation ratchet strategy --firms timing the introduction of innovations in order to demonstrate an improvement in the number of introductions over time. We document that public firms use an innovation ratchet strategy more often than do private firms and that the stock market rewards public firms for doing so. These rewards from the stock market, howev...

  1. The theory of the firm. Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as an information processor. In addition, the collection features perspectives from business strategy and business history as well as methodological and doctrinal historical perspectives. Including over 60 classic papers, these volumes collect together contributions on the theory of the firm, beginning with Ronald......Firms have for a long time been part of the explanatory set-up of economics. However, it is only recently that economists have felt the need for an economic theory addressing: why firms are different; why firms exist; what determines their boundaries relative to "the market"; and what determines...... their internal organization. This collection documents the rise of the modern theory of the firm during the last two to three decades. It reprints classic writings from a diversity of perspectives, including not only contractual theories of the firm, but also knowledge-based theories and theories of the firm...

  2. Technology Licensing and Firm Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon

    acquisition. The findings indicate that technology licensing is positively related to the number of inventions produced by the licensee in the years subsequent to the licensing deal. Subsequently, I investigate the moderating effect that organizational slack and myopia have on this main relationship....... The findings also suggest that high levels of Organizational Slack (available financial resources) strengthen the positive effect of licensing on innovation. However, higher levels of Organizational Myopia (the extent to which a firm draws on its own knowledge) can decrease the main effect of licensing....

  3. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  4. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  5. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera) Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50), and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD) values of BV were determined. Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs) = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa), respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  6. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  7. Artificial Stroke Clots: How Wide is the Gap to the Real World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Maria; Prothmann, Sascha; Maegerlein, Christian; Oberdieck, Paul; Zimmer, Claus; Hegge, Barbara; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Schirmer, Lucas; Poppert, Holger; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Especially since the establishment of mechanical thrombectomy as part of standard stroke therapy, artificial thrombi have become important in the training of interventionalists as well as for the development and testing of devices. So far, these in vitro clots have lacked direct comparisons with ex vivo thrombi. We therefore compared the histologic appearance of dynamically produced clots with that of stroke thrombi acquired during mechanical recanalization. Thrombi of 145 consecutive patients with stroke with large-vessel occlusions were histologically compared with 10 artificial clots, dynamically created from human blood and pig's blood using a Chandler loop system. Quantified FP/RBC ratios (fibrin/platelets divided by red blood cell fraction) and white blood cell (WBC) fractions were identified and compared between artificial (human and pig) and ex vivo thrombi obtained from patients with various stroke causes. There were no significant differences in the analysis of FP/RBC ratios between artificial thrombi and ex vivo thrombi (P = 0.42) or in the more precise analyses considering etiologic subgroups. Distinct differences were observed for the WBC fraction, with lower values in artificial thrombi (median, 1.34%) than in ex vivo thrombi (median, 5%) (P < 0.001). The main clot components, FP and RBC, are presumably the most influential factors for clot stability and mechanical resistance. Similarities between artificially generated and ex vivo stroke clots (and when considering different stroke subgroups) support the usefulness of these artificial thrombi in the pre-evaluation of thrombus extraction devices and as appropriate training material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Platelet Counts in Insoluble Platelet-Rich Fibrin Clots: A Direct Method for Accurate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP fractions were clotted with CaCl2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator. Platelet counts were estimated before clotting and after digestion using an automatic hemocytometer. The method was then tested on PRF clots. The quality of platelets was examined by scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. In PRP-derived fibrin matrices, the recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells was 91.6 and 74.6%, respectively, after 24 h of digestion. In PRF clots associated with small and large red thrombi, platelet counts were 92.6 and 67.2% of the respective total platelet counts. These findings suggest that our direct method is sufficient for estimating the number of platelets trapped in an insoluble fibrin matrix and for determining that platelets are distributed in PRF clots and red thrombi roughly in proportion to their individual volumes. Therefore, we propose this direct digestion method for more accurate estimation of platelet counts in most types of platelet-enriched fibrin matrix.

  9. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  10. Founder Control, Ownership Structure and Firm Value: Evidence from Entrepreneurial Listed Firms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Xia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In emerging markets, the deviation between the ultimate controlling shareholders' voting rights and their cash flow rights (hereafter “DVC” in the listed firms is quite prevalent. DVC could be introduced due to the ultimate controlling shareholders' opportunistic incentives, as well as by their incentives to improve firm efficiency. This study uses 229 listed firms ultimately controlled by individuals or families (hereafter “entrepreneurial firms” for 2004 in China, to investigate the effect of DVC on firm value and to determine whether it is different between founder and non-founder controlled firms. We find that DVC has a positive effect on firm value for founder controlled firms. This result implies that investors believe that their interests are better protected by founder controlled firms than by non-founder controlled firms.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC "SENTINEL CLOT SIGN" TO IDENTIFY BLEEDING ABDOMINAL ORGANS IN DOGS WITH HEMOABDOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchi, Swan; Auriemma, Edoardo; Morabito, Simona; Ferri, Filippo; Zini, Eric; Piola, Valentina; Pey, Pascaline; Rossi, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The CT "sentinel clot sign" has been defined as the highest attenuation hematoma adjacent to a bleeding organ in humans with hemoabdomen. The aims of this retrospective descriptive multicenter study were to describe CT findings in a sample of dogs with surgically or necropsy confirmed intra-abdominal bleeding and determine prevalence of the "sentinel clot sign" adjacent to the location of bleeding. Medical records between 2012 and 2014 were searched for dogs with hemoabdomen and in which the origin of the bleeding was confirmed either with surgery or necropsy. Retrieved CT images were reviewed for the presence and localization of the "sentinel clot sign," HU measurements of the "sentinel clot sign" and hemoabdomen, and presence of extravasation of contrast media within the abdominal cavity. Nineteen dogs were included. Three dogs were excluded due to the low amount of blood that did not allow the identification of a "sentinel clot sign." A "sentinel clot sign" was detected in the proximity of the confirmed bleeding organ in 14/16 (88%) of the patients. The mean HU of the "sentinel clot sign" was 56 (range: 43-70) while that of the hemoabdomen was 34 (range: 20-45). Active hemorrhage was identified as extravasation of contrast medium within the peritoneal cavity from the bleeding organ in three dogs. In conclusion, the CT "sentinel clot sign" may be helpful for identifying the source of bleeding in dogs with hemoabdomen. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Examining platelet-fibrin interactions during traumatic shock in a swine model using platelet contractile force and clot elastic modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J; Martin, Erika J; Brophy, Donald F; Ward, Kevin R

    2011-07-01

    A significant proportion of severely injured patients develop early coagulopathy, characterized by abnormal clot formation, which impairs resuscitation and increases mortality. We have previously demonstrated an isolated decrease in clot strength by thrombelastography in a swine model of nonresuscitated traumatic shock. In order to more closely examine platelet-fibrin interactions in this setting, we define the observed decrease in clot strength in terms of platelet-induced clot contraction and clot elastic modulus using the Hemostasis Analysis System (HAS) (Hemodyne Inc., Richmond, Virginia, USA). Whole blood was sampled for HAS measurements, metabolic measurements, cell counts, and fibrinogen concentration at baseline prior to injury and again at a predetermined level of traumatic shock defined by oxygen debt. Male swine (N=17) received femur fracture and controlled arterial hemorrhage to achieve an oxygen debt of 80 ml/kg. Platelet counts were unchanged, but fibrinogen concentration was reduced significantly during shock (167.6 vs. 66.7 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Platelet contractile force generated during clot formation did not change during shock (11.7 vs. 10.4 kdynes, P=0.41), but clot elastic modulus was dynamically altered, resulting in a lower final value (22.9 vs. 17.3 kdynes/cm, Pshock, platelet function was preserved, whereas terminal clot elastic modulus was reduced during shock in a manner most consistent with early changes in the mechanical properties of the developing fibrin fiber network.

  13. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  14. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  15. Foreign Exchange Exposures of Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbin Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measure foreign exchange exposures as sensitivity of firm's value to FX premium in the CAPM plus FX premium model, and try to find determinants of the exposures; using data of non-financial companies listed in the Korea Exchange from the year 2007 to 2008. Main findings are as follows. If Korean won depreciates, only a small number of firms is benefitted while majority of firms are harmed to the contrary of common knowledge. As a firm's export increases, the foreign exchange exposure increases up to a certain level and after that it declines. And, smaller firms of negative foreign exchange exposures are more sensitive to foreign exchange changes. These suggest heterogeneous effects of foreign exchange rates on industries and firms.

  16. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    ) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...... on the export market are less efficient than competitors on the domestic market. We estimate micro-level price cost margins (PCMs) using firm-level data extending the techniques developed by Hall (1986, 1988) and extended by Domowitz et al. (1988) and Roeger (1995) for the French manufacturing industry from......In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2...

  17. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  18. Agility in a small software firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Mathiassen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Small software firms are vulnerable to environmental uncertainty. While agile methods and other technologies offer suggestions to this challenge, we know little about how these firms combine project and firm level capabilities to effectively respond to changes. On this backdrop, we examine a small...... Danish software firm, TeachTech Inc., through the lens of Haeckel's sense-and-respond approach. Our analysis suggests that: the firm has appropriate sense-and-respond cycles, but improving process modularity and human resource flexibility, could increase its ability to respond faster and more effectively......; the firm focuses on specific business goals, but these are not clearly explicated and expressed as empowering governing values enabling a quick and coordinated response; complex and demanding challenges are related to dynamically reassigning commitments and the supporting mechanisms are insufficient...

  19. Working Capital Management and Firm Listing Status

    OpenAIRE

    Seraina Anagnostopoulou

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively examines the determinants of working capital management for listed vs. unlisted firms, and assesses the impact of this policy on profitability by focusing on the cash conversion cycle, a commonly used measure of working capital management. By using a large UK public and private firm sample, it is found that private firms have significantly lower cash conversion cycles than their public counterparts, and that traditional determinants of the cycle significantly differ b...

  20. The Firm as a Competent Team

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    Results from empirical studies of firm behavior are synthesized into, a theory of the firm as a competent team. I demonstrate the existence of a tacit organizational competence exercising a leverage on the productivities of all other factors through selecting and allocating competent people, thus earning a monopoly rent in the capital market. The competence identified can only be fairly compensated through sharing in firm value growth in the equity market, exhibiting undervaluation of prime a...

  1. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  2. Peculiarities Of Financial Management In Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Martin R. W. Hiebl

    2012-01-01

    The majority of firms in market-oriented countries are family-owned. Despite their significant economic importance for these countries, research focusing on family firms is a rather young field within business research, having intensified starting only in the late 1980s. Research regarding the peculiarities of financial management in family firms is especially scarce. Hence, this paper seeks to synthesize existing research and to theoretically analyze the finance and accounting practices and ...

  3. Agglomeration Premium and Trading Activity of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Bekes; Peter Harasztosi

    2010-01-01

    Firms may benefit from proximity to each other due to the existence of several externalities. The productivity premia of firms located in agglomerated regions an be attributed to savings and gains from external economies. However, the capacity to absorb information may depend on activities of the firm, such as involvement in international trade. Importers, exporters and two-way traders are likely to employ a different bundle of resources and be organised differently so that they would appreci...

  4. Technological Innovation Capabilities and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Richard C.M. Yam; William Lo; Esther P.Y. Tang; Antonio; K.W. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Technological innovation capability (TIC) is defined as a comprehensive set of characteristics of a firm that facilities and supports its technological innovation strategies. An audit to evaluate the TICs of a firm may trigger improvement in its future practices. Such an audit can be used by the firm for self assessment or third-party independent assessment to identify problems of its capability status. This paper attempts to develop such an auditing framework that can...

  5. Leverage, monetary policy, and firm investment

    OpenAIRE

    Charles X. Hu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate whether the effects of monetary policy on firm investment can be transmitted through leverage. I find that monetary contractions reduce the growth of investment more for highly leveraged firms than for less leveraged firms. The results suggest that the board credit channel for monetary policy exists, and that it can operate through leverage, as adverse monetary shocks aggravate real debt burdens and raise the effective costs of investment.

  6. How does firm performance influence market orientation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    This paper contributes by investigating how firm performance influences its market orientation. We draw on the aspiration-level model from the behavioral theory of the firm to develop testable propositions that substantiate and extend prior market orientation research. Specifically, we address how...... performance influences firms' market-oriented search behavior (responsive or proactive) and the allocation of attention (customer and competitor orientation) as well as the formation of aspiration levels. Research and managerial implications are discussed....

  7. Firm Size Distribution in Fortune Global 500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinghua; Chen, Liujun; Liu, Kai

    By analyzing the data of Fortune Global 500 firms from 1996 to 2008, we found that their ranks and revenues always obey the same distribution, which implies that worldwide firm structure has been stable for a long time. The fitting results show that simple Zipf distribution is not an ideal model for global firms, while SCL, FSS have better fitting goodness, and lognormal fitting is the best. And then, we proposed a simple explanation.

  8. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find...... diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers....... that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically...

