Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2008-2011
Barr, Catherine; Harbison, Constance
2012-01-01
The print publishing industry is showing signs of recovering from the worst of the economic downturn even as the surge in popularity of ebooks raises questions about the future of printed materials. From a high of 190,502 titles in 2007, overall American book title output fell to 178,841 in 2009 but climbed back to 186,344 in 2010; preliminary…
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Multivariate Autoregressive-Moving Average Models.
1977-02-01
maximizing the same have been proposed i) in time domain by Box and Jenkins [41. Astrom [3J, Wilson [23 1, and Phadke [161, and ii) in frequency domain by...moving average residuals and other convariance matrices with linear structure ”, Anna/s of Staustics, 3. 3. Astrom , K. J. (1970), Introduction to
MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR PERIODIC AUTOREGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODELS.
Vecchia, A.V.
1985-01-01
A useful class of models for seasonal time series that cannot be filtered or standardized to achieve second-order stationarity is that of periodic autoregressive moving average (PARMA) models, which are extensions of ARMA models that allow periodic (seasonal) parameters. An approximation to the exact likelihood for Gaussian PARMA processes is developed, and a straightforward algorithm for its maximization is presented. The algorithm is tested on several periodic ARMA(1, 1) models through simulation studies and is compared to moment estimation via the seasonal Yule-Walker equations. Applicability of the technique is demonstrated through an analysis of a seasonal stream-flow series from the Rio Caroni River in Venezuela.
Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath
Liu, Shengnan
2016-01-01
The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...
Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath
Shengnan Liu
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.
Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.
2008-01-01
Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize
Chen, Jincan; Yan, Zijun; Wu, Liqing
1996-06-01
Considering a thermoelectric generator as a heat engine cycle, the general differential equations of the temperature field inside thermoelectric elements are established by means of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. These equations are used to study the influence of heat leak, Joule's heat, and Thomson heat on the performance of the thermoelectric generator. New expressions are derived for the power output and the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator. The maximum power output is calculated and the optimal matching condition of load is determined. The maximum efficiency is discussed by a representative numerical example. The aim of this research is to provide some novel conclusions and redress some errors existing in a related investigation.
Average and Small Signal Modeling of Negative-Output KY Boost Converter in CCM Operation
Faqiang Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Negative-output KY Boost converter, which can obtain the negative output voltage and could be driven easily, is a good topology to overcome traditional Boost and Buck-Boost converters and it is believed that this converter will be widely used in engineering applications in the future. In this study, by using the averaging method and geometrical technique, the average and small signal model of the negative-output KY Boost converter are established. The DC equilibrium point and transfer functions of the system are derived and analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness of the established model and the correctness of the theoretical analysis are confirmed by the circuit experiment.
Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun
2015-07-01
This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.
Effects of loading and size on maximum power output and gait characteristics in geckos.
Irschick, Duncan J; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Herrel, Anthony; Andronescu, Anemone
2003-11-01
Stride length, stride frequency and power output are all factors influencing locomotor performance. Here, we first test whether mass-specific power output limits climbing performance in two species of geckos (Hemidactylus garnoti and Gekko gecko) by adding external loads to their bodies. We then test whether body size has a negative effect on mass-specific power output. Finally, we test whether loading affects kinematics in both gecko species. Lizards were induced to run vertically on a smooth wooden surface with loads of 0-200% of body mass (BM) in H. garnoti and 0-100% BM in G. gecko. For each stride, we calculated angular and linear kinematics (e.g. trunk angle, stride length), performance (maximum speed) and mean mass-specific power output per stride. The addition of increasingly large loads caused an initial increase in maximum mass-specific power output in both species, but for H. garnoti, mass-specific power output remained constant at higher loads (150% and 200% BM), even though maximum velocity declined. This result, in combination with the fact that stride frequency showed no evidence of leveling off as speed increased in either species, suggests that power limits maximum speed. In addition, the large gecko (G. gecko) produced significantly less power than the smaller H. garnoti, despite the fact that both species ran at similar speeds. This difference disappeared, however, when we recalculated power output based on higher maximum speeds for unloaded G. gecko moving vertically obtained by other researchers. Finally, the addition of external loads did not affect speed modulation in either species: both G. gecko and H. garnoti increase speed primarily by increasing stride frequency, regardless of loading condition. For a given speed, both species take shorter but more strides with heavier loads, but for a given load, G. gecko attains similar speeds to H. garnoti by taking longer but fewer strides.
A new solar signal: Average maximum sunspot magnetic fields independent of activity cycle
Livingston, William
2016-01-01
Over the past five years, 2010-2015, we have observed, in the near infrared (IR), the maximum magnetic field strengths for 4145 sunspot umbrae. Herein we distinguish field strengths from field flux. (Most solar magnetographs measure flux). Maximum field strength in umbrae is co-spatial with the position of umbral minimum brightness (Norton and Gilman, 2004). We measure field strength by the Zeeman splitting of the Fe 15648.5 A spectral line. We show that in the IR no cycle dependence on average maximum field strength (2050 G) has been found +/- 20 Gauss. A similar analysis of 17,450 spots observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal the same cycle independence +/- 0.18 G., or a variance of 0.01%. This is found not to change over the ongoing 2010-2015 minimum to maximum cycle. Conclude the average maximum umbral fields on the Sun are constant with time.
340 W average power output of diode-pumped composite ceramic YAG/Nd:YAG disk laser
Jia, Kai; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Feng; Deng, Bo; Hou, Tianjin; Guo, Jiawei; Chen, Dezhang; Wang, Hongyuan; Yang, Chuang; Peng, Chun
2016-11-01
We report on a diode-pumped composite ceramic disk laser in this paper. The composite ceramic YAG/Nd:YAG disk consists of 4 mm thick pure YAG and 2 mm thick Nd:YAG with 1.0 at.% doping concentration. The slope efficiency of the composite ceramic disk laser is 36.6% corresponding to the maximum optical-optical efficiency of 29.2%. Furthermore, 340 W average power output was achieved at the absorbed pump power of 1290 W.
Maximum energy output of a DFIG wind turbine using an improved MPPT-curve method
Dinh-Chung Phan; Shigeru Yamamoto
2015-01-01
A new method is proposed for obtaining the maximum power output of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine to control the rotor- and grid-side converters. The efficiency of maximum power point tracking that is obtained by the proposed method is theoretically guaranteed under assumptions that represent physical conditions. Several control parameters may be adjusted to ensure the quality of control performance. In particular, a DFIG state-space model and a control technique based o...
Variability of maximum and mean average temperature across Libya (1945-2009)
Ageena, I.; Macdonald, N.; Morse, A. P.
2014-08-01
Spatial and temporal variability in daily maximum and mean average daily temperature, monthly maximum and mean average monthly temperature for nine coastal stations during the period 1956-2009 (54 years), and annual maximum and mean average temperature for coastal and inland stations for the period 1945-2009 (65 years) across Libya are analysed. During the period 1945-2009, significant increases in maximum temperature (0.017 °C/year) and mean average temperature (0.021 °C/year) are identified at most stations. Significantly, warming in annual maximum temperature (0.038 °C/year) and mean average annual temperatures (0.049 °C/year) are observed at almost all study stations during the last 32 years (1978-2009). The results show that Libya has witnessed a significant warming since the middle of the twentieth century, which will have a considerable impact on societies and the ecology of the North Africa region, if increases continue at current rates.
Hassan, Md Kamrul; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman; Abdullah-Al-Shafi, Md; Ahmed, Kawsar
2017-08-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP) for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016) [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K) unit.
Md. Kamrul Hassan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016 [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K unit.
The average output power of a wind turbine in a turbulent wind
Rosen, A.; Sheinman, Y. (Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel))
1994-05-01
Turbulence has an important influence on the average output power of a wind turbine taken over a certain period of time. The wind dynamics is coupled to the turbine dynamic characteristics and results in a fairly complicated behavior. Thus, the common 'static' model of calculating the average power, which is based on the turbine power curve and the average wind speed, may result in increasing errors. This paper presents three different models for calculating the average output power, taking into account the dynamic characteristics of the phenomenon. These models include direct time integration using accurate wind data and a detailed dynamic model of the turbine, a quasi-steady approach which is much simpler to apply and takes into account the wind dynamics, and an improved efficient model that also includes the influence of the dynamic characteristics of the turbine. The last improved model is based on a study of the turbine response to a sinusoidal gust. All models are compared with field measurements in order to study their accuracy. The comparison exhibits the importance of including all the dynamic effects in the calculations
Computational complexity of some maximum average weight problems with precedence constraints
Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter
1994-01-01
Maximum average weight ideal problems in ordered sets arise from modeling variants of the investment problem and, in particular, learning problems in the context of concepts with tree-structured attributes in artificial intelligence. Similarly, trying to construct tests with high reliability leads t
Norhisam Misron
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A new control estimator to maximize the power generated with a maximum power point estimator is introduced. The power mapping characteristics from the double-stator generator are modeled as a mathematical equation which is used to develop the estimator for maximum power tracking to maximize the generated power. The proposed estimator automatically traces the instantaneous maximum power at various load conditions. However, to stabilize the output voltage, a boost converter is used from the inverter side. The developed double-stator generator is tested with the new estimator for the maximizing power generation capability under laboratory conditions. The experimental results confirm that with the new estimator, the average power generation capability is increased by 12% and the peak value is increase by 22%.
Scheme to increase the output average spectral flux of the European XFEL at 14.4 keV
Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2015-08-15
Techniques like inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) are currently limited by the photon flux available at X-ray sources. At 14.4 keV, third generation synchrotron radiation sources produce a maximum of 10{sup 10} photons per second in a meV bandwidth. In this work we discuss about the possibility of increasing this flux a thousand-fold by exploiting high repetition rate self-seeded pulses at the European XFEL. Here we report on a feasibility study for an optimized configuration of the SASE2 beamline at the European XFEL which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques in order to increase the average spectral flux at 14.4 keV. In particular, we propose to perform monochromatization at 7.2 keV with the help of self-seeding, and amplify the seed in the first part of output undulator. The amplification process can be stopped at a position well before saturation, where the electron beam gets considerable bunching at the 2nd harmonic of the coherent radiation. A second part of the output undulator follows, tuned to the 2nd harmonic frequency, i.e. at 14.4 keV and is used to obtain saturation at this energy. One can further prolong the exchange of energy between the photon and the electron beam by tapering the last part of the output undulator. We performed start-to-end simulations and demonstrate that self-seeding, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve more than a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with the nominal SASE regime at saturation, resulting in a maximum flux of order 10{sup 13} photons per second in a meV bandwidth.
Efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines.
Wang, Yang; Tu, Z C
2012-01-01
The efficiency at maximum power output of linear irreversible Carnot-like heat engines is investigated based on the assumption that the rate of irreversible entropy production of the working substance in each "isothermal" process is a quadratic form of the heat exchange rate between the working substance and the reservoir. It is found that the maximum power output corresponds to minimizing the irreversible entropy production in two isothermal processes of the Carnot-like cycle, and that the efficiency at maximum power output has the form η(mP)=η(C)/(2-γη(C)), where η(C) is the Carnot efficiency, while γ depends on the heat transfer coefficients between the working substance and two reservoirs. The value of η(mP) is bounded between η(-)≡η(C)/2 and η(+)≡η(C)/(2-η(C)). These results are consistent with those obtained by Chen and Yan [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3740 (1989)] based on the endoreversible assumption, those obtained by Esposito et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150603 (2010)] based on the low-dissipation assumption, and those obtained by Schmiedl and Seifert [Europhys. Lett. 81, 20003 (2008)] for stochastic heat engines which in fact also satisfy the low-dissipation assumption. Additionally, we find that the endoreversible assumption happens to hold for Carnot-like heat engines operating at the maximum power output based on our fundamental assumption, and that the Carnot-like heat engines that we focused on do not strictly satisfy the low-dissipation assumption, which implies that the low-dissipation assumption or our fundamental assumption is a sufficient but non-necessary condition for the validity of η(mP)=η(C)/(2-γη(C)) as well as the existence of two bounds, η(-)≡η(C)/2 and η(+)≡η(C)/(2-η(C)).
