1988-01-01
We hypothesized that the occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), in diastole, might be a mechanism for the saturation of twitch potentiation common to a variety of inotropic perturbations that increase the total cell Ca. We used a videomicroscopic technique in single cardiac myocytes to quantify the amplitude of electrically stimulated twitches and to monitor the occurrence of the mechanical manifestation of spontaneous SR Ca2+ release, i.e., the spontaneo...
Barker, Stephen; Cacho, Isabel; Benway, Heather; Tachikawa, Kazuyo
2005-04-01
As part of the Multi-proxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean (MARGO) incentive, published and unpublished temperature reconstructions for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios have been synthesised and made available in an online database. Development and applications of Mg/Ca thermometry are described in order to illustrate the current state of the method. Various attempts to calibrate foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios with temperature, including culture, trap and core-top approaches have given very consistent results although differences in methodological techniques can produce offsets between laboratories which need to be assessed and accounted for where possible. Dissolution of foraminiferal calcite at the sea-floor generally causes a lowering of Mg/Ca ratios. This effect requires further study in order to account and potentially correct for it if dissolution has occurred. Mg/Ca thermometry has advantages over other paleotemperature proxies including its use to investigate changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater and the ability to reconstruct changes in the thermal structure of the water column by use of multiple species from different depth and or seasonal habitats. Presently available data are somewhat limited to low latitudes where they give fairly consistent values for the temperature difference between Late Holocene and the LGM (2-3.5 °C). Data from higher latitudes are more sparse, and suggest there may be complicating factors when comparing between multi-proxy reconstructions.
Tropical Atlantic SSTS at the Last Glacial Maximum derived from Sr/Ca ratios of fossil coral
Cohen, A. L.; Saenger, C. P.
2006-12-01
The sensitivity of the tropics to climate change is a particularly controversial issue in paleoclimatology. At the heart of this controversy are disagreements amongst different proxy datasets regarding the amplitude of glacial-interglacial changes in temperature, particularly at the sea surface. Data obtained from the aragonitic skeletons of massive reef corals have contributed in no small measure to the debate, yielding LGM and deglacial SSTs 5-6°C cooler than today (Guilderson et al., 1994; McCulloch et al., 1999; Correge et al., 2004), that imply a high sensitivity of Earth's climate to changes in boundary conditions (Crowley, 2000). We used SIMS ion microprobe to analyze Sr/Ca ratios of small pieces of Montastrea coral retrieved from a Barbados drillcore (Guilderson et al., 2001). U/Th dates place the samples between 22 and 24 kyr BP. Localized areas of dissolution and re-growth of secondary (diagenetic) aragonite crystals were identified at centers of septa. Sr/Ca ratios of these crystals were higher than Sr/Ca ratios of original coral crystals preserved in adjacent fasciculi and yielded relatively cooler derived SSTs. The original coral crystals, recognized by their size and orientation, were selectively targeted for analysis using a 20 micron-diameter sample spot. Our calibration study using modern corals from Bermuda, St Croix (USVI) and Barbados indicates that Montastrea Sr/Ca is strongly correlated with SST and with annual extension (growth) rate (Saenger et al., 2006). Growth rate of the fossil corals was determined from measurement of daily growth bands identified in petrographic thin-sections. Application of a growth-dependent Sr/Ca-T calibration yielded Barbados SSTs that were, on average, 2.5°C cooler than today during the LGM and ~1°C cooler than today during Heinrich Event 2. Our LGM SSTs are consistent with the original CLIMAP estimates (CLIMAP, 1976) and with more recent Mg/Ca-based SSTs derived from calcitic foraminifera in the Caribbean
Kao, Ting-Hui; Sakurai, Hiroya; Yu, Shan; Kato, Harukazu; Tsujii, Naohito; Yang, Hung-Duen
2017-07-01
CaCu3Ru4O12 shows a broad maximum at around 200 K in temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility, whose origin is under debate. The present study addresses this problem, using high-quality samples of Ca1 -xAxCu3Ru4O12 (A = La, Na, and Sr) made by high-pressure synthesis technique. Unlike in a previous report, the maximum shifts to lower temperatures for the La substitution, becomes obscure by the Na substitution, and is less influenced by the Sr substitution. This behavior strongly suggests that the susceptibility maximum is caused by a sharp peak in the density of states just above the Fermi level, which induces strong spin fluctuations. Furthermore, the nature of electronic states of LaCu3Ru4O12 and NaCu3Ru4O12 are discussed; the former likely bears a Kondo character, and the latter has spin fluctuations of different origin below approximately 150 K.
Markle, B. R.; Kirby, M.; Carrasco, J.
2008-12-01
Southern California is a densely populated region, highly sensitive to climate change and prone to potentially devastating hydrologic variability (e.g. droughts, floods, etc). In the interest of characterizing past climatic and hydrologic variability, this study analyzes a sediment core from Lake Elsinore, California with a particular focus on a possible rapid regression event at the height of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (between 19,330 and 21,070 calendar yr BP). Sediment analyses (grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and total organic matter) and geochemical analyses (δ13C and molar C/N) are used to characterize and identify this event (hereafter referred to as the Last Glacial Maximum Regression Event or LGMRE). The combination of sediment characteristics of the LGMRE is not observed elsewhere in sediment core LESS02-09 suggesting that the event is unique over the period of observation. This rapid drying event is superimposed on a longer, orbital scale transgressive/regressive cycle. Given the generally wet climate of the LGM, the presence of the LGMRE is unexpected and indicates that Southern California is susceptible to rapid climate change. Evidence suggests synchrony at both orbital and centennial time scales between the Lake Elsinore climate record of the LGM and other terrestrial and marine climate records from southern California as well as the Great Basin region. Furthermore, evidence is presented for synchrony between the Lake Elsinore sediment core and the GISP 2 ice core record from Greenland, at both orbital the centennial time scales, suggesting climatic teleconnections between Southern California and the North Atlantic. It is possible that these two geographically distant areas are linked via dynamics of the altered Last Glacial Maximum jet stream.
Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Smith, Richard W.; Shields, Michael R.; Marcantonio, Franco
2016-01-01
The use of the TEX86 temperature proxy has thus far come to differing results as to whether TEX86 temperatures are representative of surface or subsurface conditions. In addition, although TEX86 temperatures might reflect sea surface temperatures based on core-top (Holocene) values, this relationship might not hold further back in time. Here, we investigate the TEX86 temperature proxy by comparing TEX86 temperatures to Mg/Ca temperatures of multiple species of planktonic foraminifera for two sites in the eastern tropical Pacific (on the Cocos and Carnegie Ridges) across the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum. Core-top and Holocene TEX86H temperatures at both study regions agree well, within error, with the Mg/Ca temperatures of Globigerinoides ruber, a surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera. However, during the Last Glacial Maximum, TEX86H temperatures are more representative of upper thermocline temperatures, and are offset from G. ruber Mg/Ca temperatures by 5.8 °C and 2.9 °C on the Cocos Ridge and Carnegie Ridge, respectively. This offset between proxies cannot be reconciled by using different TEX86 temperature calibrations, and instead, we suggest that the offset is due to a deeper export depth of GDGTs at the LGM. We also compare the degree of glacial cooling at both sites based on both temperature proxies, and find that TEX86H temperatures greatly overestimate glacial cooling, especially on the Cocos Ridge. This study has important implications for applying the TEX86 paleothermometer in the eastern tropical Pacific.
Shen, Tengming [Fermilab; Ye, Liyang [NCSU, Raleigh; Turrioni, Daniele [Fermilab; Li, Pei [Fermilab
2015-01-01
Small insert coils have been built using a multifilamentary Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire, and characterized in background fields to explore the quench behaviors and limits of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconducting magnets, with an emphasis on assessing the impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection. Using heaters of various lengths to initiate a small normal zone, a coil was quenched safely more than 70 times without degradation, with the maximum coil temperature reaching 280 K. Coils withstood a resistive voltage of tens of mV for seconds without quenching, showing the high stability of these coils and suggesting that the quench detection voltage shall be greater than 50 mV to not to falsely trigger protection. The hot spot temperature for the resistive voltage of the normal zone to reach 100 mV increases from ~40 K to ~80 K with increasing the operating wire current density Jo from 89 A/mm2 to 354 A/mm2 whereas for the voltage to reach 1 V, it increases from ~60 K to ~140 K, showing the increasing negative impact of slow normal zone propagation on quench detection with increasing Jo and the need to limit the quench detection voltage to < 1 V. These measurements, coupled with an analytical quench model, were used to access the impact of the maximum allowable voltage and temperature upon quench detection on the quench protection, assuming to limit the hot spot temperature to <300 K.
Evans, David; Wade, Bridget S.; Henehan, Michael; Erez, Jonathan; Müller, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
Much of our knowledge of past ocean temperatures comes from the foraminifera Mg / Ca palaeothermometer. Several nonthermal controls on foraminifera Mg incorporation have been identified, of which vital effects, salinity, and secular variation in seawater Mg / Ca are the most commonly considered. Ocean carbonate chemistry is also known to influence Mg / Ca, yet this is rarely examined as a source of uncertainty, either because (1) precise pH and [CO32-] reconstructions are sparse or (2) it is not clear from existing culture studies how a correction should be applied. We present new culture data of the relationship between carbonate chemistry and Mg / Ca for the surface-dwelling planktic species Globigerinoides ruber and compare our results to data compiled from existing studies. We find a coherent relationship between Mg / Ca and the carbonate system and argue that pH rather than [CO32-] is likely to be the dominant control. Applying these new calibrations to data sets for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) enables us to produce a more accurate picture of surface hydrology change for the former and a reassessment of the amount of subtropical precursor cooling for the latter. We show that pH-adjusted Mg / Ca and δ18O data sets for the PETM are within error of no salinity change and that the amount of precursor cooling over the EOT has been previously underestimated by ˜ 2 °C based on Mg / Ca. Finally, we present new laser-ablation data of EOT-age Turborotalia ampliapertura from St. Stephens Quarry (Alabama), for which a solution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) Mg / Ca record is available (Wade et al., 2012). We show that the two data sets are in excellent agreement, demonstrating that fossil solution and laser-ablation data may be directly comparable. Together with an advancing understanding of the effect of Mg / Casw, the coherent picture of the relationship between Mg / Ca and pH that we outline
D. Evans
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Much of our knowledge of past ocean temperatures comes from the foraminifera Mg / Ca palaeothermometer. Several non-thermal controls on foraminifera Mg incorporation have been identified, of which vital-effects, salinity and secular variation in seawater Mg / Ca are the most commonly considered. Ocean carbonate chemistry is also known to influence Mg / Ca, yet this is rarely considered as a source of uncertainty either because (1 precise pH and [CO32−] reconstructions are sparse, or (2 it is not clear from existing culture studies how a correction should be applied. We present new culture data of the relationship between carbonate chemistry for the surface-dwelling planktic species Globigerinoides ruber, and compare our results to data compiled from existing studies. We find a coherent relationship between Mg / Ca and the carbonate system and argue that pH rather than [CO32−] is likely to be the dominant control. Applying these new calibrations to datasets for the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM and Eocene–Oligocene Transition (EOT enable us to produce a more accurate picture of surface hydrology change for the former, and a reassessment of the amount of subtropical precursor cooling for the latter. We show that properly corrected Mg / Ca and δ18O datasets for the PETM imply no salinity change, and that the amount of precursor cooling over the EOT has been previously underestimated by ∼ 2 °C based on Mg / Ca. Finally, we present new laser-ablation data of EOT-age Turborotalia ampliapertura from St Stephens Quarry (Alabama, for which a solution ICPMS Mg / Ca record is available (Wade et al., 2012. We show that the two datasets are in excellent agreement, demonstrating that fossil solution and laser-ablation data may be directly comparable. Together with an advancing understanding of the effect of Mg / Casw, the coherent picture of the relationship between Mg / Ca and pH that we outline here represents a step towards producing
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
Söderberg, Karin; Kubota, Yoshiki; Muroyama, Norihiro; Grüner, Daniel; Yoshimura, Arisa; Terasaki, Osamu
2008-08-01
Using short wavelength X-rays from synchrotron radiation (SPring-8), high-resolution powder diffraction patterns were collected. In order to study both the structural relationship and the mechanism of stability in the CaAl 2-xZn x system, among the Laves phases (MgCu 2 and MgNi 2 type) and KHg 2-type structures, the charge density distribution of CaAl 2-xZn x as a function of x was obtained from the diffraction data by Rietveld analysis combined with the maximum entropy method (MEM). In the MEM charge density maps overlapping electron densities were clearly observed, especially in the Kagomé nets of the Laves phases. In order to clarify the charge redistribution in the system, the deformation charge densities from the densities formed by the constituent free atoms are discussed. In the ternary MgNi 2-type phase, partial ordering of Al and Zn atoms is observed, a finding that is supported by ab-initio total energy calculations.
Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake
Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.
2013-05-01
Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most
Kozdon, R.; Kelly, D.; Fournelle, J.; Valley, J. W.
2012-12-01
Earth surface temperatures warmed by ~5°C during an ancient (~55.5 Ma) global warming event termed the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). This transient (~200 ka) "hyperthermal" climate state had profound consequences for the planet's surficial processes and biosphere, and is widely touted as being an ancient analog for climate change driven by human activities. Hallmarks of the PETM are pervasive carbonate dissolution in the ocean basins and a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) recorded in variety of substrates including soil and marine carbonates. Together these lines of evidence signal the rapid (≤30 ka) release of massive quantities (≥2000 Gt) of 13C-depleted carbon into the exogenic carbon cycle. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on pedogenic features in paleosols, clay mineralogy and sedimentology of coastal and continental deposits, and land-plant communities indicate that PETM warmth was accompanied by a major perturbation to the hydrologic cycle. Micropaleontological evidence and n-alkane hydrogen isotope records indicate that increased poleward moisture transport reduced sea-surface salinities (SSSs) in the central Arctic Ocean during the PETM. Such findings are broadly consistent with predictions of climate model simulations. Here we reassess a well-studied PETM record from the Southern Ocean (ODP Site 690) in light of new δ18O and Mg/Ca data obtained from planktic foraminiferal shells by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), respectively. The unparalleled spatial resolution of these in situ techniques permits extraction of more reliable δ18O and Mg/Ca data by targeting of minute (≤10 μm spots), biogenic domains within individual planktic foraminifera that retain the original shell chemistry (Kozdon et al. 2011, Paleocean.). In general, the stratigraphic profile and magnitude of the δ18O decrease (~2.2‰) delimiting PETM warming in our SIMS-generated record are similar to those of
Mutungi, Gabriel
2003-01-01
The effects of adding either 25 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi) or its structural analogue arsenate (ASi) on both the maximum Ca2+ activated tension (Po) and passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) were investigated at 10 degrees C, using segments of single, chemically skinned rat muscle fibres. Whilst the results confirmed some previous findings on the effects of Pi on Po, they also showed that the addition of 25 mM ASi led to a large (approximately 50%) but completely reversible depression of Po in both the fast and slow twitch rat muscle fibres. Moreover, the depression of Po by ASi was greater at low than at high pH values. Examined in the presence of Dextran T-500, the passive tension and sarcomere length responses to a ramp stretch were found to be qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported in intact rat muscle fibres. Thus, the tension response to a ramp stretch, in the presence and absence of either 25 mM Pi or ASi, consisted of a viscous (P1), a visco-elastic (P2) and an elastic (P3) tension. However, the addition of either 25 mM Pi or ASi led to approximately 15-18% increase in the amplitude of the visco-elastic (P2) tension but had little or no effect on the amplitudes of the other two tension components (viscous, P1 and elastic, P3 tensions). Furthermore, neither compound significantly altered the relaxation rate of the passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension). These results show that Po (arising from cycling cross-bridges) and passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) are affected differently by both Pi and ASi and suggest that they may not share a common structural basis. The possibility that passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) arises from the gap-(titin) filament (as suggested previously by Mutungi and Ranatunga, 1996b J Physiol 496: 827-837) and that Pi and ASi increase its amplitude by interacting with the PEVK region of the filament are discussed.
Grasty, R.L.; Walters, B.R.B.; Hovgaard, J.; LaMarre, J.R
2001-07-01
An experimental procedure is described for converting a gamma ray spectral measurement from a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (3 inch x 3 inch) sodium iodide (NaI) detector to air kerma rate. The calibration procedure involves measuring the energy deposited in the detector using 10 radioactive sources of known activity covering an energy range from 60 keV to 1836 keV. For each of the 10 sources, gamma ray spectra were measured with the source at different angles to the detector axis. The total energy deposited in the detector for the ten sources was confirmed by Monte Carlo calculations. The spectra measured at different angles were combined to produce a spectrum that would represent a homogeneous semi-infinite source of radiation. The resultant spectrum was then subdivided into 10 energy regions. Based on the known air kerma rates due to the sources, a calibration coefficient was calculated for each of the 10 energy regions. These calibration coefficients could then be used to convert the energy deposited in the 10 regions of an unknown spectrum to air kerma rate. The calibration procedure was confirmed by comparing the results from the detector with those from calibrated collimated beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. A comparison of measurements using a calibrated pressurised ionisation chamber with those from a similar NaI spectrometer in Finland provided additional confirmation of the calibration procedure. (author)
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Discovery of a 7.6-hour high-spin isomer of einsteinium-256
Lougheed, R W; Daniels, W R; Hoffman, D C; Jackson, S V; Landrum, J H; Starner, J W; Wilhelmy, J B
1976-01-01
A 7.6-hour, beta-emitting isomer of /sup 256/Es has been produced via the (t, p) reaction by bombarding /sup 254g/Es with 16-MeV tritons. No evidence for an alpha branch has been found. A number of gamma rays have been observed, on the basis of which a partial decay scheme is proposed. It is concluded that the isomer has spin 7 or 8. (2 refs).
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines can be considered as 9-oxa-purine analogs of naturally occurring nucleic acid bases. Interest in this ring system has increased due to recent reports of biologically active derivatives. In particular, 5-aminooxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine-7(6H-ones (9-oxa-guanines have been shown to inhibit ricin. The preparation of a series of 2-substituted 5-aminooxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidin-7(6H-ones and related 5-thio-oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines is described, including analogs suitable for further elaboration employing “click” chemistry utilizing copper-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions. Two of the compounds prepared were found to inhibit ricin with IC50 ca. 1–3 mM.
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
Static stress change from the 8 October, 2005 M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake
Parsons, T.; Yeats, R.S.; Yagi, Y.; Hussain, A.
2006-01-01
We calculated static stress changes from the devastating M = 7.6 earthquake that shook Kashmir on 8 October, 2005. We mapped Coulomb stress change on target fault planes oriented by assuming a regional compressional stress regime with greatest principal stress directed orthogonally to the mainshock strike. We tested calculation sensitivity by varying assumed stress orientations, target-fault friction, and depth. Our results showed no impact on the active Salt Range thrust southwest of the rupture. Active faults north of the Main Boundary thrust near Peshawar fall in a calculated stress-decreased zone, as does the Raikot fault zone to the northeast. We calculated increased stress near the rupture where most aftershocks occurred. The greatest increase to seismic hazard is in the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone near the Indus River northwest of the rupture termination, and southeast of the rupture termination near the Kashmir basin.
Sliding and Rocking of Unanchored Components and Structures: Chapter 7.6 ASCE 4 Revision 2
S. R. Jensen
2011-04-01
Chapter 7.6 of ASCE 4-Rev 2, Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures: Standard and Commentary, provides updated guidance for analysis of rocking and sliding of unanchored structures and components subjected to seismic load. This guidance includes provisions both for simplified approximate energy-based approaches, and for detailed probabilistic time history analysis using nonlinear methods. Factors to be applied to the analytical results are also provided with the intent of ensuring achievement of the 80% non-exceedence probability target of the standard. The present paper surveys the published literature supporting these provisions. The results of available testing and analysis are compared to results produced by both simplified and probabilistic approaches. In addition, adequacy of the standard's provisions for analysis methods and factors is assessed. A comparison is made between the achieved level of conservatism and the standard's non-exceedence probability target.
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
High Velocity Outflow in CO J=7-6 from the Orion Hot Core
Furuya, Ray S
2009-01-01
Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10.4-meter telescope, we performed sensitive mapping observations of 12CO J=7-6 emission at 807 GHz towards Orion IRc2. The image has an angular resolution of 10", which is the highest angular resolution data toward the Orion Hot Core published for this transition. In addition, thanks to the on-the-fly mapping technique, the fidelity of the new image is rather high, particularly in comparison to previous images. We have succeeded in mapping the northwest-southeast high-velocity molecular outflow, whose terminal velocity is shifted by ~70-85 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity of the cloud. This yields an extremely short dynamical time scale of ~900 years. The estimated outflow mass loss rate shows an extraordinarily high value, on the order of 10^{-3} Msun/yr. Assuming that the outflow is driven by Orion IRc2, our result agrees with the picture so far obtained for a 20 Msun (proto)star in the process of formation.
Santoyo, Miguel A; Mikumo, Takeshi; Quintanar, Luis [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F (Mexico)
2006-07-15
A large thrust earthquake (Mw=7.6) occurred on January 30, 1973, on the plate interface between the subducting Cocos plate and the continental North America plate, near the triple junction between the North America, Cocos and Rivera Plates. This event might be related to two sequences of subsequent large earthquakes that occurred around this region. Although several authors have analyzed the focal mechanism and depth of this earthquake, we analyzed its source characteristics and performed a linear kinematic waveform inversion for the slip distribution over the fault plane. We find a shallow thrust mechanism (St=285 degrees, Dip=16 degrees, Ra=85 degrees) consistent with the tectonic environment, with a depth of 16 km and a total moment release of 2.98x10{sup 2}7 dyn-cm. The results show a slip distribution with two main patches, with a maximum dislocation of 199 cm and 173 cm respectively. We calculated the coseismic stress change on and around the fault plane. This earthquake ruptured two main asperities, one downdip and southwest and the other updip and northwest of the hypocenter, with stress change of -31 and -40 bars respectively The surrounding zone of stress increase could have influenced the subsequent seismicity to a distance of up to 120 km from the hypocenter. [Spanish] El 30 de enero de 1973 ocurrio un evento mayor de subduccion (Mw=7.6) en la interfase de las placas de Cocos y Norteamerica, cerca del punto triple entre las placas de Rivera, Cocos y Norteamerica. Este evento podria estar relacionado con dos secuencias de grandes sismos subsecuentes que ocurrieron alrededor de esta region. Aunque varios autores han analizado el mecanismo focal y la profundidad de este sismo, nosotros analizamos las caracteristicas de la fuente y realizamos una inversion cinematica lineal de la distribucion de deslizamientos sobre el plano de falla a traves del modelado de forma de onda. Encontramos un mecanismo inverso (St=285 grados, Dip=16 grados, Ra=85 grados
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Source Parameters of the 8 October, 2005 Mw7.6 Kashmir Earthquake
Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.
2007-12-01
During the last six years, the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 broadband seismographs and 10 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, with the prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the Mw 7.6 (8 Oct., 2005) Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network, as well as from the Hyderabad Geoscope station, enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and the one-dimensional regional shear-velocity structure of peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8-km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.
Source Parameters of the Deadly Mw 7.6 Kashmir Earthquake of 8 October, 2005
Mandal, Prantik; Chadha, R. K.; Kumar, N.; Raju, I. P.; Satyamurty, C.
2007-10-01
During the last six years, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad has established a semi-permanent seismological network of 5 8 broadband seismographs and 10 20 accelerographs in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat with a prime objective to monitor the continued aftershock activity of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj mainshock. The reliable and accurate broadband data for the 8 October Mw 7.6 2005 Kashmir earthquake and its aftershocks from this network as well as Hyderabad Geoscope station enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the Peninsular India. Firstly, we measure Rayleigh-and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 8 to 35 sec and invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the western part of Peninsular India. Our best model suggests a two-layered crust: The upper crust is 13.8 km thick with a shear velocity (Vs) of 3.2 km/s; the corresponding values for the lower crust are 24.9 km and 3.7 km/sec. The shear velocity for the upper mantle is found to be 4.65 km/sec. Based on this structure, we perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of the bandpass (0.05 0.02 Hz) filtered seismograms of the Kashmir earthquake. The best fit is obtained for a source located at a depth of 30 km, with a seismic moment, Mo, of 1.6 × 1027 dyne-cm, and a focal mechanism with strike 19.5°, dip 42°, and rake 167°. The long-period magnitude (MA ~ Mw) of this earthquake is estimated to be 7.31. An analysis of well-developed sPn and sSn regional crustal phases from the bandpassed (0.02 0.25 Hz) seismograms of this earthquake at four stations in Kachchh suggests a focal depth of 30.8 km.
Illuminating the seismicity pattern of the October 8, 2005, M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake aftershocks
Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod
2017-09-01
Aftershocks of the October 8, 2005, M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake continued for many weeks and covered a region extending over an aperture exceeding 100 km. Several hundred events were recorded well at teleseismic distances while many hundreds more are only observed at regional distances. Existing earthquake catalogs for this sequence are poor given an unfavorable distribution of stations, a complex tectonic setting, lack of local and near-regional data, and under-exploitation of the most sensitive stations. Advances in automated signal processing, improvements in seismic velocity models, and innovations in multiple event location algorithms have made it worthwhile revisiting this sequence and attempting a large-scale relocation of the aftershocks. A vast number of new phase readings have been made on permanent and temporary seismic stations both at regional and teleseismic distances and the Bayesian hierarchical multiple event location program Bayesloc was employed in multiple stages, resulting in a far more structured distribution to the seismicity. The relocated aftershocks fall mainly into two distinct clusters. One cluster lies predominantly North East of the Balaklot-Bagh Thrust and South of the Main Central Thrust, with the October 8 main shock at its most northern point. The second cluster occupies the Indus-Kohistan Seismic Zone, North of the Main Central Thrust and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. Both clusters lie North East of a NW-SE trending boundary almost parallel to the southern part of the surface rupture. An East South East trending strand of earthquakes extends from the most northerly turning point of the Main Central Thrust into the Kashmir Basin, and a scattering of events are located North of this line and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. The new location estimates result in those aftershocks with the most similar focal mechanisms being far more spatially clustered than in previously published catalogs. Mapping global CMT solutions before and
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Continued Trenchward Procession of Upper Plate GPS Sites Following the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Earthquake
Hobbs, T. E.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.
2015-12-01
When studying subduction zone deformation one is often forced to consider a region significantly landward of the trench. The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica presents a unique opportunity to obtain rich datasets from land in relatively close proximity to an active megathrust. A recent moment magnitude (Mw) 7.6 earthquake in September 2012 on this portion of the Middle America Trench affords an opportunity to constrain the ongoing postseismic deformation on the subduction interface between the Cocos and Caribbean plates. GPS campaigns occupying 22 sites were undertaken immediately following the earthquake in September-December 2012 and most recently in March 2015. Combined with data from a network of 17 continuous GPS in the region, we analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the postseismic velocity field. Another campaign is planned for 2017, in conjunction with our ongoing analysis of the continuous GPS network. After 2.5 years, campaign GPS results indicate significant trenchward motion of at least 7 cm, relative to a fixed Caribbean plate, for all sites up to the volcanic chain. Maximum values of 22 cm are observed above and updip of the coseismic rupture zone. The trench-parallel component of the displacement field is small, with few deviations between sites. Together these observations are substantially more self-similar over a larger region than what was observed for the coseismic offset. This implies that there may be a low stress differential across the upper plate, suggesting that the subduction interface environment, including the mainshock and surrounding area, has remained relatively weak following the earthquake. By utilizing a dense and long-term geodetic network we will report on initial modeling that aims to characterize the evolution of afterslip. The effect of regional aftershocks, including an Mw 6.5 in October 2012, and viscoelastic mantle relaxation will be considered to establish the necessity of such effects in robustly accounting for
MIPAS database: new HNO3 line parameters at 7.6 μm validated with MIPAS satellite measurements
A. Perrin
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Improved line positions and intensities have been generated for the 7.6 μm spectral region of nitric acid. They were obtained relying on a recent reinvestigation of the nitric acid band system at 7.6 μm and comparisons of HNO3 volume mixing ratio profiles retrieved from the "Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding" (MIPAS limb emission radiances in the 11 and 7.6 μm domains. This has led to an improved database called "MIPAS-2015". Comparisons with available laboratory information (individual line intensities, integrated absorption cross sections, and absorption cross sections show that MIPAS-2015 provides an improved description of the 7.6 μm region of nitric acid. This study should help to improve HNO3 satellite retrievals by allowing measurements to be performed simultaneously in the 11 and 7.6 μm micro-windows. In particular, it should be useful to analyze existing MIPAS and IASI spectra as well as spectra to be recorded by the forthcoming "Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer – New Generation" (IASI-NG instrument.
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
InterProScan Result: CA946028 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive
Full Text Available CA946028 CA946028_3_ORF1 34CA4E3F20845002 PFAM PF04494 TFIID_90kDa 7.6e-14 T IPR007...cription regulator activity (GO:0030528)|Biological Process: regulation of transcription (GO:0045449) ...
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer
Obermeir, J. [Otech Engineering, Davis, CA (United States); Blittersdorf, D. [NRG Systems Inc., Hinesburg, VT (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
Spatially resolved HCN J=4--3 and CS J=7--6 emission from the disk around HD 142527
van der Plas, G; Menard, F; Perez, S; Thi, W F; Pinte, C; Christiaens, V
2014-01-01
The disk around HD 142527 attracts a lot of attention, amongst others because of its resolved (sub) mm dust continuum that is concentrated into a horseshoe-shape towards the north of the star. In this manuscript we present spatially resolved ALMA detections of the HCN J=4-3 and CS J=7-6 emission lines. These lines give us a view deeper into the disk compared to the (optically thicker) CO isotopes. This is the first detection of CS J=7-6 coming from a protoplanetary disk. Both emission lines are azimuthally asymmetric and are suppressed under the horseshoe-shaped continuum emission peak. A possible mechanism to explain the decrease under the horseshoe-shaped continuum is the increased opacity coming from the higher dust concentration at the continuum peak. Lower {\\gr dust and/or gas} temperatures and an optically thick radio-continuum reduce line emission by freeze-out and shielding of emission from the far side of the disk.
Spatially Resolved HCN J = 4-3 and CS J = 7-6 Emission from the Disk around HD 142527
van der Plas, G.; Casassus, S.; Ménard, F.; Perez, S.; Thi, W. F.; Pinte, C.; Christiaens, V.
2014-09-01
The disk around HD 142527 attracts a great amount of attention compared to others because of its resolved (sub-)millimeter dust continuum that is concentrated into the shape of a horseshoe toward the north of the star. In this Letter we present spatially resolved ALMA detections of the HCN J = 4-3 and CS J = 7-6 emission lines. These lines give us a deeper view into the disk compared to the (optically thicker) CO isotopes. This is the first detection of CS J = 7-6 coming from a protoplanetary disk. Both emission lines are azimuthally asymmetric and are suppressed under the horseshoe-shaped continuum emission peak. A possible mechanism for explaining the decrease under the horseshoe-shaped continuum is the increased opacity coming from the higher dust concentration at the continuum peak. Lower dust and/or gas temperatures and an optically thick radio-continuum reduce line emission by freezing out and shielding emission from the far side of the disk.
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Landslides caused by the M 7.6 Tecomán, Mexico earthquake of January 21, 2003
Keefer, David K.; Wartman, Joseph; Navarro, Ochoa C.; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Wieczorek, Gerald F.
2006-01-01
The Tecomán, Mexico earthquake (also called the “Colima earthquake”) of January 21, 2003 (M 7.6) triggered several hundreds of landslides in the coastal cordilleras of Colima State, near the earthquake source, and several thousands in the volcanic highlands north and northwest of Colima City. These landslides, mostly shallow and disrupted failures, caused minor damage to roads, to a railroad, and to irrigation systems. In one area, extensive, post-earthquake rock-fall activity indicates a possible long-term instability that could threaten dwellings and other infrastructure located nearby. In the coastal cordilleras, most of the landslides were generated by failures of artificially cut slopes, especially along roads. The rocks of the coastal cordilleras are generally well indurated, and landslides occurred only where the rocks were made locally susceptible by weathering, the presence of prominent discontinuities with unfavorable orientations, or intense fracturing or shearing.
Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers operating in continuous-wave mode at λ ≈ 7.6 μm
Jinchuan, Zhang; Lijun, Wang; Wanfeng, Liu; Fengqi, Liu; Lihua, Zhao; Shenqiang, Zhai; Junqi, Liu; Zhanguo, Wang
2012-02-01
Distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in continuous-wave (CW) mode emitting at λ ≈ 7.6 μm are presented. Holographic lithography was used to fabricate the first-order distributed feedback grating. For a high-reflectivity-coated QCL with 14.5-μm-wide and 3-mm-long cavity, CW output powers of 300 mW at 85 K and still 10 mW at 270 K are obtained. Single-mode emission with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of about 30 dB and a wide tuning range of ~300 nm in the temperature range from 85 to 280 K is observed.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Adsorption and fractionation of a muck fulvic acid on kaolinite and goethite at pH 3.7,6, and 8
Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Maurice, P.A.; Aiken, G.R.; Cabaniss, S.; Chin, Y.-P.; Pullin, M.J.
2000-01-01
Molecular weight (MW) of humic materials is a key factor controlling proton and metal binding and organic pollutant partitioning. Several studies have suggested preferential adsorption of higher MW, more aromatic moieties to mineral surfaces; quantification of such processes is fundamental to development of predictive models. We used high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to quantify MW changes upon adsorption of a muck fulvic acid (MFA) extracted from a peat deposit to kaolinite and goethite, at pH 3.7,6, and 8 at 22 ??C, I = 0.01 (NaC1), 24-h reaction time. MFA adsorption affinity was greater for goethite than for kaolinite. At concentrations less than the adsorption maximum (A(max)) for both adsorbents, the weight-average MW (M(w)) of MFA remaining in solution decreased by as much as several hundred Daltons relative to control samples, indicating preferential adsorption of the higher MW components. At concentrations more than A(max), M(w) of MFA in solution did not change appreciably. Although total adsorption decreased significantly as pH increased, fractionation as measured by change in M(w) remained similar, perhaps indicating greater selectivity for higher MW components at higher pH. Absorptivities at ?? = 280 nm normalized to mg C L-1 (??) suggested preferential adsorption of more aromatic moieties to kaolinite. ?? could not be used for goethite-reacted samples because high Fe concentrations in the aqueous phase brought about by goethite dissolution interfered with the spectroscopic analysis. Preliminary kinetic experiments suggested that smaller molecules adsorbed first and were replaced by larger molecules whose adsorption was thermodynamically favored.
Extended nucleation of the 1999 Mw7.6 Izmit earthquake%1999年土耳其Izmit Mw7.6地震的持续成核过程
Michel Bouchon; Hayrullah Karabulut; Mustafa Aktar; Serdar (O)zalaybey; Jean Schmittbuhl; Marie-Paule Bouin5
2011-01-01
实验室和理论研究表明,地震之前会出现一个渐进性的滑动不稳定阶段,在此期间,断层缓慢滑动,而后突然加速并最终导致动态破裂.本文中,我们报道了迄今记录最为完整的大地震之一,即1999年土耳其Izmit Mw7.6地震之前出现了持续时间很久的源自震源的地震信号.这种信号包含一连串的地震破裂,破裂随时间和低频地震噪声的增加而加速.这些观测结果表明,此次地震之前在脆性地壳底部出现了44 min的缓慢滑动.滑动最初呈缓慢加速,然后在地震发生前2 min内又突然加速.
El terremoto de Sámara (Costa Rica del 5 de setiembre del 2012 (Mw7,6
Lepolt Linkimer
2013-12-01
Full Text Available El 5 de setiembre del 2012 se produjo un terremoto (Mw 7,6 en la región de la península de Nicoya. A partir de dos métodos que usan modelos de velocidades en 1D y 3D presentamos tres soluciones para el inicio de la ruptura del terremoto, los cuales convergen aproximadamente en su localización epicentral. El tamaño del evento, su localización y los parámetros de la fuente reportados por diferentes agencias sismológicas indican que el terremoto fue generado en el área interplacas, debido a la subducción de la placa del Coco bajo la placa Caribe. Se presenta un mapa de isosistas a partir de la intensidad recopilada en 190 localidades de Costa Rica para el evento principal y 77 localidades para la réplica de mayor magnitud. Las intensidades máximas para el evento principal fueron de VII (Mercalli Modificada: MM en el área epicentral y en la zona de Grecia, Sarchí y Naranjo. El patrón de la sismicidad durante el primer mes post terremoto define un área de réplicas de 100x40 km².