  9. Shared vision promotes family firm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John E

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  10. Shared Vision promotes family firm performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Neff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS, Role Clarity (RCL, Confidence in Management (CON, and Professional Networking (OLN that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR, the functional integrity of the family itself exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  11. International working capital practices of Ghanaian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available International working capital management is important to firms frequently operating in the international market. This article investigates the international working capital practices of top Ghanaian firms involved in international trade. The objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which Ghanaian firms use international working capital management vehicles. The article focuses on two main areas of international working capital management; international cash management and international sales and accounts receivables management. The results of this study reveal low level of use of international working capital vehicles among Ghanaian firms. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  12. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...

  13. Industrial environmental practices in Polish Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    , and environment. The five case firms all had a Communist past. The firms represent three different industrial sectors; i.e. textile, energy, and publishing and printing industries. Furthermore, the firms are both private and state owned as well as in the process of privatisation.......The study investigates how discursive developments in Poland interact with industrial environmental practices in five production firms. The analysis of the discursive development covers the period from the end of World War I to the turn of the century. The areas in focus are identity, industry...

  14. Plasma fibrin clot properties in the G20210A prothrombin mutation carriers following venous thromboembolism: the effect of rivaroxaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Natorska, Joanna; Siudut, Jakub; Ząbczyk, Michal; Stanisz, Andrzej; Undas, Anetta

    2017-08-30

    We sought to investigate whether the G20210A prothrombin mutation modifies plasma fibrin clot properties in patients after venous thromboembolism (VTE) and how rivaroxaban treatment affects these alterations. We studied 34 prothrombin mutation heterozygous carriers and sex- and age-matched 34 non-carriers, all at least three months since the first VTE episode, before and during treatment with rivaroxaban. Clot permeability (K s ) and clot lysis time (CLT) with or without elimination of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were assessed at baseline, 2-6 hours (h) after and 20-25 h after intake of rivaroxaban (20 mg/day). At baseline, the prothrombin mutation group formed denser clots (K s -12 %, p=0.0006) and had impaired fibrinolysis (CLT +14 %, p=0.004, and CLT-TAFI +13 %, p=0.03) compared with the no mutation group and were similar to those observed in 15 healthy unrelated prothrombin mutation carriers. The G20210A prothrombin mutation was the independent predictor for K s and CLT before rivaroxaban intake. At 2-6 h after rivaroxaban intake, clot properties improved in both G20210A carriers and non-carriers (K s +38 %, and +37 %, CLT -25 % and -25 %, CLT-TAFI -20 % and -24 %, respectively, all pCLT +17 %, CLT-TAFI +13 %, all p<0.001). Rivaroxaban concentration correlated with fibrin clot properties. After 20-25 h since rivaroxaban intake most clot properties returned to baseline. Rivaroxaban-related differences in clot structure were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. In conclusion, rivaroxaban treatment, though improves fibrin clot properties, cannot abolish more prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype observed in prothrombin mutation carriers following VTE.

  15. Plasma Clot Lysis Time and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Black Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); M. Pieters (Marlien); J.C. Jerling (Johann); A. Kruger (Annamarie); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStudies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION OF PIPES CONTAINING MOBILE BOILING FLUID CLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Tolbatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling dynamic behavior of a pipe containing inner nonhomogeneous flows of a boiling fluid has been carried out. The system vibrations at different values of the parameters of the flow nonhomogeneity and its velocity are observed. The possibility of forming stable and unstable flows depending on the character ofnonhomogeneity and the velocity of fluid clots has been found.

  17. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. PMID:26912749

  18. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification.

  20. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk ( Capra hircus ) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ease to locally produce kid rennet contrary to that of calve has led us to compare the proteolytic and clotting activities of these two rennets depending on their action on goat (Capra hircus) milk and cow (Bos taurus) milk. The proteolysis was measured by determining the increase of non-protein nitrogen according to the ...

  1. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three strains, Bacillus subtilis B1, B. subtilis B18 and Bacillus thuringiensis B12, were screened from wheat bran to produce milk-clotting enzyme. Among them, B. subtilis B1 exhibited considerable milkclotting activity with low proteolytic activity. After response surface methodology optimization, milkclotting activity was ...

  2. Thrombin-Accelerated Quick Clotting Serum Tubes: An Evaluation with 22 Common Biochemical Analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yoong Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clot activator serum tubes have significantly improved turnaround times for result reporting compared to plain tubes. With increasing workload and service performance expectations confronting clinical laboratories with high-volume testing and with particular emphasis on critical analytes, attention has focussed on preanalytical variables that can be improved. We carried out a field study on the test performance of BD vacutainer rapid serum tubes (RSTs compared to current institutional issued BD vacutainer serum separator tubes (SSTs in its test result comparability, clotting time, and stability on serum storage. Data from the study population (n=160 of patients attending outpatient clinics and healthy subjects showed that results for renal, liver, lipids, cardiac, thyroid, and prostate biochemical markers were comparable between RSTs and SSTs. Clotting times of the RSTs were verified to be quick with a median time of 2.05 min. Analyte stability on serum storage at 4°C showed no statistically significant deterioration except for bicarbonate, electrolytes, and albumin over a period of 4 days. In conclusion, RSTs offered savings in the time required for the clotting process of serum specimens. This should translate to further trimming of the whole process from blood collection to result reporting without too much sacrifice on test accuracy and performance compared to the current widely used SSTs in most clinical laboratories.

  3. Characterisation of clotting factors, anticoagulant protein activities and viscoelastic analysis in healthy donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ecija, A; Mendoza, F J

    2017-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated differences in commonly measured haemostatic parameters between donkeys and horses. Whether clotting factors, anticoagulant protein activities and thromboelastography parameters also differ between species is still unknown. To characterise haemostatic parameters in healthy donkeys and to compare these with those in horses. Cross-sectional study. Clotting factors (V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII), and antithrombin III, Protein C and Protein S activities were measured in 80 healthy Andalusian and crossbred donkeys and 40 healthy Andalusian crossbred horses with assays based on human deficient plasmas. Thromboelastography was performed in 34 donkeys using a coagulation and platelet function analyser. Donkeys had shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (mean ± s.d. 33.4 ± 5.2 s vs. 38.8 ± 4.2 s; P0.05) and XII (96 ± 21 vs. 108 ± 15; Pdonkeys. Activated clot time (175 [159-189]), time to peak (6.5 [5.8-7.8]) and clot formation rate (26.9 [16.9-36.4]) in donkeys were shorter than reported values in horses. Haemostatic pathways could not be fully evaluated in donkeys because some tests are unavailable. Certain fibrinolytic parameters (plasmin, plasminogen, etc.) have not been characterised in donkeys and this may have affected our results. The haemostatic system in donkeys differs from that in horses and extrapolation of reference values between these species is not appropriate. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  4. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864...

  5. The effects of Aloe vera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the effects of Aloe vera gel on blood coagulation in experimental animals are relatively scanty. Aim: To determine the effect of Aloe vera gel on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 28 adult albino Wistar rats divided ...

  6. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  7. Estimating risk propagation between interacting firms on inter-firm complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2017-01-01

    We derive a stochastic function of risk propagation empirically from comprehensive data of chain-reaction bankruptcy events in Japan from 2006 to 2015 over 5,000 pairs of firms. The probability is formulated by firm interaction between the pair of firms; it is proportional to the product of α-th power of the size of the first bankrupt firm and β-th power of that of the chain-reaction bankrupt firm. We confirm that α is positive and β is negative throughout the observing period, meaning that the probability of cascading failure is higher between a larger first bankrupt firm and smaller trading firm. We additionally introduce a numerical model simulating the whole ecosystem of firms and show that the interaction kernel is a key factor to express complexities of spreading bankruptcy risks on real ecosystems.

  8. ARE SMALL-FIRM CLUSTERS EMERGENT PHENOMENA? EVIDENCE FROM ZIMBABWE’S SMALL FURNITURE- MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey MUPONDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons behind the rapid growth and apparent dynamism of Zimbabwe’s small-firm industrial clusters. The hypothesis behind the study was that these small-firm clusters are emergent phenomena. The study analysed the capital utilisation techniques of small firms located in a large industrial cluster in order to determine the factors that lead to the collective efficiency of such firms. The study found that, in comparison with large, stock exchange-listed firms, the cluster environment enables the small firm to operate from a relatively small capital base and also to use its capital more efficiently in creating revenues and profits. The individual firm does not have to invest its capital in a large assets base as this is done by a specialised group of firms within the cluster. Thus, the cluster has the characteristics of an emergent phenomenon.

  9. Estimating risk propagation between interacting firms on inter-firm complex network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Goto

    Full Text Available We derive a stochastic function of risk propagation empirically from comprehensive data of chain-reaction bankruptcy events in Japan from 2006 to 2015 over 5,000 pairs of firms. The probability is formulated by firm interaction between the pair of firms; it is proportional to the product of α-th power of the size of the first bankrupt firm and β-th power of that of the chain-reaction bankrupt firm. We confirm that α is positive and β is negative throughout the observing period, meaning that the probability of cascading failure is higher between a larger first bankrupt firm and smaller trading firm. We additionally introduce a numerical model simulating the whole ecosystem of firms and show that the interaction kernel is a key factor to express complexities of spreading bankruptcy risks on real ecosystems.

  10. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  11. A firm-specific exposure analyis of the exchange-rate exposure of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Ligterink, J.; Macrae, V.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the relationship between exchange-rate changes and stock returns for a sample of Dutch firms over 1994-1998. We find that over 50 per cent of the firms are significantly exposed to exchange-rate risk. Furthermore, all firms with significant exchange-rate exposure benefit from a

  12. Do Private Firms Outperform SOE Firms after Going Public in China Given their Different Governance Characteristics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Tong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of board structure that affect Chinese public firm’s financial performance. Using a sample of 871 firms with 699 observations of previously private firms and 1,914 observations of previously state-owned enterprise (SOE firms, we investigate the differences in corporate governance between publicly listed firms that used to be pure private firms before going public and listed firms that used to be SOEs before their initial public offerings (IPOs. Our main finding is that previously private firms outperform previously SOE firms in China after IPOs. In the wake of becoming listed firms, previously SOE firms might be faced with difficulties adjusting to professional business practices to build and extend competitive advantages. In addition, favorable policies and assistance from the government to the SOE firms might have triggered complacency, especially in early years after getting listed. On the other hand, professional savvy and acumen, combined with efficiency and favorable business climate created by the government have probably led the previously private firms to improve their values stronger and faster.

  13. A Firm-Specific Analysis of the Exchange-Rate Exposure of Dutch Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); J. Ligterink; V. Macrae

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the relationship between exchange-rate changes and stock returns for a sample of Dutch firms over 1994-1998. We find that over 50% of the firms are significantly exposed to exchange-rate risk. Furthermore, all firms with significant exchange-rate exposure benefit from a

  14. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  15. International taxation and multinational firm decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrios, S.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we examine the separate effects of host and additional parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. The impact of

  16. Efficiency of European Dairy Processing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Dijk, van G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the technical efficiency and production frontier of dairy processing cooperativesand investor owned firms in six major dairy producing European countries. Two parametric produc-tion frontiers are estimated, i.e. for cooperatives and investor owned firms separately, which are

  17. Identifying High Growth Firms in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna; Sato, Takahiro

    Over the past two decades, considerable interest has grown in high growth firms (HGFs). However, the concept of HGFs still remains controversial. One of the most controversial issues is size and age of these firms. The present study argues that the current literature on HGFs may offer little help...

  18. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...

  19. A new approach to firm evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); D. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a method is developed to evaluate firms on the basis of the risks they face. In accordance with the multi-factor method, risk is represented as a vector of sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Subsequently, the sensitivities themselves are related to firm

  20. Technology diversification, coherence, and performance of firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leten, B.; Belderbos, R.A.; Looy, van B.

    2007-01-01

    Technological diversification at the firm level (i.e., the expansion of a firm's technology base into a wide range of technology fields) is found to be a prevailing phenomenon in all three major industrialized regions,—the United States, Europe, and Japan—prompting the term multitechnology

  1. Overeducation, wages and promotions within the firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse data from personnel records of a large firm producing energy and telecommunication and test for the effect of deviations between required and attained education of workers. Required education is measured as hiring standards set by the firm. We find the usual effects of over- and

  2. Coevolution of Firm Capabilities and Industry Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Huygens (Marc); C.W.F. Baden-Fuller (Charles); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes that rival firms not only search for new capabilities within their organization, but also for those that rest in their competitive environment. An integrated analysis of these search processes at both firm and industry levels of analysis shows how their interaction

  3. Agency Costs, Firm Value, and Corporate Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Teixeira de Vasconcelos (Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOften firms lack the necessary internal resources to pursue all profitable investment opportunities at their disposal. One of the most important roles of financial markets is to allocate resources from different economic agents to the firms that will better employ them, thereby enabling

  4. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  5. Characterizing the technology firm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Goldman, Arieh

    Technology firms occupy a central position in modern economies. They drive economic growth, productivity gains and have created new industries and innovative products. Many will agree that technology firms are distinguished from others in their emphasis on technological activities. Since this

  6. When do German Firms Change their Dividends?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia Da Silva, L.; Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that the dividend policy of German firms is more flexible than the one of their Anglo-American counterparts.This paper analyses the decision to change the dividend for a panel of 221 German firms from 1984 to 1994.The choice of the period of study is motivated by the fact

  7. Psychic Distance, Innovation, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Goudarz; Drogendijk, Rian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that internationalization improves a firm's ability to innovate, but the effect of internationalizing into specific target markets or destinations on the innovation ability of firms has not been fully investigated. This study examined whether the psychic distance between

  8. 32 CFR 37.1250 - Commercial firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial firm. 37.1250 Section 37.1250... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1250 Commercial firm... does a substantial portion of its business in the commercial marketplace. ...