Matching of Silicon Thin-Film Tandem Solar Cells for Maximum Power Output
C. Ulbrich
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a meaningful characterization method for tandem solar cells. The experimental method allows for optimizing the output power instead of the current. Furthermore, it enables the extraction of the approximate AM1.5g efficiency when working with noncalibrated spectra. Current matching of tandem solar cells under short-circuit condition maximizes the output current but is disadvantageous for the overall fill factor and as a consequence does not imply an optimization of the output power of the device. We apply the matching condition to the maximum power output; that is, a stack of solar cells is power matched if the power output of each subcell is maximal at equal subcell currents. The new measurement procedure uses additional light-emitting diodes as bias light in the JV characterization of tandem solar cells. Using a characterized reference tandem solar cell, such as a hydrogenated amorphous/microcrystalline silicon tandem, it is possible to extract the AM1.5g efficiency from tandems of the same technology also under noncalibrated spectra.
Matúš Krčmár
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was
Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator
Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Min-Hyun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Nam, Seung-Geol; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Park, Seongjun
2017-07-01
Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.
Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi
2008-11-01
This study aimed to examine the relationships between muscle power output using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and eccentric maximum strength under elbow flexion. Eighteen young adult males pulled up a constant light load (2 kg) by ballistic elbow flexion under the following two preliminary conditions: 1) the static relaxed muscle state (SR condition), and 2) using the SSC with countermovement (SSC condition).Muscle power was determined from the product of the pulling velocity and the load mass by a power measurement instrument that adopted the weight-loading method. We assumed the pulling velocity to be the subject's muscle power parameters as a matter of convenience, because we used a constant load. The following two parameters were selected in reference to a previous study: 1) peak velocity (m x s(-1)) (peak power) and 2) 0.1-second velocity during concentric contraction (m x s(-1)) (initial power). Eccentric maximum strength by elbow flexion was measured by a handheld dynamometer.Initial power produced in the SSC condition was significantly larger than that in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed a significant and high correlation (r = 0.70) with peak power in the SSC condition but not in the SR condition. Eccentric maximum strength showed insignificant correlations with initial power in both conditions. In conclusion, it was suggested that eccentric maximum strength is associated with peak power in the SSC condition, but the contribution of the eccentric maximum strength to the SSC potentiation (initial power) may be low.
Analytical expressions for maximum wind turbine average power in a Rayleigh wind regime
Carlin, P.W.
1996-12-01
Average or expectation values for annual power of a wind turbine in a Rayleigh wind regime are calculated and plotted as a function of cut-out wind speed. This wind speed is expressed in multiples of the annual average wind speed at the turbine installation site. To provide a common basis for comparison of all real and imagined turbines, the Rayleigh-Betz wind machine is postulated. This machine is an ideal wind machine operating with the ideal Betz power coefficient of 0.593 in a Rayleigh probability wind regime. All other average annual powers are expressed in fractions of that power. Cases considered include: (1) an ideal machine with finite power and finite cutout speed, (2) real machines operating in variable speed mode at their maximum power coefficient, and (3) real machines operating at constant speed.
Maximum cycle work output optimization for generalized radiative law Otto cycle engines
Xia, Shaojun; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui
2016-11-01
An Otto cycle internal combustion engine which includes thermal and friction losses is investigated by finite-time thermodynamics, and the optimization objective is the maximum cycle work output. The thermal energy transfer from the working substance to the cylinder inner wall follows the generalized radiative law (q∝Δ (Tn)). Under the condition that all of the fuel consumption, the compression ratio and the cycle period are given, the optimal piston trajectories for both the examples with unlimited and limited accelerations on every stroke are determined, and the cycle-period distribution among all strokes is also optimized. Numerical calculation results for the case of radiative law are provided and compared with those obtained for the cases of Newtonian law and linear phenomenological law. The results indicate that the optimal piston trajectory on each stroke contains three sections, which consist of an original maximum-acceleration and a terminal maximum-deceleration parts; for the case of radiative law, optimizing the piston motion path can achieve an improvement of more than 20% in both the cycle-work output and the second-law efficiency of the Otto cycle compared with the conventional near-sinusoidal operation, and heat transfer mechanisms have both qualitative and quantitative influences on the optimal paths of piston movements.
Koofigar, Hamid Reza
2016-01-01
The problem of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in photovoltaic (PV) systems, despite the model uncertainties and the variations in environmental circumstances, is addressed. Introducing a mathematical description, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm is first developed. Unlike many previous investigations, the output voltage is not required to be sensed and the upper bound of system uncertainties and the variations of irradiance and temperature are not required to be known. Estimating the output voltage by an update law, an adaptive-based H∞ tracking algorithm is then developed for the case the perturbations are energy-bounded. The stability analysis is presented for the proposed tracking control schemes, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. From a comparison viewpoint, some numerical and experimental studies are also presented and discussed.
Stysley, Paul; Coyle, Barry; Clarke, Greg; Poulios, Demetrios; Kay, Richard
2015-01-01
The Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is a planned mission sending a LIDAR instrument to the International Space Station that will employ three NASA laser transmitters. This instrument will produce parallel tracks on the Earth's surface that will provide global 3D vegetation canopy measurements. To meet the mission goals a total of 5 High Output Maximum Efficiency Resonator lasers will to be built (1 ETU + 3 Flight + 1 spare) in-house at NASA-GSFC. This presentation will summarize the HOMER design, the testing the design has completed in the past, and the plans to successfully build the units needed for the GEDI mission.
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou
2012-11-01
We investigate the efficiency at the maximum power output (EMP) of an irreversible Carnot engine performing finite-time cycles between two reservoirs at constant temperatures T(h) and T(c) (Carnot efficiency, whether the internally dissipative friction is considered or not. When dissipations of two "isothermal" and two "adiabatic" processes are symmetric, respectively, and the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation, the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency η(CA) = 1-sqrt[T(c)/T(h)] is derived.
Mohsen Taherbaneh; A. H. Rezaie; H. Ghafoorifard; Rahimi, K; M. B. Menhaj
2010-01-01
In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar...
Sadjadi, Firooz A; Mahalanobis, Abhijit
2006-05-01
We report the development of a technique for adaptive selection of polarization ellipse tilt and ellipticity angles such that the target separation from clutter is maximized. From the radar scattering matrix [S] and its complex components, in phase and quadrature phase, the elements of the Mueller matrix are obtained. Then, by means of polarization synthesis, the radar cross section of the radar scatters are obtained at different transmitting and receiving polarization states. By designing a maximum average correlation height filter, we derive a target versus clutter distance measure as a function of four transmit and receive polarization state angles. The results of applying this method on real synthetic aperture radar imagery indicate a set of four transmit and receive angles that lead to maximum target versus clutter discrimination. These optimum angles are different for different targets. Hence, by adaptive control of the state of polarization of polarimetric radar, one can noticeably improve the discrimination of targets from clutter.
Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi
2012-03-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, ηm, of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures Th and Tc, respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), ηm becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency ηC=1-Tc/Th. For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency ηm at maximum power output is bounded from above by ηC/(2-ηC) and from below by ηC/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA=1-Tc/Th is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.
Efficiency at maximum power output of quantum heat engines under finite-time operation.
Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Wu, Zhaoqi
2012-03-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power, η(m), of irreversible quantum Carnot engines (QCEs) that perform finite-time cycles between a hot and a cold reservoir at temperatures T(h) and T(c), respectively. For QCEs in the reversible limit (long cycle period, zero dissipation), η(m) becomes identical to the Carnot efficiency η(C)=1-T(c)/T(h). For QCE cycles in which nonadiabatic dissipation and the time spent on two adiabats are included, the efficiency η(m) at maximum power output is bounded from above by η(C)/(2-η(C)) and from below by η(C)/2. In the case of symmetric dissipation, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η(CA)=1-√(T(c)/T(h)) is recovered under the condition that the time allocation between the adiabats and the contact time with the reservoir satisfy a certain relation.
Maximum Energy Output of a DFIG Wind Turbine Using an Improved MPPT-Curve Method
Dinh-Chung Phan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new method is proposed for obtaining the maximum power output of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine to control the rotor- and grid-side converters. The efficiency of maximum power point tracking that is obtained by the proposed method is theoretically guaranteed under assumptions that represent physical conditions. Several control parameters may be adjusted to ensure the quality of control performance. In particular, a DFIG state-space model and a control technique based on the Lyapunov function are adopted to derive the control method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via numerical simulations of a 1.5-MW DFIG wind turbine using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that when the proposed method is used, the wind turbine is capable of properly tracking the optimal operation point; furthermore, the generator’s available energy output is higher when the proposed method is used than it is when the conventional method is used instead.
Maximum Output Power Control System of Variable-Speed Small Wind Generators
Amano, Yoko; Kajiwara, Hiroyuki
This paper proposes a maximum output power control system of variable-speed small wind generators. Paying attention to an optimum rotational speed of a single phase AC wind generator which can obtain maximum output power according to natural wind speed, the proposed method adjusts the rotational speed of the single phase AC generator to the optimum rotational speed. Since this adjustment is realized on line so that it can be adapted for variable-speed wind, a generated power brake links directly with the single phase AC generator, and the rotational speed of the single phase AC generator is adjusted by controlling the current that flows the FET (Field-Effect Transistor) device as the generated power brake. In order to reduce heat loss of the FET device, the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) controller is introduced. Moreover, the experimental system of the proposed method is constituted and the experiment is performed. Finally, the validity and the practicality of the proposed method are confirmed by experimental results.
Potential role of motion for enhancing maximum output energy of triboelectric nanogenerator
Kyung-Eun Byun
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Although triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG has been explored as one of the possible candidates for the auxiliary power source of portable and wearable devices, the output energy of a TENG is still insufficient to charge the devices with daily motion. Moreover, the fundamental aspects of the maximum possible energy of a TENG related with human motion are not understood systematically. Here, we confirmed the possibility of charging commercialized portable and wearable devices such as smart phones and smart watches by utilizing the mechanical energy generated by human motion. We confirmed by theoretical extraction that the maximum possible energy is related with specific form factors of a TENG. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of human motion in an aspect of the kinetic energy and impulse using varying velocity and elasticity, and clarified how to improve the maximum possible energy of a TENG. This study gives insight into design of a TENG to obtain a large amount of energy in a limited space.
Wijesekara, Waruna; Rosendahl, Lasse; Wu, NingYu;
Oxide thermoelectric materials are promising candidates for energy harvesting from mid to high temperature heat sources. In this work, the oxide thermoelectric materials and the final design of the high temperature thermoelectric module were developed. Also, prototypes of oxide thermoelectric...... generator were built for high temperature applications. This paper specifically discusses the thermoelectric module design and the prototype validations of the design. Here p type calcium cobalt oxide and n type aluminum doped ZnO were developed as the oxide thermoelectric materials. Hot side and cold side...... temperatures were used as 1100 K and 400 K respectively. Using analytical methods, the optimum thermoelement length and the thermoelements area ratio were explored in order to provide the maximum power output by the uni-couple and it is compared to methods reported in literature. Based on operating conditions...
Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers
Richard Billich
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the maximum mechanic muscle output during a bench press exercise. This information could be beneficial to sporting coaches and recreational sportsmen alike in helping them improve the effectiveness of fast strength training. Fifteen football players of the FK Třinec football club participated in the experiment. The measurements were made with the use of 3D cinematic and dynamic analysis, both experimental methods. The research subjects participated in a strength test, in which the mechanic muscle output of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90% and one repetition maximum (1RM was measured. The acquired result values and other required data were modified using Qualisys Track Manager and Visual 3D software (C-motion, Rockville, MD, USA. During the bench press exercise the maximum mechanic muscle output of the set of research subjects was reached at 75% of maximum exercise motion velocity. Optimální rychlost pohybu pro dosažení maxima výstupního výkonu – bench press u trénovaných fotbalistů Dnešní svět silového tréninku přináší řadu mýtů o tom, jak cvičit efektivně a zároveň s co nejmenším negativním vlivem na zdraví člověka. V tomto experimentu se zabýváme nalezením vztahu mezi maximálním výkonem, použitou zátěží a rychlostí. Hlavním úkolem je nalezení optimální rychlosti pohybu pro dosažení maximálního mechanického svalového výkonu při cvičení bench press, což pomůže nejenom trenérům, ale i rekreačním sportovc
Zhang Zhang
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A major analytical challenge in computational biology is the detection and description of clusters of specified site types, such as polymorphic or substituted sites within DNA or protein sequences. Progress has been stymied by a lack of suitable methods to detect clusters and to estimate the extent of clustering in discrete linear sequences, particularly when there is no a priori specification of cluster size or cluster count. Here we derive and demonstrate a maximum likelihood method of hierarchical clustering. Our method incorporates a tripartite divide-and-conquer strategy that models sequence heterogeneity, delineates clusters, and yields a profile of the level of clustering associated with each site. The clustering model may be evaluated via model selection using the Akaike Information Criterion, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion, and the Bayesian Information Criterion. Furthermore, model averaging using weighted model likelihoods may be applied to incorporate model uncertainty into the profile of heterogeneity across sites. We evaluated our method by examining its performance on a number of simulated datasets as well as on empirical polymorphism data from diverse natural alleles of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Our method yielded greater power for the detection of clustered sites across a breadth of parameter ranges, and achieved better accuracy and precision of estimation of clusters, than did the existing empirical cumulative distribution function statistics.
Zhang Zhang
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A major analytical challenge in computational biology is the detection and description of clusters of specified site types, such as polymorphic or substituted sites within DNA or protein sequences. Progress has been stymied by a lack of suitable methods to detect clusters and to estimate the extent of clustering in discrete linear sequences, particularly when there is no a priori specification of cluster size or cluster count. Here we derive and demonstrate a maximum likelihood method of hierarchical clustering. Our method incorporates a tripartite divide-and-conquer strategy that models sequence heterogeneity, delineates clusters, and yields a profile of the level of clustering associated with each site. The clustering model may be evaluated via model selection using the Akaike Information Criterion, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion, and the Bayesian Information Criterion. Furthermore, model averaging using weighted model likelihoods may be applied to incorporate model uncertainty into the profile of heterogeneity across sites. We evaluated our method by examining its performance on a number of simulated datasets as well as on empirical polymorphism data from diverse natural alleles of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Our method yielded greater power for the detection of clustered sites across a breadth of parameter ranges, and achieved better accuracy and precision of estimation of clusters, than did the existing empirical cumulative distribution function statistics.
Scheme to increase the output average spectral flux of the European XFEL at $14.4$ keV
Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni
2015-01-01
Techniques like inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) are currently limited by the photon flux available at X-ray sources. At $14.4$ keV, third generation synchrotron radiation sources produce a maximum of $10^{10}$ photons per second in a meV bandwidth. In this work we discuss about the possibility of increasing this flux a thousand-fold by exploiting high repetition rate self-seeded pulses at the European XFEL. Here we report on a feasibility study for an optimized configuration of the SASE2 beamline at the European XFEL which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques in order to increase the average spectral flux at $14.4$ keV. In particular, we propose to perform monochromatization at $7.2$ keV with the help of self-seeding, and amplify the seed in the first part of output undulator. The amplification process can be stopped at a position well before saturation, where the electron beam gets considerable bunching at the 2nd harmonic of the coherent radiation. ...
Efficiency at maximum power output for an engine with a passive piston
Sano, Tomohiko G.; Hayakawa, Hisao
2016-08-01
Efficiency at maximum power (MP) output for an engine with a passive piston without mechanical controls between two reservoirs is studied theoretically. We enclose a hard core gas partitioned by a massive piston in a temperature-controlled container and analyze the efficiency at MP under a heating and cooling protocol without controlling the pressure acting on the piston from outside. We find the following three results: (i) The efficiency at MP for a dilute gas is close to the Chambadal-Novikov-Curzon-Ahlborn (CNCA) efficiency if we can ignore the sidewall friction and the loss of energy between a gas particle and the piston, while (ii) the efficiency for a moderately dense gas becomes smaller than the CNCA efficiency even when the temperature difference of the reservoirs is small. (iii) Introducing the Onsager matrix for an engine with a passive piston, we verify that the tight coupling condition for the matrix of the dilute gas is satisfied, while that of the moderately dense gas is not satisfied because of the inevitable heat leak. We confirm the validity of these results using the molecular dynamics simulation and introducing an effective mean-field-like model which we call the stochastic mean field model.
Curtis, Gary P.; Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming
2015-01-01
While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. This study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict the reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. These reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Limitations of applying MLBMA to the
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average monthly maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous...
Mohsen Taherbaneh
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.
Maximum Output Power Control Using Short-Circuit Current and Open-Circuit Voltage of a Solar Panel
Kato, Takahiro; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Otsubo, Masahisa; Hombu, Mitsuyuki
2012-10-01
A control method to optimize the output power of a solar cell is necessary because the output of a solar cell strongly depends on solar radiation. We here proposed two output power control methods using the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of a solar panel. One of them used a current ratio and a voltage ratio (αβ control), and the other used a current ratio and a short-circuit current-electric power characteristic coefficient (αγ control). The usefulness of the αβ and the αγ control methods was evaluated. The results showed that the output power controlled by our proposed methods was close to the maximum output power of a solar panel.
Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji
2014-05-01
We formulate the work output and efficiency for linear irreversible heat engines working between a finite-sized hot heat source and an infinite-sized cold heat reservoir until the total system reaches the final thermal equilibrium state with a uniform temperature. We prove that when the heat engines operate at the maximum power under the tight-coupling condition without heat leakage the work output is just half of the exergy, which is known as the maximum available work extracted from a heat source. As a consequence, the corresponding efficiency is also half of its quasistatic counterpart.
The effects of disjunct sampling and averaging time on maximum mean wind speeds
Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Mann, J.
2006-01-01
Conventionally, the 50-year wind is calculated on basis of the annual maxima of consecutive 10-min averages. Very often, however, the averages are saved with a temporal spacing of several hours. We call it disjunct sampling. It may also happen that the wind speeds are averaged over a longer time...... period before being saved. In either case, the extreme wind will be underestimated. This paper investigates the effects of the disjunct sampling interval and the averaging time on the attenuation of the extreme wind estimation by means of a simple theoretical approach as well as measurements...
Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Herskin, Mette S
2010-01-01
for the detection of walking and standing in dairy cows based on the output from an electronic device quantifying acceleration in three dimensions. Ten cows were equipped with onemovementsensor on each hind leg. The cows were then walked one by one in the alleys of the barn and encouraged to stand and walk....... Various algorithms for predicting walking/standing status were compared. The algorithms were all based on a limit of a moving average calculated by using one of two outputs of the accelerometer, either a motion index or a step count, and applied over periods of 3 or 5 s. Furthermore, we investigated...
Zapata, Luis E.
2004-12-21
The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.
Composite Thin-Disk Laser Scaleable to 100 kW Average Power Output and Beyond
Zapata, L.; Beach, R.; Payne, S.
2000-06-01
By combining newly developed technologies to engineer composite laser components with state of the art diode laser pump delivery technologies, we are in a position to demonstrate high beam quality, continuous wave, laser radiation at scaleable high average powers. The crucial issues of our composite thin disk laser technology were demonstrated during a successful first light effort. The high continuous wave power levels that are now within reach make this system of high interest to future DoD initiatives in solid-state laser technology for the laser weapon arena.
Snik, A.F.M.; Noten, J.F.P.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.
2004-01-01
We compared the output of two electronic middle ear implants: the Otologics MET device and the Vibrant Soundbridge device. Both devices were programmed in the linear amplification mode. Aided minus unaided sound pressure levels recorded in the ear canal (objective gain) were compared to unaided minu
Lupiani Castellanos, J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Richarte Reina, J. M.; Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Angulo Pain, E.; Castro Ramierez, I. J.; Iborra Oquendo, M. A.; Urena Llinares, A.
2011-07-01
The ESTRO Booklet 6 gives the numerical data collected in four different sizes and different accelerators for different beam qualities. Although the end of this guide is the calculation and verification of monitor units, the data we have used Siemens Primus accelerator Mevatron 6 MV photons to perform quality control of the experimental measurements for the tissue-maximum ratio (TMR) and the output factor (OF) in air yen dummy.
Sung Woo Park
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs, the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads.
Abediseid, Walid
2012-12-21
The exact average complexity analysis of the basic sphere decoder for general space-time codes applied to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless channel is known to be difficult. In this work, we shed the light on the computational complexity of sphere decoding for the quasi- static, lattice space-time (LAST) coded MIMO channel. Specifically, we drive an upper bound of the tail distribution of the decoder\\'s computational complexity. We show that when the computational complexity exceeds a certain limit, this upper bound becomes dominated by the outage probability achieved by LAST coding and sphere decoding schemes. We then calculate the minimum average computational complexity that is required by the decoder to achieve near optimal performance in terms of the system parameters. Our results indicate that there exists a cut-off rate (multiplexing gain) for which the average complexity remains bounded. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
SIMULATING MODEL OF SYSTEM FOR MAXIMUM OUTPUT POWER OF SOLAR BATTERY
Abdul Majid Al-Khatib
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Simulating model and algorithm for control of electric power converter of a solar battery are proposed in the paper. Control device of D.C. step-down converter with pulse-width modulation is designed on microprocessor basis. Simulating model permits to investigate various operational modes of a solar battery, demonstrates a process with maximum power mode and is characterized by convenient user’s interface.
Cavalli, Andrea; Camilloni, Carlo; Vendruscolo, Michele
2013-03-07
In order to characterise the dynamics of proteins, a well-established method is to incorporate experimental parameters as replica-averaged structural restraints into molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we justify this approach in the case of interproton distance information provided by nuclear Overhauser effects by showing that it generates ensembles of conformations according to the maximum entropy principle. These results indicate that the use of replica-averaged structural restraints in molecular dynamics simulations, given a force field and a set of experimental data, can provide an accurate approximation of the unknown Boltzmann distribution of a system.
Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya; Uysal, Murat
2016-06-01
Multiple-input single-output (MISO) techniques are employed in free-space optical (FSO) links to mitigate the degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, for the MISO FSO system, a partially coherent radial array and a finite-sized receiver aperture are used at the transmitter and the receiver, respectively. Using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, we formulate the average power and the power correlation at the finite-sized slow detector in weak atmospheric turbulence. System performance indicators such as the power scintillation index and the aperture averaging factor are determined. Effects of the source size, ring radius, receiver aperture radius, link distance, and structure constant and the degree of source coherence are analyzed on the performance of the MISO FSO system. In the limiting cases, the numerical results are found to be the same when compared to the existing coherent and partially coherent Gaussian beam scintillation indices.
Quantum Coherent Three-Terminal Thermoelectrics: Maximum Efficiency at Given Power Output
Robert S. Whitney
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This work considers the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. It considers an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. It is shown that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot’s bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e., chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.
Kazi Takpaya; Wei Gang
2003-01-01
Blind identification-blind equalization for Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Multiple Input-Multiple Output (MIMO) channels can be reformulated as the problem of blind sources separation. It has been shown that blind identification via decorrelating sub-channels method could recover the input sources. The Blind Identification via Decorrelating Sub-channels(BIDS)algorithm first constructs a set of decorrelators, which decorrelate the output signals of subchannels, and then estimates the channel matrix using the transfer functions of the decorrelators and finally recovers the input signal using the estimated channel matrix. In this paper, a new approximation of the input source for FIR-MIMO channels based on the maximum likelihood source separation method is proposed. The proposed method outperforms BIDS in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise.