Simila, Gerald; Mohammadebrahim, Ehsan; McNally, Karen; Quintero, Ronnie; Segura, Juan
2014-05-01
Seismic gaps along the subduction zones are locations where large earthquakes have not occurred in a long time. The Cocos plate is subducting beneath the Caribbean plate in Costa Rica, and the Nicoya Peninsula, located in northwestern Costa Rica, has been identified as a seismic gap. The previous major earthquakes in Nicoya occurred on 1853, 1900 and 1950, which indicates about a 50-year recurrence interval for the characteristic earthquake cycle. Since 2006, the seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica has been composed of 10 sites with Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component) and GPS timing. Our digital accelerographs array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes, including the potential Nicoya event, in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. From 2006 to 2012, 28 events were relocated using the SSMAP and OVSICORI data with moderate magnitudes (4 Tamarindo (distances 40 km and 70 km, respectively) showed accelerations of 2.4% and 8.2% g; respectively. The mainshock acceleration data from SSMAP, University of Costa Rica, and National Electricity Institute networks were analyzed for a new attenuation relationship: Acceleration = -203 ln(R) + 1110 with M=7.6 and R = hypocentral distance.
Observations of changes in waveform character induced by the 1999 M w7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake
Chen, K.H.; Furumura, T.; Rubinstein, J.; Rau, R.-J.
2011-01-01
We observe changes in the waveforms of repeating earthquakes in eastern Taiwan following the 1999 Mw7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, while their recurrence intervals appear to be unaffected. There is a clear reduction in waveform similarity and velocity changes indicated by delayed phases at the time of the Chi-Chi event. These changes are limited to stations in and paths that cross the 70 ?? 100 km region surrounding the Chi-Chi source area, the area where seismic intensity and co-seismic surface displacements were largest. This suggests that damage at the near-surface is responsible for the observed waveform changes. Delays are largest in the late S-wave coda, reaching approximately 120 ms. This corresponds to a path averaged S wave velocity reduction of approximately 1%. There is also evidence that damage in the fault-zone caused changes in waveform character at sites in the footwall, where source-receiver paths propagate either along or across the rupture. The reduction in waveform similarity persists through the most recent repeating event in our study (November 15, 2007), indicating that the subsurface damage induced by the Chi-Chi earthquake did not fully heal within the first 8 years following the Chi-Chi earthquake. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Moroz, E. [Univ. of Texas at El Paso, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, El Paso, TX (United States)
1997-12-31
An experimental investigation into the acoustic noise from a small (7.6 m diameter) teetered rotor wind turbine, set at various yaw angles up to 90 degrees of yaw, was conducted. The results revealed a 1/3 octave spectra which was dominated by a broad peak in the higher frequency range, at all yaw angles investigated. This prompted a theoretical investigation to reveal the mechanisms producing the dominant feature in the experimentally obtained noise spectra and resulted in the development of a wind turbine aerodynamic noise prediction coce, WTNOISE. The location near busy roads and the relatively rough terrain of the wind test site caused difficulties in obtaining useful noise spectral information below 500Hz. However, sufficiently good data was obtained above 500Hz to clearly show a dominant `hump` in the spectrum, centered between 3000 and 4000Hz. Although the local Reynolds number for the blade elements was around 500,000 and one might expect Laminar flow over a significant portion of the blade, the data did not match the noise spectra predicted when Laminar flow was assumed. Given the relatively poor surface quality of the rotor blades and the high turbulence of the test site it was therefore assumed that the boundary layer on the blade may have tripped relatively early and that the turbulent flow setting should be used. This assumption led to a much better correlation between experiment and predictions. The WTNOISE code indicated that the broad peak in the spectrum was most likely caused by trailing edge bluntness noise. Unfortunately time did not allow for modifications to the trailing edge to be investigated. (au)
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ glows in superior cervical ganglion neurons
Li-jun YAO; Cai-hong WU; Jie LIU; Zhuan ZHOU; He-ping CHENG; Gang WANG; Kun-fu OU-YANG; Chao-liang WEI; Xian-hua WANG; Shi-rong WANG; Wei YAO; Hong-ping HUANG; Jian-hong LUO
2006-01-01
Aim: Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an integral component of neuronal Ca2+ signaling. The present study is to investigate properties of local Ca2+ release events in superior cervical ganglion (SCO) neurons. Methods: Primary cultured SCO neurons were prepared from neonatal rats (P3-P7). Low concentration of caffeine was used to induce Ca2+ release from the ER Ca2+ store, and intracellular Ca2+ was recorded by high-resolution line scan confocal imaging and the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4. Results: Two populations of local Ca2+ release events with distinct temporal characteristics were evoked by 1.5 mmol/L caffeine near the surface membrane in the soma and the neurites of SCG neurons. Brief events similar to classic Ca2+ sparks lasted a few hundreds of milliseconds, whereas long-lasting events displayed duration up to tens of seconds. Typical somatic and neurite sparks were of 0.3- and 0.52-fold increase in local Fluo-4 fluorescence, respectively. Typical Ca2+ glows were brighter (△F/F0 approximately 0.6), but were highly confined in space. The half maximum of full duration of neurite sparks was much longer than those in the soma (685 vs 381 ms). Conclusion: Co-existence of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ glows in SCG neurons indicates distinctive local regulation of Ca2+ release kinetics. The local Ca2+ signals of variable, site-specific temporal length may bear important implications in encoding a "memory" of the trigger signal.
The luminescence of titanite (CaTiSiO5)
Blasse, G.; Dirksen, G.J.; Tanaka, I.; Kojima, H.
1988-01-01
The luminescence of CaTiSiO5 crystals is reported. The emission band has its maximum at 520 nm. The results are discussed in connection with titanium compounds containing comparable titanate polyhedra.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Effect of scandium on structure and hardening of Al–Ca eutectic alloys
Belov, N.A., E-mail: nikolay-belov@yandex.ru [National Research and Technological University “MISIS”, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Naumova, E.A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 5, 2 ul. Baumanskaya, Moscow, 105005 (Russian Federation); Alabin, A.N. [National Research and Technological University “MISIS”, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); UC RUSAL, 13/1, Nikoloyamskaya st., Moscow, 109240 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, I.A. [UC RUSAL, 13/1, Nikoloyamskaya st., Moscow, 109240 (Russian Federation)
2015-10-15
The phase composition, structure and hardening of alloys in the aluminium corner of the Al–Ca–Sc system were studied in the range up to 10% Ca and up to 1% S≿. The experimental study (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy with electron-microprobe analysis, differential thermal analysis and hardness measurements) was combined with Thermo-Calc software simulation for the optimization of the alloy composition. It was shown that only phases of the binary systems (Al{sub 4}Ca and Al{sub 3}Sc) might be in equilibrium with the aluminium solid solution. It was shown that the (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca eutectic had a much finer structure as compared with the Al–Si eutectic, which suggests a possibility of reaching higher mechanical properties as compared to commercial alloys of the A356 type. The influence of the annealing temperature within the range up to 600 °C on the structure and hardness of the Al–Ca–Sc experimental alloys was studied. It was determined that the maximum hardening corresponded to the annealing at 300 °C, which was due to the precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc nanoparticles with their further coarsening. With an example of an Al-7.6% Ca-0.3% Sc model experimental alloy, a principal possibility of manufacturing aluminium casting alloys based on the (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca eutectic was demonstrated. Unlike commercial alloys of the A356 type, the model alloy does not require quenching, as hardening particles are formed in the course of annealing of casting. - Highlights: • Al–Ca–Sc phase diagram in aluminum corner. • Formation of Al{sub 3}Sc nanoparticles in eutectic (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca during heating at 300–450 °C. • Hardening and thermal stability of proposed (Al–Ca–Sc) and commercial (Al–Si–Mg, 356 type) eutectic alloys.
Cell surface topology creates high Ca2+ signalling microdomains
Brasen, Jens Christian; Olsen, Lars Folke; Hallett, Maurice B
2010-01-01
It has long been speculated that cellular microdomains are important for many cellular processes, especially those involving Ca2+ signalling. Measurements of cytosolic Ca2+ report maximum concentrations of less than few micromolar, yet several cytosolic enzymes require concentrations of more than...
Upper-Plate Earthquake Swarms Remotely Triggered by the 2012 Mw-7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica
Linkimer, L.; Arroyo, I. G.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Lücke, O. H.
2013-12-01
Remotely triggered seismicity that takes place at distances greater than 1-2 fault lengths appears to be a frequent phenomenon after large earthquakes, including damaging upper-plate 5.0-to-6.0 magnitude earthquakes in Costa Rica after the large (Mw greater than 7.0) inter-plate earthquakes in 1941, 1950, 1983, 1990, and 1991. On 5 of September 2012, an inter-plate 7.6-Mw earthquake struck the Nicoya Peninsula, triggering upper-plate seismicity in the interior of Costa Rica again. The number of upper plate-earthquakes outside the Nicoya source region that were recorded by the National Seismological Network (RSN: UCR-ICE) for the six-month period after the Nicoya event was two times higher than that number of upper plate-earthquakes during the six months before it happened. We analyze the three largest upper-plate earthquake swarms that took place during the first six months after the Nicoya event. We relocate the epicenters using a double difference algorithm with a 1D velocity model (HypoDD) and using a probabilistic method with a 3D velocity model (NonLinLoc). Additionally we compute first motion focal mechanisms for the largest events. The three swarms analyzed occurred at distances of 170 to 350 km from the Nicoya source region in three different tectonic settings: the Cartago area in the central part of Costa Rica near the active volcanic arc (approximately 170 km from the source region), the Calero Island near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border in the backarc Caribbean region (approximately 220 km), and the San Vito area in the Costa Rica-Panama border region, at the southern flank of the Talamanca Cordillera, an inactive portion of the magmatic arc (approximately 300 km). The Cartago swarm with 95 1.8-to-4.1 Mw earthquakes occurred from September 5 to October 31, 2012. The location and left-lateral solution of the largest event suggest that the Aguacaliente fault, which caused the deadliest earthquake in Costa Rican history on May 4, 1910 (Ms 6.4), is the
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2007-01-01
The spatiotemporal evolution patterns of complete Coulomb stress changes caused by 1988 Ms7.6 earthquake in Lancang-Gengma,Yunnan,are calculated and studied.And the triggering problems of Ms7.2 Gengma shock occurring 13 minutes after the main shock and of Ms5.0―6.9 aftershocks within 24 days after the main shock are discussed.The results show that the spatial distribution patterns of complete Coulomb stress changes of the Ms7.6 main shock are strongly asymmetric.The areas of positive dynamic and static Coulomb stress are both coincident well with the strong aftershocks' locations.The Ms7.2 Gengma shock and most of strong aftershocks are subjected to the triggering effect of dynamic and static Coulomb stresses induced by the Ms7.6 Lancang earthquake.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Fusion calculations for 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+48Ca, 40Ca+48Ca and p+208Pb systems
Gao, Jie; Zhang, Haifei; Bao, Xiaojun; Li, Junqing; Zhang, Hongfei
2014-09-01
The fusion cross sections of calcium isotopes and proton induced fusion have been calculated in terms of a coupled-channels formulation. Results indicated that there are big differences between the two fusion types. In the calculations of calcium isotopes fusion, the pair-transfer coupling has been applied in addition to the vibrational coupling, the combined effects showed that pair-transfer has played a significant role in the fusion process for the asymmetric 40Ca+48Ca system. The result of proton induced fusion for p+208Pb system successfully presents the fusion oscillation, which agrees with the experimental data rather well.
López-Comino, José Ángel; Stich, Daniel; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Morales, Jose
2015-09-01
Inversions for the full slip distribution of earthquakes provide detailed models of earthquake sources, but stability and non-uniqueness of the inversions is a major concern. The problem is underdetermined in any realistic setting, and significantly different slip distributions may translate to fairly similar seismograms. In such circumstances, inverting for a single best model may become overly dependent on the details of the procedure. Instead, we propose to perform extended fault inversion trough falsification. We generate a representative set of heterogeneous slipmaps, compute their forward predictions, and falsify inappropriate trial models that do not reproduce the data within a reasonable level of mismodelling. The remainder of surviving trial models forms our set of coequal solutions. The solution set may contain only members with similar slip distributions, or else uncover some fundamental ambiguity such as, for example, different patterns of main slip patches. For a feasibility study, we use teleseismic body wave recordings from the 2012 September 5 Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake, although the inversion strategy can be applied to any type of seismic, geodetic or tsunami data for which we can handle the forward problem. We generate 10 000 pseudo-random, heterogeneous slip distributions assuming a von Karman autocorrelation function, keeping the rake angle, rupture velocity and slip velocity function fixed. The slip distribution of the 2012 Nicoya earthquake turns out to be relatively well constrained from 50 teleseismic waveforms. Two hundred fifty-two slip models with normalized L1-fit within 5 per cent from the global minimum from our solution set. They consistently show a single dominant slip patch around the hypocentre. Uncertainties are related to the details of the slip maximum, including the amount of peak slip (2-3.5 m), as well as the characteristics of peripheral slip below 1 m. Synthetic tests suggest that slip patterns such as Nicoya may be a
Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C Kevin; Gao, Yu; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Inami, Hanae; Howell, Justin; Liu, Lijie; Armus, Lee; Mazzarella, Joseph; Privon, George C; Lord, Steven D; Sanders, David B; Schulz, Bernhard; van der Werf, Paul P
2015-01-01
To better characterize the global star formation (SF) activity in a galaxy, one needs to know not only the star formation rate (SFR) but also the rest-frame, far-infrared (FIR) color (e.g., the 60-to-100 $\\mu$m color, $C(60/100)$] of the dust emission. The latter probes the average intensity of the dust heating radiation field and scales statistically with the effective SFR surface density in star-forming galaxies including (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs]. To this end, we exploit here a new spectroscopic approach involving only two emission lines: CO\\,(7$-$6) at 372 $\\mu$m and [NII] at 205 $\\mu$m. For local (U)LIRGs, the ratios of the CO (7$-$6) luminosity ($L_{\\rm CO\\,(7-6)}$) to the total infrared luminosity ($L_{\\rm IR}$; 8$-$1000 $\\mu$m) are fairly tightly distributed (to within $\\sim$0.12 dex) and show little dependence on $C(60/100)$. This makes $L_{\\rm CO\\,(7-6)}$ a good SFR tracer, which is less contaminated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) than $L_{\\rm IR}$ and may also be much less sens...
Jha, R. [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Shiva Kumar, E-mail: singhsk@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Anuj [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India); Awana, V.P.S, E-mail: awana@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India)
2012-09-15
The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline La{sub 0.70}(Ca{sub 0.30-x}Sr{sub x})MnO{sub 3}:Ag 10% manganite have been investigated. All compositions are crystallized in single phase orthorhombic Pbnm space group. Both, the insulator-metal transition temperature (T{sup IM}) and Curie temperature (T{sub c}) are observed at 298 K for x=0.10 composition. Though both T{sup IM} and T{sub c} are nearly unchanged with Ag addition, the MR is increased. The MR at 300 K is found to be as large as 31% with magnetic field change of 1 T, whereas it reaches up to 49% at magnetic field of 3 T for the La{sub 0.70}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.10}MnO{sub 3}:Ag{sub 0.10} sample. The maximum entropy change ({Delta}S{sub Mmax}) at near its T{sub c} (300.5 K) is 7.6 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1} upon the magnetic field change of 5 T. The La{sub 0.70}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.10}MnO{sub 3}:Ag{sub 0.10} sample having good MR (31%{sup 1T}, 49%{sup 3T}) and reasonable change in magnetic entropy (7.6 J kg{sup -1}.K{sup -1}, 5 T) at 300 K can be a potential magnetic refrigerant material at ambient temperatures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetocaloric property of La{sub 0.70}(Ca{sub 0.30-x}Sr{sub x})MnO{sub 3}:Ag has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Though both T{sup IM} and T{sub c} are unchanged with Ag addition, MR is slightly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MR at 300 K is 31% with field change of 1 T, whereas it is 49% at field of 3 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum entropy change ({Delta}S{sub Mmax}) is 7.6 Jk g{sup -1} K{sup -1} upon the field change of 5 T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained results suggest that it can be a potential magnetic refrigerant material.
Low-affinity Ca2+ indicators compared in measurements of skeletal muscle Ca2+ transients.
Hollingworth, Stephen; Gee, Kyle R; Baylor, Stephen M
2009-10-07
The low-affinity fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators OGB-5N, Fluo-5N, fura-5N, Rhod-5N, and Mag-fluo-4 were evaluated for their ability to accurately track the kinetics of the spatially averaged free Ca(2+) transient (Delta[Ca(2+)]) in skeletal muscle. Frog single fibers were injected with one of the above indicators and, usually, furaptra (previously shown to rapidly track Delta[Ca(2+)]). In response to an action potential, the full duration at half-maximum of the indicator's fluorescence change (DeltaF) was found to be larger with OGB-5N, Fluo-5N, fura-5N, and Rhod-5N than with furaptra; thus, these indicators do not track Delta[Ca(2+)] with kinetic fidelity. In contrast, the DeltaF time course of Mag-fluo-4 was identical to furaptra's; thus, Mag-fluo-4 also yields reliable kinetic information about Delta[Ca(2+)]. Mag-fluo-4's DeltaF has a larger signal/noise ratio than furaptra's (for similar indicator concentrations), and should thus be more useful for tracking Delta[Ca(2+)] in small cell volumes. However, because the resting fluorescence of Mag-fluo-4 probably arises largely from indicator that is bound with Mg(2+), the amplitude of the Mag-fluo-4 signal, and its calibration in Delta[Ca(2+)] units, is likely to be more sensitive to variations in [Mg(2+)] than furaptra's.
The ν_3 and ν_4 Bands of Nitric Acid (HNO_3) at 7.6 μm for Atmospheric Studies
Perrin, A.; Flaud, J. M.; Ridolfi, M.; Carlotti, M.
2012-06-01
Nitric acid (HNO_3) plays an important role as a reservoir molecule of the NO_x (nitrogen oxides) species in the stratosphere. The three strongest infrared bands of nitric acid are located at 11 μm (ν_5 and 2ν_9 bands), 7.6 μm (the ν_3 and ν_4 bands at 1326 and 1303 cm-1) and 5.8 μm (ν_2 band). Although two times weaker than those located at 7.6 and 5.8 μm, the 11 μm region is the only one which is used for nitric acid retrievals in the atmosphere by several satellite instruments like MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on ENVISAT) or ACE-FTS (ACE Fourier transform spectrometer on SCISAT). This is because the available spectroscopic parameters for HNO_3 in the HITRAN and GEISA databases are of very good quality in this spectral region. Of the two remaining bands, the 7.6 μm one is only partly masked by water, and therefore can be used also for nitric acid retrievals in the upper stratosphere. Moreover, because of their large difference in band intensity, combining measurements at 11 μm and 7.6 μm could maximize informations on the vertical distribution of HNO_3 in the atmosphere. However at 7.6 μm the spectroscopic parameters available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases are are not so good. Indeed, these parameters originate from a list generated more than 20 years ago. The low quality of the list at 7.6 μm prevents HNO_3 retrievals and severely affects the retrievals of several species absorbing in the 7.5-7.7 μm region, like SO_2. This work is a new and more accurate investigation of the line positions and intensities for the ν_3 and ν_4 bands of nitric acid located at 1326.187 and 1303.074 cm-1). For this task, we used new infrared laboratory data combined with a new theoretical model. Examples showing substantial improvements will be given. [1] Rothman et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., 110, 533-572, 2009 [2] Jacquinet et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., 112, 2395-2445, 2011 [3] A. Perrin, O. Lado
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Phosphate Capacities of CaF2-MgO and CaF2-CaO-MgO Slags
Akbari, F.; Pickles, C. A.
2015-02-01
Previously published sulphide capacity data and thermodynamic arguments have been employed to calculate the phosphate capacities and the phosphorus partition ratios between a molten carbon saturated iron alloy and binary CaF2-MgO slags and also ternary CaF2 -CaO-MgO slags at 1450 °C. For the CaF2-MgO binary system, a linear relationship was found between the phosphate and the sulphide capacities as follows: log ? = 1.2 log Cs + 25.2. For the ternary CaF2-CaO-MgO system at 1450 °C, the logarithm of the calculated phosphate capacities ranged from 19.47 to 20.15. With the addition of CaO, the phosphate capacities initially increased, reached a maximum and then decreased slightly. The addition of MgO to the CaF2-CaO system resulted in a decrease in the phosphate capacity. The calculated phosphorus partition ratios increased slightly with increasing mole fraction of CaO in the ternary system.
41 CFR 302-7.7 - May the origin and destination points be other than that prescribed in § 302-7.6?
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the origin and destination points be other than that prescribed in Â§ 302-7.6? 302-7.7 Section 302-7.7 Public Contracts and... EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.7 May the origin and destination points be other than...
The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft.
Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian
2016-10-01
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Porsev, S. G.
2009-01-01
The 7.6 eV electromagnetic transition between the nearly degenerate ground state and first excited state in the Th-229 nucleus may be very sensitive to potential changes in the fine-structure constant, $\\alpha = e^2/\\hbar c$. However, the sensitivity is not known, and nuclear calculations are currently unable to determine it. We propose measurements of the differences of atomic transition frequencies between thorium atoms (or ions) with the nucleus in the ground state and in the first excited...
YouJinsong; LiSuwen; 等
1990-01-01
Cell proliferation is accompanied with changing levels of intracellular calmodulin (CaM) and its activation.Prior data from synchronized cell population could not actually stand for various CaM levels in different phases of cell cycle.Here,based upon quantitative measurement of fluorescence in individual cells,a method was developed to investigate intracellular total CaM and Ca2+-activated CaM contents. Intensity of CaM immunoflurescence gave total CaM level,and Ca2+-activated CaM was measured by fluorescence intensity of CaM antagonist trifluoperazine (TFP).In mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells,total CaM level increased from G1 through S to G2M,reaching a maximum of 2-fold increase,then reduced to half amount after cell division.Meanwhile,Ca2+-activated CaM also in creased through the cell cycle(G1,S,G2M).Increasing observed in G1 meant that the entry of cells from G1 into S phase may require CaM accumulation,and,equally or even more important,Ca2+-dependent activation of CaM.Ca2+-activated CaM decreased after cell division.The results suggested that CaM gene expression and C2+-modulated CaM activation act synergistically to accomplish the cell cycle progression.
AST/RO Observations of CO J=7-6 and J=4-3 Emission toward the Galactic Center Region
Kim, S; Stark, A A; Lane, A P; Kim, Sungeun; Martin, Christopher L.; Stark, Antony A.; Lane, Adair P.
2002-01-01
We present position-velocity strip maps of the Galactic Center region in the CO J=7-6 and J=4-3 transitions observed with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) located at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Emission from the two rotational transitions of 12^CO was mapped at b=0 deg for 3.5 deg > l > -1.5 deg, on a 1' grid with a FWHM beamsize of 58'' at 806 GHz and 105'' at 461 GHz. Previous observations of CO J=4-3 (Martin et al., in preparation) and CI (Ojha et al. 2001) emission from this region show that these lines are distributed in a manner similar to CO J=1-0 (Stark et al. 1987); the (CO J=4-3)/(CO J=1-0) line ratio map is almost featureless across the entire Galactic Center region. In contrast, the CO J=7-6 emission from the Galactic Center is strongly peaked toward the Sgr A and Sgr B molecular complexes. A Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) analysis shows that aside from the two special regions Sgr A and Sgr B, the photon-dominated regions within a few hundred parsecs of t...
Corrosion behaviour of Al86.0Co7.6Ce6.4 glass forming alloy with different microstructures
Li, C. L.; Wang, P.; Sun, S. Q.; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.
2016-10-01
It has been extensively reported that Al-TM-RE amorphous alloy has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In this paper, the corrosion behaviour of an Al86.0Co7.6Ce6.4 glass forming alloy with different microstructures is investigated through electrochemical experiments and microscopy. Results show the effect of microstructure. Laser and electron beam surface melting processes produce rapidly solidified microstructures with different extents of passivation compared to the as-cast alloy. An amorphous surface layer produced by these surface treatments had superior corrosion resistance compared with the crystalline alloy. As-cast and laser treated Al86.0Co7.6Ce6.4 suffered localised corrosion in the Al/Al11Ce3 eutectic region whereas the amorphous material exhibited uniform corrosion. Compared with the electrochemical behaviour of AA2024 and Alclad 2024, the fully amorphous layer prepared by combined laser-electron beam treatment exhibited advantages such as the more negative corrosion potential, the higher pitting potential and the uniform corrosion mechanism, which indicates that this material is a potential anode candidate in the protection of AA2024.
Myronchuk, G. L.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Rudysh, M. Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P. A.; Piasecki, M.
2017-03-01
Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 × 10-4 eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V ( d 11), 31.5 pm/V ( d 22) and 35.5 pm/V ( d 33). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients.
无
2001-01-01
@@ 什么是CA? CA(Certificaton Authority)是认证机构的国际通称,是指对数字证书的申请者发放、管理、取消数字证书的机构.CA的作用是检查证书持有者身份的合法性,并签发证书(在证书上签字),以防证书被伪造或篡改.
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Low-Dissipation Carnot Engines
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; van den Broeck, Christian
2010-10-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η*, of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th in the reversible limit (long cycle time, zero dissipation), we find in the limit of low dissipation that η* is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. These bounds are reached when the ratio of the dissipation during the cold and hot isothermal phases tend, respectively, to zero or infinity. For symmetric dissipation (ratio one) the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered.
Efficiency at maximum power of low-dissipation Carnot engines.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-10-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η*, of engines performing finite-time Carnot cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For engines reaching Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th in the reversible limit (long cycle time, zero dissipation), we find in the limit of low dissipation that η* is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. These bounds are reached when the ratio of the dissipation during the cold and hot isothermal phases tend, respectively, to zero or infinity. For symmetric dissipation (ratio one) the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-√Tc/Th] is recovered.
A dual method for maximum entropy restoration
Smith, C. B.
1979-01-01
A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin
Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1990-06-01
We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).
Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation
Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F
2001-01-01
The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.
The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description
Belashev, B Z
2002-01-01
The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered
19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...
Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM
Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.
1993-01-01
Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH
Pandya A M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70
Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation.
Hongo, Yoshie; Ogawa, Koichi; Takahara, Yuji; Takasu, Keiko; Royer, Sebastien; Hasegawa, Minoru; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Ikegaya, Yuji
2015-09-01
The CA1-projecting axons of CA3 pyramidal cells, called Schaffer collaterals, constitute one of the major information flow routes in the hippocampal formation. Recent anatomical studies have revealed the non-random structural connectivity between CA3 and CA1, but little is known regarding the functional connectivity (i.e. how CA3 network activity is functionally transmitted downstream to the CA1 network). Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. Specifically, synchronized bursts initiated from multiple hot spots in CA3 ensembles, and CA1 neurons located deeper in the pyramidal cell layer were recruited during earlier phases of the burst events. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals. Thus, CA3 axons innervate CA1 neurons in a highly topographical fashion.
Kargo, Anette Stolberg
be detected months before symptoms arise and recurrence is visible on imaging. Therefore, biochemical detection of potential relapse by CA125 assessment can cause significant distress. A decision aid (DA) is a tool that provides information and describes advantages and disadvantages of a specific intervention...
Electrodeposition of Ca Metal in CaCl2-CaO Molten Salt
GUO; Jun-kang; WANG; Chang-shui; CAO; Long-hao; OUYANG; Ying-gen
2013-01-01
To realize the continuouscalciothermic reduction in molten salts,the electrodeposition behavior of Ca metal in CaCl2-CaO molten salt was investigated by cylic voltammetry.The cyclic voltammograms at the scan rate of 100 mV/s are shown in Fig.1.As is shown,the electrodeposition potential of Ca deviated from-1.66 V to-0.97 V after CaO was added to molten CaCl2 and the decomposition of CaO
Loughrey, C M; MacEachern, K E; Cooper, J; Smith, G L
2003-07-01
The Ca(2+) dissociation constant (K(d)) of Fluo-3 was determined using confocal fluorescence microscopy in two different situations: (i) within the cytosol of a permeabilised cardiomyocyte; and (ii) in an intact cardiomyocyte after incubation with the acetoxymethyl ester form of Fluo-3 (AM). Measurements were made on isolated rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes after permeabilisation by a brief treatment with beta-escin (0.1mg/ml) and equilibration with 10 microM Fluo-3. The K(d) of Fluo-3 within the cytosol was not significantly different from that in free solution (558 +/- 15 nM, n=6). Over a range of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], the minimum [Ca(2+)] values between Ca(2+) waves was relatively constant despite changes in wave frequency. After loading intact cardiomyocytes with Fluo-3 by incubation with the -AM, spontaneous Ca(2+) waves were produced by incubation with strophanthidin (10 microM). By assuming a common minimum [Ca(2+)] in permeabilised and intact cells, the intracellular K(d) of Fluo-3 in intact myocytes was estimated to be 898 +/-64 nM (n=6). Application of this K(d) to fluorescence records shows that Ca(2+) waves in intact cells have similar amplitudes to those in permeabilised cells. Stimulation of cardiac myocytes at 0.5 Hz in the absence of strophanthidin (room temperature) resulted in a Ca(2+) transient with a maximum and minimum [Ca(2+)] of 1190 +/- 200 and 158 +/- 30 nM (n=11), respectively.
Energetics of ternary nitrides: Li-Ca-Zn-N and Ca-Ta-N systems
McHale, J.M.; Navrotsky, A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kowach, G.R.; Balbarin, V.E.; DiSalvo, F.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
1997-07-01
High-temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry was used to study the energetics of ternary nitride formation. The standard enthalpies of formation of several binary and ternary nitrides were determined. These values in kJ mol{sup {minus}1} are {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Li{sub 3}N) = {minus}166.1 {+-} 4.8, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Ca{sub 3}N{sub 2}) = 439.7{+-} 6.6, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}) = 43.5 {+-} 4.1, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}) = 849.7 {+-} 11.7, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Ca{sub 2}ZnN{sub 2}) = {minus}378.9 {+-} 8.6, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(Sr{sub 2}ZnN{sub 2}) = {minus}385.6 {+-} 14.3, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(LiCaN) = {minus}216.8 {+-} 10.8, {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(LiZnN) = {minus}137.5 {+-} 6.8, and {Delta}H{sub f}{degrees}(CaTaN{sub 2}) = 1643.8 {+-} 9.6. These enthalpies of formation are small in magnitude compared to analogous values for oxides. However, the enthalpies of formation of the ternaries from binary nitrides can be quite substantial, confirming significant energetic stabilization of ternary nitrides. The energetics of ternary nitride formation appears to be dominated by the acid/base character of the cations. A linear relationship was found between the enthalpies of formation of the ternaries from binary nitrides and the ionic potential ratio of the two cations. 43 refs., 4 tabs.
Liu Guiping; Fu Zhengxiang; Ma Ming
2003-01-01
The Great Luhno Event ( Ms= 7.6) occurred on February 6, 1973 in Sichuan Province. There were a lot of aftershocks in the source area. The largest aftershock (Ms= 6.3) occurred along a normal fault zone between the Xianshuihe Fault and the Gnnzi-Yushu fault. Based on the focal mechanism solution, surface rupture, coseismic dislocation and seismo-geological tectonics of the event, an elastic dislocation model of the Great Luhuo Event with a strike slip mechanism was designed and the Coulomb Failure Stress Change (ΔCFS) in the slip direction on normal faults along and surrounding the source zone due to the event was calculated. The results showed that the largest aftershock occurred in an area with ΔCFS＞O, and that ΔCFS=4.5MPa. Therefore, the largest aftershock was probably triggered by the Coulomb Failure Stress Change.
Measurement of the ^241Am(n,2n) reaction cross section from 7.6 to 14.5 MeV
Tonchev, A.; Angell, C.; Becker, J.; Bond, E.; Dashdorj, D.; Fallin, B.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Howell, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H.; Kelley, J.; Macri, R.; Pedroni, R.; Slemmons, A.; Stoyer, M.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D.; Wilhelmy, J.; Wu, C.
2007-10-01
High-precision measurements of the ^241Am(n,2n)^240Am reaction have been performed with neutron energies from 7.6 to 14.5 MeV. The monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the ^2H(d,n)^3He reaction using the 10 MV Tandem accelerator at TUNL. The radioactive targets consisted of 1mg highly-enriched ^241Am, sandwiched between three different thin monitor foils. They were irradiated with a neutron flux of 3x10^7 n cm-2s-1. After each irradiation the induced activity in the targets and monitors was measured off-line with 60% HPGe detectors. Our neutron induced cross sections will be compared with recent literature results and statistical model calculations.
Li, C.L., E-mail: lichunling@upc.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Wang, P.; Sun, S.Q. [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Voisey, K.T.; McCartney, D.G. [Materials, Mechanics and Structures Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2016-10-30
Highlights: • Corrosion behaviour of Al-Co-Ce glass forming alloys is microstructure dependent. • Coarse-grain and microstructure refined crystalline alloys were locally corroded. • The superior corrosion resistance of EBSM treated alloy was limited by cracks. • Crack-free amorphous layer generated by LSM-EBSM showed uniform and slight corrosion. - Abstract: It has been extensively reported that Al-TM-RE amorphous alloy has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In this paper, the corrosion behaviour of an Al{sub 86.0}Co{sub 7.6}Ce{sub 6.4} glass forming alloy with different microstructures is investigated through electrochemical experiments and microscopy. Results show the effect of microstructure. Laser and electron beam surface melting processes produce rapidly solidified microstructures with different extents of passivation compared to the as-cast alloy. An amorphous surface layer produced by these surface treatments had superior corrosion resistance compared with the crystalline alloy. As-cast and laser treated Al{sub 86.0}Co{sub 7.6}Ce{sub 6.4} suffered localised corrosion in the Al/Al{sub 11}Ce{sub 3} eutectic region whereas the amorphous material exhibited uniform corrosion. Compared with the electrochemical behaviour of AA2024 and Alclad 2024, the fully amorphous layer prepared by combined laser-electron beam treatment exhibited advantages such as the more negative corrosion potential, the higher pitting potential and the uniform corrosion mechanism, which indicates that this material is a potential anode candidate in the protection of AA2024.
Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tóth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott
2016-10-01
We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of ˜100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L TIR) and molecular line luminosities ({L}{mol}\\prime ) of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L TIR ˜ 103 L ⊙. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L TIR-{L}{mol}\\prime correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and σ line/σ vir. Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L TIR-L‧mol correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L TIR larger than L TIR ˜ 104.5 L ⊙. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M clump-L‧mol and L TIR-L‧mol relations.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.
2014-06-01
Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees
van Iersel, Leo
2009-01-01
A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, Arthur F.
2014-01-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection
McGarr, A.
2014-02-01
Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.
Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum
Latasa, Mikel
2016-11-01
The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.
Maltsev, Victor A; Reznikov, Vitaliy; Undrovinas, Nidas A; Sabbah, Hani N; Undrovinas, Albertas
2008-04-01
Augmented and slowed late Na(+) current (I(NaL)) is implicated in action potential duration variability, early afterdepolarizations, and abnormal Ca(2+) handling in human and canine failing myocardium. Our objective was to study I(NaL) modulation by cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in normal and failing ventricular myocytes. Chronic heart failure was produced in 10 dogs by multiple sequential coronary artery microembolizations; 6 normal dogs served as a control. I(NaL) fine structure was measured by whole cell patch clamp in ventricular myocytes and approximated by a sum of fast and slow exponentials produced by burst and late scattered modes of Na(+) channel gating, respectively. I(NaL) greatly enhanced as [Ca(2+)](i) increased from "Ca(2+) free" to 1 microM: its maximum density increased, decay of both exponentials slowed, and the steady-state inactivation (SSI) curve shifted toward more positive potentials. Testing the inhibition of CaMKII and CaM revealed similarities and differences of I(NaL) modulation in failing vs. normal myocytes. Similarities include the following: 1) CaMKII slows I(NaL) decay and decreases the amplitude of fast exponentials, and 2) Ca(2+) shifts SSI rightward. Differences include the following: 1) slowing of I(NaL) by CaMKII is greater, 2) CaM shifts SSI leftward, and 3) Ca(2+) increases the amplitude of slow exponentials. We conclude that Ca(2+)/CaM/CaMKII signaling increases I(NaL) and Na(+) influx in both normal and failing myocytes by slowing inactivation kinetics and shifting SSI. This Na(+) influx provides a novel Ca(2+) positive feedback mechanism (via Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger), enhancing contractions at higher beating rates but worsening cardiomyocyte contractile and electrical performance in conditions of poor Ca(2+) handling in heart failure.