  9. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  10. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  11. Female Directors, Board Committees and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, Colin P.; Homroy, Swarnodeep

    A number of studies have found little economic impact of board gender diversity on firm performance. We return to this issue in the context of large European firms. Our contribution is twofold. First, using information on the gender of CEOs children as a source of exogenous variation in female

  12. 48 CFR 519.7006 - Mentor firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mentor firms. 519.7006... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7006 Mentor firms. (a) Mentors must be... plan as required by FAR 19.7 - Small business mentors are exempted; or (2) A small business prime...

  13. Market Imperfections and Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent human capital theories predict that labor market frictions and product market competition influence firm-sponsored training. Using matched worker-firm data from Dutch manufacturing, our paper empirically assesses the validity of these predictions. We find that a decrease in labor market

  14. New workplace practices and firm performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristini, Annalisa; Pozzoli, Dario

    Using data from the 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey on British establishments and two surveys on manufacturing firms located in the North of Italy, we look at the diffusion of new workplace practices in the two countries and at their impact on the firm's value added. We find...

  15. Firm clustering and innovation: Determinants and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, F.W.M.; Oerlemans, L.; Meeus, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we ask why innovator firms engage in innovation networks, and which factors explain the spatial dispersion of these networks. Benefits of the use of internal and external knowledge resources for innovative performance of firms were partially confirmed. Especially the utilisation of

  16. Firm clustering and innovation : determinants and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, L.A.G.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Boekema, F.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we ask why innovator firms engage in innovation networks, and which factors explain the spatial dispersion of these networks. Benefits of the use of internal and external knowledge resources for innovative performance of firms were partially confirmed. Especially the utilisation of

  17. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  18. Career Development Programs in Fortune 500 Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jack; Piotrowski, Chris

    Career development programs (CDPs) are a rather recent area of study in organizational and industrial psychology. The present study investigated the nature and evaluation of CDPs in Fortune 500 firms. Data were obtained by a mailed questionnaire completed by the firms' human resources directors. Of the 500 companies surveyed, only those 50 that…

  19. Strategic Resources and Family Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Most companies in the Netherlands can be labeled as family firms (according to the GEEF definition (Mandle, 2008; Flören et al., 2010). The family firm can be regarded as an open system model comprising three overlapping, interacting, and interdependent subsystems: owners, family, and managers

  20. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  1. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  3. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  5. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  6. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  7. Security Investment, Hacking, and Information Sharing between Firms and between Hackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A four period game between two firms and two hackers is analyzed. The firms first defend and the hackers thereafter attack and share information. Each hacker seeks financial gain, beneficial information exchange, and reputation gain. The two hackers’ attacks and the firms’ defenses are inverse U-shaped in each other. A hacker shifts from attack to information sharing when attack is costly or the firm’s defense is cheap. The two hackers share information, but a second more disadvantaged hacker receives less information, and mixed motives may exist between information sharing and own reputation gain. The second hacker’s attack is deterred by the first hacker’s reputation gain. Increasing information sharing effectiveness causes firms to substitute from defense to information sharing, which also increases in the firms’ unit defense cost, decreases in each firm’s unit cost of own information leakage, and increases in the unit benefit of joint leakage. Increasing interdependence between firms causes more information sharing between hackers caused by larger aggregate attacks, which firms should be conscious about. We consider three corner solutions. First and second, the firms deter disadvantaged hackers. When the second hacker is deterred, the first hacker does not share information. Third, the first hacker shares a maximum amount of information when certain conditions are met. Policy and managerial implications are provided for how firms should defend against hackers with various characteristics.

  8. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  9. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  10. Efficient Climate Policy with Internationally Mobile Firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestad, O.

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in the design of an incomplete climate agreement is that firms that use fossil fuels intensively may respond to emission regulations by relocating their plants from cooperating to non-cooperating countries. This paper analyses how the cooperating countries might deal with the issue of firm delocation through emission taxes, trade provisions and a localisation subsidy to mobile firms. It is shown that firms should not be induced to stay in the cooperating countries by lowering emission taxes below the Pigouvian tax rate. Incentives to stay should be given partly through trade provisions and partly through a localisation subsidy. A second best solution without localisation subsidies is also discussed. In that case, the efficient emission tax is lower than the Pigouvian tax rate. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of the first best and the second best policy regimes for the pattern of firm localisation. 19 refs

  11. Commercialization of Innovations and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    The decision on investment in R&D is very important and highly risky for firms' performance and survival in their business. This paper focuses on the commercialization of firms' investment in innovation and how these decisions affect their performance. The study uses a large innovation survey...... of Danish firms holding information on their R&D investment as well as their expenses on marketing which gives knowledge of the commercialization of their innovations. The results suggest a highly significant commercialization of innovation, which means that firms' follows a strategy of investment both...... in innovation and marketing making R&D and marketing complements in their investment decision. However, there is only week evidence for the hypothesis that commercialization of innovations also creates more value for the firms in the short run....

  12. The innovative behaviour of tourism firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Orfila-Sintes, Francina; Sørensen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Tourism firms operate in a competitive sector where innovating is often a condition for survival. This article presents a theoretical framework for understanding tourist firms’ innovative behaviour and innovation systems in tourism. The innovativeness of tourism firms and its determinants...... systems. The article suggests that large size, professionalism, but also entrepreneurship among small tourism firms are important determinants of innovation. Varied innovation networks are another determinant as are supportive innovation systems. These determinants favour Spanish firms, which are more...... are investigated by analysing quantitative as well as qualitative data comparing Spain and Denmark. A taxonomy of tourism firms is suggested and the firms’ characteristics which influence their innovativeness are presented. Additionally, the role of innovation networks is discussed, as is the role of innovation...

  13. A resource based view to small firms' sustainable competitive advantages: A case of Iranian small firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Babakhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the importance of small firms as one of the main economical parts in each country has been proved. Considering to the resources limitation in one hand, and the competitive global market in the other hand, it is very important that firms can obtain sustainable competitive advantages (SCAs to compete with other rivals. This paper, at the first step, tries to explore the potentially SCAs of Qom's small firms by using of Structural Equation Model (SEM. Then, the real current situation of firms in using these competitive advantages has been examined. The results tell that except firms' location, other potentially SCAs do not have acceptable condition.

  14. Purification and Physico-Chemical Properties of Milk Clotting Enzyme Produced by Mucor Lamprosporus Comparable with Calf Rennet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Kabbany, H.; Kamel, Z.M.; Moubasher, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Fractional precipitation of the crude enzyme produced by Mucor Lamprosporus fungus using 70% ammonium sulfate gave the highest MCA at 40 degree. Further purification of the partially purified enzyme was achieved by using Sephadex G-100 and rechromatographed on DEAE Sephadex A-50 and gave 22.5 fold then the crude enzyme with 301% enzyme recovery. Addition of NaCl to the skim milk caused pronounced decline in MCA of the enzyme while addition of 160 ppm of NaCl increased the MCA from 26.6 su/ml to 200 su/ml. The optimum temperature of the skin milk which induced the maximum activity of the purified enzyme in skim milk was found to be 40 degree while preheating the enzyme at 50 degree for 10 min caused a complete inhibition. Mild acidic condition did not affect the activity of the purified enzyme which remained almost stable till pH 6.0 while at pH 7.0 or more, the enzyme completely lost its clotting activity. The present data also showed that Mucor Lamprosporus rennin like enzyme exhibited higher activity than calf rennet

  15. Phase transitions during compression and decompression of clots from platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Chernysh, Irina; Purohit, Prashant K; Weisel, John W

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots are required to stem bleeding and are subject to a variety of stresses, but they can also block blood vessels and cause heart attacks and ischemic strokes. We measured the compressive response of human platelet-poor plasma (PPP) clots, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clots and whole blood clots and correlated these measurements with confocal and scanning electron microscopy to track changes in clot structure. Stress-strain curves revealed four characteristic regions, for compression-decompression: (1) linear elastic region; (2) upper plateau or softening region; (3) non-linear elastic region or re-stretching of the network; (4) lower plateau in which dissociation of some newly made connections occurs. Our experiments revealed that compression proceeds by the passage of a phase boundary through the clot separating rarefied and densified phases. This observation motivates a model of fibrin mechanics based on the continuum theory of phase transitions, which accounts for the pre-stress caused by platelets, the adhesion of fibrin fibers in the densified phase, the compression of red blood cells (RBCs), and the pumping of liquids through the clot during compression/decompression. Our experiments and theory provide insights into the mechanical behavior of blood clots that could have implications clinically and in the design of fibrin-based biomaterials. The objective of this paper is to measure and mathematically model the compression behavior of various human blood clots. We show by a combination of confocal and scanning electron microscopy that compression proceeds by the passage of a front through the sample that separates a densified region of the clot from a rarefied region, and that the compression/decompression response is reversible with hysteresis. These observations form the basis of a model for the compression response of clots based on the continuum theory of phase transitions. Our studies may reveal how clot rheology under large compression in vivo due

  16. 13 CFR 315.6 - Firm eligibility for Adjustment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firm eligibility for Adjustment..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FIRMS General Provisions § 315.6 Firm eligibility for Adjustment Assistance. (a) Firms participate in the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms program in...

  17. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  18. Views of CEOs on Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Berginc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Researching the managerial perspective of performance can contribute to a better understanding of firm performance, and offer a valuable contribution to research on objective performance measurement. The aim of this article is to examine how managers evaluate firm performance and which factors, in their opinion, have the biggest influence on performance. We particularly wanted to investigate the influence of top management and owners on firm performance. We conducted a qualitative study among the CEOs of some of the most successful Slovenian firms. The results show that CEOs connect positive performance with long-term growth and satisfying the needs of key stakeholders (employees, customers and owners, but short-term positive financial performance represents the basic foundation. The second most important factor is a united top management, capable of generating new ideas and acting as a role model to employees. This can lead to a higher degree of engagement by employees and a better understanding of the firm's goals. Owners can contribute to a positive firm performance with their active, strategic and long-term orientation, and with their ability to set clear goals and to trust top management in the long run. Another important factor that influences firm performance is the ownership structure. In the opinion of CEOs, dominant and private ownership has a more positive impact on firm performance than dispersed and state ownership. The present research findings provide several examples of good and bad practice, and highlight opportunities for further research, from an in-depth study of individual factors of firm performance to the search for a more comprehensive model of performance factors, based on a larger sample of CEOs and other managers.

  19. Endogenous network of firms and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianting; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-02-01

    We construct an endogenous network characterized by commercial credit relationships connecting the upstream and downstream firms. Simulation results indicate that the endogenous network model displays a scale-free property which exists in real-world firm systems. In terms of the network structure, with the expansion of the scale of network nodes, the systemic risk increases significantly, while the heterogeneities of network nodes have no effect on systemic risk. As for firm micro-behaviors, including the selection range of trading partners, actual output, labor requirement, price of intermediate products and employee salaries, increase of all these parameters will lead to higher systemic risk.

  20. Do Treasure Islands Create Firm Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choy, Siu Kai; Lai, Tat-kei

    On October 11, 2011, a non-governmental organization called ActionAid published a report condemning the FTSE 100 firms for holding an unusually large number of subsidiaries in tax havens. Urging the government to take appropriate actions, the report raised the firms’ costs of holding tax haven...... subsidiaries. After this event, there was a 0.9% drop in cumulative abnormal returns among the non-financial firms (corresponding to about £9 billion in market capitalization), more so for better-governed firms and those with larger shares of subsidiaries in tax havens. We find some evidence that government...

  1. Foreign Currency Borrowing by Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Brown; Steven Ongena; Pinar Yesin

    2009-01-01

    We examine the firm- and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We first model the choice of loan currency in a framework which features a trade-off between lower cost of debt and the risk of firm-level distress costs, and also incorporates the impact of information asymmetry between banks and firms. When foreign currency funds come at a lower interest rate, all foreign currency earners as well as those local currency earners with high revenues and lo...

  2. FOOD ENTREPRENEUR SUSTAINABLE ORIENTATION AND FIRM PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gagnon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research examines the relationship between food entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices in a mixed methods format. In particular we seek to address if entrepreneur behavior and firm practices are congruent with founding entrepreneur espoused support of sustainability. Our survey findings with thirty specialty food entrepreneurs suggest tenuous empirical support for the relationship of entrepreneur sustainable orientation, mindset and firm sustainable practices. However our qualitative results indicate positive relationships between sustainable orientation, mindset and practices. Evidence from this work highlights the critical role of founding entrepreneurs for successful implementation of sustainability along its multiple fronts including profitability.

  3. Internationalisation of Firms in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    process with export and proceed in a path-dependent manner towards the location of production activities abroad. The present apper challenges this perspective, arguing that internationalisation of firms may be initiated through either or both upstream and downstream activities. It therefore proposes...... an integrated conceptual model for internationalisation, encompassing both upstream and downstream activities. Building on this understanding, the paper suggests that firms in general and developing county-based firms in particular, may adopt one or a combination of four routes of internationalisation: upstream...... only, downstream only, sequential upstream-downstream, and or concurrent upstream-downstream routes. The implication of these perspectives for policy, strategy and research are discussed....