AaziTakpaya; WeiGang
2003-01-01
Blind identification-blind equalization for finite Impulse Response(FIR)Multiple Input-Multiple Output(MIMO)channels can be reformulated as the problem of blind sources separation.It has been shown that blind identification via decorrelating sub-channels method could recover the input sources.The Blind Identification via Decorrelating Sub-channels(BIDS)algorithm first constructs a set of decorrelators,which decorrelate the output signals of subchannels,and then estimates the channel matrix using the transfer functions of the decorrelators and finally recovers the input signal using the estimated channel matrix.In this paper,a new qpproximation of the input source for FIR-MIMO channels based on the maximum likelihood source separation method is proposed.The proposed method outperforms BIDS in the presence of additive white Garssian noise.
Jia, Hongwei; Zhao, Jun
2016-08-01
The output regulation problem of switched linear multi-agent systems with stabilisable and unstabilisable subsystems is investigated in this paper. A sufficient condition for the solvability of the problem is given. Owing to the characteristics of switched multi-agent systems, even if each agent has its own dwell time, the multi-agent systems, if viewed as an overall switched system, may not have a dwell time. To overcome this difficulty, we present a new approach, called an agent-dependent average dwell time method. Due to the limited information exchange between agents, a distributed dynamic observer network for agents is provided. Further, a distributed dynamic controller based on observer is designed. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.
High-repetition rate industrial TEA CO2 laser with average output power of 1.5 kW
Wan, Chongyi; Liu, Shiming; Zhou, Jinwen; Qi, Jilan; Yang, Xiaola; Wu, Jin; Tan, Rongqing; Wang, Lichun; Mei, Qichu
1995-03-01
High power high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser has potential importance in material processing such as shock hardening, glazing, drilling, welding, and cutting for high damage threshold materials, as well as in chemical reaction and isotope separation. This paper describes a transverse-flow closed-cycle UV-preionized TEA CO2 laser with peak pulse power of 20 MW, maximum average power of 1.5 KW at repetition rate of 300 HZ. The laser has compact constructure of gas flow circulation system using tangential fans. With addition of small amounts of H2 and CO to the normal CO2-N2-He gas mixture, one filling sealed operating lifetime is up to millions of pulses. A novel spark gap switch has been developed for very high repetition rate laser discharge in the condition of high pulse power.
Hanai, Yuji; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Kobayashi, Naoki
Recently, the total number of Wind Turbine Generation System (WTGS) connected to distribution network has been increased drastically. Installation of WTGS can reduce the distribution loss and emission of CO2. However, the distribution network with WTGS must be operated keeping reliability of power supply and power quality. The WTGS's effects to distribution network depend on its structure. In order to accomplish both the stable operation of distribution network and the progress of WTGS's prevalence, it is necessary to evaluate the acceptable output of WTGS quantitatively. In this paper, the authors evaluate several WTGSs connected to distribution network from viewpoint of Acceptable Maximum Output (AMO). The operational constrains to calculate the AMO of a WTGS are the following, (1) voltage limit, (2) line current capacity, (3) no reverse flow to distribution transformer, (4) short circuit capacity, and (5) voltage dip by inrush current. In order to evaluate the WTGS from viewpoint of AMO, numerical simulations are accomplished for a distribution system model. Furthermore, characteristics of AMO of a WTGS connected to distribution feeder are analyzed by several numerical examples.
Full-custom design of split-set data weighted averaging with output register for jitter suppression
Jubay, M. C.; Gerasta, O. J.
2015-06-01
A full-custom design of an element selection algorithm, named as Split-set Data Weighted Averaging (SDWA) is implemented in 90nm CMOS Technology Synopsys Library. SDWA is applied in seven unit elements (3-bit) using a thermometer-coded input. Split-set DWA is an improved DWA algorithm which caters the requirement for randomization along with long-term equal element usage. Randomization and equal element-usage improve the spectral response of the unit elements due to higher Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and without significantly degrading signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since a full-custom, the design is brought to transistor-level and the chip custom layout is also provided, having a total area of 0.3mm2, a power consumption of 0.566 mW, and simulated at 50MHz clock frequency. On this implementation, SDWA is successfully derived and improved by introducing a register at the output that suppresses the jitter introduced at the final stage due to switching loops and successive delays.
High repetition TEA CO2 laser with average output power of 3.3 kW%平均功率3.3kW高重复频率TEA CO2激光器
文康; 谭荣清; 张阔海; 刘世明; 朱玉峰; 徐程; 王东蕾; 卢远添; 赵志龙
2011-01-01
研制了一台平均功率3.3 kW横向激励大气压(TEA)CO2激光器.激光器采用单节放电体积为5 cm×4 cm×90 cm的两节腔体串连的形式,印刷板电路预电离结构和闸流管开关放电电路,实现了激光器单脉冲能量输出,高重复频率工作.在重复频率150 Hz条件下,获得了3.3 kW平均输出功率.获得32.8 J单脉冲输出能量,电光转换效率达到15.4%.%A high average power TEA CO2 laser has been developed. Average output power of 3.3 kW is achieved at a repetition of 150 Hz. The TEA CO2 laser consists of two same laser modules, each of which has a 5 cm x 4 cm× 90 cm discharge volume. Several special technologies including Printed Circuit Board (PCB) pre-ionization and thyratron switch discharging circuit are employed. The laser realized large energy output, high repetition operating and high average power output. Laser output pulse energy is measured. The relationship between laser pulse energy and voltage at different gas pressures is obtained. The maximum of output pulse energy is 32.8 J. Electro-optical efficiency is calculated and the maximum of electro-optical efficiency is 15.4％. The laser pulse waveforms are measured at different gas pressures.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the...
MATSUBARA, Shinichi; TANAKA, Motoharu; TAKAMA, Masaki; KAWATO, Sakae; Kobayashi, Takao
2008-01-01
A high-average power, laser-diode-pumped, picosecond-pulse regenerative chirpedpulse amplifier was developed by using the thin-rod Yb:YAG laser architecture. An averageoutput power of 20 W was achieved at a repetition rate of 100 kHz with an output pulse width of 2ps.
Nimo, Antwi; Grgic, Dario; Reindl, Leonhard M.
2012-04-01
This work presents the optimization of radio frequency (RF) to direct current (DC) circuits using Schottky diodes for remote wireless energy harvesting applications. Since different applications require different wireless RF to DC circuits, RF harvesters are presented for different applications. Analytical parameters influencing the sensitivity and efficiency of the circuits are presented. Results showed in this report are analytical, simulated and measured. The presented circuits operate around the frequency 434 MHz. The result of an L-matched RF to DC circuit operates at a maximum efficiency of 27 % at -35 dBm input. The result of a voltage multiplier achieves an open circuit voltage of 6 V at 0 dBm input. The result of a broadband circuit with a frequency band of 300 MHz, achieves an average efficiency of 5 % at -30 dBm and open circuit voltage of 47 mV. A high quality factor (Q) circuit is also realized with a PI network matching for narrow band applications.
Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo
The fluctuation of the total power output of clustered PV systems would be smaller than that of single PV system because of the time difference in the power output fluctuation among PV systems at different locations. This effect, so called smoothing-effect, must be taken into account properly when the impact of clustered PV systems on electric power system is assessed. If the average power output of clustered PV systems can be estimated from the power output of single PV system, it is very useful and helpful for the impact assessment. In this study, we propose a simple method to estimate the total power output fluctuation of clustered PV systems. In the proposed method, a smoothing effect is assumed to be caused as a result of two factors, i.e. time difference of overhead clouds passing among PV systems and the random change in the size and/or shape of clouds. The first one is formulated as a low-pass filter, assuming that output fluctuation is transmitted to the same direction as the wind direction at the constant speed. The second one is taken into account by using a Fourier transform surrogate data. The parameters in the proposed method were selected, so that the estimated fluctuation can be similar with that of ensemble average fluctuation of data observed at 5 points used as a training data set. Then, by using the selected parameters, the fluctuation property was estimated for other data set. The results show that the proposed method is useful for estimating the total power output fluctuation of clustered PV systems.
A. M. Yusop
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This study presents the development of a novel maximum-power point-tracking (MPPT method based on an input shaping scheme controller. The proposed method that changes the initial input response into a shapeable MPPT algorithm is designed based on an exponential input function. This type of input function is selected because of its capability to stabilize the system at the end of the simulation time and remain at the same condition at the final response time. A comparison of the system with the proposed method and the system with traditional perturb and observe (PnO method is also provided. Results show that the system with the proposed method produces higher output power than the system with PnO method; the difference is approximately 15.45%. Results reveal that the exponential function input shaper allows the overall output system to exhibit satisfactory behavior and can efficiently track the maximum output power.
QIU JianBin; FENG Gang; YANG Jie
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the problem of robust exponential H_∞ static output feedback controller design for a class of discrete-time switched linear systems with polytopic-type time-varying parametric uncertainties.The objective is to design a switched static output feedback controller guaranteeing the exponential stability of the resulting closed-loop system with a minimized exponential H_∞ performance under average dwell-time switching scheme.Based on a parameter-dependent discontinuous switched Lyapunov function combined with Finsler's lemma and Dualization lemma,some novel conditions for exponential H_∞ performance analysis are first proposed and in turn the static output feedback controller designs are developed.It is shown that the controller gains can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),which are numerically efficient with commercially available software.Finally,a simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
Sung Woo Park; Byung Kwan Oh; Hyo Seon Park
2015-01-01
The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this...
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2009-01-01
Maximum power output of a class of irreversible non-regeneration heat engines with non-uniform working fluid,in which heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs obey the linear phenomenological heat transfer law [q ∝Δ(T-1)],are studied in this paper. Optimal control theory is used to determine the upper bounds of power of the heat engine for the lumped-parameter model and the distributed-parameter model,respectively. The results show that the maximum power output of the heat engine in the distributed-parameter model is less than or equal to that in the lumped-parameter model,which could provide more realistic guidelines for real heat engines. Analytical solutions of the maximum power output are obtained for the irreversible heat engines working between constant temperature reservoirs. For the irreversible heat engine operating between variable temperature reservoirs,a numerical example for the lumped-parameter model is provided by numerical calculation. The effects of changes of reservoir’s temperature on the maximum power of the heat engine are analyzed. The obtained results are,in addition,compared with those obtained with Newtonian heat transfer law [q ∝Δ(T)].
Marcel Holyoak
Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent
G. M. J. HASAN
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Climate, one of the major controlling factors for well-being of the inhabitants in the world, has been changing in accordance with the natural forcing and manmade activities. Bangladesh, the most densely populated countries in the world is under threat due to climate change caused by excessive use or abuse of ecology and natural resources. This study checks the rainfall patterns and their associated changes in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh mainly Sylhet city through statistical analysis of daily rainfall data during the period of 1957 - 2006. It has been observed that a good correlation exists between the monthly mean and daily maximum rainfall. A linear regression analysis of the data is found to be significant for all the months. Some key statistical parameters like the mean values of Coefficient of Variability (CV, Relative Variability (RV and Percentage Inter-annual Variability (PIV have been studied and found to be at variance. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variation of rainy days also analysed to check for any significant changes.
Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O; Molina, Ana M; Setten, Lorena M
2008-10-01
During the last few years, RIMAPS technique has been used to characterize the micro-relief of metallic surfaces and recently also applied to biological surfaces. RIMAPS is an image analysis technique which uses the rotation of an image and calculates its average power spectrum. Here, it is presented as a tool for describing the morphology of the trichodium net found in some grasses, which is developed on the epidermal cells of the lemma. Three different species of grasses (herbarium samples) are analyzed: Podagrostis aequivalvis (Trin.) Scribn. & Merr., Bromidium hygrometricum (Nees) Nees & Meyen and Bromidium ramboi (Parodi) Rúgolo. Simple schemes representing the real microstructure of the lemma are proposed and studied. RIMAPS spectra of both the schemes and the real microstructures are compared. These results allow inferring how similar the proposed geometrical schemes are to the real microstructures. Each geometrical pattern could be used as a reference for classifying other species. Finally, this kind of analysis is used to determine the morphology of the trichodium net of Agrostis breviculmis Hitchc. As the dried sample had shrunk and the microstructure was not clear, two kinds of morphology are proposed for the trichodium net of Agrostis L., one elliptical and the other rectilinear, the former being the most suitable.
Diode-Pumped Passive Q-Switched 946-nm Nd:YAG Laser with 2.1-W Average Output Power
ZHANG Ling; LI Chun-Yong; FENG Bao-Hua; WEI Zhi-Yi; LI De-Hua; FU Pan-Ming; ZHANG Zhi-Guo
2005-01-01
@@ We demonstrate a diode-pumped passive Q-switched 946nm Nd:YAG laser with a diffusion-bonded composite laser rod and a co-doped Nd, Cr:YAG as saturable absorber. The average output power of 2.1 W is generated at an incident pump power of 14.3 W. The peak power of the Q-switched pulse is 643 W with 80 kHz repetition rate and 40.8ns pulse width. The slope efficiency and optical conversion efficiency are 17.6% and 14.7%, respectively.
Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.
2011-01-01
and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating......One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase...... the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business...
Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.
2011-05-01
One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.
高艳普; 王向东; 王冬青
2015-01-01
An algorithm of maximum likelihood method for parameters estimate was presented aimed at multivariable controlled autoregressive moving average (CARMA-like).The algorithm transform the CARMA-like system into m identification models (m is the output numbers),each of which only had a parameter vector which needed to be esti-mated,and then through maximum likelihood method for estimating parameter vectors of each identification model,and all parameters estimate of the system were obtained.Simulation results verified the effectiveness of the proposed algo-rithm.%提出了一种针对多变量受控自回归滑动平均（controlled autoregressive moving average system-like，CARMA-like）系统的极大似然参数估计算法。将 CARMA-like 系统分解成为 m 个辨识模型（m 是输出量的个数），使每一个辨识模型仅包含一个需要估计的参数向量，通过极大似然方法估计每个辨识模型的参数向量，从而得到整个系统的参数估计值。仿真结果验证了该算法的有效性。
V R Durai; Rashmi Bhardwaj
2014-07-01
The output from Global Forecasting System (GFS) T574L64 operational at India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi is used for obtaining location specific quantitative forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India in the medium range time scale. In this study, a statistical bias correction algorithm has been introduced to reduce the systematic bias in the 24–120 hour GFS model location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures for 98 selected synoptic stations, representing different geographical regions of India. The statistical bias correction algorithm used for minimizing the bias of the next forecast is Decaying Weighted Mean (DWM), as it is suitable for small samples. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the skill of Direct Model Output (DMO) and Bias Corrected (BC) GFS for location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India. The performance skill of 24–120 hour DMO and BC forecast of GFS model is evaluated for all the 98 synoptic stations during summer (May–August 2012) and winter (November 2012–February 2013) seasons using different statistical evaluation skill measures. The magnitude of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for BC GFS forecast is lower than DMO during both summer and winter seasons. The BC GFS forecasts have higher skill score as compared to GFS DMO over most of the stations in all day-1 to day-5 forecasts during both summer and winter seasons. It is concluded from the study that the skill of GFS statistical BC forecast improves over the GFS DMO remarkably and hence can be used as an operational weather forecasting system for location specific forecast over India.
Aminah, Agustin Siti; Pawitan, Gandhi; Tantular, Bertho
2017-03-01
So far, most of the data published by Statistics Indonesia (BPS) as data providers for national statistics are still limited to the district level. Less sufficient sample size for smaller area levels to make the measurement of poverty indicators with direct estimation produced high standard error. Therefore, the analysis based on it is unreliable. To solve this problem, the estimation method which can provide a better accuracy by combining survey data and other auxiliary data is required. One method often used for the estimation is the Small Area Estimation (SAE). There are many methods used in SAE, one of them is Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (EBLUP). EBLUP method of maximum likelihood (ML) procedures does not consider the loss of degrees of freedom due to estimating β with β ^. This drawback motivates the use of the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure. This paper proposed EBLUP with REML procedure for estimating poverty indicators by modeling the average of household expenditures per capita and implemented bootstrap procedure to calculate MSE (Mean Square Error) to compare the accuracy EBLUP method with the direct estimation method. Results show that EBLUP method reduced MSE in small area estimation.
Samir Abdul Cathem Khother
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This search present trellis structures of linear block code capable of achieving high decoding speed while satisfying a constraint on the structural complexity of the trellis in terms of the maximum number of states at any particular depth. First we describe minimal trellis of linear block code that minimizes one or more measures of trellis complexity for the code. We identify the primitive structures that can appear in a minimal trellis , then we applied the sectionalized to trellis, where only uniform sectionalizations of the code trellis diagram are considered .Next, parallel and structurally identical subtrellises for a code without exceeding the maximum state complexity of the minimal trellis of the code is discussed. The complexity of decoder based on a sectionalized trellis diagram for a code is described. In This paper we describe how to apply SISO(soft input soft output max-log-MAP decoder using parallel structure of sectionalized trellis for block code. The (8,4 and (16,5RM (Reed Muller code are included here because they offers parallel and structurally identical subtrellises without cross connections among them that will reduces the decoding complexity and improves decoding speed. This paper also gives simulation results for iterative decoding of parallel concatenated block code of these two codes over AWGN channel by using SISO max-log-MAP decoder based on parallel trellises structure.
Herbert, Wendy J; Davidson, Adam G; Buford, John A
2010-06-01
The pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) of the monkey produces motor outputs to both upper limbs. EMG effects evoked from stimulus-triggered averaging (StimulusTA) were compared with effects from stimulus trains to determine whether both stimulation methods produced comparable results. Flexor and extensor muscles of scapulothoracic, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were studied bilaterally in two male M. fascicularis monkeys trained to perform a bilateral reaching task. The frequency of facilitation versus suppression responses evoked in the muscles was compared between methods. Stimulus trains were more efficient (94% of PMRF sites) in producing responses than StimulusTA (55%), and stimulus trains evoked responses from more muscles per site than from StimulusTA. Facilitation (72%) was more common from stimulus trains than StimulusTA (39%). In the overall results, a bilateral reciprocal activation pattern of ipsilateral flexor and contralateral extensor facilitation was evident for StimulusTA and stimulus trains. When the comparison was restricted to cases where both methods produced a response in a given muscle from the same site, agreement was very high, at 80%. For the remaining 20%, discrepancies were accounted for mainly by facilitation from stimulus trains when StimulusTA produced suppression, which was in agreement with the under-representation of suppression in the stimulus train data as a whole. To the extent that the stimulus train method may favor transmission through polysynaptic pathways, these results suggest that polysynaptic pathways from the PMRF more often produce facilitation in muscles that would typically demonstrate suppression with StimulusTA.
Kishimoto, Miori, E-mail: miori@mx6.et.tiki.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555 (Japan); Tsuji, Yoshihisa, E-mail: y.tsuji@extra.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Shogoinkawara-cho 54, Sakyo-ku 606-8507 (Japan); Katabami, Nana; Shimizu, Junichiro; Lee, Ki-Ja [Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555 (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiroh [Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho, 3-5-8, Fuchu 183-8509 (Japan); Miyake, Yoh-Ichi [Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555 (Japan); Yazumi, Shujiro [Digestive Disease Center, Kitano Hospital, 2-4-20 Ougi-machi, Kita-ku, Osaka 530-8480 (Japan); Chiba, Tsutomu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Shogoinkawara-cho 54, Sakyo-ku 606-8507 (Japan); Yamada, Kazutaka, E-mail: kyamada@obihiro.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11 Inada-cho, Obihiro 080-8555 (Japan)
2011-01-15
Objective: We investigated whether the prerequisite of the maximum slope and deconvolution methods are satisfied in pancreatic perfusion CT and whether the measured parameters between these algorithms are correlated. Methods: We examined nine beagles injected with iohexol (200 mgI kg{sup -1}) at 5.0 ml s{sup -1}. The abdominal aorta and splenic and celiac arteries were selected as the input arteries and the splenic vein, the output veins. For the maximum slope method, we determined the arterial contrast volume of each artery by measuring the area under the curve (AUC) and compared the peak enhancement time in the pancreas with the contrast appearance time in the splenic vein. For the deconvolution method, the artery-to-vein collection rate of contrast medium was calculated. We calculated the pancreatic tissue blood flow (TBF), tissue blood volume (TBV), and mean transit time (MTT) using both algorithms and investigated their correlation based on vessel selection. Results: The artery AUC significantly decreased as it neared the pancreas (P < 0.01). In all cases, the peak time of the pancreas (11.5 {+-} 1.6) was shorter than the appearance time (14.1 {+-} 1.6) in the splenic vein. The splenic artery-vein combination exhibited the highest collection rate (91.1%) and was the only combination that was significantly correlated between TBF, TBV, and MTT in both algorithms. Conclusion: Selection of a vessel nearest to the pancreas is considered as a more appropriate prerequisite. Therefore, vessel selection is important in comparison of the semi-quantitative parameters obtained by different algorithms.
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This raster, created in 2010, is output from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and represents simulated active layer thickness (ALT) in meters...
DeVore, Matthew S; Gull, Stephen F; Johnson, Carey K
2012-04-05
We describe a method for analysis of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) burst measurements using classic maximum entropy. Classic maximum entropy determines the Bayesian inference for the joint probability describing the total fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency. The method was tested with simulated data and then with DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes. The most probable joint distribution can be marginalized to obtain both the overall distribution of fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency distribution. This method proves to be ideal for determining the distance distribution of FRET-labeled biomolecules, and it successfully predicts the shape of the recovered distributions.
Velikanov, S. D.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Zaretsky, N. A.; Zakhryapa, A. V.; Ikonnikov, V. B.; Kazantsev, S. Yu.; Kononov, I. G.; Maneshkin, A. A.; Mashkovskii, D. A.; Saltykov, E. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Chuvatkin, R. S.; Yutkin, I. M.
2017-05-01
The energy and spectral-temporal characteristics of a Fe : ZnSe laser operating in pulsed and repetitively pulsed regimes are studied at room temperature of the polycrystalline active element. The crystal was pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser. The energy of the Fe : ZnSe laser in a single-pulse regime was 1.67 J at the slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed and incident energy of ∼43% and ∼27%, respectively. In a repetitively pulsed regime with a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz and an efficiency with respect to the absorbed power of ∼40%, the average laser power was ∼20 W with an individual pulse energy of ∼1 J. The possibility of increasing the average power of the repetitively pulsed Fe : ZnSe laser at room temperature is discussed.