Zhang, Wen-Bo; Kwan, Chiu-Yin
2016-04-01
Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a specific inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPases, causes slowly developing and subsequently diminishing characteristic contractions in vascular smooth muscle, and the second application of CPA has incompletely repeatable effects, depending on the vessel type. The objective of the present study was to examine the mechanisms underlying the significant decrease of CPA-induced contractions upon the second application. A pharmacological intervention of Ca(2+) extrusion process as a strategy was performed to modulate vasoconstrictor effects of CPA in rat aortic ring preparations. CPA-induced contractions, expressed as percentages of the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), were significantly decreased from 44.1 ± 5.7 to 7.6 ± 1.8 % (P Ca(2+) exchangers, but not of KBR7943, an inhibitor of the reverse mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. Our findings indicate that CPA by inducing a transient rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) level causes a long-lasting upregulation of plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) extruders and thus leads to a diminished contraction upon its second application in blood vessels. This suggests that there is a functional coupling between PM Ca(2+) extruders and SR Ca(2+)-ATPases in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.
Maximum Multiflow in Wireless Network Coding
Zhou, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yong; Zheng, Hai-Tao
2012-01-01
In a multihop wireless network, wireless interference is crucial to the maximum multiflow (MMF) problem, which studies the maximum throughput between multiple pairs of sources and sinks. In this paper, we observe that network coding could help to decrease the impacts of wireless interference, and propose a framework to study the MMF problem for multihop wireless networks with network coding. Firstly, a network model is set up to describe the new conflict relations modified by network coding. Then, we formulate a linear programming problem to compute the maximum throughput and show its superiority over one in networks without coding. Finally, the MMF problem in wireless network coding is shown to be NP-hard and a polynomial approximation algorithm is proposed.
The Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem
Cela, Eranda; Woeginger, Gerhard J
2011-01-01
We investigate a special case of the maximum quadratic assignment problem where one matrix is a product matrix and the other matrix is the distance matrix of a one-dimensional point set. We show that this special case, which we call the Wiener maximum quadratic assignment problem, is NP-hard in the ordinary sense and solvable in pseudo-polynomial time. Our approach also yields a polynomial time solution for the following problem from chemical graph theory: Find a tree that maximizes the Wiener index among all trees with a prescribed degree sequence. This settles an open problem from the literature.
Maximum confidence measurements via probabilistic quantum cloning
Zhang Wen-Hai; Yu Long-Bao; Cao Zhuo-Liang; Ye Liu
2013-01-01
Probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) cannot copy a set of linearly dependent quantum states.In this paper,we show that if incorrect copies are allowed to be produced,linearly dependent quantum states may also be cloned by the PQC.By exploiting this kind of PQC to clone a special set of three linearly dependent quantum states,we derive the upper bound of the maximum confidence measure of a set.An explicit transformation of the maximum confidence measure is presented.
Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States
Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.
1977-01-01
Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data
Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.
1997-01-01
EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....
Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper
Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu
2009-01-01
The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...
Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea
Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2008-01-01
A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collected...... in the North Atlantic as part of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series program as well as data collected off Southern California as part of the Southern California Bight Study program. The observed maximum particulate organic carbon and volumetric particle concentrations are consistent with the predictions...
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou
2012-11-01
We investigate the efficiency at the maximum power output (EMP) of an irreversible Carnot engine performing finite-time cycles between two reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Carnot efficiency, whether the internally dissipative friction is considered or not. When dissipations of two "isothermal" and two "adiabatic" processes are symmetric, respectively, and the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation, the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency η(CA) = 1-sqrt[T(c)/T(h)] is derived.
Sulfide capacities of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 melts
Simeonov, Simeon; Sakai, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masafumi
1992-06-01
The sulfide capacityC_{s^{2 - } } = ({text{pct S}}^{{text{2 - }}} )(p_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } /p_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } )^{1/2} ) of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 slag was determined at temperatures from 1000 °C to 1300 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2-Ar gas mixture. The sulfide capacity increases with replacing CaCl2 by CaF2 in slags of constant CaO contents. The sulfide capacity also increases with increasing temperature as well as with increasing CaO content at a constant ratio of CaF2/CaCl2 of unity. A linear relationship between the sulfide capacity and carbonate capacity in literature was observed on a logarithmic scale.
Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers
Veerachary, Mummadi
The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.
On maximum cycle packings in polyhedral graphs
Peter Recht
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses upper and lower bounds for the cardinality of a maximum vertex-/edge-disjoint cycle packing in a polyhedral graph G. Bounds on the cardinality of such packings are provided, that depend on the size, the order or the number of faces of G, respectively. Polyhedral graphs are constructed, that attain these bounds.
Hard graphs for the maximum clique problem
Hoede, Cornelis
1988-01-01
The maximum clique problem is one of the NP-complete problems. There are graphs for which a reduction technique exists that transforms the problem for these graphs into one for graphs with specific properties in polynomial time. The resulting graphs do not grow exponentially in order and number. Gra
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs
J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)
2006-01-01
textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p
Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-01-01
The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\
Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle
Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu
2015-03-01
The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.
Global characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum
Renssen, H.; Seppä, H.; Crosta, X.; Goosse, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.
2012-01-01
We analyze the global variations in the timing and magnitude of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and their dependence on various forcings in transient simulations covering the last 9000 years (9 ka), performed with a global atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model. In these experiments, we consider the i
Instance Optimality of the Adaptive Maximum Strategy
L. Diening; C. Kreuzer; R. Stevenson
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the standard adaptive finite element method with a (modified) maximum marking strategy is instance optimal for the total error, being the square root of the squared energy error plus the squared oscillation. This result will be derived in the model setting of Poisson’s e
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Maximum Phonation Time: Variability and Reliability
R. Speyer; H.C.A. Bogaardt; V.L. Passos; N.P.H.D. Roodenburg; A. Zumach; M.A.M. Heijnen; L.W.J. Baijens; S.J.H.M. Fleskens; J.W. Brunings
2010-01-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia v
Maximum likelihood estimation of fractionally cointegrated systems
Lasak, Katarzyna
In this paper we consider a fractionally cointegrated error correction model and investigate asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the matrix of the cointe- gration relations, the degree of fractional cointegration, the matrix of the speed of adjustment...
Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes
Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael
EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...
Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays
Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.
1971-01-01
Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....
Quantifying Ca2+ release and inactivation of Ca2+ release in fast- and slow-twitch muscles.
Barclay, C J
2012-12-01
The aims of this study were to quantify the Ca(2+) release underlying twitch contractions of mammalian fast- and slow-twitch muscle and to comprehensively describe the transient inactivation of Ca(2+) release following a stimulus. Experiments were performed using bundles of fibres from mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ca(2+) release was quantified from the amount of ATP used to remove Ca(2+) from the myoplasm following stimulation. ATP turnover by crossbridges was blocked pharmacologically (N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide for EDL, blebbistatin for soleus) and muscle heat production was used as an index of Ca(2+) pump ATP turnover. At 20°C, Ca(2+) release in response to a single stimulus was 34 and 84 μmol (kg muscle)(-1) for soleus and EDL, respectively, and increased with temperature (30°C: soleus, 61 μmol kg(-1); EDL, 168 μmol kg(-1)). Delivery of another stimulus within 100 ms of the first produced a smaller Ca(2+) release. The maximum magnitude of the decrease in Ca(2+) release was greater in EDL than soleus. Ca(2+) release recovered with an exponential time course which was faster in EDL (mean time constant at 20°C, 32.1 ms) than soleus (65.6 ms) and faster at 30°C than at 20°C. The amounts of Ca(2+) released and crossbridge cycles performed are consistent with a scheme in which Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C allowed an average of ∼1.7 crossbridge cycles in the two muscles.
Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Stepanova, Anna
2011-01-01
Background: Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000-9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500-19,000 cal BP). The dearth of
Measurement of the Am241(n,2n) reaction cross section from 7.6 MeV to 14.5 MeV
Tonchev, A. P.; Angell, C. T.; Boswell, M.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Pedroni, R. S.; Tornow, W.; Becker, J. A.; Dashdorj, D.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Bond, E.; Chadwick, M. B.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Kawano, T.; Rundberg, R. S.; Slemmons, A.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.
2008-05-01
The (n,2n) cross section of the radioactive isotope Am241 (T1/2=432.6 y) has been measured in the incident neutron energy range from 7.6 to 14.5 MeV in steps of a few MeV using the activation technique. Monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the H2(d,n)He3 reaction by bombarding a pressurized deuterium gas cell with an energetic deuteron beam at the TUNL 10-MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility. The induced γ-ray activity of Am240 was measured with high-resolution HPGe detectors. The cross section was determined relative to Al, Ni, and Au neutron activation monitor foils, measured in the same geometry. Good agreement is obtained with previous measurements at around 9 and 14 MeV, whereas for a large discrepancy is observed when our data are compared to those reported by Perdikakis near 11 MeV. Very good agreement is found with the END-B/VII evaluation, whereas the JENDL-3.3 evaluation is in fair agreement with our data.
Decin, L; De Koter, A; Molenberghs, G; Dehaes, S; Markwick-Kemper, F
2007-01-01
Low and intermediate mass stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through a dust-driven wind during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. Recent studies show that winds from late-type stars are far from being smooth. Mass-loss variations occur on different time scales, from years to tens of thousands of years. The variations appear to be particularly prominent towards the end of the AGB evolution. The occurrence, amplitude and time scale of these variations are still not well understood. The goal of our study is to gain insight into the structure of the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of WX Psc and map the possible variability of the late-AGB mass-loss phenomenon. We have performed an in-depth analysis of the extreme infrared AGB star WX Psc by modeling (1) the CO J=1-0 through 7-6 rotational line profiles and the full spectral energy distribution (SED) ranging from 0.7 to 1300 micron. We hence are able to trace a geometrically extended region of the CSE. Both mass-loss diagnostics bear evidence of th...
Bradford, C M; Nikola, T; Bolatto, A D; Jackson, J M; Savage, M L; Davidson, J A
2005-01-01
We present an 11 arcsec resolution map of the central two parsecs of the Galaxy in the CO J =7->6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A*, but also evidence for non-circular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our dataset with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T~200-300 K, n_H2~50,000-70,000 cm^-3. The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central two parsecs is at least 2000 M_solar, about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out an UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magneto-hydrodynamic shocks with v~10-20 kms and B~0.3-0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants--neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen--to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular mat...
Melgar, Diego; Riquelme, Sebastian; Xu, Xiaohua; Baez, Juan Carlos; Geng, Jianghui; Moreno, Marcos
2017-09-01
We present results for joint kinematic inversion of high-rate GPS, strong motion and InSAR data for the 2016 M7.6 Melinka earthquake. We show that the source is a compact 35 s long rupture with 5.0 ± 0.15 m of peak slip. We find the Melinka earthquake occurs inside the slip region for the 1960 M9.5 Valdivia earthquake and within the highly locked portion of the megathrust inferred from inter-seismic velocity analysis. We show that there is very modest post-seismic deformation at a nearby GPS site QLLN and argue that this indicates the Melinka earthquake ruptures within the intermediate portion of the megathrust and is an isolated asperity surrounded by locked velocity weakening material. Further we find that the peak slip observed during this earthquake is larger than what has been accumulated in the intervening 57 years since the 1960 rupture and conclude that, at least in the area of the Melinka earthquake, this is indicates that the 1960 Valdivia event might not have used all the slip deficit available on the megathrust.
Raeder, S; Wendt, K; Sonnenschein, V; Trautmann, N; Rothe, S; Reponen, M; Gottwald, T; 10.1088/0953-4075/44/16/165005
2011-01-01
In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying Th-229m isomer predicted at 7.6 +- 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of Th-232, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unknown intermediate states of even parity as well as numerous high-lying odd parity auto-ionizing states were identified. Level energies were determined with an accuracy of 0.06 cm-1 for intermediate and 0.15 cm-1 for auto-ionizing states. Using different excitation pathways an assignment of total angular momenta for several energy levels was possible. One particularly efficient ionization scheme of thorium, exhibiting saturation in all three optical transitions, was studied in detail. For all three levels in this scheme, the isotope s...
Iino, Takahiro; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Toru; Tsukagoshi, Takashi
2016-01-01
In Jupiter's stratosphere, gaseous carbon monosulfide (CS) was first discovered in 1994 by millimeter and ultraviolet observations as a product induced by the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9). {To constrain sulfur chemistry, in 2013, 19 years after the SL9 event, we observed Jupiter's stratospheric CS $J$=7 -- 6 rotational transition at 0.8 mm wavelength by using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10-m single dish telescope. The CS molecular line was successfully detected with 120 mK intensity in the antenna temperature scale. The obtained CS total mass shows $\\sim$90$\\%$ decrease relative to that observed in 1998. From the line shape analysis, CS is suggested to be present above the 0.2$^{+0.4}_{-0.15}$ mbar pressure level, which is comparable to that of determined in 1998 which was provided by SL9 along with CS, was observed up to the 2.0 mbar pressure region. The discrepancy of CS vertical distribution with \\ce{H2O} and the decrease in its total mass may be attributed to the che...
Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar
2017-03-01
We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake ( m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (Nanga Parbat Syntaxis Seismic Zone and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. The m max was estimated following three different methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake ( m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.
Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar
2016-09-01
We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (methodologies, the fault parameter approach, convergence rates using geodetic measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.
Model Selection Through Sparse Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Banerjee, Onureena; D'Aspremont, Alexandre
2007-01-01
We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added l_1-norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive l_1-norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov's first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright & Jordan (2006)), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for...
Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.
Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M
2015-03-01
We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.
Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.
Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano
2011-08-01
It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.
Maximum Variance Hashing via Column Generation
Lei Luo
2013-01-01
item search. Recently, a number of data-dependent methods have been developed, reflecting the great potential of learning for hashing. Inspired by the classic nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm—maximum variance unfolding, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing method, named maximum variance hashing, in this work. The idea is to maximize the total variance of the hash codes while preserving the local structure of the training data. To solve the derived optimization problem, we propose a column generation algorithm, which directly learns the binary-valued hash functions. We then extend it using anchor graphs to reduce the computational cost. Experiments on large-scale image datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in many cases.
The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
2006-01-01
algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find......Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... the competitive ratio of various natural algorithms. We study the general versions of the problems as well as the parameterized versions where there is an upper bound of on the item sizes, for some integer k....
Nonparametric Maximum Entropy Estimation on Information Diagrams
Martin, Elliot A; Meinke, Alexander; Děchtěrenko, Filip; Davidsen, Jörn
2016-01-01
Maximum entropy estimation is of broad interest for inferring properties of systems across many different disciplines. In this work, we significantly extend a technique we previously introduced for estimating the maximum entropy of a set of random discrete variables when conditioning on bivariate mutual informations and univariate entropies. Specifically, we show how to apply the concept to continuous random variables and vastly expand the types of information-theoretic quantities one can condition on. This allows us to establish a number of significant advantages of our approach over existing ones. Not only does our method perform favorably in the undersampled regime, where existing methods fail, but it also can be dramatically less computationally expensive as the cardinality of the variables increases. In addition, we propose a nonparametric formulation of connected informations and give an illustrative example showing how this agrees with the existing parametric formulation in cases of interest. We furthe...
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-01-01
An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m)] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by t...
A stochastic maximum principle via Malliavin calculus
Øksendal, Bernt; Zhou, Xun Yu; Meyer-Brandis, Thilo
2008-01-01
This paper considers a controlled It\\^o-L\\'evy process where the information available to the controller is possibly less than the overall information. All the system coefficients and the objective performance functional are allowed to be random, possibly non-Markovian. Malliavin calculus is employed to derive a maximum principle for the optimal control of such a system where the adjoint process is explicitly expressed.
Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar
2010-10-08
The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.
Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs
Wang, Long; Wang, Yi
2012-01-01
Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
[Carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9, CA 242, CA 50 in liver diseases].
Nowak, J; Jakubowska, D; Wiczkowski, A; Sprzaczkowska, K; Stechły, T; Zmudziński, W; Grzesik, P; Walas, R; Jarzab, B
1998-01-01
Serum concentrations of CA 19-9, CA 242, and CA 50 were determined in patients with hepatitis and liver cirrhosis without cholestasis. The study included 63 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis (group A), chronic active hepatitis (group B), and liver cirrhosis (group C). The control group (K) consisted of 82 patients with: peptic ulcer, colorectal polypi or diverticulosis of the colon. CA 19-9 level normal in the majority of patients with liver diseases, however, it was found to be increased in 4 (23%) of patients with liver cirrhosis. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of increased level of CA 19-9 between liver diseases and the control group. The rate of elevated serum level of CA 242 in patients with liver diseases and in control group was similar respectively 12%; 8.5%). The elevated CA 50 levels were most frequently found in patients with liver pathology (50% in liver cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis; 36% in chronic persistent hepatitis). The elevation of CA 50 serum level occurs very often in liver diseases, even when they are going without cholestasis. Thus, the antigen is not useful for differentiating between benign and cancer diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Antigen CA 50 is to be taken into account only after exclusion of the pathology of liver, especially cirrhosis. Other investigated antigens: CA 19-9 and CA 242 are influenced by liver diseases to a minor and neglectable extent. Antigen CA 19-9 is the marker of choice in gastrointestinal cancers.
Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR.
Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W; Gryk, Michael R; Hoch, Jeffrey C
2007-10-01
Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system.
Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition
Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana
2016-01-01
We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...
A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs
Zhang Heping
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-03-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
Minimal Length, Friedmann Equations and Maximum Density
Awad, Adel
2014-01-01
Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach[gr-qc/9504004], Cai et al [hep-th/0501055,hep-th/0609128] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar--Cai derivation [hep-th/0609128] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure $p(\\rho,a)$ leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature $k$. As an example w...
Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion
Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles
2016-07-01
Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution
Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.
2012-01-01
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461
Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.
Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
2016-07-01
Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C.
The maximum rate of mammal evolution.
Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D
2012-03-13
How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.
SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume
Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.
Wu, Feilong; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli; Wang, Jianhui
2014-12-01
We consider the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum Otto engine, which uses a spin or a harmonic system as its working substance and works between two heat reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (power based on these two different kinds of quantum systems are bounded from the upper side by the same expression η(mp)≤η(+)≡η(C)(2)/[η(C)-(1-η(C))ln(1-η(C))] with η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h) as the Carnot efficiency. This expression η(mp) possesses the same universality of the CA efficiency η(CA)=1-√(1-η(C)) at small relative temperature difference. Within the context of irreversible thermodynamics, we calculate the Onsager coefficients and show that the value of η(CA) is indeed the upper bound of EMP for an Otto engine working in the linear-response regime.
The molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration system.
Starkov, Anatoly A
2010-09-01
There is ample evidence to suggest that a dramatic decrease in mitochondrial Ca(2+) retention may contribute to the cell death associated with stroke, excitotoxicity, ischemia and reperfusion, and neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria from all studied tissues can accumulate and store Ca(2+) , but the maximum Ca(2+) storage capacity varies widely and exhibits striking tissue specificity. There is currently no explanation for this fact. Precipitation of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the mitochondrial matrix has been suggested to be the major form of storage of accumulated Ca(2+) in mitochondria. How this precipitate is formed is not known. The molecular identity of almost all proteins involved in Ca(2+) transport, storage and formation of the permeability transition pore is also unknown. This review summarizes studies aimed at identifying these proteins, and describes the properties of a known mitochondrial protein that may be involved in Ca(2+) transport and the structure of the permeability transition pore. © 2010 The Author Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.
Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Hernández, D.
2013-05-01
We investigate the co-seismic deformation of two significant earthquakes that occurred along the Middle America trench in 2012. The August 27 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica earthquakes, were examined using a combination of episodic and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data. USGS finite fault models based on seismic data predict fundamentally different characteristics for the two ruptures. The El Salvador event occurred in a historical seismic gap and on the shallow segment of the Middle America Trench main thrust, rupturing a large area, but with a low magnitude of slip. A small tsunami was observed along the coast in Nicaragua and El Salvador, additionally indicating near-trench rupture. Conversely, the Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake was predicted to have an order of magnitude higher slip on a spatially smaller patch deeper on the main thrust. We present results from episodic and continuous geodetic GPS measurements made in conjunction with the two earthquakes, including data from newly installed COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) sites. Episodic GPS measurements made in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua following the earthquakes, allow us to estimate the co-seismic deformation field from both earthquakes. Because of the small magnitude of the El Salvador earthquake and its shallow rupture the observed co-seismic deformation is small (<2 cm). Conversely, the Costa Rica earthquake occurred directly beneath a seismic and geodetic network specifically designed to capture such events. The observed displacements exceeded 0.5 m and there is a significant post-seismic transient following the earthquake. We use our estimated co-seismic offsets for both earthquakes to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for these two events.
Bradford, C. M.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.
2005-01-01
We present an 11" resolution map of the central 2 pc of the Galaxy in the CO J = 7 --> 6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A* but also evidence for noncircular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our data set with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T approx. 200-300 K and n(sub H2) approx. (5-7) x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3). The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central 2 pc is at least 2000 M(solar), about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out a UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magnetohydrodynamic shocks with v approx. 10-20 km s(exp -1) and B approx. 0.3- 0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants, neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen, to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular material. We derive a mass-to-luminosity ratio of approx. 2-3 M(solar)(L(solar)exp -1), which is consistent with the total power dissipated via turbulent decay in 0.1 pc cells with v(sub rms) approx. 15 kilometers per second. These size and velocity scales are comparable to the observed clumping scale and the velocity dispersion. At this rate, the material near Sgr A* is dissipating its orbital energy on an orbital timescale and cannot last for more than a few orbits. Our conclusions support a scenario in which the features near Sgr A* such as the circumnuclear disk and northern arm are generated by infalling clouds with low specific angular momentum.
Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2013-01-01
We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors......, as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics....
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering
JIANG Wei; QU Jiao; LI Benxi
2007-01-01
With the development of Support Vector Machine (SVM),the "kernel method" has been studied in a general way.In this paper,we present a novel Kernel-based Maximum Entropy Clustering algorithm (KMEC).By using mercer kernel functions,the proposed algorithm is firstly map the data from their original space to high dimensional space where the data are expected to be more separable,then perform MEC clustering in the feature space.The experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance in the non-hyperspherical and complex data structure.
The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.
Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M
2003-11-14
Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Maximum entropy signal restoration with linear programming
Mastin, G.A.; Hanson, R.J.
1988-05-01
Dantzig's bounded-variable method is used to express the maximum entropy restoration problem as a linear programming problem. This is done by approximating the nonlinear objective function with piecewise linear segments, then bounding the variables as a function of the number of segments used. The use of a linear programming approach allows equality constraints found in the traditional Lagrange multiplier method to be relaxed. A robust revised simplex algorithm is used to implement the restoration. Experimental results from 128- and 512-point signal restorations are presented.
COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT
PETRU SERGIU SERBAN
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.
Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...
Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review
Baggenstoss, Paul M.
2017-06-01
We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.
CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer
2011-12-01
CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.
Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking
Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.
2014-04-01
We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.
Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits
Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej
2015-03-01
The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.
Zipf's law and maximum sustainable growth
Malevergne, Y; Sornette, D
2010-01-01
Zipf's law states that the number of firms with size greater than S is inversely proportional to S. Most explanations start with Gibrat's rule of proportional growth but require additional constraints. We show that Gibrat's rule, at all firm levels, yields Zipf's law under a balance condition between the effective growth rate of incumbent firms (which includes their possible demise) and the growth rate of investments in entrant firms. Remarkably, Zipf's law is the signature of the long-term optimal allocation of resources that ensures the maximum sustainable growth rate of an economy.
[TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].
Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang
2011-04-01
Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.
Dynamics of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in MICU1-knockdown cells.
de la Fuente, Sergio; Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Fonteriz, Rosalba I; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier
2014-02-15
MICU1 (Ca2+ uptake protein 1, mitochondrial) is an important regulator of the MCU (Ca2+ uniporter protein, mitochondrial) that has been shown recently to act as a gatekeeper of the MCU at low [Ca2+]c (cytosolic [Ca2+]). In the present study we have investigated in detail the dynamics of MCU activity after shRNA-knockdown of MICU1 and we have found several new interesting properties. In MICU1-knockdown cells, the rate of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was largely increased at a low [Ca2+]c (4 μM). In the 2-4 μM range a mixed behaviour was observed, where mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake started earlier in the MICU1-silenced cells, but at a lower rate than in the controls. The sensitivity of Ca2+ uptake to Ruthenium Red and Ru360 was similar at both high and low [Ca2+]c, indicating that the same Ca2+ pathway was operating in both cases. The increased Ca2+-uptake rate observed at a [Ca2+]c below 2 μM was transient and became inhibited during Ca2+ entry. Development of this inhibition was slow, requiring 5 min for completion, and was hardly reversible. Therefore MICU1 acts both as a MCU gatekeeper at low [Ca2+]c and as a cofactor necessary to reach the maximum Ca2+-uptake rate at high [Ca2+]c. Moreover, in the absence of MICU1, the MCU becomes sensitive to a slow-developing inhibition that requires prolonged increases in [Ca2+]c in the low micromolar range.
Accurate structural correlations from maximum likelihood superpositions.
Douglas L Theobald
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The cores of globular proteins are densely packed, resulting in complicated networks of structural interactions. These interactions in turn give rise to dynamic structural correlations over a wide range of time scales. Accurate analysis of these complex correlations is crucial for understanding biomolecular mechanisms and for relating structure to function. Here we report a highly accurate technique for inferring the major modes of structural correlation in macromolecules using likelihood-based statistical analysis of sets of structures. This method is generally applicable to any ensemble of related molecules, including families of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR models, different crystal forms of a protein, and structural alignments of homologous proteins, as well as molecular dynamics trajectories. Dominant modes of structural correlation are determined using principal components analysis (PCA of the maximum likelihood estimate of the correlation matrix. The correlations we identify are inherently independent of the statistical uncertainty and dynamic heterogeneity associated with the structural coordinates. We additionally present an easily interpretable method ("PCA plots" for displaying these positional correlations by color-coding them onto a macromolecular structure. Maximum likelihood PCA of structural superpositions, and the structural PCA plots that illustrate the results, will facilitate the accurate determination of dynamic structural correlations analyzed in diverse fields of structural biology.
Maximum entropy production and the fluctuation theorem
Dewar, R C [Unite EPHYSE, INRA Centre de Bordeaux-Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon Cedex (France)
2005-05-27
Recently the author used an information theoretical formulation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (MaxEnt) to derive the fluctuation theorem (FT) concerning the probability of second law violating phase-space paths. A less rigorous argument leading to the variational principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) was also given. Here a more rigorous and general mathematical derivation of MEP from MaxEnt is presented, and the relationship between MEP and the FT is thereby clarified. Specifically, it is shown that the FT allows a general orthogonality property of maximum information entropy to be extended to entropy production itself, from which MEP then follows. The new derivation highlights MEP and the FT as generic properties of MaxEnt probability distributions involving anti-symmetric constraints, independently of any physical interpretation. Physically, MEP applies to the entropy production of those macroscopic fluxes that are free to vary under the imposed constraints, and corresponds to selection of the most probable macroscopic flux configuration. In special cases MaxEnt also leads to various upper bound transport principles. The relationship between MaxEnt and previous theories of irreversible processes due to Onsager, Prigogine and Ziegler is also clarified in the light of these results. (letter to the editor)
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
Electronic Structure and Maximum Energy Product of MnBi
Jihoon Park
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We have performed first-principles calculations to obtain magnetic moment, magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE, i.e., the magnetic crystalline anisotropy constant (K, and the Curie temperature (Tc of low temperature phase (LTP MnBi and also estimated the maximum energy product (BHmax at elevated temperatures. The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW method, based on density functional theory (DFT within the local spin density approximation (LSDA, was used to calculate the electronic structure of LPM MnBi. The Tc was calculated by the mean field theory. The calculated magnetic moment, MAE, and Tc are 3.63 μB/f.u. (formula unit (79 emu/g or 714 emu/cm3, −0.163 meV/u.c. (or K = −0.275 × 106 J/m3 and 711 K, respectively. The (BHmax at the elevated temperatures was estimated by combining experimental coercivity (Hci and the temperature dependence of magnetization (Ms(T. The (BHmax is 17.7 MGOe at 300 K, which is in good agreement with the experimental result for directionally-solidified LTP MnBi (17 MGOe. In addition, a study of electron density maps and the lattice constant c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moment suggested that doping of a third element into interstitial sites of LTP MnBi can increase the Ms.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Microstructural change and precipitation hardening in melt-spun Mg–X–Ca alloys
Won-Wook Park, Bong-Sun You, Byoung-Gi Moon and Wan-Chul Kim
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Mg–Al–Si–Ca and Mg–Zn–Ca base alloys were rapidly solidified by melt spinning at the cooling rate of about a million K/s. The melt-spun ribbons were aged in the range 100–400°C for 1 h. The effect of additional elements on microstructural change and precipitation hardening after heat treatment was investigated using TEM, XRD and a Vickers microhardness tester. Age hardening occurred after aging at 200°C in the Mg–Al–Si–Ca alloys mainly due to the formation of Al2Ca and Mg2Ca phases, whereas in the Mg–Zn–Ca alloys mostly due to the distribution of Mg2Ca. TEM results revealed that spherical Al2Ca precipitate has the coherent interface with the matrix. Considering the total amount of additional elements, Mg–Zn–Ca alloys showed higher hardness and smaller size of precipitates than Mg–Al–Si–Ca alloys. With the increase of Ca content, the hardness values of the aged ribbons were increased. Among the alloys, Mg–6Zn–5Ca alloy showed the maximum value of age hardening peak(Hv:180 after aging at 200°C for 1 h.
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
MLDS: Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling in R
Kenneth Knoblauch
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The MLDS package in the R programming language can be used to estimate perceptual scales based on the results of psychophysical experiments using the method of difference scaling. In a difference scaling experiment, observers compare two supra-threshold differences (a,b and (c,d on each trial. The approach is based on a stochastic model of how the observer decides which perceptual difference (or interval (a,b or (c,d is greater, and the parameters of the model are estimated using a maximum likelihood criterion. We also propose a method to test the model by evaluating the self-consistency of the estimated scale. The package includes an example in which an observer judges the differences in correlation between scatterplots. The example may be readily adapted to estimate perceptual scales for arbitrary physical continua.
Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines
Yiran Chen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.
Maximum Segment Sum, Monadically (distilled tutorial
Jeremy Gibbons
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The maximum segment sum problem is to compute, given a list of integers, the largest of the sums of the contiguous segments of that list. This problem specification maps directly onto a cubic-time algorithm; however, there is a very elegant linear-time solution too. The problem is a classic exercise in the mathematics of program construction, illustrating important principles such as calculational development, pointfree reasoning, algebraic structure, and datatype-genericity. Here, we take a sideways look at the datatype-generic version of the problem in terms of monadic functional programming, instead of the traditional relational approach; the presentation is tutorial in style, and leavened with exercises for the reader.
Maximum Information and Quantum Prediction Algorithms
McElwaine, J N
1997-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for selecting a consistent set within the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics and investigates its properties. The algorithm uses a maximum information principle to select from among the consistent sets formed by projections defined by the Schmidt decomposition. The algorithm unconditionally predicts the possible events in closed quantum systems and ascribes probabilities to these events. A simple spin model is described and a complete classification of all exactly consistent sets of histories formed from Schmidt projections in the model is proved. This result is used to show that for this example the algorithm selects a physically realistic set. Other tentative suggestions in the literature for set selection algorithms using ideas from information theory are discussed.
Maximum process problems in optimal control theory
Goran Peskir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Given a standard Brownian motion (Btt≥0 and the equation of motion dXt=vtdt+2dBt, we set St=max0≤s≤tXs and consider the optimal control problem supvE(Sτ−Cτ, where c>0 and the supremum is taken over all admissible controls v satisfying vt∈[μ0,μ1] for all t up to τ=inf{t>0|Xt∉(ℓ0,ℓ1} with μ0g∗(St, where s↦g∗(s is a switching curve that is determined explicitly (as the unique solution to a nonlinear differential equation. The solution found demonstrates that the problem formulations based on a maximum functional can be successfully included in optimal control theory (calculus of variations in addition to the classic problem formulations due to Lagrange, Mayer, and Bolza.
Maximum Spectral Luminous Efficacy of White Light
Murphy, T W
2013-01-01
As lighting efficiency improves, it is useful to understand the theoretical limits to luminous efficacy for light that we perceive as white. Independent of the efficiency with which photons are generated, there exists a spectrally-imposed limit to the luminous efficacy of any source of photons. We find that, depending on the acceptable bandpass and---to a lesser extent---the color temperature of the light, the ideal white light source achieves a spectral luminous efficacy of 250--370 lm/W. This is consistent with previous calculations, but here we explore the maximum luminous efficacy as a function of photopic sensitivity threshold, color temperature, and color rendering index; deriving peak performance as a function of all three parameters. We also present example experimental spectra from a variety of light sources, quantifying the intrinsic efficacy of their spectral distributions.
Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization
Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui
2014-11-01
The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Video segmentation using Maximum Entropy Model
QIN Li-juan; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he; WU Fei
2005-01-01
Detecting objects of interest from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in automated visual surveillance.Most current approaches only focus on discriminating moving objects by background subtraction whether or not the objects of interest can be moving or stationary. In this paper, we propose layers segmentation to detect both moving and stationary target objects from surveillance video. We extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) statistical model to segment layers with features, which are collected by constructing a codebook with a set of codewords for each pixel. We also indicate how the training models are used for the discrimination of target objects in surveillance video. Our experimental results are presented in terms of the success rate and the segmenting precision.
Protti Quesada, Jorge Marino
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Las zonas de subducción, los lugares donde convergen dos placas tectónicas, liberan alrededor del 90 porciento de la energía sísmica de nuestro planeta y generan los terremotos más grandes (Mw8.5. El comprender los procesos que se conjugan para crear estas amenazas de origen natural podría ayudar a reducir su impacto en la población y la infraestructura. El 5 de septiembre del 2012, a las 8:42 a.m ocurrió un terremoto de 7.6 grados de magnitud bajo la península de Nicoya, en el noroeste de Costa Rica. La gran mayoría de los terremotos de subducción en el mundo ocurren costa afuera; sin embargo este de Nicoya ocurrió en tierra firme bajo zonas pobladas. A pesar de ello, el terremoto de Nicoya del 2012 no provocó ninguna muerte y los daños que causó fueron muy pocos para un terremoto de esta magnitud y proximidad. Este terremoto no ocurrió de forma inesperada. Desde 1995 se venían haciendo evaluaciones del potencial sísmico de esta región clasificada como una brecha sísmica. Por más de una década antes del sismo se venía construyendo una red de monitoreo geodinámico en la península de Nicoya y sus alrededores, región bajo la cual se subduce la placa del Coco a casi 80 mm por año. Este proyecto internacional de cooperación multi-institucional tenía como objetivo aprovechar la oportunidad temporal de estar al final del ciclo sísmico. Además, se aprovechaba la ventaja geográfica de contar con una península directamente sobre la zona sismogénica de grandes sismos de subducción y poder así registrar, en el campo cercano, no solo el futuro terremoto sino también el proceso de acumulación de esfuerzos y la documentación de la historia de ruptura del terremoto. La información obtenida con dicha red permitió anticipar la ubicación y magnitud del inminente terremoto. Presentamos en este trabajo los antecedentes de esa anticipación y los detalles de lo ocurrido antes, durante y después de este terremoto
Evaluation of pliers' grip spans in the maximum gripping task and sub-maximum cutting task.
Kim, Dae-Min; Kong, Yong-Ku
2016-12-01
A total of 25 males participated to investigate the effects of the grip spans of pliers on the total grip force, individual finger forces and muscle activities in the maximum gripping task and wire-cutting tasks. In the maximum gripping task, results showed that the 50-mm grip span had significantly higher total grip strength than the other grip spans. In the cutting task, the 50-mm grip span also showed significantly higher grip strength than the 65-mm and 80-mm grip spans, whereas the muscle activities showed a higher value at 80-mm grip span. The ratios of cutting force to maximum grip strength were also investigated. Ratios of 30.3%, 31.3% and 41.3% were obtained by grip spans of 50-mm, 65-mm, and 80-mm, respectively. Thus, the 50-mm grip span for pliers might be recommended to provide maximum exertion in gripping tasks, as well as lower maximum-cutting force ratios in the cutting tasks.
Cosmic shear measurement with maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori inference
Hall, Alex
2016-01-01
We investigate the problem of noise bias in maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimators for cosmic shear. We derive the leading and next-to-leading order biases and compute them in the context of galaxy ellipticity measurements, extending previous work on maximum likelihood inference for weak lensing. We show that a large part of the bias on these point estimators can be removed using information already contained in the likelihood when a galaxy model is specified, without the need for external calibration. We test these bias-corrected estimators on simulated galaxy images similar to those expected from planned space-based weak lensing surveys, with very promising results. We find that the introduction of an intrinsic shape prior mitigates noise bias, such that the maximum a posteriori estimate can be made less biased than the maximum likelihood estimate. Second-order terms offer a check on the convergence of the estimators, but are largely sub-dominant. We show how biases propagate to shear estima...