  4. Banking Firm, Equity and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Broll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the interaction between the solvency probability of a banking firm and the diversification potential of its asset portfolio when determining optimal equity capital. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate value at risk (VaR into the firm-theoretical model of a banking firm facing the risk of asset return. Given the necessity to achieve a confidence level for solvency, we demonstrate that diversification reduces the amount of equity. Notably, the VaR concept excludes a separation of equity policy and asset-liability management.

  5. A firm's activity in social media and its relationship with corporate reputation, firm size and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The significance of social media has increased greatly in the past few years, leading companies to increase their social media activity and also increase their interest in knowing whether it is genuinely worth being active on social media, including knowing the potential advantages. This study aims to examine the relationship between social media activity and three variables: reputation, firm size and firm performance. The study analyzes the relationships between the constru...

  6. Motivators of Dividend Payout among Firms listed on the Stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    firms that are officially listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius. .... future prospects of their firms, their actions might convey new information to ... Sometimes, when designing dividend policies, some firms consider the behaviour of their.

  7. RESULTS OF QUALITY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN WITH BLOOD CLOTTING (PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment methods for diseases of teeth hard tissues and periodontium for children with blood clotting pathology are described in modern literature. But in practice we are faced with the problem of providing dental treatment for these children. Work of pediatric dentist is prevented by the risk of bleeding, fear of dental procedures, child’s psychoemotional tension and refusal of treatment because of bleeding. Taking into account the specificity of blood clotting pathology, surgical methods of dental treatment prevail for these children, which is evidenced by the early loss of deciduous and permanent teeth, occlusal surface disturbances, dentoalveolar anomalies, inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues. Aim. To evaluate the level of dental care for children with the diseases of blood clotting. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood clotting disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into groups: I group – 2-5 years old (40 children, II group – 6-10 years old (40 children, III group – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Clinical examination was carried out according to the standard scheme, including the analysis of complaints, anamnesis of treatment at the dentist, objective data with the use of statistical method of masticatory efficiency (according to N.I. Agapov, the level of dental care (according to P.A. Leus. Results. During clinical dental examination of children with blood clotting pathology it was found that destruction of crowns of maxillary front teeth, the first deciduous molars and the second deciduous molars, as well as their loss, prevails in the temporary occlusion. During the examination of 2-5 years old children with blood clotting pathology, loss of less than 25% of masticatory efficiency was revealed for 25

  8. The use of alteplase for the resolution of an intravesical clot in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, J L; Glover, M L; Totapally, B R

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of the use of alteplase for the lysis of a large urinary bladder clot. A neonate presented with respiratory failure, secondary to a left diaphragmatic hernia necessitating the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. On day 3 of ECMO support, hematuria was noted, and a subsequent urinary bladder ultrasound revealed a significant urinary bladder clot. Alteplase (0.5-1 mg) was instilled into the urinary bladder via a 10 French Foley catheter (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO). The catheter was clamped for 1 hour, followed by irrigation with normal saline. Multiple doses of alteplase were administered, resulting in complete resolution of the bladder clot. No adverse effects were attributed to the use of the intravesical alteplase. Alteplase seems to be safe and effective for the resolution of bladder clots, thereby potentially avoiding more invasive surgical procedures.

  9. High-Quality and -Quantity DNA Extraction from Frozen Archival Blood Clots for Genotyping of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    the efficiency of commercial purification kits for extracting DNA from long-term frozen clotted blood. Methods: Serum tubes with clotted blood were stored at −20°C for 1 to 2.5 years before DNA extraction. DNA was extracted from 10 blood clot samples using PureGene (Qiagen) with and without glycogen, the QIAamp...... with a median of 0.65 μg (range 0.5–2.6 μg) pr 300 μL total blood. Conclusion: The yield obtained by the different commercial kits varied considerably. Our work demonstrates that high-quality and -quantity DNA can be extracted with the Maxwell 16 Blood purification kit (Promega) from cryopreserved blood clots...

  10. Effect of Cold Storage on Shear-induced Platelet Aggregation and Clot Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    hemostasis and are lifesavingwhen transfused to treat thrombocytopenia. In response to vascular injury, platelets adhere, aggregate, and along with fibrin ...Handling Platelet - rich plasma (PRP) was obtained from phlebot- omized blood or AP collection. Blood was drawn in acid cit- rate dextroseYcontaining...aging and senes- cence during storage.35,38 Platelet activation and aggregation lead to clot formation, beginning with the linear polymerization of fibrin

  11. Computational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    domain used in our thrombus formation simulations. Fig. 2 B shows the 3D geometry of the flow-chamber section consisting of two channels measuring 250 60...ArticleComputational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow ConditionsVijay Govindarajan,1 Vineet Rakesh,1 Jaques...understanding of thrombus formation as a physicochemical process that has evolved to protect the integrity of the human vasculature is critical to our ability to

  12. Financing patterns around the world: Are small firms different?.

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Maksimovic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 48 countries, we investigate how financial and institutional development affects financing of large and small firms. Our database is not limited to large firms but includes small and medium-size firms and data on a broad spectrum of financing sources, including leasing, supplier, development, and informal finance. Small firms and firms in countries with poor institutions use less external finance, especially bank finance. Protection of property righ...

  13. Source of finance, growth and firm size: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jun; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    Using a comprehensive firm-level dataset spanning the period 1998-2005, this paper provides a thorough investigation of the relationship between firm size, total factor productivity growth and financial structure in China, controlling for the endogeneity of the latter. Generally, it finds financing source matters for firms of different size, and the extent to which financing source matters for firm growth is greater for small firms than big firms. Self-raised finance appears to be most effect...

  14. A hypothesis: factor VII governs clot formation, tissue repair and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lewis S

    2007-01-01

    A hypothesis: thrombin is a "Universal Enzyme of Energy Transduction" that employs ATP energy in flowing blood to activate biochemical reactions and cell effects in both hemostasis and tissue repair. All cells possess PAR-1 (thrombin) receptors and are affected by thrombin elevations, and thrombin effects on individual cell types are determined by their unique complement of PAR-1 receptors. Disruption of the vascular endothelium (VE) activates a tissue repair mechanism (TRM) consisting of the VE, tissue factor (TF), and circulating Factors VII, IX and X that governs localized thrombin elevations to activate clot formation and cellular effects that repair tissue damage. The culmination of the repair process occurs with the restoration of the VE followed by declines in thrombin production that causes Apoptosis ("programmed cell death") in wound-healing fibroblasts, which functions as a mechanism to draw wound edges together. The location and magnitude of TRM activity governs the location and magnitude of Factor VIII activity and clot formation, but the large size of Factor VIII prevents it from penetrating the clot formed by its activity, so that its effects are self-limiting. Factors VII, IX and X function primarily as tissue repair enzymes, while Factor VIII and Factor XIII are the only serine protease enzymes in the "Coagulation Cascade" that are exclusively associated with hemostasis.

  15. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  16. A simple clot based assay for detection of procoagulant cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rucha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2016-05-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are important biomarkers in many facets of medicine. However, the MP detection methods used till date are costly and time consuming. The main aim of this study was to standardize an in-house clot based screening method for MP detection which would not only be specific and sensitive, but also inexpensive. Four different methods of MP assessment were performed and the results correlated. Using the flow cytometry technique as the gold standard, 25 samples with normal phosphatidylserine (PS) expressing MP levels and 25 samples with elevated levels were selected, which was cross checked by the commercial STA Procoag PPL clotting time (CT) assay. A simple recalcification time and an in-house clot assay were the remaining two tests. The in-house test measures the CT after the addition of calcium chloride to MP rich plasma, following incubation with Russell viper venom and phospholipid free plasma. The CT obtained by the in-house assay significantly correlated with the results obtained by flow cytometry (R2=0.87, p<0.01). Though preliminary, the in-house assay seems to be efficient, inexpensive and promising. It could definitely be utilized routinely for procoagulant MP assessment in various clinical settings.

  17. Advertising in accounting firms: Empirical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, Hadri

    2016-01-01

    Advertising becomes an interesting tool for the accounting profession in the face of increased competition. Accounting firms today realize that advertising will play an important role in their overall success.

  18. Technology Driven Organizational Structure of the Firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; Ruys, P.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We model a corporate firm with a variable internal organizational structure that adapts to various degrees of technological cooperation. The entrepreneur determines the organizational structure that maximizes profits under participation constraints. Wages are determined by an internal cooperative

  19. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  20. Small Firm Internationalization, Innovation, and Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of internationalization on innovation and firm performance (employment growth and sales growth) taking the interdependencies among the variables into account. Given the potential endogeneity, this study uses theory-driven instrumental variables and structural equation

  1. EAS 2.948 Listed Test Firms

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). The following firms have submitted the information required by Section 2.948 of the FCC Rules for measuring devices subject to...

  2. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    partly fall on investment and thus workers in the former country. This tax exporting mechanism introduces a scope for corporate taxes, which is not present in standard models of international taxation. Accounting for the internal capital markets of multinational firms thus represents a way to resolve......This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the perspective of a small, open economy. This finding contrasts the standard result that the optimal source based capital tax is zero. Intuitively, to the extent that multinational firms finance investment in country i with loans from affiliates in country j, the burden of corporate taxes in the latter country...

  3. Guarantees come to professional service firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C W; Schlesinger, L A; Maher, D

    1992-01-01

    Can lawyers, doctors, investment bankers, accountants, and consultants guarantee their work? Your money back if not absolutely delighted? Some professional service firms are doing exactly that, and they believe they are gaining not only satisfied customers but higher market share and improved service quality. The authors discuss the benefits and risks of unconditional and more limited guarantees. Firms that address this issue proactively now, they argue, will be less likely to rush into poorly considered guarantees later.

  4. Do Firms Believe in Interest Rate Parity?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. McBrady; Sandra Mortal; Michael J. Schill

    2010-01-01

    Using a broad sample of international corporate bond offerings, we provide evidence that corporate borrowers make opportunistic currency choices, in that they denominate the currency of their bonds in a manner that is inconsistent with a belief in either covered or uncovered interest rate parity. Using firm-level tests, we identify a number of characteristics of firms that engage in opportunistic behavior. We observe that large issuers located in developed markets with investment-grade rating...

  5. Service-Oriented Strategies for Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Tim C.; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    This chapter establishes PSS (Product/Service-Systems) approaches in the context of manufacturing firms and their existing product-oriented business. PSS can be seen as a strategy for manufacturing firms to gain competitive advantage in the market, but what market conditions and organisational......, customers and partners in business planning and strategy to reap the full benefits. Finally a path to how manufacturers can make the change from product to service-orientation is traced....

  6. Strategic Intent, Confucian Harmony and Firm Success

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Romar

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that by using the Confucian concept of harmony as its strategicintent a firm can be both ethical and successful. Using the work of Peter F. Drucker,Michael Porter, and Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad the paper discusses the role ofstrategic intent as a contributing factor to firm success. The paper then discusses how theConfucian concept of harmony fulfills the concept of strategic intent and how harmony cancontribute to the development of a successful and ethical organization...

  7. Incentives and cooperation in firms: Field evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Johannes; Herbertz, Claus; Sliwka, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We empirically investigate the impact of incentive scheme structure on the degree of cooperation in firms using a unique and representative data set. Combining employee survey data with detailed firm level information on the relative importance of individual, team, and company performance for compensation, we find a significant positive relation between the intensity of team incentives and several survey measures of cooperation. Moreover, higher powered team incentives are associated with low...

  8. Multinational Firms and The New Trade Theory

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Markusen; Anthony J. Venables

    1995-01-01

    A model is constructed in which multinational firms may arise endogenously. Multinationals exist in equilibrium when transport and tariff costs are high, incomes are high, and firm-level scale economies are important relative to plant-level scale economies. Less obvious, multinationals are more important in total economic activity when countries are more similar in incomes, relative factor endowments, and technologies. The model may thus be useful in explaining several stylized facts, includi...

  9. Comportements des firmes et commerce international

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Thomas Ravix; Olivier Sautel

    2007-01-01

    Growth of international outsourcing, has been a dominant feature of the international economy. Recent theoretical developments have focused on firm behaviour and its consequences on trade structure, through the introduction of the modern theory of the firm. In a first section, we link this new approach with previous explanations of vertical specialization (intra-industry trade and Multinational Corporation). In a second section, we present methodology and results of these new developments, wh...

  10. Intra-industry trade with multinational firms

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, H; Egger, P; Greenaway, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments, including the analysis of firm-level adjustment to falling trade costs, have contributed to a revival of interest in intra-industry trade (IIT). Most empirical work still relies on the standard Grubel–Lloyd measure. This however refers only to international trade, disregarding income flows stimulated by repatriated profits of multinational firms. Given the overwhelming importance of the latter, this is a major shortcoming. This paper provides a guide to measurement and es...

  11. Cost Focussed Firms and Internet Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Loundes

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at Internet usage by Australian firms that have a cost focussed competitive strategy. The data source for this analysis is the Melbourne Institute Business Survey, conducted by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research. The survey was conducted in late 2001, and targeted large Australian firms. Instrumental variables estimation found that cost-focussed organizations utilised the Internet more intensively for both internal organizational activities and ex...