Research on the maximum power output control of photovoltaic generation system%光伏并网发电系统最大功率输出控制研究
夏向阳; 王锦泷; 易浩民; 贾晋峰; 张贵涛; 王霖浩; 李理; 李灵利
2016-01-01
In view of the low power output of photovoltaic grid-connected generation system, the method of optimal maximum power point tracking and the grid connected control were proposed. For the photovoltaic array maximum power output problems, a kind of improved simulated annealing particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO-SA) was put forward. For grid connected power control, the multi parameter inverter composite control and DC side voltage and amplitude stability control strategy was put forward. The related model was built by Matlab/Simulik software. The results show that this algorithm can solve the global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) problem in the shade, and reduce the photoelectric conversion system energy loss. The multi parameter inverter composite control and DC side voltage and amplitude stability control strategy can realize the power system maximum power output, achieve the optimal energy utilization. The simulation results show that the proposed schemes are feasible and effective.%针对光伏并网发电系统功率输出低的问题，提出从优化最大功率点跟踪和并网控制2个方面综合考虑的方案。对于光伏阵列的最大功率输出，提出一种改进的模拟退火−粒子群优化算法(PSO-SA)；对于并网功率控制，提出多参数逆变器复合控制以及直流侧电压和幅值稳定的控制策略，通过Matlab/Simulik软件搭建相关模型并进行仿真。研究结果表明：模拟退火−粒子群优化算法(PSO-SA)能够解决遮荫情况下全局最大功率点跟踪问题，避免光伏阵列陷入局部最大功率点，减少光电转换系统的能量损失；多参数逆变器复合控制以及直流侧电压和幅值稳定的控制策略能实现光伏并网发电最大功率稳定输出，使能源利用率最高。仿真结果验证了这些方案的可行性和有效性。
Mary Hokazono
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia; and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia. TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05. RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6% and five conditional results (8.1% in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.
Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos
2017-06-23
This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.
基于区域信息融合的风电场平均年发电量预测∗%Average Annual Energy Output Prediction Based on Regional Information Fusion
王娜; 邵霞; 高云鹏; 万全
2015-01-01
Annual energy output of a candidate site in its life span is an important reference criterion of wind farm macro siting.A regional information fusion method,which allows the use of multiple reference wheather stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements,was proposed to im-prove the annual energy output prediction accuracy.Firstly,the correlation model was established between the short-term wind data of a single reference wheather station and the candidate wind farm,and the multi-ple long-term wind speeds of candidate site based on different reference stations were predicted by using the model.Then,the multiple prediction results were integrated by neural network to obtain the final long-term hourly wind speed data,and the annual energy output was subsequently determined on the basis of the knowledge of these wind speeds.The simulation results show that,by using the proposed method, the error reduction up to 1 1.32% has been achieved in the relative error of the average annual power out-put,with respect to the case of using a single reference wheather station method.%备选风电场在寿命周期内的平均年发电量是风电场宏观选址的一个重要参考判据.为了提高风电场平均年发电量的预测精度，提出了一种基于风电场附近多个气象站长期测风数据的区域信息融合的平均年发电量预测方法.首先分别建立各气象站与风电场同期小时风速之间的相关模型，应用相关模型得到多个长期小时风速预测值，再用神经网络对长期小时风速预测值进行融合处理得出最终的小时风速预测值，在此基础上进行风电场平均年发电量的估算.仿真结果表明：本文提出的区域信息融合方法对年平均发电量的预测误差比采用单一气象站数据的预测误差最高可降低11.32%.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...
Sullivan, Sharon G.; Grabois, Andrew; Greco, Albert N.
2003-01-01
Includes six reports related to book trade statistics, including prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and numbers of books and other media reviewed by major reviewing publications. (LRW)
王发强; 李晶; 马西奎
2015-01-01
Positive output super-lift (POSL) Luo converter, which has some particular good features: such as its power switch being grounded, high voltage gain and positive polarity output, is a good topology for overcoming the drawbacks of the conventional Buck and Boost converters to obtain high output voltage and power for satisfying the requirements in practical engineering. In this paper, based on the averaging method and taking into account the abrupt changing of the voltage across the energy-transferring capacitor, the improved reduced order averaged model and the corresponding small signal model of the POSL Luo converter are established, and its transfer function from the duty cycle to the output voltage is derived and analyzed. By combining the derived transfer function from the duty cycle to the output voltage of the POSL Luo converter, with that for the voltage compensator and that for the pulse width modalation (PWM) generator, the transfer function from the reference voltage to the output voltage of the voltage-mode controlled POSL Luo converter is also derived. And then, the stability of the voltage-mode controlled POSL Luo converter is identified by calculating the poles of its transfer function from the reference voltage to the output voltage, so the corresponding stability boundaries are obtained. The power electronic simulator (PSIM) software is applied to simulate the POSL Luo converter in time domain and frequency domain to preliminarily confirm the effectiveness of the established transfer function from the duty cycle to the output voltage of the POSL Luo converter, and to simulate the voltage-mode controlled POSL Luo converter to preliminarily verify the theoretical analysis about its stability. Finally, the hardware circuits for the POSL Luo converter and the voltage-mode controlled POSL Luo converter are designed, and the circuit experimental results in time domain from the digital oscilloscope and in frequency domain from the impedance
Hossain, Murshed
2014-07-08
The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between ± 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output
Senju, T.; Uezato, K. [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Tokumura, M. [Okinawa Electric Power Co. Inc., Okinawa (Japan)
1996-11-20
In recent years, exploitation of natural energy by saving fossil energy is being reconsidered. One of the expected sources of natural energy for the future is wind energy, which has been actively studied as a substitute source of energy for the world. However, the wind energy is influenced by geographic and weather conditions. So that the generating power varies with time. Therefore, in order to make the windmill generator system to extract available maximum power from wind energy. This paper proposes a tracking control method of maximum power operating point using the recursively least square method with forgetting factor. The proposed method is simple since it identifies the system parameters and controls the actual rotor speed by means of a PI controller. The system parameters are identified by using the information for generating power and windmill speed. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method with numerical simulations and experimental. 11 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Kinkhabwala, Ali
2013-01-01
The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...
Senju, T.; Uezato, K. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). College of Engineering; Tokumura, M. [Okinawa Electric Power Co. Inc., Okinawa (Japan)
1995-09-30
In recent years, exploitation of natural energy by saving fossil energy is being reconsidered. One of the expected sources of natural energy for the future is wind energy, which has been actively studied as a substitute energy for the world. However, wind energy is influenced by geographic and weather conditions, so the generating power varies with time. Therefore, in order to make the windmill generator system to extract available maximumpower from wind energy, this paper proposes a tracking control method of maximum power operating point using the recursively least square method with forgetting factor. The proposed method is simple since it identifies mechanical parameters and it controls the actual rotor speed by means of a PI controller. System parameters are identified by using generator power and windmill speed. Simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method. 8 refs., 57 figs., 11 tabs.
MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS
Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert
2003-05-01
A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.
Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city
Shahatha Salim, Majid; Mohammed Najim, Jassim [College of Science, University of Anbar (Iraq); Mohammed Salih, Salih [Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Anbar (Iraq)
2013-07-01
Performance of photovoltaic (PV) module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad) is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.
Maximum power analysis of photovoltaic module in Ramadi city
Majid Shahatha Salim, Jassim Mohammed Najim, Salih Mohammed Salih
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Performance of photovoltaic (PV module is greatly dependent on the solar irradiance, operating temperature, and shading. Solar irradiance can have a significant impact on power output of PV module and energy yield. In this paper, a maximum PV power which can be obtain in Ramadi city (100km west of Baghdad is practically analyzed. The analysis is based on real irradiance values obtained as the first time by using Soly2 sun tracker device. Proper and adequate information on solar radiation and its components at a given location is very essential in the design of solar energy systems. The solar irradiance data in Ramadi city were analyzed based on the first three months of 2013. The solar irradiance data are measured on earth's surface in the campus area of Anbar University. Actual average data readings were taken from the data logger of sun tracker system, which sets to save the average readings for each two minutes and based on reading in each one second. The data are analyzed from January to the end of March-2013. Maximum daily readings and monthly average readings of solar irradiance have been analyzed to optimize the output of photovoltaic solar modules. The results show that the system sizing of PV can be reduced by 12.5% if a tracking system is used instead of fixed orientation of PV modules.
The Global NR Output Kept Rising
Bo Wen
2011-01-01
In early November, Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries in- dicated that from 2005 to 2011, the pro- ducing area and output of the global NR both kept rising. As predicted, the pro- ducing area will be 72 million hectares, the output will be 10.02 million tons and the average output will be 1,392 kg/hectare by the end of2011.
Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies
Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.
1999-01-01
Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam
LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP
Pedro Jimenez-Reyes
2016-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.
Alfred Bürgi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP, is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot. Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.
Bürgi, Alfred; Scanferla, Damiano; Lehmann, Hugo
2014-08-07
Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.
Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate
A. Khodayari
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.
Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave
Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi
2017-08-01
A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.
Generic maximum likely scale selection
Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo
2007-01-01
The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....
Maximum Power from a Solar Panel
Michael Miller
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.
Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...
Markovic, Srdjan; Dragan, Mirkov; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Jaric, Slobodan
2013-01-01
A number of studies based on maximum vertical jumps have presumed that the maximum jump height reveals the maximum power of lower limb muscles, as well as the tested muscle power output predicts the jumping performance. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that both the body size and countermovement depth confound the relationship between the muscle power output and performance of maximum vertical jumps. Sixty young and physically active males were tested on the maximum countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ). The jumping performance (Hmax), peak (Ppeak) and the average power output (Pavg) during the concentric phase, countermovement depth (only in CMJ) and body mass as an index of body size were assessed. To assess the power-performance relationship, the correlations between Hmax with both Ppeak and Pavg were calculated without and with controlling for the effects of body mass, as well as for the countermovement depth. The results revealed moderate power-performance relationships (range 0.55
Durbeck, Robert
1988-01-01
Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras
Siegel, Irving H.
The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)
Enhanced power output of an electrospun PVDF/MWCNTs-based nanogenerator by tuning its conductivity
Yu, Hao; Huang, Tao; Lu, Mingxia; Mao, Mengye; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi
2013-10-01
PVDF nanofibre-based piezoelectric nanogenerators are directly prepared via electrospinning without any post-poling treatment. The effect of the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the fibre diameter, mechanical properties, β-phase composition, surface and volume conductivities, output voltage and output power are investigated. Increased surface conductivity of the poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibre mats, which plays an important role in the enhancement of output power, is first found by the addition of an appropriate amount of MWCNTs. The maximum generated piezo-voltage exhibited by PVDF nanofibre mats in the presence of 5 wt% MWCNTs is as high as 6 V, while the average capacitor charging power is 81.8 nW, increases of 200% and 44.8%, respectively, compared with bare PVDF nanofibre mats.
Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems
Zamani, Mahdi
2012-01-01
The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...
Gramkow, Claus
1999-01-01
In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...
夏加宽; 李文瑞; 何新; 张健
2015-01-01
为获得热声发电系统最大电能输出和声功捕获，该文以横向磁通永磁直线发电机为例，采用力–电类比法建立热声发电系统等效模型，研究电磁力、次级速度与阻抗之间的关系，推导热声发电系统等效阻尼的表达式，并分析电抗对等效阻尼的影响。在此基础上，基于最大电能输出进行阻抗匹配，并采用相量法分析阻抗匹配对机械谐振条件的影响，推导出谐振弹簧劲度系数表达式。最后，通过直线振荡系统实验平台验证阻抗匹配及弹簧谐振劲度系数理论推导的准确性，为热声发电系统直线发电机的设计提供理论指导。%In order to obtain maximum captured acoustic and electric power output of thermoacoustic electric generation systems (TAEGS), an electro-mechanical analogic model was built using an appropriate transverse flux PM linear machine (TFPMLM). The relationship among electromagnetic force, velocity of mover and reactance was analyzed, and expression of TAEGS equivalent damping was deduced. The effect of the reactance on equivalent damping was analyzed, and the parameter of reactance was deduced for getting impedance matching. The influence of impedance matching on conditions of mechanical resonance was researched using phasor diagram. Expression of the spring stiffness factor was deduced. Experimental results through a linear oscillatory platform verify the validity of the impedance matching and theoretically derivate equivalent resonance stiffness factor. The achievements in this paper provide theoretical guidance for the linear generator design of TAEGS.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...
Governmentally amplified output volatility
Funashima, Yoshito
2016-11-01
Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...