6-Butyl-5-(4-methylphenoxy-3-phenyl-3H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H-one
Hong-Mei Wang
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In the title compound, C21H21N5O2, the triazolopyrimidine ring system is essentially planar [maximum displacement = 0.021 (4 Å] and forms dihedral angles of 41.17 (9 and 67.99 (8° with the phenyl and benzene rings, respectively. The n-butyl side chains is disordered over two positions with an ccupancy ratio of 0.77:0.23. An intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interaction stabilizes the molecular conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. In addition, π–π stacking interactions involving the triazole and pyrimidine rings of adjacent molecules are observed, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.545 (1 Å.
20 CFR 211.14 - Maximum creditable compensation.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum creditable compensation. 211.14... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.14 Maximum creditable compensation. Maximum creditable compensation... Employment Accounts shall notify each employer of the amount of maximum creditable compensation applicable...
49 CFR 230.24 - Maximum allowable stress.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress. 230.24 Section 230.24... Allowable Stress § 230.24 Maximum allowable stress. (a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 1/4 of the ultimate...
Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion
Bethe, H. A.
1950-01-31
The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)
Proposed principles of maximum local entropy production.
Ross, John; Corlan, Alexandru D; Müller, Stefan C
2012-07-12
Articles have appeared that rely on the application of some form of "maximum local entropy production principle" (MEPP). This is usually an optimization principle that is supposed to compensate for the lack of structural information and measurements about complex systems, even systems as complex and as little characterized as the whole biosphere or the atmosphere of the Earth or even of less known bodies in the solar system. We select a number of claims from a few well-known papers that advocate this principle and we show that they are in error with the help of simple examples of well-known chemical and physical systems. These erroneous interpretations can be attributed to ignoring well-established and verified theoretical results such as (1) entropy does not necessarily increase in nonisolated systems, such as "local" subsystems; (2) macroscopic systems, as described by classical physics, are in general intrinsically deterministic-there are no "choices" in their evolution to be selected by using supplementary principles; (3) macroscopic deterministic systems are predictable to the extent to which their state and structure is sufficiently well-known; usually they are not sufficiently known, and probabilistic methods need to be employed for their prediction; and (4) there is no causal relationship between the thermodynamic constraints and the kinetics of reaction systems. In conclusion, any predictions based on MEPP-like principles should not be considered scientifically founded.
Maximum entropy production and plant optimization theories.
Dewar, Roderick C
2010-05-12
Plant ecologists have proposed a variety of optimization theories to explain the adaptive behaviour and evolution of plants from the perspective of natural selection ('survival of the fittest'). Optimization theories identify some objective function--such as shoot or canopy photosynthesis, or growth rate--which is maximized with respect to one or more plant functional traits. However, the link between these objective functions and individual plant fitness is seldom quantified and there remains some uncertainty about the most appropriate choice of objective function to use. Here, plants are viewed from an alternative thermodynamic perspective, as members of a wider class of non-equilibrium systems for which maximum entropy production (MEP) has been proposed as a common theoretical principle. I show how MEP unifies different plant optimization theories that have been proposed previously on the basis of ad hoc measures of individual fitness--the different objective functions of these theories emerge as examples of entropy production on different spatio-temporal scales. The proposed statistical explanation of MEP, that states of MEP are by far the most probable ones, suggests a new and extended paradigm for biological evolution--'survival of the likeliest'--which applies from biomacromolecules to ecosystems, not just to individuals.
Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection
Hogden, J.
1997-05-01
The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.
Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design
Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.
1992-07-01
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
CORA - emission line fitting with Maximum Likelihood
Ness, J.-U.; Wichmann, R.
2002-07-01
The advent of pipeline-processed data both from space- and ground-based observatories often disposes of the need of full-fledged data reduction software with its associated steep learning curve. In many cases, a simple tool doing just one task, and doing it right, is all one wishes. In this spirit we introduce CORA, a line fitting tool based on the maximum likelihood technique, which has been developed for the analysis of emission line spectra with low count numbers and has successfully been used in several publications. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise we derive the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. As an example we demonstrate the functionality of the program with an X-ray spectrum of Capella obtained with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory and choose the analysis of the Ne IX triplet around 13.5 Å.
Finding maximum JPEG image block code size
Lakhani, Gopal
2012-07-01
We present a study of JPEG baseline coding. It aims to determine the minimum storage needed to buffer the JPEG Huffman code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Since DC is coded separately, and the encoder represents each AC coefficient by a pair of run-length/AC coefficient level, the net problem is to perform an efficient search for the optimal run-level pair sequence. We formulate it as a two-dimensional, nonlinear, integer programming problem and solve it using a branch-and-bound based search method. We derive two types of constraints to prune the search space. The first one is given as an upper-bound for the sum of squares of AC coefficients of a block, and it is used to discard sequences that cannot represent valid DCT blocks. The second type constraints are based on some interesting properties of the Huffman code table, and these are used to prune sequences that cannot be part of optimal solutions. Our main result is that if the default JPEG compression setting is used, space of minimum of 346 bits and maximum of 433 bits is sufficient to buffer the AC code bits of 8-bit image blocks. Our implementation also pruned the search space extremely well; the first constraint reduced the initial search space of 4 nodes down to less than 2 nodes, and the second set of constraints reduced it further by 97.8%.
Maximum likelihood estimates of pairwise rearrangement distances.
Serdoz, Stuart; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Sumner, Jeremy; Holland, Barbara R; Jarvis, Peter D; Tanaka, Mark M; Francis, Andrew R
2017-06-21
Accurate estimation of evolutionary distances between taxa is important for many phylogenetic reconstruction methods. Distances can be estimated using a range of different evolutionary models, from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale genome rearrangements. Corresponding corrections for genome rearrangement distances fall into 3 categories: Empirical computational studies, Bayesian/MCMC approaches, and combinatorial approaches. Here, we introduce a maximum likelihood estimator for the inversion distance between a pair of genomes, using a group-theoretic approach to modelling inversions introduced recently. This MLE functions as a corrected distance: in particular, we show that because of the way sequences of inversions interact with each other, it is quite possible for minimal distance and MLE distance to differently order the distances of two genomes from a third. The second aspect tackles the problem of accounting for the symmetries of circular arrangements. While, generally, a frame of reference is locked, and all computation made accordingly, this work incorporates the action of the dihedral group so that distance estimates are free from any a priori frame of reference. The philosophy of accounting for symmetries can be applied to any existing correction method, for which examples are offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph
2012-03-01
Energy conversion efficiency at maximum output power, which embodies the essential characteristics of heat engines, is the main focus of the present work. The so-called Curzon and Ahlborn efficiency η(CA) is commonly believed to be an absolute reference for real heat engines; however, a different but general expression for the case of stochastic heat engines, η(SS), was recently found and then extended to low-dissipation engines. The discrepancy between η(CA) and η(SS) is here analyzed considering different irreversibility sources of heat engines, of both internal and external types. To this end, we choose a thermoelectric generator operating in the strong-coupling regime as a physical system to qualitatively and quantitatively study the impact of the nature of irreversibility on the efficiency at maximum output power. In the limit of pure external dissipation, we obtain η(CA), while η(SS) corresponds to the case of pure internal dissipation. A continuous transition between from one extreme to the other, which may be operated by tuning the different sources of irreversibility, also is evidenced.
Boedeker, Peter
2017-01-01
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a useful tool when analyzing data collected from groups. There are many decisions to be made when constructing and estimating a model in HLM including which estimation technique to use. Three of the estimation techniques available when analyzing data with HLM are maximum likelihood, restricted maximum…
Ca(2+ release events in cardiac myocytes up close: insights from fast confocal imaging.
Vyacheslav M Shkryl
Full Text Available The spatio-temporal properties of Ca(2+ transients during excitation-contraction coupling and elementary Ca(2+ release events (Ca(2+ sparks were studied in atrial and ventricular myocytes with ultra-fast confocal microscopy using a Zeiss LSM 5 LIVE system that allows sampling rates of up to 60 kHz. Ca(2+ sparks which originated from subsarcolemmal junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (j-SR release sites in atrial myocytes were anisotropic and elongated in the longitudinal direction of the cell. Ca(2+ sparks in atrial cells originating from non-junctional SR and in ventricular myocytes were symmetrical. Ca(2+ spark recording in line scan mode at 40,000 lines/s uncovered step-like increases of [Ca(2+]i. 2-D imaging of Ca(2+ transients revealed an asynchronous activation of release sites and allowed the sequential recording of Ca(2+ entry through surface membrane Ca(2+ channels and subsequent activation of Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release. With a latency of 2.5 ms after application of an electrical stimulus, Ca(2+ entry could be detected that was followed by SR Ca(2+ release after an additional 3 ms delay. Maximum Ca(2+ release was observed 4 ms after the beginning of release. The timing of Ca(2+ entry and release was confirmed by simultaneous [Ca(2+]i and membrane current measurements using the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. In atrial cells activation of discrete individual release sites of the j-SR led to spatially restricted Ca(2+ release events that fused into a peripheral ring of elevated [Ca(2+]i that subsequently propagated in a wave-like fashion towards the center of the cell. In ventricular myocytes asynchronous Ca(2+ release signals from discrete sites with no preferential subcellular location preceded the whole-cell Ca(2+ transient. In summary, ultra-fast confocal imaging allows investigation of Ca(2+ signals with a time resolution similar to patch clamp technique, however in a less invasive fashion.
Hsu, Chia-Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Jeng; Chang, Yu-Yi; Nien, Wei-Tung; Huang, Wen-Chao
2016-04-01
Exposures in the Chushan trench, 40 m long and 10 m deep, excavated across a 1999 earthquake-induced escarpment of 2 m high, show a steep, monocline-like fold with significantly different limb-truncated structures on either side of the 14 m wide trench. On southern exposure the fold is truncated through along the axial trace of its anticline by a fault branch with a dip angle of 32° and a maximum separation of ~4.2 m while on the northern exposure the steep limb of the fold is displaced up to ~3.0 m along the axial trace of its syncline by another fault branch with a dip angle of 24°. This study intends to explore how this heterogeneous structure might form using distinct element simulation of blind reverse faulting. All our models in this study consist of two mechanical layers, including an upper clayey layer of 7 meters thickness and a lower gravelly layer of 8 meters thickness at maximum, as revealed by the excavation, a borehole nearby and soil tests. Our results show that the steep, monocline-like fold can be simulated by a low-angle reverse faulting similar to a subsurface dominant fault with a dip angle of 24° derived from the trench site at the ground surface and in a borehole in the hanging wall. Furthermore, the different structures on the two exposures were mainly controlled by the dip-angle variation of the upper part of the subsurface dominant fault. The simulation of reverse faulting with a dip angle of 24°shows a monocline forms in the clayey layer, and then a gravelly wedge starts to protrude into the clayey layer and displace it along the axial trace of the anticline similar to the structure on the southern exposure, and the simulation of reverse faulting with a dip angle of 32°shows a monocline forms in the clayey layer, and then this monoclonal clayey layer starts to be displaced along the axial trace of the synclinal by a newly fault similar to the structure on the northern exposure. We also find the strength of clayey layer and the
Double pion photoproduction off {sup 40}Ca
Bloch, F.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B. [University of Basel, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Basel (Switzerland); Ahrens, J.; Beck, R.; Hornidge, D.; Rost, M.; Thomas, A. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M.; Fog, L.S.; McGeorge, J.C.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Owens, R.O.; Sanderson, R.; Watts, D.P. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Janssen, S.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schadmand, S. [Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany)
2007-05-15
The photoproduction of {pi} {sup 0} {pi} {sup 0} and {pi} {sup 0} {pi} {sup {+-}} pairs off {sup 40}Ca has been investigated with the TAPS detector using the Glasgow photon tagging spectrometer at the Mainz MAMI accelerator. Data have been taken for incident photon energies in the energy range from 200-820 MeV. Total cross-sections have been extracted from threshold up to the maximum photon energy and invariant-mass distributions of the pion pairs have been obtained for incident photon energies between 400-500 MeV and 500-550 MeV. The double {pi} {sup 0} invariant-mass distributions show some relative enhancement with respect to the mixed charge channel at small invariant masses. The effects are smaller than previously observed for lead nuclei and the distributions do not significantly deviate from carbon data. The data are in good agreement with the results of recent calculations in the framework of the BUU model, with careful treatment of final-state interaction effects but without an explicit in-medium modification of scalar, iso-scalar pion pairs. This means that for Ca most of the experimentally observed effect can be explained by final-state interactions. Only at low incident photon energies there is still a small low mass enhancement of the double {pi} {sup 0} data over the BUU results. (orig.)
Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2
M. Dedert
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (10^{3} Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO_{2}(pCO_{2}. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO_{2} additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO_{2} in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21
Maximum likelihood molecular clock comb: analytic solutions.
Chor, Benny; Khetan, Amit; Snir, Sagi
2006-04-01
Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM), are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model--three taxa, two state characters, under a molecular clock. Four taxa rooted trees have two topologies--the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). In a previous work, we devised a closed form analytic solution for the ML molecular clock fork. In this work, we extend the state of the art in the area of analytic solutions ML trees to the family of all four taxa trees under the molecular clock assumption. The change from the fork topology to the comb incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system and requires novel techniques and approaches. We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations. We finally use tools from algebraic geometry (e.g., Gröbner bases, ideal saturation, resultants) and employ symbolic algebra software to obtain analytic solutions for the comb. We show that in contrast to the fork, the comb has no closed form solutions (expressed by radicals in the input data). In general, four taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that under the molecular clock assumption, the comb has a unique (local and global) ML point. (Such uniqueness was previously shown for the fork.).
Ross, Gracious R; Kang, Minho; Shirwany, Najeeb; Malykhina, Anna P; Drozd, Mary; Akbarali, Hamid I
2007-09-01
Basal levels of c-Src kinase are known to regulate smooth muscle Ca(2+) channels. Colonic inflammation results in attenuated Ca(2+) currents and muscle contraction. Here, we examined the regulation of calcium influx-dependent contractility by c-Src kinase in experimental colitis. Ca(2+)-influx induced contractions were measured by isometric tension recordings of mouse colonic longitudinal muscle strips depolarized by high K(+). The E(max) to CaCl(2) was significantly less in inflamed tissues (38.4 +/- 7.6%) than controls, indicative of reduced Ca(2+) influx. PP2 [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine], a selective Src kinase inhibitor, significantly reduced the contractile amplitude and shifted the pD(2) from 3.88 to 2.44 in controls, whereas it was ineffective in inflamed tissues (3.66 versus 3.43). After pretreatment with a SIN-1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine)/peroxynitrite combination, the maximal contraction to CaCl(2) was reduced by 46 +/- 7% in controls but unaffected in inflamed tissues (13 +/- 11%). Peroxynitrite also prevented the inhibitory effect of PP2 in control tissues. In colonic single smooth muscle cells, PP2 inhibited Ca(2+) currents by 84.1 +/- 3.9% in normal but only 36.2 +/- 13% in inflamed tissues. Neither the Ca(2+) channel Ca(v)1.2b, gene expression, nor the c-Src kinase activity was altered by inflammation. Western blot analysis showed no change in the Ca(2+) channel protein expression but increased nitrotyrosylated-Ca(2+) channel proteins during inflammation. These data suggest that post-translational modification of Ca(2+) channels during inflammation, possibly nitrotyrosylation, prevents c-Src kinase regulation resulting in decreased Ca(2+) influx.
Pucher, Florian J; Marchuk, Alexey; Schmidt, Peter J; Wiechert, Detlef; Schnick, Wolfgang
2015-04-20
Nitridophosphates MP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) have been synthesized at elevated pressures and 1100-1300 °C starting from the corresponding azides and P3 N5 with EuCl2 as dopant. Addition of NH4 Cl as mineralizer allowed for the growth of single crystals. This led to the successful structure elucidation of a highly condensed nitridophosphate from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (P63 , no. 173), a=16.847(2), c=7.8592(16) Å, V=1931.7(6) Å(3) , Z=24, 2033 observed reflections, 176 refined parameters, wR2 =0.096). Upon excitation by UV light, luminescence due to parity-allowed 4f(6) ((7) F)5d(1) →4f(7) ((8) S7/2 ) transition was observed in the orange (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =575 nm), green (SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =529 nm), and blue regions of the visible spectrum (BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) and BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =450 and 460 nm, respectively). Thus, the emission wavelength decreases with increasing ionic radius of the alkaline-earth ions. The corresponding full width at half maximum values (2240-2460 cm(-1) ) are comparable to those of other known Eu(2+) -doped (oxo)nitrides emitting in the same region of the visible spectrum. Following recently described quaternary Ba3 P5 N10 Br:Eu(2+) , this investigation represents the first report on the luminescence of Eu(2+) -doped ternary nitridophosphates. Similarly to nitridosilicates and related oxonitrides, Eu(2+) -doped nitridophosphates may have the potential to be further developed into efficient light-emitting diode phosphors.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...
Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J
2005-01-01
value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...... women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease......CA125 is currently the most widely used tumor marker for ovarian epithelial cancer. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the routine clinical use of CA125 in patients with ovarian cancer. Due to lack of sensitivity for stage I disease and lack of specificity, CA125 is of little...
Nutrient maximums related to low oxygen concentrations in the southern Canada Basin
JIN Ming-ming; SHI Jiuxin; LU Yong; CHEN Jianfang; GAO Guoping; WU Jingfeng; ZHANG Haisheng
2005-01-01
The phenomenon of nutrient maximums at 70～200 m occurred only in the region of the Canada Basin among the world oceans. The prevailing hypothesis was that the direct injection of the low-temperature high-nutrient brines from the Chukchi Sea shelf (＜50 m) in winter provided the nutrient maximums. However, we found that there are five problems in the direct injection process. Formerly Jin et al. considered that the formation of nutrient maximums can be a process of locally long-term regeneration. Here we propose a regeneration-mixture process. Data of temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients were collected at three stations in the southern Canada Basin during the summer 1999 cruise. We identified the cores of the surface, near-surface, potential temperature maximum waters and Arctic Bottom Water by the diagrams and vertical profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen and nutrients. The historical 129Ⅰ data indicated that the surface and near-surface waters were Pacific-origin, but the waters below the potential temperature maximum core depth was Atlantic-origin. Along with the correlation of nutrient maximums and very low oxygen contents in the near-surface water, we hypothesize that, the putative organic matter was decomposed to inorganic nutrients; and the Pacific water was mixed with the Atlantic water in the transition zone. The idea of the regeneration-mixture process agrees with the historical observations of no apparent seasonal changes, the smooth nutrient profiles, the lowest saturation of CaCO3 above 400 m, low rate of CFC-11 ventilation and 3H-3He ages of 8～18 a around the nutrient maximum depths.
Peng Zhao; Jun-feng Fan; Shuo-xin Zhang; Zhong-lian Huang; Pei-hua Yang; Zhen-Hua Ma; Keith W Woeste
2011-01-01
Three kinds of plant growth regulators, gibberellinA4/7 (GA4/7), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and chlormequat chloride (CCC), were evaluated for their ability to promote strobilus and cone production in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.) clonal seed orchard. Treatments (0, 250, 500, or 1000 mgâ L
The Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes of Solar Cycles and the Maximum Amplitude of Solar Cycle 24
无
2002-01-01
We present a brief review of predictions of solar cycle maximum ampli-tude with a lead time of 2 years or more. It is pointed out that a precise predictionof the maximum amplitude with such a lead-time is still an open question despiteprogress made since the 1960s. A method of prediction using statistical character-istics of solar cycles is developed: the solar cycles are divided into two groups, ahigh rising velocity (HRV) group and a low rising velocity (LRV) group, dependingon the rising velocity in the ascending phase for a given duration of the ascendingphase. The amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 can be predicted after the start of thecycle using the formula derived in this paper. Now, about 5 years before the startof the cycle, we can make a preliminary prediction of 83.2-119.4 for its maximumamplitude.
Cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2-CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-CaO
Wang, Shu-Lan; Wang, Wei; Li, Shi-Chao; Cao, Shan-Hui
2010-12-01
The cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2, CaCl2-CaO and equimolar CaCl2-NaCl-CaO was studied by cyclic voltammograms and constant potential polarization at temperatures of 1123 to 1173 K on molybdenum and titanium electrodes. The diffusion coefficient of Ca2+ (CaO) in molten CaCl2-CaO was calculated from the linear relationship between the square root of scan rate and the peak current density. The deposition potentials and the potential temperature coefficient of CaO in molten CaCl2-0.5mol%CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-0.5mol%CaO were also obtained from their cyclic voltammograms. The result shows that CaO is more easily reduced than CaCl2. The addition of NaCl in molten CaCl2-CaO induces the underpotential electrodeposition of CaO.
An alternative model for CaCO3 over-shooting during the PETM : Biological carbonate compensation
Luo, Yiming; Boudreau, Bernard P.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Sluijs, Appy; Middelburg, Jack J.
2016-01-01
Decreased CaCO3 content of deep-sea sediments argues for rapid and massive acidification of the oceans during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma BP). In the course of the subsequent recovery from this acidification, sediment CaCO3 content came to exceed pre-PETM levels, known as over
Schroeder-Frerkes, F.; Woodland, A. B.; Uenver-Thiele, L.; Klimm, K.; Knapp, N.
2016-12-01
equilibrium 2CaEs = CaTs + 3SiO2 (coesite). This relation, observed in simple systems (i.e., CMAS ± Na), is also obeyed by clinopyroxene in more complex, natural analog bulk compositions. An assessment of available experimental data reveals a maximum of 15-18 mol% CaEs in eclogitic clinopyroxene at conditions corresponding to 130-180 km depth. CaEs contents are maximized at high temperatures; i.e., at or near the solidus in the presence of coesite. Thus, this study supports the role of CaEs exsolution in contributing to melt generation during upwelling of eclogite bodies in the mantle, albeit with some caveats. Somewhat higher maximum CaEs contents ( 20 mol%) are found in Ca and Al-rich bulk compositions, such as grospydite xenoliths. Such bulk compositions also seem to require the coexistence of kyanite. Other Ca and Al-rich rock types, like rodingites, should have the potential of containing CaEs-rich clinopyroxenes, except that they are SiO2-undersaturated. This emphasizes the further role of bulk composition, in addition to high temperatures, in achieving maximum CaEs contents in high-pressure clinopyroxene.
Ángel López Comino, José; Stich, Daniel; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Morales Soto, José
2015-04-01
models by spectral synthesis for random phase, keeping the rake angle, rupture velocity and slip velocity function fixed. The 2012 Nicoya earthquake turns out to be relatively well constrained from 50 teleseismic waveforms. The solution set contains 252 out of 10.000 trial models with normalized L1-fit within 5 percent from the global minimum. The set includes only similar solutions -a single centred slip patch- with minor differences. Uncertainties are related to the details of the slip maximum, including the amount of peak slip (2m to 3.5m), as well as the characteristics of peripheral slip below 1 m. Synthetic tests suggest that slip patterns like Nicoya may be a fortunate case, while it may be more difficult to unambiguously reconstruct more distributed slip from teleseismic data.
Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability
Kirkaldy, J. S.
1985-05-01
The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are
Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi
2012-03-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, ηm, of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), ηm becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th. For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency ηm at maximum power output is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.
A new, fast algorithm for detecting protein coevolution using maximum compatible cliques
Rose Jonathan
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The MatrixMatchMaker algorithm was recently introduced to detect the similarity between phylogenetic trees and thus the coevolution between proteins. MMM finds the largest common submatrices between pairs of phylogenetic distance matrices, and has numerous advantages over existing methods of coevolution detection. However, these advantages came at the cost of a very long execution time. Results In this paper, we show that the problem of finding the maximum submatrix reduces to a multiple maximum clique subproblem on a graph of protein pairs. This allowed us to develop a new algorithm and program implementation, MMMvII, which achieved more than 600× speedup with comparable accuracy to the original MMM. Conclusions MMMvII will thus allow for more more extensive and intricate analyses of coevolution. Availability An implementation of the MMMvII algorithm is available at: http://www.uhnresearch.ca/labs/tillier/MMMWEBvII/MMMWEBvII.php
Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation.
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi
2012-03-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η(m), of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures T(h) and T(c), respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), η(m) becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency η(m) at maximum power output is bounded from above by η(C)/(2-η(C)) and from below by η(C)/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η(CA)=1-√(T(c)/T(h)) is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.
Ca2+-Calmodulin is Involved in Betacyanin Accumulation Induced by Dark in C3 Halophyte Suaeda salsa
Chang-Quan Wang; Bao-Shan Wang
2007-01-01
The C3 halophyte Suaeda salsa was used to investigate the roles of Ca2+, Ca2+ channels, and calmodulin (CaM) in betacyanin metabolism. Seeds of S. salsa were cultured in both the dark and light for 3 days. The fresh weight and betacyanin content were much higher in S. salsa seedlings formed in the dark than in seedlings formed in the light. The addition of Ca2+ to the half-strength MS nutrient solution promoted betacyanin accumulation in the dark, whereas Ca2+ depletion by EGTA suppressed the dark-induced betacyanin accumulation in shoots of S. salsa. The Ca2+ channel blocker LaCl3 also inhibited dark-induced betacyanin accumulation. The highest activity of CaM and the maximum betacyanin content decreased by 51% and 45%, respectively, in shoots of S. salsa seedlings treated with the potent CaM antagonist chlorpromazine in the dark. Furthermore, the other CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) also inhibited the activity of CaM and dark-dependent betacyanin accumulation, whereas its less active structural analog N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-5) had little effect on the responses to dark of S. salsa seedlings. These results suggest that Ca2+, Ca2+-regulated ion channels, and CaM play an important role in dark-induced betacyanin accumulation in the shoots of the C3 halophyte S. salsa.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Inmates of a Maximum Security Prison ...
USER
Maximum Security Prison; and also to determine the effects of age, gender, and period of incarceration on CRF. A total of 247 apparently healthy inmates of Maiduguri Maximum Security ... with different types of cardiovascular and metabolic.
Maximum likelihood polynomial regression for robust speech recognition
LU Yong; WU Zhenyang
2011-01-01
The linear hypothesis is the main disadvantage of maximum likelihood linear re- gression （MLLR）. This paper applies the polynomial regression method to model adaptation and establishes a nonlinear model adaptation algorithm using maximum likelihood polyno
M. Mihelich
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We derive rigorous results on the link between the principle of maximum entropy production and the principle of maximum Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy using a Markov model of the passive scalar diffusion called the Zero Range Process. We show analytically that both the entropy production and the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy seen as functions of f admit a unique maximum denoted fmaxEP and fmaxKS. The behavior of these two maxima is explored as a function of the system disequilibrium and the system resolution N. The main result of this article is that fmaxEP and fmaxKS have the same Taylor expansion at first order in the deviation of equilibrium. We find that fmaxEP hardly depends on N whereas fmaxKS depends strongly on N. In particular, for a fixed difference of potential between the reservoirs, fmaxEP(N tends towards a non-zero value, while fmaxKS(N tends to 0 when N goes to infinity. For values of N typical of that adopted by Paltridge and climatologists (N ≈ 10 ~ 100, we show that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide even far from equilibrium. Finally, we show that one can find an optimal resolution N* such that fmaxEP and fmaxKS coincide, at least up to a second order parameter proportional to the non-equilibrium fluxes imposed to the boundaries. We find that the optimal resolution N* depends on the non equilibrium fluxes, so that deeper convection should be represented on finer grids. This result points to the inadequacy of using a single grid for representing convection in climate and weather models. Moreover, the application of this principle to passive scalar transport parametrization is therefore expected to provide both the value of the optimal flux, and of the optimal number of degrees of freedom (resolution to describe the system.
Cosmogenic Dating of Moraines of the Local Last Glacial Maximum in the Tropical Andes
Smith, J. A.; Seltzer, G. O.; Rodbell, D. T.; Finkel, R. C.; Farber, D. L.
2003-12-01
We have used cosmogenic dating (10Be) to identify moraines of the local last glacial maximum along two east-west transects in the tropical Andes: the Junin region of central Peru ( ˜11° S 76° W) and the Cordillera Real of western Bolivia ( ˜16.3° S 68.2° W). The 10Be ages from boulders on moraines in our study areas suggest that the local last glacial maximum occurred ca. 30,000 10Be yr BP (before the inferred peak of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at ca. 21,000 calendar yr BP) and that deglaciation was well underway by 20,000 10Be yr BP. Recessional moraines were deposited between about 20,000 and 15,000 10Be yr BP. Published 14C dates from the Cordillera Real indicate that glaciers were within their present limits by about 11,000 calendar yr BP. Asymmetry in the east-west glacial extent and amount of snowline depression was relatively minor in the Junin region, but was more pronounced in the Cordillera Real. In the Junin region, terminal moraines of the local last glacial maximum lie at ˜4150-4200 m on the east side of the cordillera and at ˜4250-4400 m on the west side. In the Cordillera Real, lateral moraines of the local last glacial maximum lie at ˜4600 m on the southwest side of the cordillera (Milluni Valley), while a late-glacial (ca. 12,000 10Be yr BP) terminal moraine lies at ˜3800 m on the northeast side of the cordillera (Zongo Valley). Snowline depression during the local last glacial maximum in the Andes was ˜200-600 m on both sides of the eastern cordillera in the Junin region and on the southwest (Altiplano) side of the Cordillera Real, but closer to ˜900-1000 m on the northeast side of the Cordillera Real. The asymmetry likely arose from differences in precipitation (which comes mainly from the east) and from variations in shading, amount of supraglacial material, and topography between the deeply incised eastern valleys and the relatively broad, shallow valleys descending to high-altitude plateau surfaces on the west sides.
20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount of...
40 CFR 94.107 - Determination of maximum test speed.
2010-07-01
... specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of maximum test speed... Determination of maximum test speed. (a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test...
14 CFR 25.1505 - Maximum operating limit speed.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum operating limit speed. 25.1505... Operating Limitations § 25.1505 Maximum operating limit speed. The maximum operating limit speed (V MO/M MO airspeed or Mach Number, whichever is critical at a particular altitude) is a speed that may not...
Maximum Performance Tests in Children with Developmental Spastic Dysarthria.
Wit, J.; And Others
1993-01-01
Three Maximum Performance Tasks (Maximum Sound Prolongation, Fundamental Frequency Range, and Maximum Repetition Rate) were administered to 11 children (ages 6-11) with spastic dysarthria resulting from cerebral palsy and 11 controls. Despite intrasubject and intersubject variability in normal and pathological speakers, the tasks were found to be…
Maximum physical capacity testing in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy
Knutsen, L.; Quist, M; Midtgaard, J
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the field of physical exercise in rehabilitation of cancer patients, leading to requirements for objective maximum physical capacity measurement (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and one-repetition maximum (1RM)) to determine...
Berry, Vincent; Nicolas, François
2006-01-01
Given a set of evolutionary trees on a same set of taxa, the maximum agreement subtree problem (MAST), respectively, maximum compatible tree problem (MCT), consists of finding a largest subset of taxa such that all input trees restricted to these taxa are isomorphic, respectively compatible. These problems have several applications in phylogenetics such as the computation of a consensus of phylogenies obtained from different data sets, the identification of species subjected to horizontal gene transfers and, more recently, the inference of supertrees, e.g., Trees Of Life. We provide two linear time algorithms to check the isomorphism, respectively, compatibility, of a set of trees or otherwise identify a conflict between the trees with respect to the relative location of a small subset of taxa. Then, we use these algorithms as subroutines to solve MAST and MCT on rooted or unrooted trees of unbounded degree. More precisely, we give exact fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, whose running time is uniformly polynomial when the number of taxa on which the trees disagree is bounded. The improves on a known result for MAST and proves fixed-parameter tractability for MCT.
Hoyt, G.; DeValeria, P.; Whitehead, J.; Morris, R.
1986-03-01
Highly purified CA was prepared from Canavalia ensiformis by affinity chromatography and reacted with succinic anhydride to make SCA. Isoelectric focusing of CA and SCA showed 4 bands (pI 6.5-7.6) and 1 band (pI 3.6), respectively. Dose-response studies of the in vitro mitogenic (/sup 3/H-thymidne uptake) effect of CA on rat spleen cells showed a steep dose-dependent rise in lymphocyte DNA synthesis from 1..mu..g of CA/ml of culture fluid to 4..mu..g/ml with inhibition of stimulation at 8..mu..g/ml. SCA, however, stimulated maximally at 12.5..mu..g/ml with only slight inhibition at 100..mu..g/ml. The proliferation of cells exposed to CA for 72 hr was significantly greater than for cells cultured for 24 and 48 hr. When groups of rats were treated daily I.V. with CA (6 or 12 mg/kg/d) or with SCA (15 mg/kg/d) for 7 d, autopsies on day 8 revealed no gross organ pathology or substantial or consistent microscopic hematologic abnormalities. The mean survival time of LBN hearts transplanted into untreated LEW recipients was 11 +/- 1.3 d (SE). On the other hand, LBN hearts in LEW recipients treated daily I.V. (beginning 2 d pre-op) with SCA (15 mg/kd/d) or CA (3 mg/kg/d) survived a mean of 25 +/- 3 d and 32 +/- 1.5 d, respectively. Despite chronic treatment with CA or SCA, no systemic, gross pathologic or hematologic toxicity has been seen. All animals have gained weight normally post-operatively. In conclusion, they have identified 2 new apparently non-toxic immunosuppressive compounds and they have begun to correlate their known molecular differences with the differences in their immunomodulatory activity in vitro and in vivo.
González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H
2014-01-01
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p phytic acid, but decreased (p phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.
LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL
Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta
2000-02-26
Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with
周秀会
2007-01-01
结合作者使用 CA On CD 的经验和体会,全面而具体地分析了 CA on CD 的使用功能,明确了其优点及不足之处,同时,针对这些不足之处进行了探索和尝试,提出了利用检索技巧解决这些不足之处的方法。并结合实例详细说明。
Pietro Patimisco
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We demonstrated low-loss and single-mode laser beam delivery through hollow-core waveguides (HCWs operating in the 3.7–7.6 μm spectral range. The employed HCWs have a circular cross section with a bore diameter of 200 μm and metallic/dielectric internal coatings deposited inside a glass capillary tube. The internal coatings have been produced to enhance the spectral response of the HCWs in the range 3.5–12 µm. We demonstrated Gaussian-like outputs throughout the 4.5–7.6 µm spectral range. A quasi single-mode output beam with only small beam distortions was achieved when the wavelength was reduced to 3.7 μm. With a 15-cm-long HCW and optimized coupling conditions, we measured coupling efficiencies of >88% and transmission losses of <1 dB in the investigated infrared spectral range.
The diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma
Cui Da-Peng; Han Lei; Liu Zhen-Xian; Yang He; Zhang Ying-Chun
2016-01-01
Objective:To study the diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma.Methods:A total of 35 patients with cholangiocarcinoma who received surgical resection in our hospital were selected as malignant group, 30 patients with cholelithiasis who received surgical resection in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign group, serum samples were collected before surgery to determine CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 content, and cholangiocarcinoma tissue and normal bile duct tissue were collected after surgery to determine the content of proliferation and invasion molecules. Results:Serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels of malignant group were significantly higher than those of control group; PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels in cholangiocarcinoma tissue were higher than those in benign bile duct tissue, and E-cadherin level was lower than that in benign bile duct tissue; serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels were positively correlated with PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels, and negatively correlated with E-cadherin level.Conclusion:Joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 can not only provide reference for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma, but can also provide basis for the evaluation of proliferation, invasion and other malignant biological behaviors.
Milusheva, E A; Baranyi, M
2003-11-01
A strong linkage between adrenergic and glutamatergic systems exists in the CNS but it is still unclear whether the excessive release of noradrenaline under ischemic conditions is modulated by excitatory amino acids. We studied the effect of selective glutamate receptor antagonists on the release of [3H]noradrenaline evoked by glucose and oxygen deprivation in hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus subregions. The release of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was measured by HPLC. Omission of oxygen and glucose increased the release of [3H]noradrenaline as well as the release of amino acids. Maximum effect on noradrenaline release was observed in CA1 region. The relative increase of the release after 30 min energy deprivation (R(2)) versus the basal release under normal conditions (R(1)), i.e. the R(2)/R(1) ratio was 7.1+/-1.0, 3.87+/-0.4 and 3.26+/-0.27 for CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus, respectively. The [3H]noradrenaline outflow in response to glucose and oxygen deprivation was abolished at low temperature, but not by Ca(2+) removal, suggesting a cytoplasmic release process. In CA1 and CA3 [3H]noradrenaline release was significantly attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. The AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI-53784 had no effect in CA3, but partly reduced noradrenaline release in CA1. Our results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors seem to be implicated in the massive cytoplasmic release of noradrenaline in CA1 what may contribute to its selective vulnerability.