  12. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  13. Determining Human Clot Lysis Time (in vitro with Plasminogen/Plasmin from Four Species (Human, Bovine, Goat, and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira Cañas Bermúdez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, including failures in the plasminogen/plasmin system which is an important factor in poor lysis of blood clots. This article studies the fibrinolytic system in four species of mammals, and it identifies human plasminogen with highest thrombolysis efficiency. It examines plasminogen from four species (human, bovine, goat, and swine and identifies the most efficient one in human clot lysis in vitro. All plasminogens were identically purified by affinity chromatography. Human fibrinogen was purified by fractionation with ethanol. The purification of both plasminogen and fibrinogen was characterized by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (10%. Human clot formation in vitro and its dissolution by plasminogen/plasmin consisted of determining lysis time from clot formation to its dilution. Purification of proteins showed greater than 95% purity, human plasminogen showed greater ability to lyse clot than animal plasminogen. The article concludes that human plasminogen/plasmin has the greatest catalysis and efficiency, as it dissolves human clot up to three times faster than that of irrational species.

  14. What is this chocolate milk in my circuit? A cause of acute clotting of a continuous renal replacement circuit: Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakajiwala, Aadil; Chiotos, Kathleen; Brothers, Julie; Lederman, April; Amaral, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    One of the greatest problems associated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the early clotting of filters. A literature search revealed three case reports of lipemic blood causing recurrent clotting and reduced CRRT circuit survival time in adult patients, but no reports of cases in children. A 23-month-old male infant with Martinez-Frias syndrome and multivisceral transplant was admitted to the hospital with severe sepsis and hemolytic anemia. He developed acute kidney injury, fluid overload and electrolyte imbalances requiring CRRT and was also administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and fat emulsion. The first circuit lasted 60 h before routine change was required. The second circuit showed acute clotting after only 18 h, and brownish-milky fluid was found in the circuit tubing layered between the clotted blood. The patient's serum triglyceride levels were elevated at 988 mg/dL. The lipid infusion was stopped and CRRT restarted. Serum triglyceride levels improved to 363 mg/dL. The new circuit lasted 63 h before routine change was required. Clotting of CRRT circuits due to elevated triglyceride levels is rare and has not been reported in the pediatric population. Physicians should be mindful of this risk in patients receiving TPN who have unexpected clotting of CRRT circuits.

  15. The Variance Composition of Firm Growth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Artur Ledur Brito

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Firms exhibit a wide variability in growth rates. This can be seen as another manifestation of the fact that firms are different from one another in several respects. This study investigated this variability using the variance components technique previously used to decompose the variance of financial performance. The main source of variation in growth rates, responsible for more than 40% of total variance, corresponds to individual, idiosyncratic firm aspects and not to industry, country, or macroeconomic conditions prevailing in specific years. Firm growth, similar to financial performance, is mostly unique to specific firms and not an industry or country related phenomenon. This finding also justifies using growth as an alternative outcome of superior firm resources and as a complementary dimension of competitive advantage. This also links this research with the resource-based view of strategy. Country was the second source of variation with around 10% of total variance. The analysis was done using the Compustat Global database with 80,320 observations, comprising 13,221 companies in 47 countries, covering the years of 1994 to 2002. It also compared the variance structure of growth to the variance structure of financial performance in the same sample.

  16. Do Work-Life Balance Policies Increase a Firm's Total Factor Productivity?: Evidence from panel data of Japanese firms (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how firms' policies for workers' work-life balance (WLB) affect total factor productivity (TFP) in the long run, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. Although we observed a positive correlation between firms' WLB policies and their TFP, once controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity, we found no causal relationship where WLB policies increase a firm's TFP in the long run. Under the following conditions, however, WLB policies would likely improve a firm...

  17. Effect of Work-Life Balance Practices on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Japanese firm-level panel data

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how firm practices that could contribute to worker attainment of work-life balance (WLB) affect the total factor productivity (TFP) of a firm, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. We observed a positive correlation between the WLB practices and TFP among sampled firms. However, that correlation vanished when we controlled for unobserved firm heterogeneity, and we found no general causal relationship in which WLB practices increase firm TFP in the medium or...

  18. Leverage, Growth Opportunities and Firm Investment: The Case of Manufacturing Firms in China

    OpenAIRE

    Di Sheng; Shuyang Hou

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of financial leverage on investment decisions offirms using the panel data of publicly traded Chinese firms. We collected data for511 manufacturing companies during the period from 2005 to 2013 to do theresearch. The data shows that financial leverage is negatively correlated with afirm’s investment. Moreover, after we categorized the data into two types: 1)high-growth firms and 2) low-growth firms, it demonstrated that such negativecorrelation is significant fo...

  19. Effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; MacGregor, H; Cassidy, G; Tinney, R; Pompei, F

    1995-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers. Open study utilizing normal volunteers. University research laboratory. Fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers, ranging in age from 19 to 35 yrs, who were not receiving medications. The study was done and the samples of venous blood and shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site were obtained at a convenient time for each volunteer. Skin temperature was changed from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C and blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein of each volunteer. The effect of local skin temperature ranging from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C on bleeding time was evaluated in 38 normal volunteers (19 male and 19 female). Skin temperature was maintained at +20 degrees to +38 degrees C by cooling or warming the forearm. At each temperature, measurements were made of complete blood count, bleeding time, and thromboxane B2 concentrations in shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site and in serum and plasma isolated from blood collected from the antecubital vein. Clotting time studies were measured in 16 normal volunteers (eight male and eight female) at temperatures ranging from +22 degrees to +37 degrees C. At +32 degrees C, the bleeding time was longer and hematocrit was lower in female than in male volunteers. However, at local skin temperatures of < +32 degrees C, both the males and females exhibited significantly increased bleeding times, which were associated with a reduction in shed blood thromboxane B2. Each 1 degree C decrease in temperature was associated with a 15% decrease in the shed blood thromboxane B2 concentration. Clotting times were three times longer at +22 degrees C than at +37 degrees C. Each 1 degree C reduction in the temperature of the clotted blood was associated with a 15% reduction in the serum thromboxane B2 concentration. Our data indicate that during surgical procedures, it

  20. Relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism: assessment with breath-hold SPECT-CT pulmonary angiography fusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-09-01

    The relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was comprehensively assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion SPECT-computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) fusion images. Subjects were 34 acute PTE patients, who had successfully performed DIBrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT and a respiratory tracking system. Automated DIBrH SPECT-CTPA fusion images were used to assess the relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots detected by CTPA. DIBrH SPECT visualized 175 lobar/segmental or subsegmental defects in 34 patients, and CTPA visualized 61 intravascular clots at variable locations in 30 (88%) patients, but no clots in four (12%) patients. In 30 patients with clots, the fusion images confirmed that 69 (41%) perfusion defects (20 segmental, 45 subsegmental and 4 lobar defects) of total 166 defects were located in lung territories without clots, although the remaining 97 (58%) defects were located in lung territories with clots. Perfusion defect was absent in lung territories with clots (one lobar branch and three segmental branches) in four (12%) of these patients. In four patients without clots, nine perfusion defects including four segmental ones were present. Because of unexpected dissociation between intravascular clots and lung perfusion defects, the present fusion images will be a useful adjunct to CTPA in the diagnosis of acute PTE.

  1. Inference from concave stochastic frontiers and the covariance of firm efficiency measures across firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Imad

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a Bayesian stochastic frontier model to obtain confidence intervals on firm efficiency measures of electric utilities rather than the point estimates reported in most previous studies. Results reveal that the stochastic frontier model yields imprecise measures of firm efficiency. However, the application produces much more precise inference on pairwise efficiency comparisons of firms due to a sometimes strong positive covariance of efficiency measures across firms. In addition, we examine the sensitivity to functional form by repeating the analysis for Cobb-Douglas, translog and Fourier frontiers, with and without imposing monotonicity and concavity

  2. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.

  3. The Clean Development Mechanism and Dynamic Capabilities of Implementing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    and non-CDM firms as the control group for the pre- and post-CDM implementation periods. We control for unobserved fixed effects of firms and time periods and observed characteristics of firms and CDM projects. The analysis draws on the balance sheet data of 612 firms from India between 2001 and 2012 from...

  4. Does Corruption Increase or Decrease Employment in Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    This article uses representative data for firms for Latin American firms and show that corruption decreases employment in firms. This result is robust to changes in specification and also consistent with the use of an instrumental variables approach. Corruption appears to negatively impact the growth and wealth in a country, not by introducing labour distortion in firms, but by keeping them small.

  5. Market-Oriented Product Innovation in Small Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Description: This thesis deals with product-innovation in small firms. It aims at a better understanding of the determinants of product innovation in small firms, particularly those determinants that are related to the market orientation of small firms. The focus of the study is on small firms that

  6. Financing patterns around the world : Are small firms different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Maksimovic, V.

    2008-01-01

    Using a firm-level survey database covering 48 countries, we investigate how financial and institutional development affects financing of large and small firms. Our database is not limited to large firms, but includes small and medium firms and data on a broad spectrum of financing sources,

  7. Within- and Cross-Firm Mobility and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Halliday, Timothy; Koch, Alexander Karl

    It is widely accepted that promotions within firms and mobility across firms lead to significant earnings progression. Existing research generally examined cross-firm mobility separately from hierarchical advancement. Yet, as our descriptive evidence from Danish panel data shows, how the two type...... growth of promotions (either within or across firms) and subsequent mobility at a higher hierarchy level....

  8. 21 CFR 7.46 - Firm-initiated recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firm-initiated recall. 7.46 Section 7.46 Food and....46 Firm-initiated recall. (a) A firm may decide of its own volition and under any circumstances to remove or correct a distributed product. A firm that does so because it believes the product to be...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $[Insert the appropriate amount]. (End...

  10. Debt and Taxes: Evidence from bank-financed unlisted firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesário

    This paper analyzes the capital structure decision of non-listed bank-financed firms using a rich and unique new data set of Portuguese firms. These firms are rarely studied in capital structure contexts and differ from large listed firms in terms of agency and asymmetric information problems...

  11. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  12. The impact of firm and industry characteristics on small firms' capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; de Goeij, P. C.; Kappert, P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of firm and industry characteristics on small firms’ capital structure, employing a proprietary database containing financial statements of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2003 to 2005. The firm characteristics suggest that the capital structure decision is

  13. Default Risk and Firm Value of Shipping & Logistics Firms in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Nam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As shipping and logistics industry is one of the core industries in Korea, the volume was ranked in the fifth highest in the world. However, shipping and logistics industry of Korea has suffered from default risk since Global Financial Crisis in 2008. This study examines the relationship between the default risk, as measured by the Altman K-Score, and firm value, as measured by the Return on Assets (ROA, of shipping and logistics firms in Korea and compares the impact of default risk on firm value between good financial health firms and poor financial health firms. As the trends of KScores over a ten-year periods, shipping and logistics firms in Korea register weak-to-moderate financial healthy rage. We find that Altman K-Score is significantly linked with firm value and also higher performing firms as measured by the ROA exhibit higher financial health as measured by KScore. Although nine years have been passed since Global Financial Crisis 2008, Korean shipping and logistics industry is still under the financial depression. This study proposes that systematic financial alert system of Korean shipping and logistics industry should be required to decrease default risk reflecting significance of Korean economy.

  14. Drivers for liquidation and transfer in small firms : Theory of Planned Behavior and firm conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Leory; Lex van Teeffelen

    2009-01-01

    Recently Leroy et al. (2008) tested if the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicts exit behavior of entrepreneurs: liquidation or transfer. He added the purchasers view to the TPB: firm viability and intangible assets. We retested Leroy et al. hypotheses on a more refined dataset of 136 firms in

  15. Do international acquisitions by emerging-economy firms create shareholder value? The case of Indian firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbi, Sathyajit R.; Aulakh, Preet S.; Ray, Sougata; Sarkar, M. B.; Chittoor, Raveendra

    While overseas acquisitions by emerging-economy firms are gaining increased attention from the business press, our understanding of whether and why this inorganic mode of international expansion creates value to acquirer firms is limited. We argue that international acquisitions facilitate

  16. Innovative knowledge sharing, supply chain integration and firm performance of Australian manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Prakash J.; Power, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A number of reports show that innovation in Australian manufacturing firms is declining. We propose that better knowledge sharing practices can assist these firms to become more innovative. In this paper, we examine this proposition by empirically testing the relationship between knowledge sharing

  17. Gibrat's Law and the Firm Size / Firm Growth Relationship in Italian Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Piergiovanni; E. Santarelli (Enrico); L. Klomp (Luuk); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSeveral surveys on intra-industry dynamics have recently reached the conclusion from a large body of evidence that Gibrat's Law does not hold, i.e., the main finding is that firm growth decreases with firm size. However, almost all of these studies have been based on manufacturing. In

  18. The relationship between strategic type and firm capabilities in Chinese firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedetto, Di A.C.; Song, X.M.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that firms of different Miles and Snow strategic types will have different bundles of firm-level capabilities; that is, certain capabilities will be more important to certain strategic types. Specifically, proposes that prospectors have greater relative inside-out capabilities and

  19. When Intra-Firm and Inter-Firm Collaborations Co-Occur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie Christine; Sculman, Arthur D.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that intra-firm collaboration and inter-firm collaboration are important for new service development (NSD) and new product development (NPD) success. However, evidence of the contributions of each to innovative outcomes is inconsistent. This inconsistency is associated with the ...