Miura, Yukari; Chen, Xiaohui; Yamada, Saki; Sugihara, Aya; Enkhjargal, Molomjamts; Sun, Yuanzhi; Kuroda, Keiko; Satoh, Masaya; Oyama, Yasuo
2014-03-01
Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial used in personal hygiene products. Recent health concerns arose after TCC was detected in the blood of human subjects who showered with soap containing TCC. In this study, the effect of TCC on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in rat thymocytes was examined using Fluo-3, an indicator of intracellular Ca(2+). TCC at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 3 μM increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration biphasically: first by releasing Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores and then inducing Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels. The threshold TCC concentration to increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in this study was lower than the maximum TCC concentrations reported in human blood samples. Therefore, we anticipate that TCC at concentrations reported in human blood samples might disturb intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in human lymphocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery
Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B
2013-01-01
We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.
Luminescent characteristics of LiCaBO3:Eu3+ phosphor for white light emitting diode
LI Panlai; YANG Zhiping; WANG Zhijun; GUO Qinglin
2009-01-01
LiCaBO3:Eu3+ phosphor was synthesized by high solid-state reaction method, and its luminescent characteristics were investigated. The emission and excitation spectra of LiCaBO3:Eu3+ phosphors exhibited that the phosphors could be effectively excited by near ultraviolet (400 nm) and blue (470 nm) light, and emitted red light. The effect of Eu3+ concentration on the emission spectrum of LiCaBO3:Eu3+ phos-phor was studied. The results showed that the emission intensity increased with increasing Eu3～ concentration, and then decreased because of concentration quenching. It reached the maximum at 3mol.% Eu3+, and the concentration self-quenching mechanism was the d-d interaction according to the Dexter theory. Under the conditions of charge compensator Li+, Na+ or K+ incorporated in LiCaBO3, the emission intensities of LiCaBO3:Eu3+ phosphor were enhanced.
Present and Last Glacial Maximum climates as states of maximum entropy production
Herbert, Corentin; Kageyama, Masa; Dubrulle, Berengere
2011-01-01
The Earth, like other planets with a relatively thick atmosphere, is not locally in radiative equilibrium and the transport of energy by the geophysical fluids (atmosphere and ocean) plays a fundamental role in determining its climate. Using simple energy-balance models, it was suggested a few decades ago that the meridional energy fluxes might follow a thermodynamic Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) principle. In the present study, we assess the MEP hypothesis in the framework of a minimal climate model based solely on a robust radiative scheme and the MEP principle, with no extra assumptions. Specifically, we show that by choosing an adequate radiative exchange formulation, the Net Exchange Formulation, a rigorous derivation of all the physical parameters can be performed. The MEP principle is also extended to surface energy fluxes, in addition to meridional energy fluxes. The climate model presented here is extremely fast, needs very little empirical data and does not rely on ad hoc parameterizations. We in...
Isotopic Effects on Stereodynamics for Ca+HCI, Ca+DCI, and Ca+TClReactions
Li-zhi Wang; Chuan-lu Yang; Jing-juan Liang; Jing Xiao; Qing-gang Zhang
2011-01-01
The vector correlations in Ca+HC1,Ca+DCI,and Ca+TCI reactions have been investigated by means of the quasi-classical trajectory calculations on PES constructed by means of multireference configuration interaction.The distributions of P(θr),P(Φr) and the PDDCSs of (2π/σ)(dσ00/dωt),(2π/σ)(dσ20/dωt),(2π/σ)(dσ22+/dωt),(2π/σ)(dσ21-/dωt) have been calculated based on the surface.The remarkable isotopic effects in the reactions are observed,and the mechanism which may be ascribed to different mass factors is discussed.
Bertello, Luca; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Tlatov, Andrey; Singh, Jagdev
2016-07-01
Some of the most important archives of past and current long-term solar synoptic observations in the resonance line of Ca II K are described here. These observations are very important for understanding the state of the solar magnetism on time scales up to several decades. The first observations of this kind began in 1904 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (India), followed by similar programs at different other locations. Regular full-disk Ca II K monitoring programs started in 1915 at the Mount Wilson Observatory (USA) and in 1917 at the National Solar Observatory of Japan. Beginning in 1919 and in 1926 regular observations were taken also at the Paris-Meudon Observatory (France) and at the "Donati solar tower telescope of the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Italy, respectively. In 1926 the the Astronomical Observatory of the Coimbra University in Portugal started its own program of Ca II K observations. Although some of these programs have been terminated over the years, their data archives constitute a unique resource for studies of solar variability. In the early 1970s, the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Sacramento Peak (USA) started a new program of daily Sun-as-a-star observations in the Ca II K line. Today the NSO is continuing these observations through its Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility.
EMRE Is a Matrix Ca(2+) Sensor that Governs Gatekeeping of the Mitochondrial Ca(2+) Uniporter.
Vais, Horia; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Mak, Don-On Daniel; Hoff, Henry; Payne, Riley; Tanis, Jessica E; Foskett, J Kevin
2016-01-26
The mitochondrial uniporter (MCU) is an ion channel that mediates Ca(2+) uptake into the matrix to regulate metabolism, cell death, and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signaling. Matrix Ca(2+) concentration is similar to that in cytoplasm, despite an enormous driving force for entry, but the mechanisms that prevent mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload are unclear. Here, we show that MCU channel activity is governed by matrix Ca(2+) concentration through EMRE. Deletion or charge neutralization of its matrix-localized acidic C terminus abolishes matrix Ca(2+) inhibition of MCU Ca(2+) currents, resulting in MCU channel activation, enhanced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, and constitutively elevated matrix Ca(2+) concentration. EMRE-dependent regulation of MCU channel activity requires intermembrane space-localized MICU1, MICU2, and cytoplasmic Ca(2+). Thus, mitochondria are protected from Ca(2+) depletion and Ca(2+) overload by a unique molecular complex that involves Ca(2+) sensors on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane, coupled through EMRE.
The Silicon and Calcium High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from Early to Maximum Phases
Zhao, Xulin; Maeda, Keiichi; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Mo, Jun
2015-01-01
The high-velocity features (HVFs) in optical spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are examined with a large sample including very early-time spectra (e.g., t < -7 days). Multiple Gaussian fits are applied to examine the HVFs and their evolutions, using constraints on expansion velocities for the same species (i.e., SiII 5972 and SiII 6355). We find that strong HVFs tend to appear in SNe Ia with smaller decline rates (e.g., dm15(B)<1.4 mag), clarifying that the finding by Childress et al. (2014) for the Ca-HVFs in near-maximum-light spectra applies both to the Si-HVFs and Ca-HVFs in the earlier phase. The Si-HVFs seem to be more common in fast-expanding SNe Ia, which is different from the earlier result that the Ca-HVFs are associated with SNe Ia having slower SiII 6355 velocities at maximum light (i.e., Vsi). This difference can be due to that the HVFs in fast-expanding SNe Ia usually disappear more rapidly and are easily blended with the photospheric components when approaching the maximum light. Mor...
A Note on k-Limited Maximum Base
Yang Ruishun; Yang Xiaowei
2006-01-01
The problem of k-limited maximum base was specified into two special problems of k-limited maximum base; that is, let subset D of the problem of k-limited maximum base be an independent set and a circuit of the matroid, respectively. It was proved that under this circumstance the collections of k-limited base satisfy base axioms. Then a new matroid was determined, and the problem of k-limited maximum base was transformed to the problem of maximum base of this new matroid. Aiming at the problem, two algorithms, which in essence are greedy algorithms based on former matroid, were presented for the two special problems of k-limited maximum base. They were proved to be reasonable and more efficient than the algorithm presented by Ma Zhongfan in view of the complexity of algorithm.
Martin, P. A.; Lea, D. W.; McCorkle, D. C.
2002-12-01
Benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca paleothermometry is based on an empirical relationship between the Mg/Ca of benthic foraminifera recovered from core tops and in situ bottom water temperatures (Rosenthal, 1997; Martin et al, in press; Lear et al, in review). While there is a tight correlation between shell Mg/Ca and temperature over a broad range of temperatures (-1 to 20 degrees C), Mg/Ca variation over the small range of deep water temperatures reveals departures from the calibration curve at low temperatures. Lower Mg/Ca values are generally associated with the deepest sites from the Atlantic and Pacific, contributing to an apparently steeper Mg/Ca-T response for abyssal benthics. The steeper response of abyssal benthics may reflect an influence of decreasing carbonate saturation with depth. Saturation related effects have already been documented for Mg in planktonic foraminifera and for other metals (Cd, Ba, and Zn) in benthic foraminifera shells (see Marchitto and ref. therein). Although it is difficult to definitively separate the effects of various environmental parameters (including temperature, depth, and relative saturation states), which often change in unison, we can use the core top Mg/Ca data to estimate the potential influence of saturation state. An alternative calibration of the benthic Mg/Ca - T relationship can be derived from core top benthic foraminifera based only on sites bathed in waters above carbonate saturation that yields a slightly smaller change in Mg/Ca per degree C (~9.5% vs. 11%) but better explains benthic Mg/Ca from the coldest sites (-1degrees C). Using this alternative Mg/Ca -T relation and a subset of data from the Ceara Rise and Ontong Java Plateau, we can estimate a maximum Mg/Ca offset attributable to saturation state. By comparing core top and downcore data, we can also address possible differences in the primary Mg-T response and carbonate saturation related effects between different genera (Cibicidoides and Uvigerina).
An Interval Maximum Entropy Method for Quadratic Programming Problem
RUI Wen-juan; CAO De-xin; SONG Xie-wu
2005-01-01
With the idea of maximum entropy function and penalty function methods, we transform the quadratic programming problem into an unconstrained differentiable optimization problem, discuss the interval extension of the maximum entropy function, provide the region deletion test rules and design an interval maximum entropy algorithm for quadratic programming problem. The convergence of the method is proved and numerical results are presented. Both theoretical and numerical results show that the method is reliable and efficient.
KWU-werkersklasdramas in Afrikaans (ca. 1930 - ca. 1950
J. L. Coetser
1999-05-01
Full Text Available GWU working class theatre in Afrikaans (ca. 1930 - ca. 1950In 1984 Elsabé Brink drew attention to plays, prose and poetry written between 1930 and 1950 in Afrikaans by members of the Garment Workers’ Union (GWU. Scholars such as Stander and Willemse (1992, Van Niekerk (1996 and Van Wyk (1995, 1997 have also referred to GWU plays. Apart from these overviews, GWU plays as such have not yet received the attention they deserve. This article presents a revaluation, initially by providing an overview of their contents, followed by an examination of cultural, economic and political influences. It is argued that - retrospectively - the GWU plays reflected a unique cultural specificity from the framework established by Sitas (1986 for more contemporary working class theatre.
Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: thom1@pml.ac.uk; Boegi, Christian [BASF SE, Product Safety, GUP/PA, Z470, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Winter, Matthew J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owens, J. Willie [The Procter and Gamble Company, Central Product Safety, 11810 East Miami River Road, Cincinnati, OH 45252 (United States)
2009-02-19
There is increasing recognition of the need to identify specific sublethal effects of chemicals, such as reproductive toxicity, and specific modes of actions of the chemicals, such as interference with the endocrine system. To achieve these aims requires criteria which provide a basis to interpret study findings so as to separate these specific toxicities and modes of action from not only acute lethality per se but also from severe inanition and malaise that non-specifically compromise reproductive capacity and the response of endocrine endpoints. Mammalian toxicologists have recognized that very high dose levels are sometimes required to elicit both specific adverse effects and present the potential of non-specific 'systemic toxicity'. Mammalian toxicologists have developed the concept of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) beyond which a specific toxicity or action cannot be attributed to a test substance due to the compromised state of the organism. Ecotoxicologists are now confronted by a similar challenge and must develop an analogous concept of a MTD and the respective criteria. As examples of this conundrum, we note recent developments in efforts to validate protocols for fish reproductive toxicity and endocrine screens (e.g. some chemicals originally selected as 'negatives' elicited decreases in fecundity or changes in endpoints intended to be biomarkers for endocrine modes of action). Unless analogous criteria can be developed, the potentially confounding effects of systemic toxicity may then undermine the reliable assessment of specific reproductive effects or biomarkers such as vitellogenin or spiggin. The same issue confronts other areas of aquatic toxicology (e.g., genotoxicity) and the use of aquatic animals for preclinical assessments of drugs (e.g., use of zebrafish for drug safety assessment). We propose that there are benefits to adopting the concept of an MTD for toxicology and pharmacology studies using fish and other aquatic
Integer Programming Model for Maximum Clique in Graph
YUAN Xi-bo; YANG You; ZENG Xin-hai
2005-01-01
The maximum clique or maximum independent set of graph is a classical problem in graph theory. Combined with Boolean algebra and integer programming, two integer programming models for maximum clique problem,which improve the old results were designed in this paper. Then, the programming model for maximum independent set is a corollary of the main results. These two models can be easily applied to computer algorithm and software, and suitable for graphs of any scale. Finally the models are presented as Lingo algorithms, verified and compared by several examples.
Counterexamples to convergence theorem of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm
于剑; 石洪波; 黄厚宽; 孙喜晨; 程乾生
2003-01-01
In this paper, we surveyed the development of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, pointed out that the maximum-entropy clustering algorithm is not new in essence, and constructed two examples to show that the iterative sequence given by the maximum-entropy clustering algorithm may not converge to a local minimum of its objective function, but a saddle point. Based on these results, our paper shows that the convergence theorem of maximum-entropy clustering algorithm put forward by Kenneth Rose et al. does not hold in general cases.
Ca2+ dynamics in zebrafish morphogenesis
Yusuke Tsuruwaka
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+ signaling is heavily involved in development, as illustrated by the use of a number of Ca2+ indicators. However, continuous Ca2+ patterns during morphogenesis have not yet been studied using fluorescence resonance energy transfer to track the Ca2+ sensor. In the present study, we monitored Ca2+ levels during zebrafish morphogenesis and differentiation with yellow cameleon, YC2.12. Our results show not only clear changes in Ca2+ levels but also continuous Ca2+ patterns at 24 hpf and later periods for the first time. Serial Ca2+dynamics during early pharyngula period (Prim-5-20; 24–33 hpf was successfully observed with cameleon, which have not reported anywhere yet. In fact, high Ca2+ level occurred concurrently with hindbrain development in segmentation and pharyngula periods. Ca2+ patterns in the late gastrula through segmentation periods which were obtained with cameleon, were similar to those obtained previously with other Ca2+sensor. Our results suggested that the use of various Ca2+ sensors may lead to novel findings in studies of Ca2+ dynamics. We hope that these results will prove valuable for further research in Ca2+ signaling.
Zhang, Siyang; Li, Chunyan; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Xueshan; Cui, Zeshi
2014-03-01
Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor all over the world, and Ca(2+) is a critical regulator for apoptosis of cancer cells. The monitoring of cytoplastic Ca(2+) level in real-time will contribute to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis mediated by Ca2+ in lung cancer cells. To evaluate the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-3 and fluo-4 in the process of H2O2 induced the apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The cytoplastic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was determined in real-time, and the correlations between [Ca(2+)]i and cell apoptosis were investigated. The differences in fluorescence intensity and measured value were compared between the two Ca(2+) indicators. Cells were loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-3 or fluo-4 for 1 h, and then stimulated with 50 mM H2O2. Laser scanning confocal microscope was applied to perform real-time monitoring on the variation of [Ca(2+)]i in selected cells. DAPI staining was used to observe apoptosis in H2O2 treated cells. Our results showed that the fluorescence intensity of fluo-4 was stronger than that of fluo-3 in the same condition of dye concentration, loading time and image acquisition parameters before or after H2O2 stimulation. The cytoplastic [Ca(2+)]i was rapidly elevated in H2O2 stimulated A549 cells. The range of [Ca(2+)]i in selected cells loaded with fluo-3 was 112.2 nM-1,069.6 nM, and that in selected cells loaded with fluo-4 was 7.6 nM-505.4 nM. Moreover, the apoptotic rate was significantly increased in H2O2 treated cells, compared with untreated ones (Pfluo-4 was probably more applicable to measure [Ca(2+)]i in cells with less content of Ca(2+).
Ca2+-permeable and Ca2+-impermeable AMPA receptors coexist on horizontal cells.
Huang, Shi-Yong; Liang, Pei-Ji
2005-02-28
Fura-2 fluorescent calcium imaging was used for analyzing the subtype of AMPA receptors in freshly dissociated horizontal cells of carp retina. Exogenous application of AMPA induced an increase of intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in horizontal cells, while the [Ca2+]i increase was partly inhibited by nifedipine. The residual [Ca2+]i increase was completely eliminated by joro spider toxin-3, a blocker of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. On the other hand, the application of pentobarbital, which blocked Ca2+-impermeable AMPA receptors, could also partly inhibit the increase of [Ca2+]i, implying that the application of AMPA induced the activation of both Ca2+-permeable and Ca2+-impermeable AMPA receptors and the consequent activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Taken together, these results suggested that Ca2+-permeable and Ca2+-impermeable AMPA receptors were coexpressed on horizontal cells.
Reconstruction of the glacial maximum recorded in the central Cantabrian Mountains (N Iberia)
Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María
2014-05-01
The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal range up to 2648 m altitude trending parallel to northern Iberian Peninsula edge at a maximum distance of 100 km inland (~43oN 5oW). Glacial sediments and landforms are generally well-preserved at altitudes higher than 1600 m, evidencing the occurrence of former glaciations. Previous research supports a regional glacial maximum prior to ca 38 cal ka BP and an advanced state of deglaciation by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., 2013). A geomorphological database has been produced in ArcGIS (1:25,000 scale) for an area about 800 km2 that partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A reconstruction of the ice extent and flow pattern of the former glaciers is presented for this area, showing that an ice field was developed on the study area during the local glacial maximum. The maximum length of the ice tongues that drained this icefield was remarkably asymmetric between both slopes, recording 1 to 6 km-long in the northern slope and up to 19 km-long in southern one. The altitude difference between the glacier fronts of both mountain slopes was ca 100 m. This asymmetric character of the ice tongues is related to geologic and topo-climatic factors. Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., García-Ruiz, J.M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Farias, P., Valero-Garcés, B., Moreno, A., Rico, M., Valcárcel, M., 2013. A review of glacial geomorphology and chronology in northern Spain: timing and regional variability during the last glacial cycle. Geomorphology 196, 50-64. Research funded by the CANDELA project (MINECO-CGL2012-31938). L. Rodríguez-Rodríguez is a PhD student with a grant from the Spanish national FPU Program (MECD).
Dehydration transformation in Ca-montmorillonite
P Bala; B K Samantaray; S K Srivastava
2000-02-01
The present work deals with the dehydration transformation of Ca-montmorillonite in the temperature range 30°–500°C. Thermal, infrared (IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to describe the thermal transformation. The microstructural and layer disorder parameters like crystallite size, r.m.s. strain ($\\langle e^2\\rangle^{1/2}$), variation of interlayer spacing (), and proportion of planes which were affected by the defect (), have all been calculated from the (001) basal reflection using the method of variance and Fourier line shape analysis. These investigations revealed that sample underwent transformation from hydrated phase to dehydrated phase at 200°C, and as a consequence, its basal spacing collapsed from 16.02 Å (30°C) to around 10 Å (200°C). This transformation occurred through a wide range of temperature, i.e. within the range 120°–200°C. The crystallite size was maximum at room temperature (30°C), however, the size decreased with increasing temperature in the hydrated phase, whereas the size increased with increasing temperature for the dehydrated phase. The , and $\\langle e^2\\rangle^{1/2}$ of the hydrated and the dehydrated phase increased and decreased, respectively with increase of heating temperature.
Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles.
Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng
2016-03-01
Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η(+) to a lower bound η(-) when Γ increases from 0 to ∞. It is found that the η(+) values for all three systems are bounded by η(C)/2 ≤ η(+) ≤ η(C)/(2-η(C)) due to strong coupling, where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: η(CA)=1-sqrt[1-η(C)]. When Γ → ∞, the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η(-)=η(C)/[1+a(0)(2-η(C))].
Efficiency at maximum power of thermochemical engines with near-independent particles
Luo, Xiaoguang; Liu, Nian; Qiu, Teng
2016-03-01
Two-reservoir thermochemical engines are established by using near-independent particles (including Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein particles) as the working substance. Particle and heat fluxes can be formed based on the temperature and chemical potential gradients between two different reservoirs. A rectangular-type energy filter with width Γ is introduced for each engine to weaken the coupling between the particle and heat fluxes. The efficiency at maximum power of each particle system decreases monotonously from an upper bound η+ to a lower bound η- when Γ increases from 0 to ∞ . It is found that the η+ values for all three systems are bounded by ηC/2 ≤η+≤ηC/(2 -ηC ) due to strong coupling, where ηC is the Carnot efficiency. For the Bose-Einstein system, it is found that the upper bound is approximated by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency: ηCA=1 -√{1 -ηC } . When Γ →∞ , the intrinsic maximum powers are proportional to the square of the temperature difference of the two reservoirs for all three systems, and the corresponding lower bounds of efficiency at maximum power can be simplified in the same form of η-=ηC/[1 +a0(2 -ηC ) ] .
Characteristics of a Cataphoresis He-Ca+ Recombination Laser
CHEN Li; PAN Bai-Liang; WANG Ya-Juan; MAO Bang-Ning
2009-01-01
A cataphoretic input of calcium vapour into the active volume of pulsed He-Ca+ laser is designed and made. The recombination laser at 373.3nm and the R-M transition laser at 854.6nm are achieved experimentally with modified Blumlein circuit by high-frequency longitudinal pulsed discharge. The dependences of work parameters such as the pulse frequency, the power supply voltage and the helium pressure on laser output characteristics at 373.3 nm line are measured and discussed. The maximum laser output power of 136mW and the specific power of 5.9 m W/cm3 are obtained, respectively.
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...
49 CFR 174.86 - Maximum allowable operating speed.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable operating speed. 174.86 Section... operating speed. (a) For molten metals and molten glass shipped in packagings other than those prescribed in § 173.247 of this subchapter, the maximum allowable operating speed may not exceed 24 km/hour (15...
Parametric optimization of thermoelectric elements footprint for maximum power generation
Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Hao
2014-01-01
The development studies in thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems are mostly disconnected to parametric optimization of the module components. In this study, optimum footprint ratio of n- and p-type thermoelectric (TE) elements is explored to achieve maximum power generation, maximum cost-perform...
30 CFR 56.19066 - Maximum riders in a conveyance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum riders in a conveyance. 56.19066 Section 56.19066 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19066 Maximum riders in a conveyance. In shafts inclined over 45...
30 CFR 57.19066 - Maximum riders in a conveyance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum riders in a conveyance. 57.19066 Section 57.19066 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19066 Maximum riders in a conveyance. In shafts inclined over 45...
Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse
T. N. Srivastava
1969-07-01
Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.
5 CFR 838.711 - Maximum former spouse survivor annuity.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum former spouse survivor annuity... Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Limitations on Survivor Annuities § 838.711 Maximum former spouse survivor annuity. (a) Under CSRS, payments under a court order may not exceed the...
46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of cargo. 151.45-6 Section 151.45-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-6 Maximum amount of cargo. (a)...
20 CFR 226.52 - Total annuity subject to maximum.
2010-04-01
... rate effective on the date the supplemental annuity begins, before any reduction for a private pension... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total annuity subject to maximum. 226.52... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Railroad Retirement Family Maximum § 226.52...
49 CFR 195.406 - Maximum operating pressure.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum operating pressure. 195.406 Section 195... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.406 Maximum operating pressure. (a) Except for surge pressures and other variations from normal operations, no operator may operate a pipeline at a...
Maximum-entropy clustering algorithm and its global convergence analysis
无
2001-01-01
Constructing a batch of differentiable entropy functions touniformly approximate an objective function by means of the maximum-entropy principle, a new clustering algorithm, called maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, is proposed based on optimization theory. This algorithm is a soft generalization of the hard C-means algorithm and possesses global convergence. Its relations with other clustering algorithms are discussed.
Distribution of maximum loss of fractional Brownian motion with drift
Çağlar, Mine; Vardar-Acar, Ceren
2013-01-01
In this paper, we find bounds on the distribution of the maximum loss of fractional Brownian motion with H >= 1/2 and derive estimates on its tail probability. Asymptotically, the tail of the distribution of maximum loss over [0, t] behaves like the tail of the marginal distribution at time t.
48 CFR 436.575 - Maximum workweek-construction schedule.
2010-10-01
...-construction schedule. 436.575 Section 436.575 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Maximum workweek-construction schedule. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-75, Maximum Workweek-Construction Schedule, if the clause at FAR 52.236-15 is used and the contractor's...
30 CFR 57.5039 - Maximum permissible concentration.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum permissible concentration. 57.5039... Maximum permissible concentration. Except as provided by standard § 57.5005, persons shall not be exposed to air containing concentrations of radon daughters exceeding 1.0 WL in active workings. ...
5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550.105 Section 550.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly...
5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550.106 Section 550.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual...
32 CFR 842.35 - Depreciation and maximum allowances.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depreciation and maximum allowances. 842.35... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Personnel Claims (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3721) § 842.35 Depreciation and maximum allowances. The military services have jointly established the “Allowance List-Depreciation Guide”...
Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;;
1983-01-01
to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion......A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... bear a striking resemblance to those of FCC Yb, which is also a divalent metal with an electronic band structure similar to that of Ca. In particular, the shear moduli c44 and (c11-c 12)/2 differ by a factor of 3.4, which implies that FCC Ca (like FCC Yb) is very anisotropic with regard...
Continuously Tunable Ca2+ Regulation of RNA-Edited CaV1.3 Channels
Hojjat Bazzazi
2013-10-01
Full Text Available CaV1.3 ion channels are dominant Ca2+ portals into pacemaking neurons, residing at the epicenter of brain rhythmicity and neurodegeneration. Negative Ca2+ feedback regulation of CaV1.3 channels (CDI is therefore critical for Ca2+ homeostasis. Intriguingly, nearly half the CaV1.3 transcripts in the brain are RNA edited to reduce CDI and influence oscillatory activity. It is then mechanistically remarkable that this editing occurs precisely within an IQ domain, whose interaction with Ca2+-bound calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM is believed to induce CDI. Here, we sought the mechanism underlying the altered CDI of edited channels. Unexpectedly, editing failed to attenuate Ca2+/CaM binding. Instead, editing weakened the prebinding of Ca2+-free CaM (apoCaM to channels, which proves essential for CDI. Thus, editing might render CDI continuously tunable by fluctuations in ambient CaM, a prominent effect we substantiate in substantia nigral neurons. This adjustability of Ca2+ regulation by CaM now looms as a key element of CNS Ca2+ homeostasis.
Maximum Principles for Discrete and Semidiscrete Reaction-Diffusion Equation
Petr Stehlík
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study reaction-diffusion equations with a general reaction function f on one-dimensional lattices with continuous or discrete time ux′ (or Δtux=k(ux-1-2ux+ux+1+f(ux, x∈Z. We prove weak and strong maximum and minimum principles for corresponding initial-boundary value problems. Whereas the maximum principles in the semidiscrete case (continuous time exhibit similar features to those of fully continuous reaction-diffusion model, in the discrete case the weak maximum principle holds for a smaller class of functions and the strong maximum principle is valid in a weaker sense. We describe in detail how the validity of maximum principles depends on the nonlinearity and the time step. We illustrate our results on the Nagumo equation with the bistable nonlinearity.
Experimental study on prediction model for maximum rebound ratio
LEI Wei-dong; TENG Jun; A.HEFNY; ZHAO Jian; GUAN Jiong
2007-01-01
The proposed prediction model for estimating the maximum rebound ratio was applied to a field explosion test, Mandai test in Singapore.The estimated possible maximum Deak particle velocities(PPVs)were compared with the field records.Three of the four available field-recorded PPVs lie exactly below the estimated possible maximum values as expected.while the fourth available field-recorded PPV lies close to and a bit higher than the estimated maximum possible PPV The comparison results show that the predicted PPVs from the proposed prediction model for the maximum rebound ratio match the field.recorded PPVs better than those from two empirical formulae.The very good agreement between the estimated and field-recorded values validates the proposed prediction model for estimating PPV in a rock mass with a set of ipints due to application of a two dimensional compressional wave at the boundary of a tunnel or a borehole.
Lisa Gerner
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2 has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli and the purification protocol for the following constructs: full-length CaMKK2 in complex with CaM, CaMKK2 ‘apo’, CaMKK2 (165-501 in complex with CaM, and the CaMKK2 F267G mutant. The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, “Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2” [1].
Échange terres rares légères Ca dans l'apatite
Iqdari, Abderrahmane; Velde, Bruce; Benalioulhaj, Noureddine; Dujon, Saint-Clair; El Yamine, Nacer
2003-04-01
Diffusion experiments were carried out on natural apatite crystals that were immersed in molten light rare earth element (REE) chloride salt at temperatures between 900 and 1150 °C for periods up to 35 days. Electron microprobe analysis of the crystals showed that light REEs replaced Ca according to electronic balance, i.e. 2 REE3+ for 3 Ca2+. These diffusion profiles indicate that a maximum amount of substitution in the structure occurs when two of the ten Ca ions in apatite are replaced by the REE diffusing elements. Anisotropic diffusion is observed between a and c crystallographic directions. Comparison of maximum distance indicates that the larger ions move more easily in the apatite structure. We conclude that the light REEs diffuse within the channel structures of the mineral, and that this diffusion is controlled by the substitution type of elements in the calcium sites. To cite this article: A. Iqdari et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).
Fine tuning of cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations
Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent
2016-01-01
Ca 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the periodic Ca 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic Ca 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of Ca 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of Ca 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the Ca 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768
[Effect of polycarbophil Ca on IBS].
Mine, Tetsuya
2006-08-01
In this chapter, I mentioned the effect of polycarbophil Ca on IBS. IBS is classified into 3 types; diarrhea type, constipation type and combined type. Polycarbophil Ca is effective for all types of IBS.
Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2)
Dedert, M.; Stoll, H. M.; Kroon, D.; Shimizu, N.; Kanamaru, K.; Ziveri, P.
2012-05-01
The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma). The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt) of carbon (C) was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2). This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265) and North Pacific (Site 1209), we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (productivity during ETM2. This high productivity phase is probably the result of enhanced nutrient supply either from land or from upwelling. The ion probe results show that calcareous nannoplankton productivity was not reduced by environmental conditions accompanying ETM2 at Site 1265, but imply an overall sustained productivity and potentially a small productivity increase during the extreme
Extensive glaciations in Anatolian Mountains during the global Last Glacial Maximum
Akçar, Naki; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Reber, Regina; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Kubik, Peter; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlüchter, Christian
2014-05-01
As a response to the changes in the atmospheric circulation at the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), equilibrium line altitude commenced to decrease and, thus, also Anatolian glaciers started to expand. Depending on the altitude of the mountains and size of the accumulation area, the advance began earlier in the eastern Black Sea Mountains prior to 27 ka. In the Kavron, Verçenik, Başyayla and Çoruh valleys, glaciers terminated at an altitude of 1600 m with a length of > 10 km. In eastern Anatolia, 15 km-long glaciers descended to 1400 m from the extensive ice-fields of the Munzır Mountains. In central and western Anatolia, glaciers were smaller (ca. 6 km-long) except for Dedegöl Mountains. There, a glacier length of around 9 km and an advance down to 1450 m were mapped. At Mount Erciyes glaciers began to advance down to 2150 m prior to 25 ka. In southwestern Anatolia, beginning of the LGM advance was documented at ca. 22 ka at Mount Sandıras, where a 1.5 km-long cirque glacier terminated at an altitude of 1900 m. Meanwhile, valley glaciers descended to 2050 m at Mount Akdaǧ, 6 km down from the peak. In northwestern Anatolia, one paleoglacier commenced to grow prior to ca. 25 ka at Uludaǧ and it reached a length of 5 km and an altitude 1600 m. In brief, Anatolian glaciers reached their maximum extent between 27 and 21 ka during the global LGM. The LGM deglaciation resulted in the collapse of Anatolian glaciers. The deglaciation was almost synchronous in all mountains. Climatic fluctuations at the end of LGM have produced only small glaciers, which are much more sensitive to temperature and/or precipitation changes than larger glaciers. Our recent study at Uludaǧ revealed that the glaciers re-advanced at least three times until 19 ka after their maximum extent at around 21 ka. We explain this dynamic behaviour as a response mechanism to different phases of the winter indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which resulted in an enhanced
Barnacle muscle: Ca2+, activation and mechanics.
Ashley, C C; Griffiths, P J; Lea, T J; Mulligan, I P; Palmer, R E; Simnett, S J
1993-01-01
In this review, aspects of the ways in which Ca2+ is transported and regulated within muscle cells have been considered, with particular reference to crustacean muscle fibres. The large size of these fibres permits easy access to the internal environment of the cell, allowing it to be altered by microinjection or microperfusion. At rest, Ca2+ is not in equilibrium across the cell membrane, it enters the cell down a steep electrochemical gradient. The free [Ca2+] at rest is maintained at a value close to 200 nM by a combination of internal buffering systems, mainly the SR, mitochondria, and the fixed and diffusible Ca(2+)-binding proteins, as well as by an energy-dependent extrusion system operating across the external cell membrane. This system relies upon the inward movement of Na+ down its own electrochemical gradient to provide the energy for the extrusion of Ca2+ ions. As a result of electrical excitation, voltage-sensitive channels for Ca2+ are activated and permit Ca2+ to enter the cell more rapidly than at rest. It has been possible to determine both the amount of Ca2+ entering by this step, and what part this externally derived Ca2+ plays in the development of force as well as in the free Ca2+ change. The latter can be determined directly by Ca(2+)-sensitive indicators introduced into the cell sarcoplasm. A combination of techniques, allowing both the total and free Ca2+ changes to be assessed during electrical excitation, has provided valuable information as to how muscle cells buffer their Ca2+ in order to regulate the extent of the change in the free Ca2+ concentration. The data indicate that the entering Ca2+ can only make a small direct contribution to the force developed by the cell. The implication here is that the major source of Ca2+ for contraction must be derived from the internal Ca2+ storage sites within the SR system, a view reinforced by caged Ca2+ methods. The ability to measure the free Ca2+ concentration changes within a single cell during
CA-CA互操作研究%Research of CA-CA Interoperability
沈士根; 叶培松; 陈宝明
2005-01-01
文章介绍了国际上CA-CA之间实现互操作的信任模式,然后根据中国目前的PKI实际情况,提出了以桥CA为全局模式,局部可采用严格层次信任模式来实现各CA之间的互操作.
2010-07-01
... as specified in 40 CFR 1065.610. This is the maximum in-use engine speed used for calculating the NOX... procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and production specifications for the..., power density, and maximum in-use engine speed. 1042.140 Section 1042.140 Protection of...
Altered network timing in the CA3-CA1 circuit of hippocampal slices from aged mice.
Daniel J Kanak
Full Text Available Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3-CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3-CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3-CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope. However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3-CA1 circuit.
An inhibitory effect of extracellular Ca2+ on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis.
Wei Xiong
Full Text Available AIM: Neurotransmitter release is elicited by an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i. The action potential triggers Ca(2+ influx through Ca(2+ channels which causes local changes of [Ca(2+](i for vesicle release. However, any direct role of extracellular Ca(2+ (besides Ca(2+ influx on Ca(2+-dependent exocytosis remains elusive. Here we set out to investigate this possibility on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and chromaffin cells, widely used models for studying vesicle exocytosis. RESULTS: Using photolysis of caged Ca(2+ and caffeine-induced release of stored Ca(2+, we found that extracellular Ca(2+ inhibited exocytosis following moderate [Ca(2+](i rises (2-3 µM. The IC(50 for extracellular Ca(2+ inhibition of exocytosis (ECIE was 1.38 mM and a physiological reduction (∼30% of extracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](o significantly increased the evoked exocytosis. At the single vesicle level, quantal size and release frequency were also altered by physiological [Ca(2+](o. The calcimimetics Mg(2+, Cd(2+, G418, and neomycin all inhibited exocytosis. The extracellular Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR was not involved because specific drugs and knockdown of CaSR in DRG neurons did not affect ECIE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As an extension of the classic Ca(2+ hypothesis of synaptic release, physiological levels of extracellular Ca(2+ play dual roles in evoked exocytosis by providing a source of Ca(2+ influx, and by directly regulating quantal size and release probability in neuronal cells.
Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.
2008-01-01
Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize
Myronchuk, G.L.; Krymus, A.S.; Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Eastern European National University, Physics Department, Lutsk (Ukraine); Lakshminarayana, G. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Wireless and Photonic Networks Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Kityk, I.V. [Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa (Poland); Eastern European National University, Physics Department, Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Eastern European National University, Department of Chemistry, Lutsk (Ukraine); Rudysh, M.Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P.A. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Physics Department, Lviv (Ukraine)
2017-03-15
Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 x 10{sup -4} eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V (d{sub 11}), 31.5 pm/V (d{sub 22}) and 35.5 pm/V (d{sub 33}). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients. (orig.)
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Identification Parameters and Its Correction
无
2002-01-01
By taking the subsequence out of the input-output sequence of a system polluted by white noise, anindependent observation sequence and its probability density are obtained and then a maximum likelihood estimation of theidentification parameters is given. In order to decrease the asymptotic error, a corrector of maximum likelihood (CML)estimation with its recursive algorithm is given. It has been proved that the corrector has smaller asymptotic error thanthe least square methods. A simulation example shows that the corrector of maximum likelihood estimation is of higherapproximating precision to the true parameters than the least square methods.
Maximum frequency of the decametric radiation from Jupiter
Barrow, C. H.; Alexander, J. K.
1980-01-01
The upper frequency limits of Jupiter's decametric radio emission are found to be essentially the same when observed from the earth or, with considerably higher sensitivity, from the Voyager spacecraft close to Jupiter. This suggests that the maximum frequency is a real cut-off corresponding to a maximum gyrofrequency of about 38-40 MHz at Jupiter. It no longer appears to be necessary to specify different cut-off frequencies for the Io and non-Io emission as the maximum frequencies are roughly the same in each case.
46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from...
Morphological Properties of Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Observed by Sunrise II
Gafeira, R.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Jafarzadeh, S.; van Noort, M.; Barthol, P.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Knölker, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Schmidt, W.
2017-03-01
We use seeing-free high spatial resolution Ca ii H data obtained by the Sunrise observatory to determine properties of slender fibrils in the lower solar chromosphere. In this work we use intensity images taken with the SuFI instrument in the Ca ii H line during the second scientific flight of the Sunrise observatory to identify and track elongated bright structures. After identification, we analyze theses structures to extract their morphological properties. We identify 598 slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCFs) with an average width of around 180 km, length between 500 and 4000 km, average lifetime of ≈400 s, and average curvature of 0.002 arcsec‑1. The maximum lifetime of the SCFs within our time series of 57 minutes is ≈2000 s. We discuss similarities and differences of the SCFs with other small-scale, chromospheric structures such as spicules of type I and II, or Ca ii K fibrils.
Morphological properties of slender Ca II H fibrils observed by SUNRISE II
Gafeira, R; Solanki, Sami K; Jafarzadeh, Shahin; Van Noort, M; Barthol, P; Rodriguez, J Blanco; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Gandorfer, A; Gizon, L; Hirzberger, J; Knolker, M; Suarez, D Orozco; Riethmüller, T L; Schmidt, W
2016-01-01
We use seeing-free high spatial resolution Ca II H data obtained by the SUNRISE observatory to determine properties of slender fibrils in the lower solar chromosphere. In this work we use intensity images taken with the SUFI instrument in the Ca II H line during the second scientific flight of the SUNRISE observatory to identify and track elongated bright structures. After the identification, we analyze theses structures in order to extract their morphological properties. We identify 598 slender Ca II H fibrils (SCFs) with an average width of around 180 km, a length between 500 km and 4000 km, an average lifetime of ~400 s, and an average curvature of 0.002 arcsec^-1. The maximum lifetime of the SCFs within our time series of 57 minutes is ~2000 s. We discuss similarities and differences of the SCFs with other small-scale, chromospheric structures such as spicules of type I and II, or Ca II K fibrils.
Maximum work for Carnot-like heat engines with infinite heat source
Long, Rui
2014-01-01
An analysis of efficiency and its bounds at maximum work output for Carnot-like heat engines is conducted. The heat transfer processes are described by the linear law with time-dependent heat conductance. The upper bound of efficiency is found to be the CA efficiency,and is independent of the time duration completing each process and the time-dependent conductance. We prove that even the working medium exchanges heat sufficiently with the heat reservoirs, the work which could be extracted is finite and limited. The optimal temperature profiles in the heat exchanging processes are also analyzed. When the dimensionless contact times satisfy certain relations,the endoreversible model is recovered.
The Application of Maximum Principle in Supply Chain Cost Optimization
Zhou Ling; Wang Jun
2013-01-01
In this paper, using the maximum principle for analyzing dynamic cost, we propose a new two-stage supply chain model of the manufacturing-assembly mode for high-tech perishable products supply chain...
Maximum Principle for Nonlinear Cooperative Elliptic Systems on IR N
LEADI Liamidi; MARCOS Aboubacar
2011-01-01
We investigate in this work necessary and sufficient conditions for having a Maximum Principle for a cooperative elliptic system on the whole (IR)N.Moreover,we prove the existence of solutions by an approximation method for the considered system.
Maximum Likelihood Factor Structure of the Family Environment Scale.
Fowler, Patrick C.
1981-01-01
Presents the maximum likelihood factor structure of the Family Environment Scale. The first bipolar dimension, "cohesion v conflict," measures relationship-centered concerns, while the second unipolar dimension is an index of "organizational and control" activities. (Author)
Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D
Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids
Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
2001-01-01
We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D
Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.
Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M
2014-01-01
Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.
Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...
Combining Experiments and Simulations Using the Maximum Entropy Principle
Boomsma, Wouter; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2014-01-01
are not in quantitative agreement with experimental data. The principle of maximum entropy is a general procedure for constructing probability distributions in the light of new data, making it a natural tool in cases when an initial model provides results that are at odds with experiments. The number of maximum entropy...... in the context of a simple example, after which we proceed with a real-world application in the field of molecular simulations, where the maximum entropy procedure has recently provided new insight. Given the limited accuracy of force fields, macromolecular simulations sometimes produce results....... Three very recent papers have explored this problem using the maximum entropy approach, providing both new theoretical and practical insights to the problem. We highlight each of these contributions in turn and conclude with a discussion on remaining challenges....
On the sufficiency of the linear maximum principle
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1987-01-01
Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results...
Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint
Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.
2012-07-01
This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.
16 CFR 1505.8 - Maximum acceptable material temperatures.
2010-01-01
... Association, 155 East 44th Street, New York, NY 10017. Material Degrees C. Degrees F. Capacitors (1) (1) Class... capacitor has no marked temperature limit, the maximum acceptable temperature will be assumed to be 65...
Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...
PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY OF LOCAL GRANULAR ...
methods. A test on a soil of relatively high solid density revealed that the developed relation looses ... where, Pd max is the laboratory maximum dry ... Addis-Jinima Road Rehabilitation. ..... data sets that differ considerably in the magnitude.
Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...
Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker for Power Utilities
Sandeep Banik,
2014-01-01
Full Text Available ―Solar Panel Maximum Power Point Tracker For power utilities‖ As the name implied, it is a photovoltaic system that uses the photovoltaic array as a source of electrical power supply and since every photovoltaic (PV array has an optimum operating point, called the maximum power point, which varies depending on the insolation level and array voltage. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT is needed to operate the PV array at its maximum power point. The objective of this thesis project is to build a photovoltaic (PV array Of 121.6V DC Voltage(6 cell each 20V, 100watt And convert the DC voltage to Single phase 120v,50Hz AC voltage by switch mode power converter‘s and inverter‘s.
A Family of Maximum SNR Filters for Noise Reduction
Huang, Gongping; Benesty, Jacob; Long, Tao;
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study and analysis of the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) filters for noise reduction both in the time and short-time Fourier transform (STFT) domains with one single microphone and multiple microphones. In the time domain, we show that the maximum SNR filters can...... significantly increase the SNR but at the expense of tremendous speech distortion. As a consequence, the speech quality improvement, measured by the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) algorithm, is marginal if any, regardless of the number of microphones used. In the STFT domain, the maximum SNR....... This demonstrates that the maximum SNR filters, particularly the multichannel ones, in the STFT domain may be of great practical value....
Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data
Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir
2014-06-01
Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.
CHEN Tianran; YU Kefu; ZHAO Jianxin; YAN Hongqiang; SONG Yinxian; FENG Yuexing; CHEN Tegu
2015-01-01
Sea surface temperature (SST) proxies including B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca andδ18O were analyzed in the skeleton of aPorites coral collected from the Zhujiang River (Pearl River) Estuary (ZRE). These geochemical proxies are influenced by river runoff and this area of the northern South China Sea is strongly affected by seasonal freshwater floods. We assessed the robustness of each SST proxy through comparison with the local instrumental SST. Coral Sr/Ca shows the highest correlation with SST variations (r2=0.59), suggesting Sr/Ca is the most robust SST proxy. In contrast, coralδ18O (r2=0.46), B/Ca (r2=0.43) and U/Ca (r2=0.41) ratios were only moderately correlated with SST variations, suggesting that they are disturbed by some other factors in addition to SST. The poor correlation (r2=0.27) between SST and Mg/Ca indicates that Mg/Ca in coral skeletons is not a simple function of SST variations. This may ultimately limit the use of Mg/Ca as a coral paleothermometer.
On the maximum sufficient range of interstellar vessels
Cartin, Daniel
2011-01-01
This paper considers the likely maximum range of space vessels providing the basis of a mature interstellar transportation network. Using the principle of sufficiency, it is argued that this range will be less than three parsecs for the average interstellar vessel. This maximum range provides access from the Solar System to a large majority of nearby stellar systems, with total travel distances within the network not excessively greater than actual physical distance.
Efficiency at Maximum Power of Interacting Molecular Machines
Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto
2012-01-01
We investigate the efficiency of systems of molecular motors operating at maximum power. We consider two models of kinesin motors on a microtubule: for both the simplified and the detailed model, we find that the many-body exclusion effect enhances the efficiency at maximum power of the many- motor...... system, with respect to the single motor case. Remarkably, we find that this effect occurs in a limited region of the system parameters, compatible with the biologically relevant range....
Filtering Additive Measurement Noise with Maximum Entropy in the Mean
Gzyl, Henryk
2007-01-01
The purpose of this note is to show how the method of maximum entropy in the mean (MEM) may be used to improve parametric estimation when the measurements are corrupted by large level of noise. The method is developed in the context on a concrete example: that of estimation of the parameter in an exponential distribution. We compare the performance of our method with the bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches.
The maximum entropy production principle: two basic questions.
Martyushev, Leonid M
2010-05-12
The overwhelming majority of maximum entropy production applications to ecological and environmental systems are based on thermodynamics and statistical physics. Here, we discuss briefly maximum entropy production principle and raises two questions: (i) can this principle be used as the basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics and (ii) is it possible to 'prove' the principle? We adduce one more proof which is most concise today.
A tropospheric ozone maximum over the equatorial Southern Indian Ocean
L. Zhang
2012-05-01
Full Text Available We examine the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone (O_{3} from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. MLS and TES observations of tropospheric O_{3} during 2005 to 2009 reveal a distinct, persistent O_{3} maximum, both in mixing ratio and tropospheric column, in May over the Equatorial Southern Indian Ocean (ESIO. The maximum is most pronounced in 2006 and 2008 and less evident in the other three years. This feature is also consistent with the total column O_{3} observations from the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. Model results reproduce the observed May O_{3} maximum and the associated interannual variability. The origin of the maximum reflects a complex interplay of chemical and dynamic factors. The O_{3} maximum is dominated by the O_{3} production driven by lightning nitrogen oxides (NO_{x} emissions, which accounts for 62% of the tropospheric column O_{3} in May 2006. We find the contribution from biomass burning, soil, anthropogenic and biogenic sources to the O_{3} maximum are rather small. The O_{3} productions in the lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America both peak in May and are directly responsible for the O_{3} maximum over the western ESIO. The lightning outflow from Equatorial Asia dominates over the eastern ESIO. The interannual variability of the O_{3} maximum is driven largely by the anomalous anti-cyclones over the southern Indian Ocean in May 2006 and 2008. The lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America is effectively entrained by the anti-cyclones followed by northward transport to the ESIO.
On the sufficiency of the linear maximum principle
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
1987-01-01
Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results......Presents a family of linear maximum principles for the discrete-time optimal control problem, derived from the saddle-point theorem of mathematical programming. Some simple examples illustrate the applicability of the main theoretical results...
Semidefinite Programming for Approximate Maximum Likelihood Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation
2009-01-01
We study the convex optimization approach for parameter estimation of several sinusoidal models, namely, single complex/real tone, multiple complex sinusoids, and single two-dimensional complex tone, in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The major difficulty for optimally determining the parameters is that the corresponding maximum likelihood (ML) estimators involve finding the global minimum or maximum of multimodal cost functions because the frequencies are nonlinear in the observed s...
Hybrid TOA/AOA Approximate Maximum Likelihood Mobile Localization
Mohamed Zhaounia; Mohamed Adnan Landolsi; Ridha Bouallegue
2010-01-01
This letter deals with a hybrid time-of-arrival/angle-of-arrival (TOA/AOA) approximate maximum likelihood (AML) wireless location algorithm. Thanks to the use of both TOA/AOA measurements, the proposed technique can rely on two base stations (BS) only and achieves better performance compared to the original approximate maximum likelihood (AML) method. The use of two BSs is an important advantage in wireless cellular communication systems because it avoids hearability problems and reduces netw...
Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion
Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev;
2011-01-01
Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...... fusion at rest (clamping) and to promote fusion upon Ca(2+) activation. At least eight, often coexpressed, Ca(2+) sensors have been identified in mammals. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple Ca(2+) sensors interact, rather than work autonomously, to produce the complex secretory response...... observed in neurons and secretory cells. In this review, we present several working models to describe how different sensors might be arranged to mediate synchronous, asynchronous and spontaneous neurotransmitter release. We discuss the scenario that different Ca(2+) sensors typically act on one shared...
[Study on the maximum entropy principle and population genetic equilibrium].
Zhang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yan
2006-03-01
A general mathematic model of population genetic equilibrium about one locus was constructed based on the maximum entropy principle by WANG Xiao-Long et al. They proved that the maximum solve of the model was just the frequency distribution that a population reached Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium. It can suggest that a population reached Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium when the genotype entropy of the population reached the maximal possible value, and that the frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was equivalent to the distribution of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law about one locus. They further assumed that the frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was equivalent to all genetic equilibrium distributions. This is incorrect, however. The frequency distribution of the maximum entropy was only equivalent to the distribution of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to one locus or several limited loci. The case with regard to limited loci was proved in this paper. Finally we also discussed an example where the maximum entropy principle was not the equivalent of other genetic equilibria.
Morrison, Glenn; Shaughnessy, Richard; Shu, Shi
2011-02-01
A Monte Carlo analysis of indoor ozone levels in four cities was applied to provide guidance to regulatory agencies on setting maximum ozone emission rates from consumer appliances. Measured distributions of air exchange rates, ozone decay rates and outdoor ozone levels at monitoring stations were combined with a steady-state indoor air quality model resulting in emission rate distributions (mg h -1) as a function of % of building hours protected from exceeding a target maximum indoor concentration of 20 ppb. Whole-year, summer and winter results for Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, Windsor, ON, and Los Angeles, CA exhibited strong regional differences, primarily due to differences in air exchange rates. Infiltration of ambient ozone at higher average air exchange rates significantly reduces allowable emission rates, even though air exchange also dilutes emissions from appliances. For Houston, TX and Windsor, ON, which have lower average residential air exchange rates, emission rates ranged from -1.1 to 2.3 mg h -1 for scenarios that protect 80% or more of building hours from experiencing ozone concentrations greater than 20 ppb in summer. For Los Angeles, CA and Elizabeth, NJ, with higher air exchange rates, only negative emission rates were allowable to provide the same level of protection. For the 80th percentile residence, we estimate that an 8-h average limit concentration of 20 ppb would be exceeded, even in the absence of an indoor ozone source, 40 or more days per year in any of the cities analyzed. The negative emission rates emerging from the analysis suggest that only a zero-emission rate standard is prudent for Los Angeles, Elizabeth, NJ and other regions with higher summertime air exchange rates. For regions such as Houston with lower summertime air exchange rates, the higher emission rates would likely increase occupant exposure to the undesirable products of ozone reactions, thus reinforcing the need for zero-emission rate standard.
Preparation and characterization of Eu3+ activated CaSiO3, (CaA)SiO3 [A = Ba or Sr] phosphors
S J Dhoble; N S Dhoble; R B Pode
2003-06-01
Eu3+ activated CaSiO3, (Ca, Ba) SiO3 and (Ca, Sr) SiO3 have been prepared by sol–gel technique. Residual solvent and organic contents in the gel were removed by firing at 100°C for 3–4 h at 300 and 600°C for 2 h. Small exothermic shoulder around 850 to 875°C, as observed in DTA curve, corresponds to crystallization temperature of the doped calcium silicate. Influence of firing temperature on the luminescence of Eu3+ shows the maximum emission intensity in gel fired at 850°C. Photoluminescence emission peak is observed at 614 nm due to ${}^{5}D_{0} \\rightarrow {}^{7}F_{2}$ transition of Eu3+ ion in (Ca, Ba) SiO3 and (Ca, Sr) SiO3 phosphors, when excited by 254 nm. The (Ca, Ba) SiO3 material is proposed as an efficient red phosphor.
Chen, Qing-Yun; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jian-Shan; Wang, Yun-Hai
2017-04-01
A microbial photoelectrochemical cell (MPEC) was designed with a p-type CaFe2O4 semiconductor as the photoelectrode for simultaneous hydrogen and electricity production under light illumination. The CaFe2O4 photoelectrode was synthesized by the sol-gel method and well characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The linear sweep voltammogram of the CaFe2O4 photoelectrode presented the cathodic photocurrent output. For the MPEC, with an external resistance of 2000 Ω, the maximum power density of 143 mW was obtained. Furthermore, with an external resistance of 100 Ω, the maximum hydrogen production rate of 6.7 μL·cm-2 could be achieved. The MPEC with CaFe2O4 photocathode was compared to MPEC with other photocathodes as well as photocatalytic water splitting technology.
Autonomous CaMKII requires further stimulation by Ca2+/calmodulin for enhancing synaptic strength.
Barcomb, Kelsey; Buard, Isabelle; Coultrap, Steven J; Kulbe, Jacqueline R; O'Leary, Heather; Benke, Timothy A; Bayer, K Ulrich
2014-08-01
A hallmark feature of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is generation of autonomous (Ca(2+)-independent) activity by T286 autophosphorylation. Biochemical studies have shown that "autonomous" CaMKII is ∼5-fold further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM, but demonstration of a physiological function for such regulation within cells has remained elusive. In this study, CaMKII-induced enhancement of synaptic strength in rat hippocampal neurons required both autonomous activity and further stimulation. Synaptic strength was decreased by CaMKIIα knockdown and rescued by reexpression, but not by mutants impaired for autonomy (T286A) or binding to NMDA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B; formerly NR2B; I205K). Full rescue was seen with constitutively autonomous mutants (T286D), but only if they could be further stimulated (additional T305/306A mutation), and not with two other mutations that additionally impair Ca(2+)/CaM binding. Compared to rescue with wild-type CaMKII, the CaM-binding-impaired mutants even had reduced synaptic strength. One of these mutants (T305/306D) mimicked an inhibitory autophosphorylation of CaMKII, whereas the other one (Δstim) abolished CaM binding without introducing charged residues. Inhibitory T305/306 autophosphorylation also reduced GluN2B binding, but this effect was independent of reduced Ca(2+)/CaM binding and was not mimicked by T305/306D mutation. Thus, even autonomous CaMKII activity must be further stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM for enhancement of synaptic strength.
When is high-Ca+ microdomain required for mitochondrial Ca+ uptake?
Spät, A; Fülöp, L; Koncz, P; Szanda, G
2009-01-01
Ca(2+) release from IP(3)-sensitive stores in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced by Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists generates high-Ca(2+) microdomains between ER vesicles and neighbouring mitochondria. Here we present a model that describes when such microdomains are required and when submicromolar [Ca(2+)] is sufficient for mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake rate in angiotensin II-stimulated H295R adrenocortical cells correlates with the proximity between ER vesicles and the mitochondrion, reflecting the uptake promoting effect of high-Ca(2+) peri-mitochondrial microdomains. Silencing or inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or inhibition of the novel isoforms of protein kinase C enhances mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and abolishes the positive correlation between Ca(2+) uptake and ER-mitochondrion proximity. Inhibition of protein phosphatases attenuates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and also abolishes its positive correlation with ER-mitochondrion proximity. We postulate that during IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+) uptake is confined to ER-close mitochondria, because of the simultaneous activation of the protein kinases. Attenuation of Ca(2+) uptake prevents Ca(2+) overload of mitochondria and thus protects the cell against apoptosis. On the other hand, all the mitochondria accumulate Ca(2+) at a non-inhibited rate during physiological Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane. Membrane potential is higher in ER-distant mitochondria, providing a bigger driving force for Ca(2+) uptake. Our model explains why comparable mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals are formed in response to K(+) and angiotensin II (equipotent in respect to global cytosolic Ca(2+) signals), although only the latter generates high-Ca(2+) microdomains.
Stoll, Heather M.; Rosenthal, Yair; Falkowski, Paul
2002-03-01
Continuous culture of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi reveals that coccolith Sr/Ca ratios depend on temperature and growth rate. At a constant temperature of 18°C, coccolith Sr/Ca ratios increased nearly 15% as growth rate increased from 0.1 to 1.5 divisions per day and calcification rate increased from 1.5 to 50 pg calcite per cell per day. When temperature increased from 7 to 26°C, Sr/Ca ratios increased by more than 25% (i.e., 1%/1°C), although the range in growth and calcification rates was the same as for experiments at constant temperature. The temperature dependence of Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths is consistent with that observed in planktonic foraminifera and abiogenic calcites, suggesting that it is controlled by thermodynamic processes. However, the positive correlation of coccolith Sr/Ca with temperature contrasts with field studies in the equatorial Pacific, where Sr/Ca ratios are highest at the locus of maximum upwelling and productivity despite depressed temperatures. This paradox may reflect different calcification rate effects between E. huxleyi and the other species dominating assemblages in the equatorial Pacific sediments, which may be resolved by new techniques for separation of monospecific coccolith samples from sediments. Models of crystal growth indicate that kinetic effects on Sr partitioning in calcite due to surface enrichment could explain the Sr/Ca variations observed in constant temperature experiments but not the larger amplitude calcification rate effects observed in equatorial Pacific sediments. Despite the dual influence of temperature and growth rate on coccolith Sr/Ca, coccolith Sr/Ca correlates with "b," the slope of the dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in biomarkers (ɛ p) on CO 2(aq) at a range of growth rates and temperatures. Consequently, using coccolith Sr/Ca in combination with alkenone ɛ p may improve paleo-CO 2 determinations.
Increased precipitation and weathering across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in central China
Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Yang, Shiling; Zhang, Chunxia; Wang, Xu
2016-06-01
Global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ˜55.5 million years ago (Ma) was associated with a massive release of carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system, as evidenced by a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and widespread dissolution of marine carbonates. The paleohydrologic response to the PETM warming has been studied worldwide; however, relevant records of environmental perturbation in Asia are lacking so far. Here we extend the record of this event in central China, a subtropical paleosetting, through geochemical and mineralogical analyses of lacustrine sediments. Geochemical indicators of authigenic carbonates—including molar Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios—suggest an overall increased precipitation across the PETM, compatible with the disappearance of authigenic dolomite and the appearance of kaolinite in the strata. The relatively humid conditions persisted long after the carbon-cycle perturbation had stopped, implying that the transient hyper-greenhouse warming might have forced the regional climate system into a new climate state that was not easily reversed. Additionally, a gradual increase in chemical index of alteration (CIA) and the appearance of kaolinite are associated with the PETM, indicating an intensified silicate weathering and pedogenesis in the watershed in response to warmer and more humid climate. Our results corroborate the theory that an accelerated continental chemical weathering served as a negative feedback to sequester carbon and lower the atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels during the PETM.
Alcohol stimulates Na sup + /Ca sup 2+ exchange in brain mitochondria
Rottenberg, H.; Marbach, M. (Hahnemann Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))
1991-01-01
Ethanol, at low concentrations, specifically stimulates the Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux in brain mitochondria. In addition, at higher concentrations, ethanol inhibits the Na{sup +}-independent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux. The electrogenic Ca{sup 2+}-uptake system is not affected by ethanol. The specific stimulation of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange reaches a maximum of 60% stimulation, with half-maximal stimulation at 130 mM ethanol. The inhibition of the Na{sup +}-independent efflux is proportional to the ethanol concentration, becoming significant only above 200 mM, with 50% inhibition at 0.5 M. The inhibition of the Na{sup +}-independent efflux is, in large part, due to an inhibition of the activation of the Cyclosporin-sensitive pore. Long-term ethanol-feeding had no effect on the Ca{sup 2+} transport systems and their sensitivity to acute ethanol treatment. It is suggested that the stimulation of the Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+}-efflux, which is the dominant Ca{sup 2+} efflux pathway in brain mitochondria, contributes to the intoxicating effects of ethanol.
Binding of Ca2+ to Glutamic Acid-Rich Polypeptides from the Rod Outer Segment
Haber-Pohlmeier, S.; Abarca-Heidemann, K.; Körschen, H. G.; Dhiman, H. Kaur; Heberle, J.; Schwalbe, H.; Klein-Seetharaman, J.; Kaupp, U. B.; Pohlmeier, A.
2007-01-01
Rod photoreceptors contain three different glutamic acid-rich proteins (GARPs) that have been proposed to control the propagation of Ca2+ from the site of its entry at the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel to the cytosol of the outer segment. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the binding of Ca2+ to the following five constructs related to GARPs of rod photoreceptors: a 32-mer peptide containing 22 carboxylate groups, polyglutamic acid, a recombinant segment comprising 73 carboxylate groups (GLU), GARP1, and GARP2. Ca2+ binding was investigated by means of a Ca2+-sensitive electrode. In all cases, Ca2+ binds with low affinity; the half-maximum binding constant K1/2 ranges from 6 to 16 mM. The binding stoichiometry between Ca2+ ions and carboxylic groups is ∼1:1; an exception is GARP2, where a binding stoichiometry of ∼1:2 was found. Hydrodynamic radii of 1.6, 2.8, 3.3, 5.7, and 6.7 nm were determined by dynamic light scattering for the 32-mer, polyglutamic acid, GLU, GARP2, and GARP1 constructs, respectively. These results suggest that the peptides as well as GARP1 and GARP2 do not adopt compact globular structures. We conclude that the structures should be regarded as loose coils with low-affinity, high-capacity Ca2+ binding. PMID:17218469
In Situ Ca2+ Titration in the Fluorometric Study of Intracellular Ca2+ Binding
McMahon, Shane M.; Jackson, Meyer B.
2014-01-01
Imaging with Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye has provided a wealth of insight into the dynamics of cellular Ca2+ signaling. The spatiotemporal evolution of intracellular free Ca2+ observed in imaging experiments is shaped by binding and unbinding to cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers, as well as the fluorescent indicator used for imaging. These factors must be taken into account in the interpretation of Ca2+ imaging data, and can be exploited to investigate endogenous Ca2+ buffer properties. Here we extended the use of Ca2+ fluorometry in the characterization of Ca2+ binding molecules within cells, building on a method of titration of intracellular Ca2+ binding sites in situ with measured amounts of Ca2+ entering through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. We developed a systematic procedure for fitting fluorescence data acquired during a series of voltage steps to models with multiple Ca2+ binding sites. The method was tested on simulated data, and then applied to 2-photon fluorescence imaging data from rat posterior pituitary nerve terminals patch clamp-loaded with the Ca2+ indicator fluo-8. Focusing on data sets well described by a single endogenous Ca2+ buffer and dye, this method yielded estimates of the endogenous buffer concentration and Kd, the dye Kd, and the fraction of Ca2+ inaccessible cellular volume. The in situ Kd of fluo-8 thus obtained was indistinguishable from that measured in vitro. This method of calibrating Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes in situ has significant advantages over previous methods. Our analysis of Ca2+ titration fluorometric data makes more effective use of the experimental data, and provides a rigorous treatment of multivariate errors and multiple Ca2+ binding species. This method offers a versatile approach to the study of endogenous Ca2+ binding molecules in their physiological milieu. PMID:25465896
Kuracina Richard
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the measurement of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of exposure pressure rise of wood dust cloud. The measurements were carried out according to STN EN 14034-1+A1:2011 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds. Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds and the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise according to STN EN 14034-2+A1:2012 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds - Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dtmax of dust clouds. The wood dust cloud in the chamber is achieved mechanically. The testing of explosions of wood dust clouds showed that the maximum value of the pressure was reached at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value is 7.95 bar. The fastest increase of pressure was observed at the concentrations of 450 g / m3 and its value was 68 bar / s.
Bento, I.; Matias, P.M.; Baptista, A.M.; Costa, da P.N.; Dongen, van W.M.A.M.; Saraiva, L.M.; Schneider, T.R.; Soares, C.M.; Carrondo, M.A.
2004-01-01
The tetraheme cytochrome c, is a small metalloprotein with ca. 13,000 Da found in sulfate-reducing bacteria, which is believed to act as a partner of hydrogenase. The three-dimensional structure of the oxidized and reduced forms of cytochrome c(3) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 at pH 7.
Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems
Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min
2013-07-01
In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.
Size dependence of efficiency at maximum power of heat engine
Izumida, Y.
2013-10-01
We perform a molecular dynamics computer simulation of a heat engine model to study how the engine size difference affects its performance. Upon tactically increasing the size of the model anisotropically, we determine that there exists an optimum size at which the model attains the maximum power for the shortest working period. This optimum size locates between the ballistic heat transport region and the diffusive heat transport one. We also study the size dependence of the efficiency at the maximum power. Interestingly, we find that the efficiency at the maximum power around the optimum size attains a value that has been proposed as a universal upper bound, and it even begins to exceed the bound as the size further increases. We explain this behavior of the efficiency at maximum power by using a linear response theory for the heat engine operating under a finite working period, which naturally extends the low-dissipation Carnot cycle model [M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg, C. Van den Broeck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)]. The theory also shows that the efficiency at the maximum power under an extreme condition may reach the Carnot efficiency in principle.© EDP Sciences Società Italiana di Fisica Springer-Verlag 2013.
How long do centenarians survive? Life expectancy and maximum lifespan.
Modig, K; Andersson, T; Vaupel, J; Rau, R; Ahlbom, A
2017-08-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included. Birth cohort-specific probabilities of dying were calculated. Exact ages were used for calculations of maximum length of life. Whether maximum age changed over time was analysed taking into account increases in cohort size. The results confirm that there has not been any improvement in mortality amongst centenarians in the past 30 years and that the current rise in life expectancy is driven by reductions in mortality below the age of 100 years. The death risks seem to reach a plateau of around 50% at the age 103 years for men and 107 years for women. Despite the rising life expectancy, the maximum age does not appear to increase, in particular after accounting for the increasing number of individuals of advanced age. Mortality amongst centenarians is not changing despite improvements at younger ages. An extension of the maximum lifespan and a sizeable extension of life expectancy both require reductions in mortality above the age of 100 years. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.
Prediction of three dimensional maximum isometric neck strength.
Fice, Jason B; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien
2014-09-01
We measured maximum isometric neck strength under combinations of flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to determine whether neck strength in three dimensions (3D) can be predicted from principal axes strength. This would allow biomechanical modelers to validate their neck models across many directions using only principal axis strength data. Maximum isometric neck moments were measured in 9 male volunteers (29±9 years) for 17 directions. The 3D moments were normalized by the principal axis moments, and compared to unity for all directions tested. Finally, each subject's maximum principal axis moments were used to predict their resultant moment in the off-axis directions. Maximum moments were 30±6 N m in flexion, 32±9 N m in lateral bending, 51±11 N m in extension, and 13±5 N m in axial rotation. The normalized 3D moments were not significantly different from unity (95% confidence interval contained one), except for three directions that combined ipsilateral axial rotation and lateral bending; in these directions the normalized moments exceeded one. Predicted resultant moments compared well to the actual measured values (r2=0.88). Despite exceeding unity, the normalized moments were consistent across subjects to allow prediction of maximum 3D neck strength using principal axes neck strength.
Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V; Linsley, Braddock K; Tudhope, Alexander W; Gagan, Michael K; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L; Esat, Tezer M; Thompson, William G; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M
2014-06-17
Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ(18)O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 °C larger temperature decrease between 17° and 20°S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial meridional temperature change during the last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous deglacial drying of northeastern Australia. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and may be more resilient than previously thought.
Involvement of Ca2+/CaM in the signal transduction of acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement
无
2003-01-01
It has been known that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exists in plants and is able to regulate the movement of stomata. In another aspect, Ca2+/CaM as the second messengers have a critical role of signal transduction in stomatal guard-cell. Here we showed that Ca2+/CaM were also involved in theACh regulated stomatal movement. In the medium containing Ca2+, the Ca2+ channel blockers (NIF and Ver) and CaM inhibitors (TFP and W7) could neutralize the ACh induced stomatal opening, however, they are ineffective in the medium containing K+. Those results indicated that Ca2+/CaM were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ACh regulating stomatal movement.
Influence of NaCl-CaCl2 on Decomposing REPO4 with CaO
无
2007-01-01
The influence of NaCl-CaCl2 on thermal decomposition of REPO4 (RE: Ce, La, Nd, Th) with CaO was studied.The heat decomposing process of REPO4 was tested with TG-DTA experiments.The results showed that the decomposition temperature of REPO4 with CaO was reduced because of adding NaCl-CaCl2 mixture (NaCl:CaCl2=1:1).The influence of the addition of NaCl-CaCl2, roasting temperature and roasting time on decomposition ratio of REPO4 with CaO was studied.The results showed that the decomposition ratio of REPO4with CaO was 79% when the addition percentage of NaCl-CaCl2 was 10%, the roasting temperature was 750℃, and the roasting time was 1 h.
Xiao-Chen Li
Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.
On the thermodynamic efficiency of Ca²⁺-ATPase molecular machines.
Lervik, Anders; Bresme, Fernando; Kjelstrup, Signe; Rubí, J Miguel
2012-09-19
Experimental studies have shown that the activity of the reconstituted molecular pump Ca(2+)-ATPase strongly depends on the thickness of the supporting bilayer. It is thus expected that the bilayer structure will have an impact on the thermodynamic efficiency of this nanomachine. Here, we introduce a nonequilibrium-thermodynamics theoretical approach to estimate the thermodynamic efficiency of the Ca(2+)-ATPase from analysis of available experimental data about ATP hydrolysis and Ca(2+) transport. We find that the entropy production, i.e., the heat released to the surroundings under working conditions, is approximately constant for bilayers containing phospholipids with hydrocarbon chains of 18-22 carbon atoms. Our estimates for the heat released during the pump operation agree with results obtained from separate calorimetric experiments on the Ca(2+)-ATPase derived from sarcoplasmic reticulum. We show that the thermodynamic efficiency of the reconstituted Ca(2+)-ATPase reaches a maximum for bilayer thicknesses corresponding to maximum activity. Surprisingly, the estimated thermodynamic efficiency is very low, ∼12%. We discuss the significance of this result as representative of the efficiency of other nanomachines, and we address the influence of the experimental set-up on such a low efficiency. Overall, our approach provides a general route to estimate thermodynamic efficiencies and heat dissipation in experimental studies of nanomachines.
Wetzker, R; Klinger, R; Haase, H; Vetter, R; Böhmer, F D
1987-01-01
Content of endogenous calmodulin, binding of calmodulin to, and Ca2+-ATPase activity in plasma membranes of cardiac muscle. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and erythrocytes were examined. The content of endogenous calmodulin in cardiac and EAC cells was shown to be considerably higher than in erythrocyte membranes. Ca2+-independent binding of calmodulin to cardiac and EAC cell membranes was found to be realized by some low molecular weight proteins. Ca2+-ATPases in cardiac and EAC cell membranes differ from those in erythrocytes with respect to their activation by Ca2+ and calmodulin. The erythrocyte enzyme is strongly stimulated by exogenous calmodulin and reaches its maximum activity about 2 min after Ca2+-addition. In contrast, the Ca2+-ATPases in cardiac and EAC cell plasma membranes cannot be considerably stimulated by exogenous calmodulin and are instantaneously activated by Ca2+.
γCaMKII shuttles Ca²⁺/CaM to the nucleus to trigger CREB phosphorylation and gene expression.