  20. Corporate Governance Provisions, Family Involvement, and Firm Performance in Publicly Traded Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Memili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the moderation effects of corporate governance provisions on the link between family involvement (i.e., family ownership and family management in publicly-traded firms and firm performance by drawing upon agency theory, with a focus on principal-principal agency issues, and the extant family governance literature. We develop and test the hypotheses on 386 of the S&P 500 firms longitudinally. Findings support the hypotheses suggesting the moderation effects of the use of provisions (a protecting controlling owners in terms of their sustainability of controlling status, and (b protecting management legally on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family ownership and firm performance. We also found support for the moderation effects of provisions (c protecting controlling owners in terms of their voting rights, (d protecting noncontrolling owners, and (e protecting management monetarily on the inverted U-shaped relationship between family management and firm performance. By this, our study provides empirical support for the principal-principal agency perspective on the corporate governance in publicly-traded family firms. As such, it suggests new avenues of research for both the corporate governance literature, as well as for the theory of the family firm. Our study also offers insights to policy directed toward monitoring the actions of large shareholders such as family and enhancing the overall shareholder value in publicly-traded family firms.

  1. Do Less Regulated Markets Attract Lower Quality Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines whether the moderately regulated London AIM market is at a disadvantage in attracting high quality firms. The results show that firms listed on AIM are of the same quality level as firms listed in the US and in Continental Europe, albeit smaller in size. Furthermore, the delist......The paper examines whether the moderately regulated London AIM market is at a disadvantage in attracting high quality firms. The results show that firms listed on AIM are of the same quality level as firms listed in the US and in Continental Europe, albeit smaller in size. Furthermore...... equivalent to firms listing in more regulated markets...

  2. COEXISTENCE OF PRIVATE FIRMS AND OPEN SOURCE FIRMS UNDER SPILLOVERS AND CONSUMER BIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat YILMAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Open source technologies have been an important divergence from the private produc- tion, and some markets have accommodated both open source firms and private firms. We explore the conditions under which such a coexistence of both type of firms can be seen. Through a simple and tractable game theoretical model, with spillovers on the open source production and positive consumer bias for the privately produced good, we analyze the conditions for which, in the equilibrium, a private firm and an open source firm share the market. We find that for large enough consumer bias, the two types cannot coexist, however when the consumer bias is relatively low and the spillover effect is not too strong, then we get a coexistence result.

  3. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  4. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making.......This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  5. Structure, Employment and Performance in Biotech Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    This report studies employment effects associated with the adoption of modern biotechnology in Danish industry. In this context we also examine industry structure, patterns of job creation, key outputs such as patents and the pipeline of projects in clinical trials. To see the development of Danish...... economy to perform in the transition towards knowledge and sciencebased competitiveness. That is so because DDFs to an unusual extent depend on the ability of their framework to perform as an innovation system, by which we refer to advantages growing out of interactions and complementarities between e.......g. universities, firms and venture capital. That makes DDFs a sensitive "seismograph" for the ability of the Danish innovation system to foster new science-based technologies.Key words: Employment, Biotechnology, Firm size distribution, Industry structure,Firm performanceJEL Codes: J21, L11, L22, L25, L65, O57...

  6. Cash flow forecast for South African firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA and Australia. Inclusion of more explanatory variables does not necessarily improve the models, according to the out-of-sample results. The paper proposes the application of moving average model in panel data, and vector regressive model for multi-period-ahead prediction of cash flows for South Africa firms.

  7. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  8. Pulsed cavitational therapy using high-frequency ultrasound for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis in an in vitro model of human blood clot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudot, G.; Mirault, T.; Arnal, B.; Boisson-Vidal, C.; Le Bonniec, B.; Gaussem, P.; Galloula, A.; Tanter, M.; Messas, E.; Pernot, M.

    2017-12-01

    Post-thrombotic syndrome, a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis, can be reduced with early vein recanalization. Pulsed cavitational therapy (PCT) using ultrasound is a recent non-invasive approach. We propose to test the efficacy and safety of high-frequency focused PCT for drug-free thrombolysis (thrombotripsy) in a realistic in vitro model of venous thrombosis. To reproduce venous thrombosis conditions, human whole blood was allowed to clot by stasis in silicone tubes (6 mm internal diameter) at a 30 cm H2O pressure, maintained during the whole experiment. We engineered an ultrasound device composed of dual 2.25 MHz transducers centered around a 6 MHz imaging probe. A therapeutic focus was generated at a 3.2 cm depth from the probe. Thrombotripsy was performed by longitudinally scanning the thrombus at three different speeds: 1 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 2 mm s-1 (n  =  6) 3 mm s-1 (n  =  12). Restored outflow was measured every three passages. Filters were placed to evaluate the debris size. Twenty-four occlusive thrombi, of 2.5 cm mean length and 4.4 kPa mean stiffness, were studied. Flow restoration was systematically obtained by nine subsequent passages (4.5 min maximum). By varying the device’s speed, we found an optimal speed of 1 mm s-1 to be efficient for effective recanalization with 90 s (three passages). Within 90 s, flow restoration was of 80, 62 and 74% at respectively 1, 2 and 3 mm s-1. For all groups, cavitation cloud drilled a 1.7 mm mean diameter channel throughout the clot. Debris analysis showed 92% of debris    200 µm.

  9. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation; Determinacao de endotoxina bacteriana (pirogenio) em radiofarmacos pelo metodo de formacao de gel. Validacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-07-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the {sup 131}I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL{sup -1} (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL{sup -1}, to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products {sup 131}I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get valuable

  10. Competition Law and the Bounded Rationality of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Firm rationality plays a role in several aspects of competition law. Yet, the conception of the firm as a rational, profit maximizing entity has been disputed in different disciplines. This literature shows that neoclassical economic assumptions on which competition law is based can fall short of explaining the full range of observed firm behaviour. Accordingly, an alternative conception of the firm as boundedly rational can impact the understanding of firm conduct in competition law. Be...

  11. Corporate Governance, Cash Holdings, and Firm Value: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Luo; Toyohiko Hachiya

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on cash holdings for Japanese firms listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, focusing on the impact of corporate governance factors in cash holdings and the implication of cash holdings to firm value. We find that insider ownership and bank relations of firms play a significant role in determining cash holdings. Our results indicate that foreign stockholders select profitable firms to invest, and these firms have higher levels of cash. We document evidence that cash ho...

  12. Firm age, business cycles and aggregate labor market dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sedláček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Job creation and destruction rates fall with a firm's age, young businesses have higher exit rates, conditional on survival they grow faster and given their employment shares they create relatively more jobs than older firms. In fact, recent studies show that the well established negative relationship between a firm's size and its growth rate vanishes once its age is taken into account. I extend these findings by showing that, compared to old firms, employment growth in young firms is more vo...

  13. How small firms contrast with large firms regarding perceptions, practices, and needs in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2013-01-01

    As many larger secondary woodworking firms have moved production offshore and been adversely impacted by the recent housing downturn, smaller firms have become important to driving U.S. hardwood demand. This study compared and contrasted small and large firms on a number of factors to help determine the unique characteristics of small firms and to provide insights into...

  14. Determination of enoxaparin with rotational thrombelastometry using the prothrombinase-induced clotting time reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Eva; Schober, Andreas; Hacker, Stefan; Spiss, Christian; Chiari, Astrid; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2010-04-01

    Drug monitoring of low molecular weight heparin is generally not recommended, but could be reasonable in critically ill patients, whose risk for bleeding or thrombosis shows a high interpatient variability. Anti-Xa assays are not available around the clock even in central hospitals, whereas rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) becomes increasingly used at the bedside. Prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) reagent allows determination of factor Xa-inhibition in plasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate enoxaparin determination in whole blood with the ROTEM using specific test modifications, including PiCT. After ethics committee's approval, citrated whole blood obtained from overall 16 healthy volunteers was incubated with enoxaparin at 16 different anti-Xa concentrations. Main endpoint was the clotting time (CT) in ROTEM representing initial activation of clot formation. CT was determined in the new PiCT-ROTEM test, in a low-tissue factor-activated modification (LowTF-ROTEM) as well as in the commercially available heparin-sensitive ROTEM assays (HEPTEM and INTEM). In the absence of enoxaparin, CT values were 168.6 +/- 6.1 s (PiCT-ROTEM), 247.3 +/- 18.6 s (LowTF-ROTEM), and -6.2 +/- 7.9 s (INTEM-HEPTEM). A linear dependency (P anti-Xa concentration and CT was found for PiCT-ROTEM, LowTF-ROTEM, and for INTEM-HEPTEM with correlation coefficients of 0.93 for PiCT-ROTEM, 0.94 for LowTF-ROTEM, and 0.81 for INTEM-HEPTEM. This in-vitro experiment demonstrates a strong correlation between enoxaparin anti-Xa concentrations and specific ROTEM tests. These promising assays should be further evaluated for monitoring anticoagulation in high-risk patients in clinical studies.

  15. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traby, Ludwig; Kollars, Marietta; Eischer, Lisbeth; Eichinger, Sabine; Kyrle, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT]) and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs) with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19%) patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR) of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02) and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13) after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22) for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th) quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st) quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04). No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  16. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Traby

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT] and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19% patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02 and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13 after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22 for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04. No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  17. Water Reuse in Brazilian Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    José Féres; Arnaud Reynaud; Alban Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors influencing water reuse in manufacturing firms and analyzes whether the structure of intake water demand differs between firms that adopt water reuse practices and those which do not. To this purpose, we estimate a two-stage econometric model based on a sample of 447 industrial facilities located in the Paraíba do Sul river basin. The first stage applies a probit model for the water reuse decision and the second stage employs an endogenous switching regression ...

  18. Industry diversity, competition and firm relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Madsen, Jakob B.; Steiner, Bodo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which indicators of external scale economies impacted employment growth in Canada over the period 2004-2011. We focus on knowledge spillovers between firms while accounting for Marshallian specialization, Jacobs’ diversity, and competition by industry, as well...... as related and unrelated firm varieties in terms of employment and sales. We find that the employment growth effects of local competition and diversity are positive, while the effect of Marshallian specialization is negative. Diversification is found to be particularly important for employment growth during...

  19. Beefing up operations in service firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R B; Hayes, R H

    1991-01-01

    Many articles exhort service firm managers to empower workers and first-line supervisors, exploit technology, focus on the customer, and, above all, provide outstanding service. This article proposes a framework to help you evaluate your company's competitive standing in each of these areas. It discusses four types of companies on a continuum, from the company that is simply "available for service" to the firm that delivers world class service. The authors focus on operations, the function that controls the service encounter, and apply the manufacturing strategy paradigm to services as a means of implementing change.

  20. Dynamic Embeddedness in Chinese Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lattemann, Christoph; Alon, Ilan; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    the resource-based view (firm-specific advantages), institutional-based view (push/pull home and host country factors), and network-based view (network relations). We also explicitly incorporate ”time” as a variable into our framework by introducing and explaining the concept of “dynamic embeddedness......This paper presents a multi-level framework to analyze the motivations and location choices of Chinese OFDIs. We contribute to theory-integration on Chinese OFDI flows and patterns by suggesting a framework that combines country-, industry- and firm-level analyses and by reflecting aspects from...

  1. Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Strandskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying...... assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential for integration of partial theories and fragments in a more logically connected theoretical area, this article offers a meta-theoretical overview of four perspectives within international business economics: Research and its related background, basic...

  2. Cash flow forecast for South African firms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Moutinho, Luiz; Opong, Kwaku K.; Pang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies models in the extant literature that have been used to forecast operating cash flows to predict the cash flows of South African firms listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Out-of-sample performance is examined for each model and compared between them. The reported results show that some accrual terms, i.e. depreciation and changes in inventory do not enhance cash flow prediction for the average South African firm in contrast to the reported results of studies in USA an...

  3. Does firm performance affect board independence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed some light on the antecedents of board independence. Specifically, it attempts to test the conceptual frameworks which make different predictions about the effect of firm performance on the level of board independence. The results provide support for the perspective that appointing more independent members to the boards may merely represent firms’ attempts to comply with institutional pressures. It is found that higher blockholder shareholdings lead to lower independence on the board, and audit and remuneration committees. Moreover, larger firms have relatively more independent directors sitting on nomination and remuneration committees.

  4. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, Craig R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  5. Civil engineering firms and the nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giral, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pointing out that the realization of the electronuclear programme accounted for just under 5 % of the annual turnover of civil engineering firms from 1975 to 1987, the author lists the main types of work entrusted to these firms for the bulding of the power stations: electrical work, structural work (civil engineering, metal structures. He then describes the two main problems which the profession has to face in the nuclear field: the management of final contract stages and adaptation to the slowing down in the rate of commitment of power plants [fr

  6. Ontology-Based Model Of Firm Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyska, Boryana; Stoenchev, Nikolay

    2010-10-01

    Competitiveness is important characteristics of each business organization (firm, company, corporation etc). It is of great significance for the organization existence and defines evaluation criteria of business success at microeconomical level. Each criterium comprises set of indicators with specific weight coefficients. In the work an ontology-based model of firm competitiveness is presented as a set of several mutually connected ontologies. It would be useful for knowledge structuring, standardization and sharing among experts and software engineers who develop application in the domain. Then the assessment of the competitiveness of various business organizations could be generated more effectively.