Ma, Huan; Groth, Rachel D; Cohen, Samuel M; Emery, John F; Li, Boxing; Hoedt, Esthelle; Zhang, Guoan; Neubert, Thomas A; Tsien, Richard W
2014-10-09
Activity-dependent CREB phosphorylation and gene expression are critical for long-term neuronal plasticity. Local signaling at CaV1 channels triggers these events, but how information is relayed onward to the nucleus remains unclear. Here, we report a mechanism that mediates long-distance communication within cells: a shuttle that transports Ca(2+)/calmodulin from the surface membrane to the nucleus. We show that the shuttle protein is γCaMKII, its phosphorylation at Thr287 by βCaMKII protects the Ca(2+)/CaM signal, and CaN triggers its nuclear translocation. Both βCaMKII and CaN act in close proximity to CaV1 channels, supporting their dominance, whereas γCaMKII operates as a carrier, not as a kinase. Upon arrival within the nucleus, Ca(2+)/CaM activates CaMKK and its substrate CaMKIV, the CREB kinase. This mechanism resolves long-standing puzzles about CaM/CaMK-dependent signaling to the nucleus. The significance of the mechanism is emphasized by dysregulation of CaV1, γCaMKII, βCaMKII, and CaN in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders.
Adsorption of Ba{sup 2+} by Ca-exchange clinoptilolite tuff and montmorillonite clay
Chavez, M.L., E-mail: marilu@servidor.unam.mx [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Pablo, L. de, E-mail: liberto@servidor.unam.mx [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Garcia, T.A., E-mail: nenaquim@hotmail.com [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
2010-03-15
The adsorption of barium by Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite and montmorillonite is presented. The kinetics of adsorption of Ba{sup 2+} were evaluated contacting 1 g portion of each adsorber with 100 mL 0.1N BaCl{sub 2} for 200 h. Adsorption by Ca-clinoptilolite is defined by second-order kinetics of rate constant K{sub v} 8.232 x 10{sup -2} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} and maximum removal of 71.885 mg g{sup -1}. It is a two-stage process initiated by a rapid uptake of Ba{sup 2+} followed by more moderate kinetics. The adsorption isotherms were determined contacting 0.2 g of each adsorber with 10 mL 0.1-0.005N BaCl{sub 2} + CaCl{sub 2} solution, Ba{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratio 1, for periods of 7 days for the tuff and 2 days for the clay. The equilibrium adsorption is described by the Langmuir model, of equilibrium constant K 0.0151 L mg{sup -1} and maximum adsorption of 15.29 mg g{sup -1}. The adsorption of Ba{sup 2+} by Ca-exchanged montmorillonite also follows a second-order reaction of rate constant K{sub v} 3.179 x 10{sup -2} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and calculated separation of 36.74 mg g{sup -1}; the Langmuir isotherm is defined by the constant K 0.034 L mg{sup -1} and maximum adsorption of 15.29 mg g{sup -1}. X-ray diffraction shows that the exchange of Ba{sup 2+} modifies the d{sub 001} of Ca-montmorillonite from 15.4 to 12.4 A.
Dissection of local Ca(2+) signals inside cytosol by ER-targeted Ca(2+) indicator.
Niwa, Fumihiro; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Ayana; Takagi, Shin; Oda, Yoichi; Bannai, Hiroko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko
2016-10-07
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a versatile intracellular second messenger that operates in various signaling pathways leading to multiple biological outputs. The diversity of spatiotemporal patterns of Ca(2+) signals, generated by the coordination of Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space and Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) store the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is considered to underlie the diversity of biological outputs caused by a single signaling molecule. However, such Ca(2+) signaling diversity has not been well described because of technical limitations. Here, we describe a new method to report Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution. We report that OER-GCaMP6f, a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator (GECI) targeted to the outer ER membrane, can monitor Ca(2+) release from the ER at higher spatiotemporal resolution than conventional GCaMP6f. OER-GCaMP6f was used for in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of C. elegans. We also found that the spontaneous Ca(2+) elevation in cultured astrocytes reported by OER-GCaMP6f showed a distinct spatiotemporal pattern from that monitored by plasma membrane-targeted GCaMP6f (Lck-GCaMP6f); less frequent Ca(2+) signal was detected by OER-GCaMP6f, in spite of the fact that Ca(2+) release from the ER plays important roles in astrocytes. These findings suggest that targeting of GECIs to the ER outer membrane enables sensitive detection of Ca(2+) release from the ER at subcellular resolution, avoiding the diffusion of GECI and Ca(2+). Our results indicate that Ca(2+) imaging with OER-GCaMP6f in combination with Lck-GCaMP6f can contribute to describing the diversity of Ca(2+) signals, by enabling dissection of Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution.
Predicting Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle 24
Nipa J Bhatt; Rajmal Jain; Malini Aggarwal
2009-03-01
A few prediction methods have been developed based on the precursor technique which is found to be successful for forecasting the solar activity. Considering the geomagnetic activity aa indices during the descending phase of the preceding solar cycle as the precursor, we predict the maximum amplitude of annual mean sunspot number in cycle 24 to be 111 ± 21. This suggests that the maximum amplitude of the upcoming cycle 24 will be less than cycles 21–22. Further, we have estimated the annual mean geomagnetic activity aa index for the solar maximum year in cycle 24 to be 20.6 ± 4.7 and the average of the annual mean sunspot number during the descending phase of cycle 24 is estimated to be 48 ± 16.8.
Construction and enumeration of Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity
ZHANG WenYing; WU ChuanKun; LIU XiangZhong
2009-01-01
Algebraic immunity is a new cryptographic criterion proposed against algebraic attacks. In order to resist algebraic attacks, Boolean functions used in many stream ciphers should possess high algebraic immunity. This paper presents two main results to find balanced Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity. Through swapping the values of two bits, and then generalizing the result to swap some pairs of bits of the symmetric Boolean function constructed by Dalai, a new class of Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity are constructed. Enumeration of such functions is also given. For a given function p(x) with deg(p(x)) < [n/2], we give a method to construct functions in the form p(x)+q(x) which achieve the maximum algebraic immunity, where every term with nonzero coefficient in the ANF of q(x) has degree no less than [n/2].
Propane spectral resolution enhancement by the maximum entropy method
Bonavito, N. L.; Stewart, K. P.; Hurley, E. J.; Yeh, K. C.; Inguva, R.
1990-01-01
The Burg algorithm for maximum entropy power spectral density estimation is applied to a time series of data obtained from a Michelson interferometer and compared with a standard FFT estimate for resolution capability. The propane transmittance spectrum was estimated by use of the FFT with a 2 to the 18th data sample interferogram, giving a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.06/cm. This estimate was then interpolated by zero filling an additional 2 to the 18th points, and the final resolution was taken to be 0.06/cm. Comparison of the maximum entropy method (MEM) estimate with the FFT was made over a 45/cm region of the spectrum for several increasing record lengths of interferogram data beginning at 2 to the 10th. It is found that over this region the MEM estimate with 2 to the 16th data samples is in close agreement with the FFT estimate using 2 to the 18th samples.
Mass mortality of the vermetid gastropod Ceraesignum maximum
Brown, A. L.; Frazer, T. K.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.
2016-09-01
Ceraesignum maximum (G.B. Sowerby I, 1825), formerly Dendropoma maximum, was subject to a sudden, massive die-off in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in 2015. On Mo'orea, where we have detailed documentation of the die-off, these gastropods were previously found in densities up to 165 m-2. In July 2015, we surveyed shallow back reefs of Mo'orea before, during and after the die-off, documenting their swift decline. All censused populations incurred 100% mortality. Additional surveys and observations from Mo'orea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Huahine (but not Taha'a) suggested a similar, and approximately simultaneous, die-off. The cause(s) of this cataclysmic mass mortality are currently unknown. Given the previously documented negative effects of C. maximum on corals, we expect the die-off will have cascading effects on the reef community.
The optimal polarizations for achieving maximum contrast in radar images
Swartz, A. A.; Yueh, H. A.; Kong, J. A.; Novak, L. M.; Shin, R. T.
1988-01-01
There is considerable interest in determining the optimal polarizations that maximize contrast between two scattering classes in polarimetric radar images. A systematic approach is presented for obtaining the optimal polarimetric matched filter, i.e., that filter which produces maximum contrast between two scattering classes. The maximization procedure involves solving an eigenvalue problem where the eigenvector corresponding to the maximum contrast ratio is an optimal polarimetric matched filter. To exhibit the physical significance of this filter, it is transformed into its associated transmitting and receiving polarization states, written in terms of horizontal and vertical vector components. For the special case where the transmitting polarization is fixed, the receiving polarization which maximizes the contrast ratio is also obtained. Polarimetric filtering is then applies to synthetic aperture radar images obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is shown, both numerically and through the use of radar imagery, that maximum image contrast can be realized when data is processed with the optimal polarimeter matched filter.
Penalized maximum likelihood estimation and variable selection in geostatistics
Chu, Tingjin; Wang, Haonan; 10.1214/11-AOS919
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of selecting covariates in spatial linear models with Gaussian process errors. Penalized maximum likelihood estimation (PMLE) that enables simultaneous variable selection and parameter estimation is developed and, for ease of computation, PMLE is approximated by one-step sparse estimation (OSE). To further improve computational efficiency, particularly with large sample sizes, we propose penalized maximum covariance-tapered likelihood estimation (PMLE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$) and its one-step sparse estimation (OSE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$). General forms of penalty functions with an emphasis on smoothly clipped absolute deviation are used for penalized maximum likelihood. Theoretical properties of PMLE and OSE, as well as their approximations PMLE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$ and OSE$_{\\mathrm{T}}$ using covariance tapering, are derived, including consistency, sparsity, asymptotic normality and the oracle properties. For covariance tapering, a by-product of our theoretical results is consistency and asymptotic normal...
Influence of maximum decking charge on intensity of blasting vibration
无
2006-01-01
Based on the character of short-time non-stationary random signal, the relationship between the maximum decking charge and energy distribution of blasting vibration signals was investigated by means of the wavelet packet method. Firstly, the characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis were described. Secondly, the blasting vibration signals were analyzed by wavelet packet based on software MATLAB, and the change of energy distribution curve at different frequency bands were obtained. Finally, the law of energy distribution of blasting vibration signals changing with the maximum decking charge was analyzed. The results show that with the increase of decking charge, the ratio of the energy of high frequency to total energy decreases, the dominant frequency bands of blasting vibration signals tend towards low frequency and blasting vibration does not depend on the maximum decking charge.
The subsequence weight distribution of summed maximum length digital sequences
Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.; Wallace, G. R.
1974-01-01
An attempt is made to develop mathematical formulas to provide the basis for the design of pseudorandom signals intended for applications requiring accurate knowledge of the statistics of the signals. The analysis approach involves calculating the first five central moments of the weight distribution of subsequences of hybrid-sum sequences. The hybrid-sum sequence is formed from the modulo-two sum of k maximum length sequences and is an extension of the sum sequences formed from two maximum length sequences that Gilson (1966) evaluated. The weight distribution of the subsequences serves as an approximation to the filtering process. The basic reason for the analysis of hybrid-sum sequences is to establish a large group of sequences with good statistical properties. It is shown that this can be accomplished much more efficiently using the hybrid-sum approach rather than forming the group strictly from maximum length sequences.
Maximum power point tracking for optimizing energy harvesting process
Akbari, S.; Thang, P. C.; Veselov, D. S.
2016-10-01
There has been a growing interest in using energy harvesting techniques for powering wireless sensor networks. The reason for utilizing this technology can be explained by the sensors limited amount of operation time which results from the finite capacity of batteries and the need for having a stable power supply in some applications. Energy can be harvested from the sun, wind, vibration, heat, etc. It is reasonable to develop multisource energy harvesting platforms for increasing the amount of harvesting energy and to mitigate the issue concerning the intermittent nature of ambient sources. In the context of solar energy harvesting, it is possible to develop algorithms for finding the optimal operation point of solar panels at which maximum power is generated. These algorithms are known as maximum power point tracking techniques. In this article, we review the concept of maximum power point tracking and provide an overview of the research conducted in this area for wireless sensor networks applications.
Proscriptive Bayesian Programming and Maximum Entropy: a Preliminary Study
Koike, Carla Cavalcante
2008-11-01
Some problems found in robotics systems, as avoiding obstacles, can be better described using proscriptive commands, where only prohibited actions are indicated in contrast to prescriptive situations, which demands that a specific command be specified. An interesting question arises regarding the possibility to learn automatically if proscriptive commands are suitable and which parametric function could be better applied. Lately, a great variety of problems in robotics domain are object of researches using probabilistic methods, including the use of Maximum Entropy in automatic learning for robot control systems. This works presents a preliminary study on automatic learning of proscriptive robot control using maximum entropy and using Bayesian Programming. It is verified whether Maximum entropy and related methods can favour proscriptive commands in an obstacle avoidance task executed by a mobile robot.
Multitime maximum principle approach of minimal submanifolds and harmonic maps
Udriste, Constantin
2011-01-01
Some optimization problems coming from the Differential Geometry, as for example, the minimal submanifolds problem and the harmonic maps problem are solved here via interior solutions of appropriate multitime optimal control problems. Section 1 underlines some science domains where appear multitime optimal control problems. Section 2 (Section 3) recalls the multitime maximum principle for optimal control problems with multiple (curvilinear) integral cost functionals and $m$-flow type constraint evolution. Section 4 shows that there exists a multitime maximum principle approach of multitime variational calculus. Section 5 (Section 6) proves that the minimal submanifolds (harmonic maps) are optimal solutions of multitime evolution PDEs in an appropriate multitime optimal control problem. Section 7 uses the multitime maximum principle to show that of all solids having a given surface area, the sphere is the one having the greatest volume. Section 8 studies the minimal area of a multitime linear flow as optimal c...
A Maximum Entropy Estimator for the Aggregate Hierarchical Logit Model
Pedro Donoso
2011-08-01
Full Text Available A new approach for estimating the aggregate hierarchical logit model is presented. Though usually derived from random utility theory assuming correlated stochastic errors, the model can also be derived as a solution to a maximum entropy problem. Under the latter approach, the Lagrange multipliers of the optimization problem can be understood as parameter estimators of the model. Based on theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations of a transportation demand model, it is demonstrated that the maximum entropy estimators have statistical properties that are superior to classical maximum likelihood estimators, particularly for small or medium-size samples. The simulations also generated reduced bias in the estimates of the subjective value of time and consumer surplus.
Approximate maximum-entropy moment closures for gas dynamics
McDonald, James G.
2016-11-01
Accurate prediction of flows that exist between the traditional continuum regime and the free-molecular regime have proven difficult to obtain. Current methods are either inaccurate in this regime or prohibitively expensive for practical problems. Moment closures have long held the promise of providing new, affordable, accurate methods in this regime. The maximum-entropy hierarchy of closures seems to offer particularly attractive physical and mathematical properties. Unfortunately, several difficulties render the practical implementation of maximum-entropy closures very difficult. This work examines the use of simple approximations to these maximum-entropy closures and shows that physical accuracy that is vastly improved over continuum methods can be obtained without a significant increase in computational cost. Initially the technique is demonstrated for a simple one-dimensional gas. It is then extended to the full three-dimensional setting. The resulting moment equations are used for the numerical solution of shock-wave profiles with promising results.
Semidefinite Programming for Approximate Maximum Likelihood Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation
Kenneth W. K. Lui
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the convex optimization approach for parameter estimation of several sinusoidal models, namely, single complex/real tone, multiple complex sinusoids, and single two-dimensional complex tone, in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The major difficulty for optimally determining the parameters is that the corresponding maximum likelihood (ML estimators involve finding the global minimum or maximum of multimodal cost functions because the frequencies are nonlinear in the observed signals. By relaxing the nonconvex ML formulations using semidefinite programs, high-fidelity approximate solutions are obtained in a globally optimum fashion. Computer simulations are included to contrast the estimation performance of the proposed semi-definite relaxation methods with the iterative quadratic maximum likelihood technique as well as Cramér-Rao lower bound.
Remarks on the strong maximum principle for nonlocal operators
Jerome Coville
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In this note, we study the existence of a strong maximum principle for the nonlocal operator $$ mathcal{M}[u](x :=int_{G}J(gu(x*g^{-1}dmu(g - u(x, $$ where $G$ is a topological group acting continuously on a Hausdorff space $X$ and $u in C(X$. First we investigate the general situation and derive a pre-maximum principle. Then we restrict our analysis to the case of homogeneous spaces (i.e., $ X=G /H$. For such Hausdorff spaces, depending on the topology, we give a condition on $J$ such that a strong maximum principle holds for $mathcal{M}$. We also revisit the classical case of the convolution operator (i.e. $G=(mathbb{R}^n,+, X=mathbb{R}^n, dmu =dy$.
Resource-constrained maximum network throughput on space networks
Yanling Xing; Ning Ge; Youzheng Wang
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the maximum network through-put for resource-constrained space networks based on the delay and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) architecture. Specifical y, this paper proposes a methodology for calculating the maximum network throughput of multiple transmission tasks under storage and delay constraints over a space network. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is formulated to solve this problem. Simula-tions results show that the proposed methodology can successful y calculate the optimal throughput of a space network under storage and delay constraints, as wel as a clear, monotonic relationship between end-to-end delay and the maximum network throughput under storage constraints. At the same time, the optimization re-sults shine light on the routing and transport protocol design in space communication, which can be used to obtain the optimal network throughput.
Semidefinite Programming for Approximate Maximum Likelihood Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation
Lui, Kenneth W. K.; So, H. C.
2009-12-01
We study the convex optimization approach for parameter estimation of several sinusoidal models, namely, single complex/real tone, multiple complex sinusoids, and single two-dimensional complex tone, in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The major difficulty for optimally determining the parameters is that the corresponding maximum likelihood (ML) estimators involve finding the global minimum or maximum of multimodal cost functions because the frequencies are nonlinear in the observed signals. By relaxing the nonconvex ML formulations using semidefinite programs, high-fidelity approximate solutions are obtained in a globally optimum fashion. Computer simulations are included to contrast the estimation performance of the proposed semi-definite relaxation methods with the iterative quadratic maximum likelihood technique as well as Cramér-Rao lower bound.
The evolution of maximum body size of terrestrial mammals.
Smith, Felisa A; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Dayan, Tamar; Ernest, S K Morgan; Evans, Alistair R; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; McCain, Christy; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica; Uhen, Mark D
2010-11-26
The extinction of dinosaurs at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary was the seminal event that opened the door for the subsequent diversification of terrestrial mammals. Our compilation of maximum body size at the ordinal level by sub-epoch shows a near-exponential increase after the K/Pg. On each continent, the maximum size of mammals leveled off after 40 million years ago and thereafter remained approximately constant. There was remarkable congruence in the rate, trajectory, and upper limit across continents, orders, and trophic guilds, despite differences in geological and climatic history, turnover of lineages, and ecological variation. Our analysis suggests that although the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches, environmental temperature and land area may have ultimately constrained the maximum size achieved.
The maximum force in a column under constant speed compression
Kuzkin, Vitaly A
2015-01-01
Dynamic buckling of an elastic column under compression at constant speed is investigated assuming the first-mode buckling. Two cases are considered: (i) an imperfect column (Hoff's statement), and (ii) a perfect column having an initial lateral deflection. The range of parameters, where the maximum load supported by a column exceeds Euler static force is determined. In this range, the maximum load is represented as a function of the compression rate, slenderness ratio, and imperfection/initial deflection. Considering the results we answer the following question: "How slowly the column should be compressed in order to measure static load-bearing capacity?" This question is important for the proper setup of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of buckling. Additionally, it is shown that the behavior of a perfect column having an initial deflection differ significantlys form the behavior of an imperfect column. In particular, the dependence of the maximum force on the compression rate is non-monotoni...
Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer
Chancellor, Nicholas; Vinci, Walter; Aeppli, Gabriel; Warburton, Paul A
2015-01-01
Optimisation problems in science and engineering typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this approach maximises the likelihood that the solution found is correct. An alternative approach is to make use of prior statistical information about the noise in conjunction with Bayes's theorem. The maximum entropy solution to the problem then takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function. Here we use a programmable Josephson junction array for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that maximum entropy decoding at finite temperature can in certain cases give competitive and even slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach at zero temperature, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealing...
Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :
Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.
2012-12-01
The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the
Spatio-temporal observations of tertiary ozone maximum
V. F. Sofieva
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We present spatio-temporal distributions of tertiary ozone maximum (TOM, based on GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars ozone measurements in 2002–2006. The tertiary ozone maximum is typically observed in the high-latitude winter mesosphere at altitude ~72 km. Although the explanation for this phenomenon has been found recently – low concentrations of odd-hydrogen cause the subsequent decrease in odd-oxygen losses – models have had significant deviations from existing observations until recently. Good coverage of polar night regions by GOMOS data has allowed for the first time obtaining spatial and temporal observational distributions of night-time ozone mixing ratio in the mesosphere.
The distributions obtained from GOMOS data have specific features, which are variable from year to year. In particular, due to a long lifetime of ozone in polar night conditions, the downward transport of polar air by the meridional circulation is clearly observed in the tertiary ozone maximum time series. Although the maximum tertiary ozone mixing ratio is achieved close to the polar night terminator (as predicted by the theory, TOM can be observed also at very high latitudes, not only in the beginning and at the end, but also in the middle of winter. We have compared the observational spatio-temporal distributions of tertiary ozone maximum with that obtained using WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model and found that the specific features are reproduced satisfactorily by the model.
Since ozone in the mesosphere is very sensitive to HO_{x} concentrations, energetic particle precipitation can significantly modify the shape of the ozone profiles. In particular, GOMOS observations have shown that the tertiary ozone maximum was temporarily destroyed during the January 2005 and December 2006 solar proton events as a result of the HO_{x} enhancement from the increased ionization.
Ca2+ uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in rat microvascular endothelial cells.
Moccia, Francesco; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Baruffi, Silvana; Spaggiari, Santina; Signorelli, Silvia; Castelli, Loretta; Magistretti, Jacopo; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco
2002-01-01
In non-excitable cells, many agonists increase the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by inducing an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-mediated Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores. Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular medium may then sustain the Ca(2+) signal. [Ca(2+)](i) recovers its resting level as a consequence of Ca(2+)-removing mechanisms, i.e. plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) pump, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) and sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump. In a study performed in pancreatic acinar cells, evidence has been provided suggesting that, during the decay phase of the agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients, the Ca(2+) concentration within the intracellular stores remains essentially constant [Mogami, Tepikin and Petersen (1998) EMBO J. 17, 435-442]. It was therefore hypothesized that, in such a situation, intracellular Ca(2+) is not only picked up by the SERCA pump, but is also newly released through IP(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, with the balance between these two processes being approximately null. The main aim of the present work was to test this hypothesis by a different experimental approach. Using cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, we found that inhibition of the SERCA pump has no effect on the time course of agonist-evoked Ca(2+) transients. This result was not due to a low capacity of the SERCA pump since, after agonist removal, this pump proved to be very powerful in clearing the excess of intracellular Ca(2+). We showed further that: (i) in order to avoid a rapid removal of Ca(2+) by the SERCA pump, continuous IP(3) production appears to be required throughout all of the decay phase of the Ca(2+) transient; and (ii) Ca(2+) picked up by the SERCA pump can be fully and immediately released by agonist application. All these results support the model of Mogami, Tepikin and Petersen [(1998) EMBO J. 17, 435-442]. Since the SERCA pump did not appear to be involved in shaping the decay phase of the
Localized Calcineurin Confers Ca2+-Dependent Inactivation Upon Neuronal L-Type Ca2+ Channels
2012-01-01
Excitation-driven entry of Ca2+ through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels controls gene expression in neurons and a variety of fundamental activities in other kinds of excitable cells. The probability of opening of CaV1.2 L-type channels is subject to pronounced enhancement by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is scaffolded to CaV1.2 channels by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). CaV1.2 channels also undergo negative autoregulation via Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI), which stro...
Interlamellar CA1 network in the hippocampus
Yang, Sunggu; Yang, Sungchil; Moreira, Thais; Hoffman, Gloria; Carlson, Greg C.; Bender, Kevin J.; Alger, Bradley E.; Tang, Cha-Min
2014-01-01
It has generally been thought that CA1 cells form only negligible connections with each other along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. But if CA1 cells were interconnected in an effective autoassociational network, this information would add a critical new dimension to our understanding of cellular processing within this structure. Here, we report the existence of a well-organized, longitudinally projecting synaptic network among CA1 pyramidal neurons. We further show that synapses of ...
Partin, Judson Wiley
Convergence Zone (ITCZ). An inferred precipitation maximum (stalagmite delta18O minimum) during the mid-Holocene in N. Borneo supports La Nina-like conditions and/or a southward migration of the ITCZ over the course of the Holocene as likely mechanisms for the observed millennial-scale trends. In Chapter 4, stalagmite Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and delta 13C records reflect hydrologic changes in the overlying karst system that are linked to a combination of rainfall variability and cave micro-environmental effects. Dripwater and stalagmite geochemistry suggest that prior calcite precipitation is a mechanism which alters dripwater geochemistry in slow, stalagmite-forming drips in N. Borneo. Stalagmite Mg/Ca ratios and delta 13C records suggest that the LGM climate in N. Borneo was drier and that ecosystem carbon cycling may have responded to the drier conditions. Large amplitude decadal- to centennial-scale variability in stalagmite Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and delta13C during the deglaciation may be linked to deglacial abrupt climate change events.
Rueda, Carlos B; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Traba, Javier; Amigo, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Paloma; Contreras, Laura; Juaristi, Inés; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Pardo, Beatriz; Del Arco, Araceli; Satrustegui, Jorgina
2016-08-01
Glutamate elicits Ca(2+) signals and workloads that regulate neuronal fate both in physiological and pathological circumstances. Oxidative phosphorylation is required in order to respond to the metabolic challenge caused by glutamate. In response to physiological glutamate signals, cytosolic Ca(2+) activates respiration by stimulation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle through Ca(2+)-binding to the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12), and by stimulation of adenine nucleotide uptake through Ca(2+) binding to the mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier (SCaMC-3/Slc25a23). In addition, after Ca(2+) entry into the matrix through the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), it activates mitochondrial dehydrogenases. In response to pathological glutamate stimulation during excitotoxicity, Ca(2+) overload, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and delayed Ca(2+) deregulation (DCD) lead to neuronal death. Glutamate-induced respiratory stimulation is rapidly inactivated through a mechanism involving Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation, consumption of cytosolic NAD(+), a decrease in matrix ATP and restricted substrate supply. Glutamate-induced Ca(2+)-activation of SCaMC-3 imports adenine nucleotides into mitochondria, counteracting the depletion of matrix ATP and the impaired respiration, while Aralar-dependent lactate metabolism prevents substrate exhaustion. A second mechanism induced by excitotoxic glutamate is permeability transition pore (PTP) opening, which critically depends on ROS production and matrix Ca(2+) entry through the MCU. By increasing matrix content of adenine nucleotides, SCaMC-3 activity protects against glutamate-induced PTP opening and lowers matrix free Ca(2+), resulting in protracted appearance of DCD and protection against excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, while the lack of lactate protection during in vivo excitotoxicity explains increased vulnerability to kainite-induced toxicity in Aralar
Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules
Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...
Microcanonical origin of the maximum entropy principle for open systems.
Lee, Julian; Pressé, Steve
2012-10-01
There are two distinct approaches for deriving the canonical ensemble. The canonical ensemble either follows as a special limit of the microcanonical ensemble or alternatively follows from the maximum entropy principle. We show the equivalence of these two approaches by applying the maximum entropy formulation to a closed universe consisting of an open system plus bath. We show that the target function for deriving the canonical distribution emerges as a natural consequence of partial maximization of the entropy over the bath degrees of freedom alone. By extending this mathematical formalism to dynamical paths rather than equilibrium ensembles, the result provides an alternative justification for the principle of path entropy maximization as well.
Information Entropy Production of Spatio-Temporal Maximum Entropy Distributions
Cofre, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
Spiking activity from populations of neurons display causal interactions and memory effects. Therefore, they are expected to show some degree of irreversibility in time. Motivated by the spike train statistics, in this paper we build a framework to quantify the degree of irreversibility of any maximum entropy distribution. Our approach is based on the transfer matrix technique, which enables us to find an homogeneous irreducible Markov chain that shares the same maximum entropy measure. We provide relevant examples in the context of spike train statistics
Semiparametric maximum likelihood for nonlinear regression with measurement errors.
Suh, Eun-Young; Schafer, Daniel W
2002-06-01
This article demonstrates semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation of a nonlinear growth model for fish lengths using imprecisely measured ages. Data on the species corvina reina, found in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, consist of lengths and imprecise ages for 168 fish and precise ages for a subset of 16 fish. The statistical problem may therefore be classified as nonlinear errors-in-variables regression with internal validation data. Inferential techniques are based on ideas extracted from several previous works on semiparametric maximum likelihood for errors-in-variables problems. The illustration of the example clarifies practical aspects of the associated computational, inferential, and data analytic techniques.
Maximum length scale in density based topology optimization
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen
2017-01-01
The focus of this work is on two new techniques for imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Restrictions on the maximum length scale provide designers with full control over the optimized structure and open possibilities to tailor the optimized design for broader range...... of manufacturing processes by fulfilling the associated technological constraints. One of the proposed methods is based on combination of several filters and builds on top of the classical density filtering which can be viewed as a low pass filter applied to the design parametrization. The main idea...
On the Effect of Mortgages of Maximum Amount
YangZongping
2005-01-01
Since the enactment of the PRC Guarantee Law, mortgages of maximum amount has won wide application in a variety of business occupations and particularly in banking. Compared with the rich content of the 21clause statute on mortgages of maximum amount in Japan's Civil Law, the Chinese law has only four principled clauses. Its lack of operability plus its legislative gaps and defects has a severe impact on the positive effectiveness of the law. The core issue is the question of effectiveness. Because the principles stipulated in the Law run counter to the diversity of its actual practices,
A Maximum Entropy Method for a Robust Portfolio Problem
Yingying Xu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We propose a continuous maximum entropy method to investigate the robustoptimal portfolio selection problem for the market with transaction costs and dividends.This robust model aims to maximize the worst-case portfolio return in the case that allof asset returns lie within some prescribed intervals. A numerical optimal solution tothe problem is obtained by using a continuous maximum entropy method. Furthermore,some numerical experiments indicate that the robust model in this paper can result in betterportfolio performance than a classical mean-variance model.
On the maximum grain size entrained by photoevaporative winds
Hutchison, Mark A; Maddison, Sarah T
2016-01-01
We model the behaviour of dust grains entrained by photoevaporation-driven winds from protoplanetary discs assuming a non-rotating, plane-parallel disc. We obtain an analytic expression for the maximum entrainable grain size in extreme-UV radiation-driven winds, which we demonstrate to be proportional to the mass loss rate of the disc. When compared with our hydrodynamic simulations, the model reproduces almost all of the wind properties for the gas and dust. In typical turbulent discs, the entrained grain sizes in the wind are smaller than the theoretical maximum everywhere but the inner disc due to dust settling.
Modified maximum likelihood registration based on information fusion
Yongqing Qi; Zhongliang Jing; Shiqiang Hu
2007-01-01
The bias estimation of passive sensors is considered based on information fusion in multi-platform multisensor tracking system. The unobservable problem of bearing-only tracking in blind spot is analyzed. A modified maximum likelihood method, which uses the redundant information of multi-sensor system to calculate the target position, is investigated to estimate the biases. Monte Carlo simulation results show that the modified method eliminates the effect of unobservable problem in the blind spot and can estimate the biases more rapidly and accurately than maximum likelihood method. It is statistically efficient since the standard deviation of bias estimation errors meets the theoretical lower bounds.
Maximum-entropy distributions of correlated variables with prespecified marginals.
Larralde, Hernán
2012-12-01
The problem of determining the joint probability distributions for correlated random variables with prespecified marginals is considered. When the joint distribution satisfying all the required conditions is not unique, the "most unbiased" choice corresponds to the distribution of maximum entropy. The calculation of the maximum-entropy distribution requires the solution of rather complicated nonlinear coupled integral equations, exact solutions to which are obtained for the case of Gaussian marginals; otherwise, the solution can be expressed as a perturbation around the product of the marginals if the marginal moments exist.
A discussion on maximum entropy production and information theory
Bruers, Stijn [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2007-07-06
We will discuss the maximum entropy production (MaxEP) principle based on Jaynes' information theoretical arguments, as was done by Dewar (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 631-41, 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 371-81). With the help of a simple mathematical model of a non-equilibrium system, we will show how to derive minimum and maximum entropy production. Furthermore, the model will help us to clarify some confusing points and to see differences between some MaxEP studies in the literature.
Generalized Relativistic Wave Equations with Intrinsic Maximum Momentum
Ching, Chee Leong
2013-01-01
We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential are stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied are bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.
Generalized relativistic wave equations with intrinsic maximum momentum
Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim
2014-05-01
We examine the nonperturbative effect of maximum momentum on the relativistic wave equations. In momentum representation, we obtain the exact eigen-energies and wave functions of one-dimensional Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation with linear confining potentials, and the Dirac oscillator. Bound state solutions are only possible when the strength of scalar potential is stronger than vector potential. The energy spectrum of the systems studied is bounded from above, whereby classical characteristics are observed in the uncertainties of position and momentum operators. Also, there is a truncation in the maximum number of bound states that is allowed. Some of these quantum-gravitational features may have future applications.
Parameter estimation in X-ray astronomy using maximum likelihood
Wachter, K.; Leach, R.; Kellogg, E.
1979-01-01
Methods of estimation of parameter values and confidence regions by maximum likelihood and Fisher efficient scores starting from Poisson probabilities are developed for the nonlinear spectral functions commonly encountered in X-ray astronomy. It is argued that these methods offer significant advantages over the commonly used alternatives called minimum chi-squared because they rely on less pervasive statistical approximations and so may be expected to remain valid for data of poorer quality. Extensive numerical simulations of the maximum likelihood method are reported which verify that the best-fit parameter value and confidence region calculations are correct over a wide range of input spectra.
A maximum in the strength of nanocrystalline copper
Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel
2003-01-01
We used molecular dynamics simulations with system sizes up to 100 million atoms to simulate plastic deformation of nanocrystalline copper. By varying the grain size between 5 and 50 nanometers, we show that the flow stress and thus the strength exhibit a maximum at a grain size of 10 to 15...... nanometers. This maximum is because of a shift in the microscopic deformation mechanism from dislocation-mediated plasticity in the coarse-grained material to grain boundary sliding in the nanocrystalline region. The simulations allow us to observe the mechanisms behind the grain-size dependence...
Efficiency of autonomous soft nanomachines at maximum power.
Seifert, Udo
2011-01-14
We consider nanosized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing nonequilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques, or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall into three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient," "strong and inefficient," and "balanced." For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.
Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole
1988-01-01
response at 100 nM. The effect of thapsigargin on [Ca2+]i exceeded that of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) which raised [Ca2+]i to maximum 300 nM. In combination with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), thapsigargin stimulated the proliferation of normal lymphocytes to the same extent as did PHA, whereas...... of the lymphocytes, which was much higher than that caused by the PHA treatment, even in AIDS lymphocytes. Moreover, the thapsigargin/PMA treatment stimulated the expression of the IL-2 receptors on both normal and AIDS lymphocytes, similar to the effect of PHA. It is concluded that thapsigargin exerts its effects...
LiCaAlF6:Cr(3+) - A promising new solid-state laser material
Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Newkirk, Herbert W.; Smith, Larry K.; Krupke, William F.
1988-11-01
LiCaAlF6:Cr(3+) (Cr3+:LiCAF) exhibits an intrinsic (extrapolated maximum) slope efficiency of 67 percent. For comparison, the intrinsic slope efficiencies of BeAl2O4:Cr(3+) (alexandrite), Na3Ga2Li3F12:Cr(3+), and ScBO3:3+ were found to 65, 28, and 26 percent, respectively. The tuning range of LiCaAlF6:Cr(3+) was determined to be at least 720-840 nm. The conventional spectroscopic properties, such as the absorption, emission, and emission lifetimes as a function of temperature, are reported as well.