  7. Pilot study of Alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator) for treatment of urinary clot retention in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, Chad R; Ordonez, Maria A; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Araujo, Juan; Walsh, Rhonda; Baudin, Vania; Lee, Daniel; Badani, Ketan K; Gupta, Mantu; Landman, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    The management of urinary clot retention and hematuria involves manual irrigation with sterile water or normal saline via a Foley catheter followed by continuous bladder irrigation. Irrigation may become difficult because of the formation of dense blood clots. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA/Alteplase) may be a useful pharmacological agent to improve the efficacy of manual irrigation of large, dense clots. The goal of the current study was to compare t-PA to sterile water for clot irrigation in an in vitro model. In vitro models of clot retention were created using 500-cc urinary leg bags each filled with 80 cc of unpreserved whole blood from a healthy volunteer. Each model was incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 hours to allow clot formation. Four models each with 25 mL solution of t-PA at concentrations of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL were evaluated and compared to a control (25 mL sterile water). Models were instilled with solution (t-PA or control) and incubated for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C, and then irrigated with sterile water via 18F Foley by a blinded investigator. Three separate experiments were conducted, and statistical analysis was performed comparing various irrigation parameters. Clot evacuation with 25 mL of t-PA at a concentration of 2 mg/mL (50 mg) was significantly easier (p = 0.05) and faster (p < 0.05) than the sterile water control. The mean time for clot evacuation in this model was 2.7 minutes for t-PA solution 2 mg/mL versus 7.3 minutes for the control (p < 0.05). Compared to the control, irrigation with t-PA solution 2 mg/mL also required less irrigant (180 mL vs. 500 mL) (p < 0.05) for complete evacuation. There was a similar trend in efficacy for the lower doses of t-PA, but this was not statistically significant. In this in vitro study, a single 25 mL instillation of t-PA solution 2 mg/mL is significantly better than sterile water alone for clot evacuation. In vivo animal studies are pending.

  8. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    /Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially......It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V...

  9. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  10. Elevated NT-proBNP is associated with unfavorably altered plasma fibrin clot properties in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusik, Paweł T; Matusik, Patrycja S; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława; Małecka, Barbara; Ząbek, Andrzej; Undas, Anetta

    2017-09-15

    Dense fibrin clot formation and hypofibrinolysis have been reported in atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear which factors affect fibrin clot properties in AF. We investigated plasma fibrin clot permeability (K s ), clot lysis time (CLT), endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) as well as other coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters along with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in 160 AF patients (median age, 70.5years). Previous stroke (n=15; 9.4%) was associated with decreased K s (P=0.04) and longer CLT (P=0.005), together with higher antiplasmin (P=0.03) and lower tissue-type plasminogen activator (P=0.01). Lower K s (P=0.04) and tendency towards longer CLT (P=0.10) were observed in patients with a left atrium diameter>40mm. Patients with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 3 or more (82.5%) were characterized by higher thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor antigen (P=0.009). K s was inversely correlated with log NT-proBNP (r=-0.34, PCLT was positively correlated with log NT-proBNP (R=0.61, PCLT (the top quartile,≥109min). In AF patients prothrombotic fibrin clot properties assessed ex vivo are determined by PAI-1 and NT-proBNP and this phenotype is associated with prior ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Firm-specific factors and financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirawasam Chandrapala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the role of internal factors in generating financial performance of firms in the Czech Republic. The paper examines the impact of firm specific factors on company financial performance of 974 firms in the Czech Republic over the period 2005 to 2008, using data in the Albertina database. Pooled and panel cross-sectional time series techniques are used for the data analysis. Return on Assets (ROA is the dependent variable of the model and eight firm specific factors are introduced as the explanatory variables. Using Return on Assets as the dependent variable, it is established that the firm size, sales growth and capital turnover are having significant positive impact on financial performance of firms. At the same time, debt ratio and inventory reflect significant negative impact on financial performance of firms. Overall explanatory powers of the two models are low and further research is necessary to increase the statistical power of the model. The results from the present study may be very encouraging and useful for managers as well as investors to plan investment and operational activities to achieve profitability objectives more efficiently and effectively. The findings have important managerial implications.

  12. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...

  13. Human capital and wages in exporting firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the link between the education level of workers, export performance and wages. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results. Using...

  14. Gendering dynamic capabilities in micro firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgen Bogodistov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues are well-researched in the general management literature, particular in studies on new ventures. Unfortunately, gender issues have been largely ignored in the dynamic capabilities litera­ture. We address this gap by analyzing the effects of gender diversity on dynamic capabilities among micro firms. We consider the gender of managers and personnel in 124 Ukrainian tourism micro firms. We examine how a manager’s gender affects the firm’s sensing capacities and investigate how it moderates team gender diversity’s impact on sensing capacities. We also investigate how person­nel composition impacts seizing and reconfiguration capacities. We find that female managers have several shortcomings concerning a firm’s sensing capacity but that personnel gender diversity increa­ses this capacity. Team gender diversity has positive effects on a firm’s seizing and reconfiguration abilities. Our study advances research on gender diversity and its impact on firm capabilities and illustrates its relevance for staffing practices in micro firms.

  15. From Global Firms to Global Boards?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Gregoric, Aleksandra; Randøy, Trond

    2011-01-01

    . This indicates some support for the view that different kinds of firm internationalization – commercial versus financial - might lead to different types of board internationalization. We find no evidence that the internationalization of boards is limited by the conservatism of existing national board members...

  16. The Firm as an Internal Capital Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    1996-01-01

    A review of current strategy literature shows that the portfolio view seems to have become unfashionable. This article argues in favor of a revitalization of the portfolio view, and attempts to show that with a few changes, it can be used together with the modern theories of the firm and its...

  17. Capital Structure Influence on Construction Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayiddin Nur Faezah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interconnectedness between capital structure and firm performance is a topic of high interest among scholars and management alike. The scholars tend to unveil the why segment of the relationship, while the management looks into the how side to promote capital structure policy which can optimise the firm performance. While many studies have looked into this relationship across multiple industries and spanning across decades of data, the current study trains its lens on Malaysian public listed company companies which operate in the construction sector, and with data window between 2010 to 2014. This specific sector was chosen for their high gearing which renders firms to relatively high insolvency exposure emanating from interest rate fluctuations. The five-year timeframe was selected to isolate potential data contaminations streaming from global financial crisis which winds down in 2009. Financial data of the company were extracted from Bloomberg Terminal based on a pre-prepared list of Bloomberg tickers. A total of 225 observations were recorded in this study. Using Tobin’s Q as a proxy for firm performance, this study finds a mixed result where short term debts ratio indicates a significant negative effect, while long term debt ratio presents a non-significant influence. Explanations on this output are therefore discussed in this paper.

  18. FIRM SIZE EFFECTS ON TRANSACTION COSTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOOTEBOOM, B

    1993-01-01

    Associated with effects of scale, scope, experience and learning there are effects of firm size on transaction costs; in the stages of contact, contract and control. These effects are due to ''threshold costs'' in setting up contacts, contracts and governance schemes, and to differences with respect

  19. Determinants of Firm R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson; Poldahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Research and Development (R&D) is a key component behind technological development and economic growth; therefore, understanding the drivers of R&D is crucial. An interesting question is the role of technology spillovers, transferred by trade, and their impact on firm R&D. Here we analyze not only...

  20. Cooperative R&D and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Carree, M.A.; Lokshin, B.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the impact of R&D cooperation on firm performance differentiating between four types of R&D partners (competitors, suppliers, customers, and universities and research institutes), and considering two performance measures: labour productivity and productivity in innovative (new to the

  1. Designing Firms to Fit the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Most firms identify market opportunities for their new technologies after they have been developed. This article discusses the design of a “futures group” which can help to synchronize a firm’s technology and market development. A futures group designed to span more than one organization could lead to simultaneous market development for multiple technologies.

  2. Firm efficiency: domestic owners, coalitions, and FDI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen; Mašika, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2012), s. 471-486 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/0080 Institutional support : PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : efficiency * ownership structure * firms Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  3. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses some recent research which aims at producing evidence on how firms adjust their employment in response to output shocks using micro-level data and with a particular focus on the relationship between worker and job flows. The evidence presented is mainly based on Danish data...

  4. Information and Communication Technology Clusters, Local Firm ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Information and Communication Technology Clusters, Local Firm Performance, and Employment Generation. As countries steadily increase the share and value of knowledge, information, and services in their economies, governments have been crafting policies to attract foreign investment and establish large ...

  5. What Firms Leave Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Larsen, Mathias Lund; Gwozdz, Wencke

    and publicly-listed firms; that early adopters face a higher risk of being delisted; and that the presence of a local network in a country reduces the likelihood of being delisted. We theorize that MSIs face a participant self-selection bias over time and that local networks enable legitimacy spillover effects...

  6. Firm Reorganization : Social Control or Social Contract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Hendrik Leendert; Dolfsma, Wilfred; Blinde-Leerentveld, Rowan

    Firm reorganizations deeply affect employees. Management can reorganize in different ways, focusing on costs or acknowledging the involvement of employees. The latter implies following a social contract that complements incomplete (formal) labor contracts. Little is known about how the way in which

  7. Strategic delegation of responsibility in competing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bijl, P.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the strategic impact of organizational design on product market competition. In a duopoly model of horizontal and vertical product differentiation, each firm's manager can impose a product location, or delegate responsibility to select product location to his subordinate. The

  8. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  9. Risk Management Practices: The Ghanaian Firms' Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a quantitative approach the findings of the study are that Ghanaian firms understand risk and risk management. Additionally, operational, liquidity and credit risk are the most dominant risks experienced while risk identification and selection jointly determine risk management practices in Ghana. Based on the findings ...

  10. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...

  11. Internationalization of Emerging Economies and Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A contribution to the scarce body of literature on internationalization of emerging economies and their firms. Using a large variety of national contexts, it addresses the advancing business development of new emerging economies and their impact on the process of internationalization of emerging...

  12. Which Way for the Kenyan Manufacturing Firms?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. An International ... In this paper, firm level panel data for Kenyan manufacturing sector is used ... profits abroad. ... 2. the national income or growth accounting approach which uses .... TFP = productivity measured as value added i.e. total output minus value of.

  13. Firm break-up and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Hanousek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-143 ISSN 1435-6104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : break-up of firms * corporate performance * ownership changes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.588, year: 2012

  14. Firm-Specific Foreign Exchange Exposure Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Brodin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used the stock market approach to find the aggregate number of (firms with) foreign exchange exposures in a given country, region, or industry. Methodologies have differed in many aspects but two of the most basic differences relate to observation frequency and the choice...

  15. Neighbourhood Effects on Firm Success and Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314117415

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to provide new insights on the relationship between local firms and their neighbourhoods. As a result of economic transitions and several societal developments over the past 50 years, residential neighbourhoods have developed from being places where people

  16. Listed Firm's Level of Stakeholder Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how Danish listed firms comply with the Danish Corporate Governance Code's recommendations regarding the categories: Role of shareholders, role of stakeholders and transparency. It is shown that the number of recommendations can be explained by six different underlying facto...

  17. Rostering at a Dutch Security Firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Freling (Richard); N. Piersma (Nanda); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert); A. van de Wetering

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe roster planning process at the Dutch security firm NVD was traditionally carried out by hand. A few years NVD was traditionally carried out by hand. A few years ago, because of changing labor laws in the Netherlands, this became practically impossible. We developed a decision support

  18. Rostering at a Dutch Security Firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Freling (Richard); N. Piersma (Nanda); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert); A. van de Wetering

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe roster planning process at the Dutch security firm NVD was traditionally carried out by hand. A few years ago, because of changing labor laws in The Netherlands, this became practically impossible. We developed a decision support system which has four main modules. The first one

  19. Paradoxes and Innovation in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingram, Amy E.; Lewis, Marianne W.; Barton, Sid

    2016-01-01

    thinkers are more likely to manage these tensions and fuel innovative behavior. Leveraging family business and organizational paradox literatures, this multi-stage exploratory study develops measures of paradoxical tensions and paradoxical thinking in family firms, and tests these propositions. Findings...... indicate that paradoxical tensions may stymie innovative behavior, but that leaders' paradoxical thinking is positively related to innovative behavior....

  20. Asymptotic behaviour of firmly non expansive sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, B.D.

    1993-04-01

    We introduce the notion of firmly non expansive sequences in a Banach space and present several results concerning their asymptotic behaviour extending previous results and giving an affirmative answer to an open question raised by S. Reich and I. Shafir. Applications to averaged mappings are also given. (author). 16 refs

  1. Facilitated inter-firm collaboration in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, aid agencies have endorsed the need to support private enterprise development in developing countries as an instrument for overall economic development and poverty reduction. Facilitation of collaboration between developed and developing country firms has become one of the mo...