Liu, Ming-Chang
2017-03-01
This paper reports new 41Ca-41K isotopic data for two Type A CAIs, NWA 3118 #1Nb (Compact Type A) and Vigarano 3138 F8 (Fluffy Type A), from reduced CV3 chondrites. The NWA CAI is found to have carried live 41Ca at the level of (4.6 ± 1.9) ×10-9 , consistent with the proposed Solar System initial 41Ca /40Ca = 4.2 ×10-9 by Liu et al. (2012a). On the other hand, the Vigarano CAI does not have resolvable radiogenic 41K excesses that can be attributed to the decay of 41Ca. Combined with the 26Al data that have been reported for these two CAIs, we infer that the 41Ca distribution was not homogeneous when 26Al was widespread at the canonical level of 26Al /27Al = 5.2 ×10-5 . Such a 41Ca heterogeneity can be understood under two astrophysical contexts: in situ charged particle irradiation by the protoSun in the solar nebula that had inherited some baseline 10Be abundance from the molecular cloud, and Solar System formation in a molecular cloud enriched in 26Al and 41Ca contaminated by massive star winds. That said, more high quality 41Ca data are still needed to better understand the origin of this radionuclide.
Chen, Hua; Sun, Ying; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Yu, Ying; Zhu, Minying; Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Jizhi; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren
2016-06-01
This study investigated the effectiveness of Ca/Al-Cl LDH for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate. Experiments were performed including different dosage of Ca/Al-Cl LDH and comparison with different reagents, such as CaCl2 and AlCl3. As a result, Ca/Al-Cl LDH efficiently removed organic matters in stabilized landfill leachate with the maximum removal (59.41% COD, 62.06% DOC and 70.56% UV254) at the dose of 30g/L. According to UV254 and EEM, it is remarkable that the formation of Ca/Al-LDH has a greater beneficial to organic removal than other reagents, especially for fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like compounds. Moreover, the removal of fulvic acid-like compounds was much better than humic acid-like compounds. The previous compounds had more carboxylic groups, thus had a better removal selectivity.
Ohkura, Masamichi; Sasaki, Takuya; Sadakari, Junko; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Kagawa-Nagamura, Yuko; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ikegaya, Yuji; Nakai, Junichi
2012-01-01
Imaging the activities of individual neurons with genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs) is a promising method for understanding neuronal network functions. Here, we report GECIs with improved neuronal Ca(2+) signal detectability, termed G-CaMP6 and G-CaMP8. Compared to a series of existing G-CaMPs, G-CaMP6 showed fairly high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, both of which are suitable properties for detecting subtle and fast neuronal activities. G-CaMP8 showed a greater signal (F(max)/F(min) = 38) than G-CaMP6 and demonstrated kinetics similar to those of G-CaMP6. Both GECIs could detect individual spikes from pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices or acute cortical slices with 100% detection rates, demonstrating their superior performance to existing GECIs. Because G-CaMP6 showed a higher sensitivity and brighter baseline fluorescence than G-CaMP8 in a cellular environment, we applied G-CaMP6 for Ca(2+) imaging of dendritic spines, the putative postsynaptic sites. By expressing a G-CaMP6-actin fusion protein for the spines in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and electrically stimulating the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, which innervate CA3 pyramidal neurons, we found that sub-threshold stimulation triggered small Ca(2+) responses in a limited number of spines with a low response rate in active spines, whereas supra-threshold stimulation triggered large fluorescence responses in virtually all of the spines with a 100% activity rate.
Supralinear dendritic Ca(2+) signalling in young developing CA1 pyramidal cells.
Pohle, Jörg; Bischofberger, Josef
2014-11-15
Although Ca(2+) is critically important in activity-dependent neuronal development, not much is known about the regulation of dendritic Ca(2+) signals in developing neurons. Here, we used ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging to investigate dendritic Ca(2+) signalling in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells during the first 1-4 weeks of postnatal development. We show that active dendritic backpropagation of Nav channel-dependent action potentials (APs) evoked already large dendritic Ca(2+) transients in animals aged 1 week with amplitudes of ∼150 nm, similar to the amplitudes of ∼160 nM seen in animals aged 4 weeks. Although the AP-evoked dendritic Ca(2+) load increased about four times during the first 4 weeks, the peak amplitude of free Ca(2+) concentration was balanced by a four-fold increase in Ca(2+) buffer capacity κs (∼70 vs. ∼280). Furthermore, Ca(2+) extrusion rates increased with postnatal development, leading to a slower decay time course (∼0.2 s vs. ∼0.1 s) and more effective temporal summation of Ca(2+) signals in young cells. Most importantly, during prolonged theta-burst stimulation dendritic Ca(2+) signals were up to three times larger in cells at 1 week than at 4 weeks of age and much larger than predicted by linear summation, which is attributable to an activity-dependent slow-down of Ca(2+) extrusion. As Ca(2+) influx is four-fold smaller in young cells, the larger Ca(2+) signals are generated using four times less ATP consumption. Taken together, the data suggest that active backpropagations regulate dendritic Ca(2+) signals during early postnatal development. Remarkably, during prolonged AP firing, Ca(2+) signals are several times larger in young than in mature cells as a result of activity-dependent regulation of Ca(2+) extrusion rates.
Neural Signals Related to Outcome Evaluation Are Stronger in CA1 than CA3.
Lee, Sung-Hyun; Huh, Namjung; Lee, Jong Won; Ghim, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Inah; Jung, Min W
2017-01-01
We have shown previously that CA1 conveys significant neural signals necessary to update value of the chosen target, namely chosen value and reward signals. To better understand hippocampal neural processes related to valuation, we compared chosen value- and reward-related neural activity between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Single units were recorded with tetrodes from the dorsal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a dynamic foraging task, and chosen value- and reward-related neural activity was estimated using a reinforcement learning model and multiple regression analyses. Neural signals for chosen value and reward converged in both CA3 and CA1 when a trial outcome was revealed. However, these neural signals were stronger in CA1 than CA3. Consequently, neural signals for reward prediction error and updated chosen value were stronger in CA1 than CA3. Together with our previous finding that CA1 conveys stronger value signals than the subiculum, our results raise the possibility that CA1 might play a particularly important role among hippocampal subregions in evaluating experienced events.
EMRE Is a Matrix Ca2+ Sensor that Governs Gatekeeping of the Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter
Horia Vais
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The mitochondrial uniporter (MCU is an ion channel that mediates Ca2+ uptake into the matrix to regulate metabolism, cell death, and cytoplasmic Ca2+ signaling. Matrix Ca2+ concentration is similar to that in cytoplasm, despite an enormous driving force for entry, but the mechanisms that prevent mitochondrial Ca2+ overload are unclear. Here, we show that MCU channel activity is governed by matrix Ca2+ concentration through EMRE. Deletion or charge neutralization of its matrix-localized acidic C terminus abolishes matrix Ca2+ inhibition of MCU Ca2+ currents, resulting in MCU channel activation, enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, and constitutively elevated matrix Ca2+ concentration. EMRE-dependent regulation of MCU channel activity requires intermembrane space-localized MICU1, MICU2, and cytoplasmic Ca2+. Thus, mitochondria are protected from Ca2+ depletion and Ca2+ overload by a unique molecular complex that involves Ca2+ sensors on both sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane, coupled through EMRE.
CaV1.1: The atypical prototypical voltage-gated Ca2+ channel
Bannister, Roger A.; Beam, Kurt G.
2012-01-01
CaV1.1 is the prototype for the other nine known CaV channel isoforms, yet it has functional properties that make it truly atypical of this group. Specifically, CaV1.1 is expressed solely in skeletal muscle where it serves multiple purposes; it is the voltage sensor for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and it is an L-type Ca2+ channel which contributes to a form of activity-dependent Ca2+ entry that has been termed Excitation-Coupled Ca2+ Entry (ECCE). The ability of CaV1.1 to serve as voltage-sensor for EC coupling appears to be unique amongst CaV channels, whereas the physiological role of its more conventional function as a Ca2+ channel has been a matter of uncertainty for nearly 50 years. In this chapter, we discuss how CaV1.1 supports EC coupling, the possible relevance of Ca2+ entry through CaV1.1 and how alterations of CaV1.1 function can have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:22982493
Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak
Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.
2016-01-01
Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the
Yao, Zongli; Ying, Chengqi; Lu, Jianxue; Lai, Qifang; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui; Chen, Ling
2013-11-01
The capability of Scenedesmus obliquus to remove cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) from saline-alkaline water was investigated at different salinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) and carbonate alkalinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 mmol/L). K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in saline-alkaline water were efficiently removed by S. obliquus. The maximum removal of the cations (29.37 mg for K+, 185.85 mg for Na+, 23.07 mg for Ca2+, 66.14 mg for Mg2+) occurred at salinity 25. The maximum removal of K+ (2.28 mg), Na+ (6.62 mg), Ca2+ (1.01 mg), and Mg2+ (0.62 mg) occurred at carbonate alkalinities of 25 mmol/L for K+, 35 mmol/L for Na+, 20 mmol/L for Ca2+, and 25 mmol/L for Mg2+, respectively. Under a salinity stress, the concentration of Na+ in S. obliquus increased significantly, while that of K+ decreased significantly. The concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased as well. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly lower in all salinity treatments than those of the control. Under alkaline stress, the concentrations of Na+ and K+ in S. obliquus decreased significantly and the ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly higher in all treatments than in the control. Moreover, the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in S. obliquus at alkalinities of 5-10 mmol/L were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The removal of Na+ by S. obliquus mainly occurs through biosorption, and Mg2+ and Ca2+ were removed through both biosorption and bioaccumulation.
A Brooks type theorem for the maximum local edge connectivity
Stiebitz, Michael; Toft, Bjarne
2017-01-01
For a graph $G$, let $\\cn(G)$ and $\\la(G)$ denote the chromatic number of $G$ and the maximum local edge connectivity of $G$, respectively. A result of Dirac \\cite{Dirac53} implies that every graph $G$ satisfies $\\cn(G)\\leq \\la(G)+1$. In this paper we characterize the graphs $G$ for which $\\cn(G)...
Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.
Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.
2002-01-01
Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…
On the maximum backscattering cross section of passive linear arrays
Solymar, L.; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1974-01-01
The maximum backscattering cross section of an equispaced linear array connected to a reactive network and consisting of isotropic radiators is calculated forn = 2, 3, and 4 elements as a function of the incident angle and of the distance between the elements. On the basis of the results obtained...
Scientific substantination of maximum allowable concentration of fluopicolide in water
Pelo I.М.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In order to substantiate fluopicolide maximum allowable concentration in the water of water reservoirs the research was carried out. Methods of study: laboratory hygienic experiment using organoleptic and sanitary-chemical, sanitary-toxicological, sanitary-microbiological and mathematical methods. The results of fluopicolide influence on organoleptic properties of water, sanitary regimen of reservoirs for household purposes were given and its subthreshold concentration in water by sanitary and toxicological hazard index was calculated. The threshold concentration of the substance by the main hazard criteria was established, the maximum allowable concentration in water was substantiated. The studies led to the following conclusions: fluopicolide threshold concentration in water by organoleptic hazard index (limiting criterion – the smell – 0.15 mg/dm3, general sanitary hazard index (limiting criteria – impact on the number of saprophytic microflora, biochemical oxygen demand and nitrification – 0.015 mg/dm3, the maximum noneffective concentration – 0.14 mg/dm3, the maximum allowable concentration - 0.015 mg/dm3.
Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force
Todić Jelena T.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.
A Unified Maximum Likelihood Approach to Document Retrieval.
Bodoff, David; Enache, Daniel; Kambil, Ajit; Simon, Gary; Yukhimets, Alex
2001-01-01
Addresses the query- versus document-oriented dichotomy in information retrieval. Introduces a maximum likelihood approach to utilizing feedback data that can be used to construct a concrete object function that estimates both document and query parameters in accordance with all available feedback data. (AEF)
Sequential and Parallel Algorithms for Finding a Maximum Convex Polygon
Fischer, Paul
1997-01-01
such a polygon which is maximal with respect to area can be found in time O(n³ log n). With the same running time one can also find such a polygon which contains a maximum number of positive points. If, in addition, the number of vertices of the polygon is restricted to be at most M, then the running time...
Prediction of Maximum Oxygen Consumption from Walking, Jogging, or Running.
Larsen, Gary E.; George, James D.; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Aldana, Steve G.; Parcell, Allen C.
2002-01-01
Developed a cardiorespiratory endurance test that retained the inherent advantages of submaximal testing while eliminating reliance on heart rate measurement in predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). College students completed three exercise tests. The 1.5-mile endurance test predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise without requiring heart…
34 CFR 682.204 - Maximum loan amounts.
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum loan amounts. 682.204 Section 682.204 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM General Provisions § 682.204...
Triadic conceptual structure of the maximum entropy approach to evolution.
Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten; Salthe, Stanley N
2011-03-01
Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution in a process discourse. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, pointing towards 'physiosemiosis' or 'pansemiosis', we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. In this, we accommodate the state-centered thermodynamic framework to a process approach. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference devices evolving under natural selection. In this view, the principles of Maximum Entropy, Maximum Power, and Maximum Entropy Production work together to drive the emergence of information carrying structures, which at the same time maximize information capacity as well as the gradients of energy flows, such that ultimately, contrary to Schrödinger's seminal contribution, the evolutionary process is seen to be a physical expression of the Second Law.
Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints
Dolinar, S.
1991-01-01
Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.
Exploiting the Maximum Entropy Principle to Increase Retrieval Effectiveness.
Cooper, William S.
1983-01-01
Presents information retrieval design approach in which queries of computer-based system consist of sets of terms, either unweighted or weighted with subjective term precision estimates, and retrieval outputs ranked by probability of usefulness estimated by "maximum entropy principle." Boolean and weighted request systems are discussed.…
The constraint rule of the maximum entropy principle
Uffink, J.
2001-01-01
The principle of maximum entropy is a method for assigning values to probability distributions on the basis of partial information. In usual formulations of this and related methods of inference one assumes that this partial information takes the form of a constraint on allowed probability distribut
On the maximum entropy principle in non-extensive thermostatistics
Naudts, Jan
2004-01-01
It is possible to derive the maximum entropy principle from thermodynamic stability requirements. Using as a starting point the equilibrium probability distribution, currently used in non-extensive thermostatistics, it turns out that the relevant entropy function is Renyi's alpha-entropy, and not Tsallis' entropy.
MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD-ESTIMATION OF THE ENTROPY OF AN ATTRACTOR
SCHOUTEN, JC; TAKENS, F; VANDENBLEEK, CM
1994-01-01
In this paper, a maximum-likelihood estimate of the (Kolmogorov) entropy of an attractor is proposed that can be obtained directly from a time series. Also, the relative standard deviation of the entropy estimate is derived; it is dependent on the entropy and on the number of samples used in the est
Maximum-Entropy Inference with a Programmable Annealer.
Chancellor, Nicholas; Szoke, Szilard; Vinci, Walter; Aeppli, Gabriel; Warburton, Paul A
2016-03-03
Optimisation problems typically involve finding the ground state (i.e. the minimum energy configuration) of a cost function with respect to many variables. If the variables are corrupted by noise then this maximises the likelihood that the solution is correct. The maximum entropy solution on the other hand takes the form of a Boltzmann distribution over the ground and excited states of the cost function to correct for noise. Here we use a programmable annealer for the information decoding problem which we simulate as a random Ising model in a field. We show experimentally that finite temperature maximum entropy decoding can give slightly better bit-error-rates than the maximum likelihood approach, confirming that useful information can be extracted from the excited states of the annealer. Furthermore we introduce a bit-by-bit analytical method which is agnostic to the specific application and use it to show that the annealer samples from a highly Boltzmann-like distribution. Machines of this kind are therefore candidates for use in a variety of machine learning applications which exploit maximum entropy inference, including language processing and image recognition.
40 CFR 35.145 - Maximum federal share.
2010-07-01
... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.145 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide air pollution control agencies, as... programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementing national primary and...
Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems
Guifu Du
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.
A MAXIMUM ENTROPY METHOD FOR CONSTRAINED SEMI-INFINITEPROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
ZHOU Guanglu; WANG Changyu; SHI Zhenjun; SUN Qingying
1999-01-01
This paper presents a new method, called the maximum entropy method,for solving semi-infinite programming problems, in which thesemi-infinite programming problem is approximated by one with a singleconstraint. The convergence properties for this method are discussed.Numerical examples are given to show the high effciency of thealgorithm.
Closed form maximum likelihood estimator of conditional random fields
Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas
2013-01-01
Training Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) can be very slow for big data. In this paper, we present a new training method for CRFs called {\\em Empirical Training} which is motivated by the concept of co-occurrence rate. We show that the standard training (unregularized) can have many maximum likeliho
Heteroscedastic one-factor models and marginal maximum likelihood estimation
Hessen, D.J.; Dolan, C.V.
2009-01-01
In the present paper, a general class of heteroscedastic one-factor models is considered. In these models, the residual variances of the observed scores are explicitly modelled as parametric functions of the one-dimensional factor score. A marginal maximum likelihood procedure for parameter estimati
Estruturas silicosas na gramínea Panicum maximum
Pedro Fontana Junior
1957-05-01
Full Text Available The silica structure of the grass Panicum maximum were studied by electron and phase contrast microscopy. Several interesting kinds of silica formation (spiklets were found. The most ineresting structures ressembels the "Schaumstruktur" found by HELMCKE in diatoms. Another interesting structure was described in the "silica cells" and a detailed study of the mophology of some different kinds of spiklets was made.
Bias Correction for Alternating Iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimators
Gang YU; Wei GAO; Ningzhong SHI
2013-01-01
In this paper,we give a definition of the alternating iterative maximum likelihood estimator (AIMLE) which is a biased estimator.Furthermore we adjust the AIMLE to result in asymptotically unbiased and consistent estimators by using a bootstrap iterative bias correction method as in Kuk (1995).Two examples and simulation results reported illustrate the performance of the bias correction for AIMLE.
21 CFR 801.415 - Maximum acceptable level of ozone.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum acceptable level of ozone. 801.415 Section... level of ozone. (a) Ozone is a toxic gas with no known useful medical application in specific, adjunctive, or preventive therapy. In order for ozone to be effective as a germicide, it must be present in...
The maximum number of minimal codewords in long codes
Alahmadi, A.; Aldred, R.E.L.; dela Cruz, R.;
2013-01-01
Upper bounds on the maximum number of minimal codewords in a binary code follow from the theory of matroids. Random coding provides lower bounds. In this paper, we compare these bounds with analogous bounds for the cycle code of graphs. This problem (in the graphic case) was considered in 1981...
A Monte Carlo Evaluation of Maximum Likelihood Multidimensional Scaling Methods
Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Wedel, M.
1996-01-01
We compare three alternative Maximum Likelihood Multidimensional Scaling methods for pairwise dissimilarity ratings, namely MULTISCALE, MAXSCAL, and PROSCAL in a Monte Carlo study.The three MLMDS methods recover the true con gurations very well.The recovery of the true dimensionality depends on the
Quantum-dot Carnot engine at maximum power.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Kawai, Ryoichi; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian
2010-04-01
We evaluate the efficiency at maximum power of a quantum-dot Carnot heat engine. The universal values of the coefficients at the linear and quadratic order in the temperature gradient are reproduced. Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is recovered in the limit of weak dissipation.
Maximum likelihood estimation of phase-type distributions
Esparza, Luz Judith R
This work is concerned with the statistical inference of phase-type distributions and the analysis of distributions with rational Laplace transform, known as matrix-exponential distributions. The thesis is focused on the estimation of the maximum likelihood parameters of phase-type distributions ...
Mechanical Sun-Tracking Technique Implemented for Maximum ...
The solar panel is allowed to move from east to west and back forth with a maximum allowable angle of 180o. Its movement is in only one axis. The prototype built carries the panel from eastward to westward tracking the sun movement from ...
24 CFR 941.306 - Maximum project cost.
2010-04-01
...) project costs that are subject to the TDC limit (i.e., Housing Construction Costs and Community Renewal Costs); and (2) project costs that are not subject to the TDC limit (i.e., Additional Project Costs... expended for the project, and this becomes the maximum project cost for purposes of the ACC. (b) TDC...
Adaptive Statistical Language Modeling; A Maximum Entropy Approach
1994-04-19
recognition systems were built that could recognize vowels or digits, but they could not be successfully extended to handle more realistic language...maximum likelihood of gener- ating the training data. The identity of the ML and ME solutions, apart from being aesthetically pleasing, is extremely
33 CFR 401.3 - Maximum vessel dimensions.
2010-07-01
..., and having dimensions that do not exceed the limits set out in the block diagram in appendix I of this... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum vessel dimensions. 401.3 Section 401.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT...
A relationship between maximum packing of particles and particle size
Fedors, R. F.
1979-01-01
Experimental data indicate that the volume fraction of particles in a packed bed (i.e. maximum packing) depends on particle size. One explanation for this is based on the idea that particle adhesion is the primary factor. In this paper, however, it is shown that entrainment and immobilization of liquid by the particles can also account for the facts.
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models.
Lee, Sik-Yum; Zhu, Hong-Tu
2002-01-01
Developed an EM type algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of a general nonlinear structural equation model in which the E-step is completed by a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Illustrated the methodology with results from a simulation study and two real examples using data from previous studies. (SLD)
On the query complexity of finding a local maximum point
Rastsvelaev, A.L.; Beklemishev, L.D.
2008-01-01
We calculate the minimal number of queries sufficient to find a local maximum point of a functiun on a discrete interval for a model with M parallel queries, M≥1. Matching upper and lower bounds are obtained. The bounds are formulated in terms of certain Fibonacci type sequences of numbers.
A Remark on the Omori-Yau Maximum Principle
Borbely, Albert
2012-01-01
A Riemannian manifold $M$ is said to satisfy the Omori-Yau maximum principle if for any $C^2$ bounded function $g:M\\to \\Bbb R$ there is a sequence $x_n\\in M$, such that $\\lim_{n\\to \\infty}g(x_n)=\\sup_M g$, $ \\lim_{n\\to \\infty}|\
Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse
Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding
1994-01-01
The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...
AN INVERSE MAXIMUM CAPACITY PATH PROBLEM WITH LOWER BOUND CONSTRAINTS
杨超; 陈学旗
2002-01-01
The computational complexity of inverse mimimum capacity path problem with lower bound on capacity of maximum capacity path is examined, and it is proved that solution of this problem is NP-complete. A strong polynomial algorithm for a local optimal solution is provided.
Maximum super angle optimization method for array antenna pattern synthesis
Wu, Ji; Roederer, A. G
1991-01-01
Different optimization criteria related to antenna pattern synthesis are discussed. Based on the maximum criteria and vector space representation, a simple and efficient optimization method is presented for array and array fed reflector power pattern synthesis. A sector pattern synthesized by a 20...
Restoration of GERIS Data Using the Maximum Noise Fractions Transform
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus
1994-01-01
The Maximum Noise Fractions (MNF) transformation is used as a restoration tool in a 512512 subscene of a 63 channel spectral dataset recorded over the Pyrite Belt in Southern Spain with the Geophysical Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS). The data obtained from such a scanning...
Training Concept, Evolution Time, and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle
Alexey Bezryadin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The maximum entropy production principle (MEPP is a type of entropy optimization which demands that complex non-equilibrium systems should organize such that the rate of the entropy production is maximized. Our take on this principle is that to prove or disprove the validity of the MEPP and to test the scope of its applicability, it is necessary to conduct experiments in which the entropy produced per unit time is measured with a high precision. Thus we study electric-field-induced self-assembly in suspensions of carbon nanotubes and realize precise measurements of the entropy production rate (EPR. As a strong voltage is applied the suspended nanotubes merge together into a conducting cloud which produces Joule heat and, correspondingly, produces entropy. We introduce two types of EPR, which have qualitatively different significance: global EPR (g-EPR and the entropy production rate of the dissipative cloud itself (DC-EPR. The following results are obtained: (1 As the system reaches the maximum of the DC-EPR, it becomes stable because the applied voltage acts as a stabilizing thermodynamic potential; (2 We discover metastable states characterized by high, near-maximum values of the DC-EPR. Under certain conditions, such efficient entropy-producing regimes can only be achieved if the system is allowed to initially evolve under mildly non-equilibrium conditions, namely at a reduced voltage; (3 Without such a “training” period the system typically is not able to reach the allowed maximum of the DC-EPR if the bias is high; (4 We observe that the DC-EPR maximum is achieved within a time, Te, the evolution time, which scales as a power-law function of the applied voltage; (5 Finally, we present a clear example in which the g-EPR theoretical maximum can never be achieved. Yet, under a wide range of conditions, the system can self-organize and achieve a dissipative regime in which the DC-EPR equals its theoretical maximum.
Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun; Wu, Liqing
1996-06-01
Considering a thermoelectric generator as a heat engine cycle, the general differential equations of the temperature field inside thermoelectric elements are established by means of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. These equations are used to study the influence of heat leak, Joule's heat, and Thomson heat on the performance of the thermoelectric generator. New expressions are derived for the power output and the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator. The maximum power output is calculated and the optimal matching condition of load is determined. The maximum efficiency is discussed by a representative numerical example. The aim of this research is to provide some novel conclusions and redress some errors existing in a related investigation.
Payoff-monotonic game dynamics and the maximum clique problem.
Pelillo, Marcello; Torsello, Andrea
2006-05-01
Evolutionary game-theoretic models and, in particular, the so-called replicator equations have recently proven to be remarkably effective at approximately solving the maximum clique and related problems. The approach is centered around a classic result from graph theory that formulates the maximum clique problem as a standard (continuous) quadratic program and exploits the dynamical properties of these models, which, under a certain symmetry assumption, possess a Lyapunov function. In this letter, we generalize previous work along these lines in several respects. We introduce a wide family of game-dynamic equations known as payoff-monotonic dynamics, of which replicator dynamics are a special instance, and show that they enjoy precisely the same dynamical properties as standard replicator equations. These properties make any member of this family a potential heuristic for solving standard quadratic programs and, in particular, the maximum clique problem. Extensive simulations, performed on random as well as DIMACS benchmark graphs, show that this class contains dynamics that are considerably faster than and at least as accurate as replicator equations. One problem associated with these models, however, relates to their inability to escape from poor local solutions. To overcome this drawback, we focus on a particular subclass of payoff-monotonic dynamics used to model the evolution of behavior via imitation processes and study the stability of their equilibria when a regularization parameter is allowed to take on negative values. A detailed analysis of these properties suggests a whole class of annealed imitation heuristics for the maximum clique problem, which are based on the idea of varying the parameter during the imitation optimization process in a principled way, so as to avoid unwanted inefficient solutions. Experiments show that the proposed annealing procedure does help to avoid poor local optima by initially driving the dynamics toward promising regions in
Maximum kinetic energy considerations in proton stereotactic radiosurgery.
Sengbusch, Evan R; Mackie, Thomas R
2011-04-12
The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum proton kinetic energy required to treat a given percentage of patients eligible for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with coplanar arc-based proton therapy, contingent upon the number and location of gantry angles used. Treatment plans from 100 consecutive patients treated with SRS at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center between June of 2007 and March of 2010 were analyzed. For each target volume within each patient, in-house software was used to place proton pencil beam spots over the distal surface of the target volume from 51 equally-spaced gantry angles of up to 360°. For each beam spot, the radiological path length from the surface of the patient to the distal boundary of the target was then calculated along a ray from the gantry location to the location of the beam spot. This data was used to generate a maximum proton energy requirement for each patient as a function of the arc length that would be spanned by the gantry angles used in a given treatment. If only a single treatment angle is required, 100% of the patients included in the study could be treated by a proton beam with a maximum kinetic energy of 118 MeV. As the length of the treatment arc is increased to 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°, the maximum energy requirement increases to 127, 145, 156, and 179 MeV, respectively. A very high percentage of SRS patients could be treated at relatively low proton energies if the gantry angles used in the treatment plan do not span a large treatment arc. Maximum proton kinetic energy requirements increase linearly with size of the treatment arc.
Localized calcineurin confers Ca2+-dependent inactivation on neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels.
Oliveria, Seth F; Dittmer, Philip J; Youn, Dong-ho; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Sather, William A
2012-10-31
Excitation-driven entry of Ca(2+) through L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels controls gene expression in neurons and a variety of fundamental activities in other kinds of excitable cells. The probability of opening of Ca(V)1.2 L-type channels is subject to pronounced enhancement by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which is scaffolded to Ca(V)1.2 channels by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Ca(V)1.2 channels also undergo negative autoregulation via Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI), which strongly limits Ca(2+) entry. An abundance of evidence indicates that CDI relies upon binding of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) to an isoleucine-glutamine motif in the carboxy tail of Ca(V)1.2 L-type channels, a molecular mechanism seemingly unrelated to phosphorylation-mediated channel enhancement. But our work reveals, in cultured hippocampal neurons and a heterologous expression system, that the Ca(2+)/CaM-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is scaffolded to Ca(V)1.2 channels by the neuronal anchoring protein AKAP79/150, and that overexpression of an AKAP79/150 mutant incapable of binding CaN (ΔPIX; CaN-binding PXIXIT motif deleted) impedes CDI. Interventions that suppress CaN activity-mutation in its catalytic site, antagonism with cyclosporine A or FK506, or intracellular perfusion with a peptide mimicking the sequence of the phosphatase's autoinhibitory domain-interfere with normal CDI. In cultured hippocampal neurons from a ΔPIX knock-in mouse, CDI is absent. Results of experiments with the adenylyl cyclase stimulator forskolin and with the PKA inhibitor PKI suggest that Ca(2+)/CaM-activated CaN promotes CDI by reversing channel enhancement effectuated by kinases such as PKA. Hence, our investigation of AKAP79/150-anchored CaN reconciles the CaM-based model of CDI with an earlier, seemingly contradictory model based on dephosphorylation signaling.
Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 and Ca@C94
Yuliang Che; Hua Yang; Hongxiao Jin; Chunxin Lu; Ziyang Liu
2009-05-01
We report for the first time isolation of Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 by multi-stage highperformance liquid chromatography technique without recycling equipment. It is notable that higher metallofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also confirmed by LD-TOF mass spectrometry and characterrized by UV-Vis-NIR absorption measurements.
Wheeler, Damian G; Groth, Rachel D; Ma, Huan; Barrett, Curtis F; Owen, Scott F; Safa, Parsa; Tsien, Richard W
2012-05-25
Activity-dependent gene expression triggered by Ca(2+) entry into neurons is critical for learning and memory, but whether specific sources of Ca(2+) act distinctly or merely supply Ca(2+) to a common pool remains uncertain. Here, we report that both signaling modes coexist and pertain to Ca(V)1 and Ca(V)2 channels, respectively, coupling membrane depolarization to CREB phosphorylation and gene expression. Ca(V)1 channels are advantaged in their voltage-dependent gating and use nanodomain Ca(2+) to drive local CaMKII aggregation and trigger communication with the nucleus. In contrast, Ca(V)2 channels must elevate [Ca(2+)](i) microns away and promote CaMKII aggregation at Ca(V)1 channels. Consequently, Ca(V)2 channels are ~10-fold less effective in signaling to the nucleus than are Ca(V)1 channels for the same bulk [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Furthermore, Ca(V)2-mediated Ca(2+) rises are preferentially curbed by uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. This source-biased buffering limits the spatial spread of Ca(2+), further attenuating Ca(V)2-mediated gene expression.
Ca(2+) signalling in the Golgi apparatus.
Pizzo, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Capitanio, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio
2011-08-01
The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in lipid and protein post-translational modification and sorting. Morphologically the organelle is heterogeneous and it is possible to distinguish stacks of flat cysternae (cis- and medial Golgi), tubular-reticular networks and vesicles (trans-Golgi). These morphological differences parallel a distinct functionality with a selective distribution and complementary roles of the enzymes found in the different compartments. The Golgi apparatus has been also shown to be involved in Ca(2+) signalling: it is indeed endowed with Ca(2+) pumps, Ca(2+) release channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins and is thought to participate in determining the spatio-temporal complexity of the Ca(2+) signal within the cell, though this role is still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the organelle is heterogeneous in terms of Ca(2+) handling and selective reduction of Ca(2+) concentration, both in vitro and in a genetic human disease, within one of its sub-compartment results in alterations of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway and of the entire Golgi morphology. In this paper we review the available information on the Ca(2+) toolkit within the Golgi, its heterogeneous distribution in the organelle sub-compartments and discuss the implications of these characteristics for the physiopathology of the Golgi apparatus.
The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50
Moo-Chin Wang
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, HA still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4 as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42, β-TCP as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO42, α-TCP and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO42O, TTCP, when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D. and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.
Calmodulin transduces Ca2+ oscillations into differential regulation of its target proteins.
Slavov, Nikolai; Carey, Jannette; Linse, Sara
2013-04-17
Diverse physiological processes are regulated differentially by Ca(2+) oscillations through the common regulatory hub calmodulin. The capacity of calmodulin to combine specificity with promiscuity remains to be resolved. Here we propose a mechanism based on the molecular properties of calmodulin, its two domains with separate Ca(2+) binding affinities, and target exchange rates that depend on both target identity and Ca(2+) occupancy. The binding dynamics among Ca(2+), Mg(2+), calmodulin, and its targets were modeled with mass-action differential equations based on experimentally determined protein concentrations and rate constants. The model predicts that the activation of calcineurin and nitric oxide synthase depends nonmonotonically on Ca(2+)-oscillation frequency. Preferential activation reaches a maximum at a target-specific frequency. Differential activation arises from the accumulation of inactive calmodulin-target intermediate complexes between Ca(2+) transients. Their accumulation provides the system with hysteresis and favors activation of some targets at the expense of others. The generality of this result was tested by simulating 60 000 networks with two, four, or eight targets with concentrations and rate constants from experimentally determined ranges. Most networks exhibit differential activation that increases in magnitude with the number of targets. Moreover, differential activation increases with decreasing calmodulin concentration due to competition among targets. The results rationalize calmodulin signaling in terms of the network topology and the molecular properties of calmodulin.
Combustion synthesis and luminescence characteristic of rare earth activated LiCaBO3
N.S. Bajaj; S.K. Omanwar
2012-01-01
Lithium calcium borate (LiCaBO3) polycrystalline thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor doped with rare earth (Tb3+ and Dy3+) elements was synthesized by novel solution combustion synthesis.The reaction produced very stable crystalline LiCaBO3:D (D=Tb3+ and Dy3+)phosphors.These rare earth doped phosphors material showed maximum TL sensitivity with favorable glow curve shape.TL glow curve of X-ray irradiated that LiCaBO3:Tb3+ and LiCaBO3:Dy3+ samples showed two major well-separated glow peaks.The TL sensitivity of these phosphors to X-ray radiation was comparable with that of TLD-100 (Harshaw).Photoluminescence spectra of LiCaBO3:Tb3+ and LiCaBO3:Dy3+ showed the characteristic Tb3+ and Dy3+ peaks respectively.TL response to X-ray radiation dose was linear up to 25 Gy.
LATS refining ladle slag modifying with CaO-CaF2
Hongming Wang; Guirong Li; Zhongming Ren; Bo Li; Xuejun Zhang; Guomin Shi
2007-01-01
To reduce the slag sticking onto the snorkel of the ladle during the ladle alloying treatment station (LATS) process, CaO-CaF2 (the mass ratio of CaO/CaF2 is 1:1) was employed as the modifier of the LATS refining ladle slag. The effect of CaO-CaF2 on the melting point, viscosity, and desulfurizing capability of the ladle slag was investigated. The melting point of the unmodified ladle slag is 1439°C. When adding 20wt% CaO-CaF2, the melting point is decreased to 1327°C. At 1500°C, the viscosity of the unmodified ladle slag is 6.5 Pa·s, which can be decreased lower than 2 Pa·s by adding more than 10wt% CaO-CaF2. The experimental results of desulfurization of the melts show that the desulfurizing power of the ladle slag can be enhanced by adding CaO-CaF2.
By Regulating Mitochondrial Ca2+-Uptake UCP2 Modulates Intracellular Ca2+.
Lukas Jaroslaw Motloch
Full Text Available The possible role of UCP2 in modulating mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake (mCa2+-uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU is highly controversial.Thus, we analyzed mCa2+-uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria, MCU single-channel activity in cardiac mitoplasts, dual Ca2+-transients from mitochondrial ((Ca2+m and intracellular compartment ((Ca2+c in the whole-cell configuration in cardiomyocytes of wild-type (WT and UCP2-/- mice.Isolated mitochondria showed a Ru360 sensitive mCa2+-uptake, which was significantly decreased in UCP2-/- (229.4±30.8 FU vs. 146.3±23.4 FU, P0.05 and transsarcolemmal Ca2+-influx was inhibited suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Additionally, we observed an inhibitory effect of ATP on mCa2+-uptake in WT mitoplasts and (Ca2+m of cardiomyocytes leading to an increase of (Ca2+c while no ATP dependent effect was observed in UCP2-/-.Our results indicate regulatory effects of UCP2 on mCa2+-uptake. Furthermore, we propose, that previously described inhibitory effects on MCU by ATP may be mediated via UCP2 resulting in changes of excitation contraction coupling.