  2. The financing behavior of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Linda H.; Jiang, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the financing behaviour of Dutch firms by testing whether a firm’s financing decisions are determined by certain factors identified in various theories. Since a firm’s financing decision is reflected in the changes of its leverage, our research focuses on the relationship

  3. Job Creation by Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels

    -offs and mergers. The analysis will make it possible to differentiate between net and gross creation of jobs because we can follow each single individual in and out of jobs. We have for Denmark found that size on its own does not have a big impact, but young firms are much more likely to contribute to a positive...... growth. For the U.S. it has been found that the growth in jobs comes from small businesses. A closer analysis though shows that the main factor here is the firm age. Thus, it is found that young firms net create the most jobs, but they are also responsible for the most job destructions.......In this paper we will look at job creation and destruction in firms. We will answer the question if it is the large companies that create jobs, while the smaller companies are contributing much less. Or is it the young companies that create jobs? And who destroys the most jobs? In the crisis...

  4. Organizational learning capability, firm innovativeness, and firm performance: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlägel, Christopher; Reichel, Lisa-Marie; Richter, Nicole Franziska

    In the last twenty years a growing number of empirical studies tested the association be-tween organizational learning capability (OLC) and various economic outcomes. While these studies have provided a better understanding of these relationships, the literature is characterized by the use...... different measures. Based on 53 studies (13,663 firms), we (a) provide a systematic overview of the most commonly used OLC measures, (b) use meta-analytic techniques to highlight the relevance of OLC for firm innovativeness (ruc = .39) and firm perfor-mance (ruc = .41), and (c) explore the unique and common...

  5. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  6. A portable blood plasma clot micro-elastometry device based on resonant acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, C R; Li, Ling; Wolberg, Alisa S; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal blood clot stiffness is an important indicator of coagulation disorders arising from a variety of cardiovascular diseases and drug treatments. Here, we present a portable instrument for elastometry of microliter volume blood samples based upon the principle of resonant acoustic spectroscopy, where a sample of well-defined dimensions exhibits a fundamental longitudinal resonance mode proportional to the square root of the Young's modulus. In contrast to commercial thromboelastography, the resonant acoustic method offers improved repeatability and accuracy due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the resonant vibration. We review the measurement principles and the design of a magnetically actuated microbead force transducer applying between 23 pN and 6.7 nN, providing a wide dynamic range of elastic moduli (3 Pa-27 kPa) appropriate for measurement of clot elastic modulus (CEM). An automated and portable device, the CEMport, is introduced and implemented using a 2 nm resolution displacement sensor with demonstrated accuracy and precision of 3% and 2%, respectively, of CEM in biogels. Importantly, the small strains (diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring.

  7. Biological activity analysis of native and recombinant streptokinase using clot lysis and chromogenic substrate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Sadjady, Seyyed Kazem; Mirzaei Saleh Abadi, Mohammad; Azadi, Saeed; Solaimanian, Roya

    2012-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF STREPTOKINASE ACTIVITY IS USUALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH TWO ASSAY METHODS: a) Clot lysis, b) Chromogenic substrate assay. In this study the biological activity of two streptokinase products, namely Streptase®, which is a native product and Heberkinasa®, which is a recombinant product, was determined against the third international reference standard using the two forementioned assay methods. The results indicated that whilst the activity of Streptase® was found to be 101 ± 4% and 97 ± 5% of the label claim with Clot lysis and Chromogenic substrate assay respectively, for Heberkinasa® the potency values obtained were 42 ± 5% and 92.5 ± 2% of the label claim respectively. To shed some light on the reason for this finding, the n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecules present in the two products was determined. The results showed slight differences in the amino acid sequence of the recombinant product in comparison to the native one at the amino terminus. This finding supports those of other workers who found that n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecule can have significant effect on the activity of this protein.

  8. Effect of anticoagulant administration on blood clotting and some hormones related to rat-fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed using 30 mature male albino rats divided into 3 equal groups; control and two treated groups to assess the effect of anticoagulant (warfarin) administration on the level of some hormones related to fertility. The two treated groups were injected intraperitoneally every other day with 1 ml (0.03 mg)and 2 ml (0.06 mg)warfarin/ 100 g body weight respectively where, two specimens were taken from each group after two and four weeks. Clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT), partial prothrombin time (PTT) platelets count, fasting blood sugar (F.B.S), calcium levels in addition to triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), insulin, corticosterone, and testosterone hormones were determined. The results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant increase in clotting time, prothrombin time , partial prothrombin time, platelets count and glucose level, while serum calcium level showed significant decrease. Intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant decrease of insulin and significant increase of corticosterone, T 3 showed significant decrease in high dose group while T 4 showed significant decrease in small dose group. The high dose was associated with the highest level of testosterone hormone. these results denoted that warfarin anticoagulant had no negative effect on gonadal sex hormone and hence on male fertility

  9. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF CURD PRODUCTS BASED ON PROTEIN-HERBAL CLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of qualitative indicators of curd products with different nutritional ingredients based on protein-herbal clots. The effect of the number of Rumex juice and the duration of thermoacid processing on the process of precipitation of milk proteins was determined. It was established that the introduction of vegetative coagulant in the amount (9 ± 0.5% at a temperature (93 ... 95 °C and endurance (3 ... 5 min - provides the optimal yield of protein-herbal clot taking into account restrictions according to organoleptic parameters. The effect of white sugar and apple pectin in fiber on the organoleptic, physico-chemical and rheological indicators curd products was investigated. The dietary fibers increase moisture-proof ability and effective viscosity of samples, and white sugar reduces these indexes due to dehydrating properties. The optimal option is to add to the protein-herbal bunch at the same time two components when mixing - white sugar and apple pectin in fiber in quantities of 15% and 2% respectively. Taking into account the influence of individual non-dairy ingredients - Rumex juice of white sugar and apple pectin in fiber on curd products, the performance of the finished product can purposefully be affected.

  10. Platelet microparticle-inspired clot-responsive nanomedicine for targeted fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Christa L; Li, Wei; Sun, Michael; Ravichandran, Kavya; Hickman, DaShawn; Kos, Clarissa; Kaur, Gurbani; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2017-06-01

    Intravascular administration of plasminogen activators is a clinically important thrombolytic strategy to treat occlusive vascular conditions. A major issue with this strategy is the systemic off-target drug action, which affects hemostatic capabilities and causes substantial hemorrhagic risks. This issue can be potentially resolved by designing technologies that allow thrombus-targeted delivery and site-specific action of thrombolytic drugs. To this end, leveraging a liposomal platform, we have developed platelet microparticle (PMP)-inspired nanovesicles (PMINs), that can protect encapsulated thrombolytic drugs in circulation to prevent off-target uptake and action, anchor actively onto thrombus via PMP-relevant molecular mechanisms and allow drug release via thrombus-relevant enzymatic trigger. Specifically, the PMINs can anchor onto thrombus via heteromultivalent ligand-mediated binding to active platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa and P-selectin, and release the thrombolytic payload due to vesicle destabilization triggered by clot-relevant enzyme phospholipase-A 2 . Here we report on the evaluation of clot-targeting efficacy, lipase-triggered drug release and resultant thrombolytic capability of the PMINs in vitro, and subsequently demonstrate that intravenous delivery of thrombolytic-loaded PMINs can render targeted fibrinolysis without affecting systemic hemostasis, in vivo, in a carotid artery thrombosis model in mice. Our studies establish significant promise of the PMIN technology for safe and site-targeted nanomedicine therapies in the vascular compartment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Influence of Interleukin-1 Beta on Platelet-Poor Plasma Clot Formation: A Potential Impact on Early Bone Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Hematoma quality (especially the fibrin matrix plays an important role in the bone healing process. Here, we investigated the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β on fibrin clot formation from platelet-poor plasma (PPP.Five-milliliter of rat whole-blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein. All blood samples were firstly standardized via a thrombelastograph (TEG, blood cell count, and the measurement of fibrinogen concentration. PPP was prepared by collecting the top two-fifths of the plasma after centrifugation under 400 × g for 10 min at 20°C. The effects of IL-1β cytokines on artificial fibrin clot formation from PPP solutions were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, confocal microscopy (CM, turbidity, and clot lysis assays.The lag time for protofibril formation was markedly shortened in the IL-1β treatment groups (243.8 ± 76.85 in the 50 pg/mL of IL-1β and 97.5 ± 19.36 in the 500 pg/mL of IL-1β compared to the control group without IL-1β (543.8 ± 205.8. Maximal turbidity was observed in the control group. IL-1β (500 pg/mL treatment significantly decreased fiber diameters resulting in smaller pore sizes and increased density of the fibrin clot structure formed from PPP (P < 0.05. The clot lysis assay revealed that 500 pg/mL IL-1β induced a lower susceptibility to dissolution due to the formation of thinner and denser fibers.IL-1β can significantly influence PPP fibrin clot structure, which may affect the early bone healing process.

  12. The Influence of Ownership on Firm Internationalization: A Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Petersen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...... analysis of the various owner types, we discuss how each owner group’s main objectives, risk behavior and provision of resources influence their internationalization strategies and decisions (i.e. scale, scope and speed decisions)....

  13. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, P I; Svendsen, M S; Salado, J; Bochsen, L; Kristensen, A T

    2008-02-01

    Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, in part, depend on its reflection of the dynamics of thrombin generation. The kinetics of thrombin generation of platelets stored for 2 and 7 days, respectively, was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and the lag time (min), time to peak (ttPeak; min), peak (nm thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P < 0.0001) as did the CAT peak thrombin generation and the TEG MTG (P = 0.0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies, secondary to impaired thrombin generation.

  14. Effects of neutron-gamma or gamma irradiations on plasma clotting factors. Effect of a treatment by substituted factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Martin, S.; Janodet, D.; Herodin, F.; Gourmelon, P.; Fatome, M.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-gamma irradiation of the baboon at lethal dose altered the plasma clotting factors and induced a fibrinoformation alteration which occurred shortly before death. These disturbances, which were not found after gamma irradiation, could explain the importance of the haemorrhagic syndrome. Treatment by P.P.S.B. (factors II, VII, X and IX) counteracted the alterations of the plasma clotting factors, but had no influence on the lethality nor on the fibrinoformation alteration which seems to be an important cause of death [fr

  15. Determinants of CEO Turnover in Publicand Private Firms in Denmark - CEO and Firm Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sponholtz, Carina

    In this study we are the first to draw on longitudinal matched employer-employee data to study CEO turnover. Using this data we contribute tothe existing literature by examining the e¤ect of previously unstudied in-dividual characteristics on CEO turnover. Additionally, we are able toexamine CEO...... turnover. Finally, the inverse relationshipbetween firm performance and CEO turnover only exists in LLL firms(larger limited liability firms, both publicly and privately held), whereagency costs are assumed and found to be highest.In this study we are the first to draw on longitudinal matched employer-employee...... turnover across a variety of firm types that di¤er with re-spect to the corporate governance issues they face. Our simple methodol-ogy to define CEO turnover results in turnover rates similar to those foundpreviously. Our results indicate that CEO characteristics are an important factor in explaining CEO...

  16. Female Employment and Firm Performance: An empirical analysis using firm panel data (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu

    2014-01-01

    This paper overviews the situation of female employment in listed Japanese companies using firm-level panel data after the 2000s, and demonstrates whether those companies utilizing female employment earn higher profits. The estimation results of fixed effect models show that a higher female proportion among regular employees significantly raises a company's profit rates, as measured by the return on assets. Particularly, it is shown that those firms with a female proportion of 30% to 40%, as ...

  17. The Cultivation of New Technology-Based Firms and Roles of Venture Capital Firms in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kirihata, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze post-investment activities of venture capital firms (VCFs) based on a questionnaire survey and discuss the issues and challenges of post-investment activities of VCFs with new technology based firms (NTBFs) in Japan. The questionnaire survey reveals that business supports desired by NTBFs can be classified into four groups."business strategies adjustment and motivation", "business advice and networking", "finance and crisis management", and "recruitment assistance". T...

  18. Intracameral air injection during Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma for the prevention of tube obstruction with blood clot: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ha; Yoo, Chungkwon; Kim, Yong Yeon; Lee, Dae Young; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma drainage implant surgery is a treatment option for the management of neovascular glaucoma. However, tube obstruction by blood clot after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation is an unpredictable clinically challenging situation. We report 4 cases using intracameral air injection for the prevention of the tube obstruction of AGV by blood clot. The first case was a 57-year-old female suffering from ocular pain because of a tube obstruction with blood clot after AGV implantation in neovascular glaucoma. Surgical blood clot removal was performed. However, intractable bleeding was noted during the removal of the blood clot, and so intracameral air injection was performed to prevent a recurrent tube obstruction. After the procedure, although blood clots formed around the tube, the tube opening where air could touch remained patent. In 3 cases of neovascular glaucoma with preoperative severe intraocular hemorrhages, intracameral air injection and AGV implantation were performed simultaneously. In all 3 cases, tube openings were patent. It appears that air impeded the blood clots formation in front of the tube opening. Intracameral air injection could be a feasible option to prevent tube obstruction of AGV implant with a blood clot in neovascular glaucoma with high risk of tube obstruction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing IT infrastructure standardisation in the networked manufacturing firm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, H.A.; Horst, van der H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses managerial aspects of information technology (IT) infrastructure standardisation in networked manufacturing firms. It shows that in these firms, where local initiative is very important and strict central hierarchical control is lacking, standardisation of IT infrastructure is

  20. Advertising Spending, Firm Performance, and the Moderating Impact of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Ahn, Jin Sun

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the potential of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to influence the link between advertising spending and firm performance. Drawing upon the literature of CSR, we hypothesize that CSR positively moderates the relationship between advertising spending and firm perform...