Young, Vershawn Ashanti
2004-01-01
"Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…
Gramkow, Claus
2001-01-01
In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Andreja Möller Petrun
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.
Covariant approximation averaging
Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2014-01-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously
Verification of hourly forecasts of wind turbine power output
Wegley, H.L.
1984-08-01
A verification of hourly average wind speed forecasts in terms of hourly average power output of a MOD-2 was performed for four sites. Site-specific probabilistic transformation models were developed to transform the forecast and observed hourly average speeds to the percent probability of exceedance of an hourly average power output. (This transformation model also appears to have value in predicting annual energy production for use in wind energy feasibility studies.) The transformed forecasts were verified in a deterministic sense (i.e., as continuous values) and in a probabilistic sense (based upon the probability of power output falling in a specified category). Since the smoothing effects of time averaging are very pronounced, the 90% probability of exceedance was built into the transformation models. Semiobjective and objective (model output statistics) forecasts were made compared for the four sites. The verification results indicate that the correct category can be forecast an average of 75% of the time over a 24-hour period. Accuracy generally decreases with projection time out to approx. 18 hours and then may increase due to the fairly regular diurnal wind patterns that occur at many sites. The ability to forecast the correct power output category increases with increasing power output because occurrences of high hourly average power output (near rated) are relatively rare and are generally not forecast. The semiobjective forecasts proved superior to model output statistics in forecasting high values of power output and in the shorter time frames (1 to 6 hours). However, model output statistics were slightly more accurate at other power output levels and times. Noticeable differences were observed between deterministic and probabilistic (categorical) forecast verification results.
Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism
Roger Chao
2012-03-01
Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.
Optimisation of high average power optical parametric generation using a photonic crystal fiber.
Sloanes, Trefor; McEwan, Ken; Lowans, Brian; Michaille, Laurent
2008-11-24
In this paper the length of a photonic crystal fiber is optimised to perform high average output power parametric generation with maximum efficiency. It is shown that the fiber length has to be increased up to 150 m, well beyond the walk-off distance between the pump and signal/idler, to optimize the generation efficiency. In this regime, the Raman process can take over from four-wave mixing and lead to supercontinuum generation. It is shown that the parametric wavelength conversion is directional; probably due to small variations in the core dimensions along the fiber length. The fiber exhibits up to 40% conversion efficiency, with the idler (0.9 microm) and the signal (1.3 microm) having a combined output power of over 1.5 W.
An improved maximum power point tracking method for photovoltaic systems
Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.; Doumbia, M.L.; Cheriti, A. [Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene, Departement de genie electrique et genie informatique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres (QC) (Canada)
2008-07-15
In most of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods described currently in the literature, the optimal operation point of the photovoltaic (PV) systems is estimated by linear approximations. However these approximations can lead to less than optimal operating conditions and hence reduce considerably the performances of the PV system. This paper proposes a new approach to determine the maximum power point (MPP) based on measurements of the open-circuit voltage of the PV modules, and a nonlinear expression for the optimal operating voltage is developed based on this open-circuit voltage. The approach is thus a combination of the nonlinear and perturbation and observation (P and O) methods. The experimental results show that the approach improves clearly the tracking efficiency of the maximum power available at the output of the PV modules. The new method reduces the oscillations around the MPP, and increases the average efficiency of the MPPT obtained. The new MPPT method will deliver more power to any generic load or energy storage media. (author)
Ensemble Averaged Gravity Theory
Khosravi, Nima
2016-01-01
We put forward the idea that all the theoretically consistent models of gravity have a contribution to the observed gravity interaction. In this formulation each model comes with its own Euclidean path integral weight where general relativity (GR) automatically has the maximum weight in high-curvature regions. We employ this idea in the framework of Lovelock models and show that in four dimensions the result is a specific form of $f(R,G)$ model. This specific $f(R,G)$ satisfies the stability conditions and has self-accelerating solution. Our model is consistent with the local tests of gravity since its behavior is same as GR for high-curvature regimes. In low-curvature regime the gravity force is weaker than GR which can interpret as existence of a repulsive fifth force for very large scales. Interestingly there is an intermediate-curvature regime where the gravity force is stronger in our model than GR. The different behavior of our model in comparison with GR in both low- and intermediate-curvature regimes ...
Zhai, Jun-yong; Du, Hai-bo; Fei, Shu-min
2016-03-01
This paper discusses the problem of global sampled-data output feedback stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems whose output function is unknown. A systematic design scheme is developed to construct a linear output feedback control law in sampled-data form. An explicit formula for the maximum allowable sampling period is computed to guarantee global stability of the uncertain nonlinear systems under the proposed controller with appropriate gains. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.
Takarada, Y; Hirano, Y; Ishige, Y; Ishii, N
1997-11-01
The relation between the eccentric force developed during a countermovement and the mechanical power output was studied in squatting exercises under nominally isotonic load (50% of 1-repetition maximum). The subjects (n = 5) performed squatting exercises with a countermovement at varied deceleration rates before lifting the load. The ground reaction force and video images were recorded to obtain the power output of the body. Net muscle moments acting at hip, knee, and ankle joints were calculated from video recordings by using inverse dynamics. When an intense deceleration was taken at the end of downward movement, large eccentric force was developed, and the mechanical power subsequently produced during the lifting movement was consistently larger than that produced without the countermovement. Both maximal and mean power outputs during concentric actions increased initially with the eccentric force, whereas they began to decline when the eccentric force exceeded approximately 1.4 times the sum of load and body weight. Video-image analysis showed that this characteristic relation was predominantly determined by the torque around the knee joint. Electromyographic analyses showed no consistent increase in time-averaged integrated electromyograph from vastus lateralis with the power output, suggesting that the enhancement of power output is primarily caused by the prestretch-induced improvement of an intrinsic force-generating capability of the agonist muscle.
Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree
Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;
2011-01-01
We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...
Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete
2000-01-01
This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...
Remarks on the Lower Bounds for the Average Genus
Yi-chao Chen
2011-01-01
Let G be a graph of maximum degree at most four. By using the overlap matrix method which is introduced by B. Mohar, we show that the average genus of G is not less than 1/3 of its maximum genus, and the bound is best possible. Also, a new lower bound of average genus in terms of girth is derived.
A study of potential output and output gap in the Czech Republic
Václav Adamec
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of economic cycle is of enormous importance for monitoring economic output and explaining price and wage inflation. It provides essential information for shaping economic and monetary policy of central authorities. Several methods are currently available to estimate potential output and output gap. In the current study, methods of Hodrick-Prescott filter and Cobb-Douglas production function were implemented to estimate potential output, which cannot be empirically observed. For the purpose of comparing the above methods, quarterly and annual time series of real GDP, labour and gross fixed capital starting in 1996 were used for estimation of the output gap. Relative contributions of labour, fixed capital formation and technology improvement factor towards growth of potential output were quantified for the studied series. The Cobb-Douglas production function appears to be superior to Hodrick-Prescott filter in providing quality estimates of potential output. Hodrick-Prescott filter allows estimation of potential output; nevertheless, it fails to identify components of cyclic behaviour of economic activity. Cobb-Douglas production function describes level of potential product assuming average utilization of production factors. A detailed analysis of components of economic growth in the observed period is provided.
Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS
Shinn, Michelle D
2005-01-01
The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...
Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine
Sun, Daming; Qiu, Limin; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)
2008-05-15
A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE. (author)
Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine
Sun Daming [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Qiu Limin [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: limin.qiu@zju.edu.cn; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38, Zheda Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)
2008-05-15
A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE.
Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error
Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun
2016-09-01
We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.
Adewunmi, Adrian; Byrne, Mike
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the reduction of variance associated with a simulation output performance measure, using the Sequential Sampling method while applying minimum simulation replications, for a class of JIT (Just in Time) warehousing system called crossdocking. We initially used the Sequential Sampling method to attain a desired 95% confidence interval half width of plus/minus 0.5 for our chosen performance measure (Total usage cost, given the mean maximum level of 157,000 pounds and a mean minimum level of 149,000 pounds). From our results, we achieved a 95% confidence interval half width of plus/minus 2.8 for our chosen performance measure (Total usage cost, with an average mean value of 115,000 pounds). However, the Sequential Sampling method requires a huge number of simulation replications to reduce variance for our simulation output value to the target level. Arena (version 11) simulation software was used to conduct this study.
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...
Site compare scripts and output
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...
A new nonlinear output tracking controller via output-feedback
Yun ZHANG; Yungang LIU; Yuqin DING
2006-01-01
In this paper, the output tracking control is investigated for a class of nonlinear systems when only output is available for feedback. Based on the multivariable analog of circle criterion, an observer is first introduced. Then, the observer-based output tracking controller is constructively designed by using the integral backstepping approach together with completing square. It is shown that, under relatively mild conditions, all the closed-loop signals are uniformly bounded.Meanwhile the system output asymptotically tracks the desired output. A simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Muscle coordination is key to the power output and mechanical efficiency of limb movements.
Wakeling, J M; Blake, O M; Chan, H K
2010-02-01
The purpose of this study was to determine which features of muscle mechanics and muscle coordination affect the power output from a limb during locomotion. Eight subjects were tested while cycling at maximum exertion for 25 min on a stationary dynamometer. Cadence and load were varied to span a range of power outputs and myoelectric activity was measured from 10 muscles in the leg. Cycle-by-cycle variations in muscle coordination, cadence and power output were observed and the EMG intensity across all muscles was used as an estimate of the metabolic cost for each cycle. Data for the cycles at greatest power output were separated into three groups: maximum power, 80% power but lower EMG intensity and 80% power and higher EMG intensity. Torque-angular velocity relations were determined for the ankle and knee joints. During cycling at maximum power output the ankle joint was not extending at the velocity necessary for maximum power output; thus, maximum limb power occurs when some of the individual muscles cannot be generating maximum power output. Increases in EMG intensity occurred with no increase in power output from the limb: these corresponded to decreases in the efficiency and changes in coordination. Increases in power were achieved that were not matched by equivalent increases in EMG intensity, but did occur with changes in coordination. It is proposed that the power output from the limb is limited by the coordination pattern of the muscles rather than the maximum power output from any one muscle itself.
Maximum information photoelectron metrology
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...
Cardiac output during exercise
Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.
2015-01-01
Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...
Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories
Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael
2013-01-01
Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...
Maximum likely scale estimation
Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo
2005-01-01
A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....
Mathews Lailu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...
Average Convexity in Communication Situations
Slikker, M.
1998-01-01
In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin
Waite, Anthony; /SLAC
2011-09-07
Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each
ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun
2008-01-01
Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.
Nonlinear input-output systems
Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng
1987-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.
Inverter communications using output signal
Chapman, Patrick L.
2017-02-07
Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.
F. TopsÃƒÂ¸e
2001-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over
Regularized maximum correntropy machine
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2015-02-12
In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.
Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion
Jian Hou
2014-01-01
fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques
Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D;
1995-01-01
Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exercise...... at a workload of 50 W (EX). The agreements between the techniques, two by two, were expressed as the bias calculated as the averaged differences between the techniques. Precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the bias. The overall agreement (bias +/- precision) between TD, DOP and CR respectively...... and CR, respectively, and TD were 2.5 +/- 2.2 and 2.6 +/- 1.6 l/min. The overall agreement between DOP and CR was 0.1 +/- 1.6 l/min. In conclusion, TD overestimated cardiac output compared to the other techniques and the poor agreement has to be taken into consideration especially in measures of low...
Collector-Output Analysis Program
Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II
1986-01-01
Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.
Equalized near maximum likelihood detector
2012-01-01
This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.
Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John
2005-01-01
A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].
High Average Power Raman Conversion in Diamond: ’Eyesafe’ Output and Fiber Laser Conversion
2015-06-19
power. The efficiencies and brightness achieved are found to be higher than expected by current theories for thermal effects in diamond. The project...understand the importance of other cavity parameters on laser behaviour in order to assist with future optimization of designs. We thus developed a model...three areas not originally planned in the proposal. 1) Raman beam combination The technique of Raman beam combination, which has been investigated
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.
Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.
Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W
2010-05-01
The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.
Performance study of highly efficient 520 W average power long pulse ceramic Nd:YAG rod laser
Choubey, Ambar; Vishwakarma, S. C.; Ali, Sabir; Jain, R. K.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Oak, S. M.
2013-10-01
We report the performance study of a 2% atomic doped ceramic Nd:YAG rod for long pulse laser operation in the millisecond regime with pulse duration in the range of 0.5-20 ms. A maximum average output power of 520 W with 180 J maximum pulse energy has been achieved with a slope efficiency of 5.4% using a dual rod configuration, which is the highest for typical lamp pumped ceramic Nd:YAG lasers. The laser output characteristics of the ceramic Nd:YAG rod were revealed to be nearly equivalent or superior to those of high-quality single crystal Nd:YAG rod. The laser pump chamber and resonator were designed and optimized to achieve a high efficiency and good beam quality with a beam parameter product of 16 mm mrad (M2˜47). The laser output beam was efficiently coupled through a 400 μm core diameter optical fiber with 90% overall transmission efficiency. This ceramic Nd:YAG laser will be useful for various material processing applications in industry.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
1990-11-01
findings contained in this report are thosE Df the author(s) and should not he construed as an official Department Df the Army position, policy , or...Marquardt methods" to perform linear and nonlinear estimations. One idea in this area by Box and Jenkins (1976) was the " backcasting " procedure to evaluate
Tehsin, Sara; Rehman, Saad; Awan, Ahmad B.; Chaudry, Qaiser; Abbas, Muhammad; Young, Rupert; Asif, Afia
2016-04-01
Sensitivity to the variations in the reference image is a major concern when recognizing target objects. A combinational framework of correlation filters and logarithmic transformation has been previously reported to resolve this issue alongside catering for scale and rotation changes of the object in the presence of distortion and noise. In this paper, we have extended the work to include the influence of different logarithmic bases on the resultant correlation plane. The meaningful changes in correlation parameters along with contraction/expansion in the correlation plane peak have been identified under different scenarios. Based on our research, we propose some specific log bases to be used in logarithmically transformed correlation filters for achieving suitable tolerance to different variations. The study is based upon testing a range of logarithmic bases for different situations and finding an optimal logarithmic base for each particular set of distortions. Our results show improved correlation and target detection accuracies.
Morales-Casique, E.; Neuman, S.P.; Vesselinov, V.V.
2010-01-01
We use log permeability and porosity data obtained from single-hole pneumatic packer tests in six boreholes drilled into unsaturated fractured tuff near Superior, Arizona, to postulate, calibrate and compare five alternative variogram models (exponential, exponential with linear drift, power, trunca
The influence of tendon compliance on muscle power output and efficiency during cyclic contractions.
Lichtwark, G A; Barclay, C J
2010-03-01
Muscle power output and efficiency during cyclical contractions are influenced by the timing and duration of stimulation of the muscle and the interaction of the muscle with its mechanical environment. It has been suggested that tendon compliance may reduce the energy required for power production from the muscle by reducing the required shortening of the muscle fibres. Theoretically this may allow the muscle to maintain both high power output and efficiency during cyclical contraction; however, this has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. To investigate how tendon compliance might act to increase muscle power output and/or efficiency, we attached artificial tendons of varying compliance to muscle fibre bundles in vitro and measured power output and mechanical efficiency during stretch-shorten cycles (2 Hz) with a range of stretch amplitudes and stimulation patterns. The results showed that peak power, average power output and efficiency (none of which can have direct contributions from the compliant tendon) all increased with increasing tendon compliance, presumably due to the tendon acting to minimise muscle energy use by allowing the muscle fibres to shorten at optimal speeds. Matching highly compliant tendons with a sufficiently large amplitude length change and appropriate stimulation pattern significantly increased the net muscle efficiency compared with stiff tendons acting at the same frequency. The maximum efficiency for compliant tendons was also similar to the highest value measured under constant velocity and force conditions, which suggests that tendon compliance can maximise muscle efficiency in the conditions tested here. These results provide experimental evidence that during constrained cyclical contractions, muscle power and efficiency can be enhanced with compliant tendons.
Quantized average consensus with delay
Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio
2012-01-01
Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co
Multi-output differential technologies
Bidare, Srinivas R.
1997-01-01
A differential is a very old and proven mechanical device that allows a single input to be split into two outputs having equal torque irrespective of the output speeds. A standard differential is capable of providing only two outputs from a single input. A recently patented multi-output differential technology known as `Plural-Output Differential' allows a single input to be split into many outputs. This new technology is the outcome of a systematic study of complex gear trains (Bidare 1992). The unique feature of a differential (equal torque at different speeds) can be applied to simplify the construction and operation of many complex mechanical devices that require equal torque's or forces at multiple outputs. It is now possible to design a mechanical hand with three or more fingers with equal torque. Since these finger are powered via a differential they are `mechanically intelligent'. A prototype device is operational and has been used to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of the design. In this paper we shall review two devices that utilize the new technology resulting in increased performance, robustness with reduced complexity and cost.
The effects of cold-water immersion on power output and heart rate in elite cyclists.
Schniepp, Jason; Campbell, Teri S; Powell, Kasey L; Pincivero, Danny M
2002-11-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cold-water immersion on power output, heart rate, and time to peak power in 10 well-trained cyclists. The Compu-trainer Professional Model 8001 computerized stationary trainer was used to evaluate maximum power, average power, and time to peak power during a simulated cycling sprint. The heart rate was measured using a Polar heart rate monitor. Subjects performed 2 maximum-effort sprints (for approximately 30 seconds) separated by either an experimental condition (15 minutes of cold-water immersion at 12 degrees C up to the level of the iliac crest) or a control condition (15 minutes of quiet sitting). All subjects participated under both control and experimental conditions in a counterbalanced design in which 5 subjects performed the experimental condition first and the other 5 subjects performed the control condition first. Each condition was separated by at least 2 days. The time to peak power was not different between the 2 conditions. Maximum and average powers declined by 13.7 and 9.5% for the experimental condition but only by 4.7 and 2.3% for the control condition, respectively. The results also demonstrated a significantly greater decline in maximum heart rate after cold-water immersion (8.1%) than under the control condition (2.4%). Average heart rate showed a decrease of 4.2% under the experimental condition, as compared with an increase of 1.5% under the control condition. The major findings of this study suggest that a relatively brief period of cold-water immersion can manifest significant physiological effects that can impair cycling performance.
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-01-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...
Pareto Principle in Datamining: an Above-Average Fencing Algorithm
K. Macek
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper formulates a new datamining problem: which subset of input space has the relatively highest output where the minimal size of this subset is given. This can be useful where usual datamining methods fail because of error distribution asymmetry. The paper provides a novel algorithm for this datamining problem, and compares it with clustering of above-average individuals.
Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Streek, André; Kloetzer, Sascha; Loeschner, Udo
2016-03-01
In this paper, high-throughput ultrashort pulse laser machining is investigated on various industrial grade metals (Aluminium, Copper, Stainless steel) and Al2O3 ceramic at unprecedented processing speeds. This is achieved by using a high pulse repetition frequency picosecond laser with maximum average output power of 270 W in conjunction with a unique, in-house developed two-axis polygon scanner. Initially, different concepts of polygon scanners are engineered and tested to find out the optimal architecture for ultrafast and precision laser beam scanning. Remarkable 1,000 m/s scan speed is achieved on the substrate, and thanks to the resulting low pulse overlap, thermal accumulation and plasma absorption effects are avoided at up to 20 MHz pulse repetition frequencies. In order to identify optimum processing conditions for efficient high-average power laser machining, the depths of cavities produced under varied parameter settings are analyzed and, from the results obtained, the characteristic removal values are specified. The maximum removal rate is achieved as high as 27.8 mm3/min for Aluminium, 21.4 mm3/min for Copper, 15.3 mm3/min for Stainless steel and 129.1 mm3/min for Al2O3 when full available laser power is irradiated at optimum pulse repetition frequency.
Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales
Basse-O'Connor, Andreas
2008-01-01
In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...
Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence
Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.
Maximum SINR Synchronization Strategies in Multiuser Filter Bank Schemes
Pecile Francesco
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We consider synchronization in a multiuser filter bank uplink system with single-user detection. Perfect user synchronization is not the optimal choice as the intuition would suggest. To maximize performance the synchronization parameters have to be chosen to maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR at each equalizer subchannel output. However, the resulting filter bank receiver structure becomes complex. Therefore, we consider two simplified synchronization metrics that are based on the maximization of the average SINR of a given user or the aggregate SINR of all users. Furthermore, a relaxation of the aggregate SINR metric allows implementing an efficient multiuser analysis filter bank. This receiver deploys two fractionally spaced analysis stages. Each analysis stage is efficiently implemented via a polyphase filter bank, followed by an extended discrete Fourier transform that allows the user frequency offsets to be partly compensated. Then, sub-channel maximum SINR equalization is used. We discuss the application of the proposed solution to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA and multiuser Filtered Multitone (FMT systems.
Method of automatic regulation of output of the feed unit of a conveyer
Smetana, A.V.; Feofilov, G.P.; Karpov, B.G.
1979-11-15
A method is proposed for regulating the output of a feed unit of a conveyer for fuel supply of an TES operating on solid fuel. Regulation of each feeder 7-8-9 is done by the corresponding regulator 13-14-15 by changing the output according to the lower signal of the drive of a common conveyer 1. In order to improve reliability and quality of operation of the feed unit, an additional signal is supplied to each regulator of output 13-14-15 of the feeders which equals the distance between the signal averaged for the levels in all the bins 4-5-6 and the signal for the level in the given bin. Loading of the conveyer is stabilized at the assigned level by changing the rotations of the drives 10-11-12 of feeders 7-8-9 from regulators 13-14-15 for output of the feeders to which the signal is supplied from sensor 3 for load of the engine 2 of conveyer 1. In order to balance the level in the bins 4-5-6, supply to each regulator of output of the feeders of additional signals is stipulated equal to h /SUB cp/ -h /SUB i/ (i=1, 2, 3). The signals from the level sensors 16-17-18 enter the averaging block 19, from whose outlet h /SUB cp/ =h/sub 1/+h/sub 32/+h/sub 3/ is fed to the block of summation 20-21-22 to which signals are also supplied from the level sensors 16-17-18. The total signal does not influence the contour for regulating the conveyer load. The signals coming to each of the regulators change the output of its feeder so that the levels of the bulk material in the bins will be leveled. Thus, maximum loading of the conveyer with fuel is implemented, and at the same time misalignment of the levels in the bins is eliminated. The specific consumption of electricity is diminished, the reliability and quality of operation of the feed unit are improved, the personnel are freed of the need to trace the fuel level in the bins.
Exploiting the Maximum Entropy Principle to Increase Retrieval Effectiveness.
Cooper, William S.
1983-01-01
Presents information retrieval design approach in which queries of computer-based system consist of sets of terms, either unweighted or weighted with subjective term precision estimates, and retrieval outputs ranked by probability of usefulness estimated by "maximum entropy principle." Boolean and weighted request systems are discussed.…
Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.
Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal
2010-01-26
Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of the Identification Parameters and Its Correction
无
2002-01-01
By taking the subsequence out of the input-output sequence of a system polluted by white noise, anindependent observation sequence and its probability density are obtained and then a maximum likelihood estimation of theidentification parameters is given. In order to decrease the asymptotic error, a corrector of maximum likelihood (CML)estimation with its recursive algorithm is given. It has been proved that the corrector has smaller asymptotic error thanthe least square methods. A simulation example shows that the corrector of maximum likelihood estimation is of higherapproximating precision to the true parameters than the least square methods.
Measurement of time averaged power in HITU fields—effects of duty cycle and target distance
Jenderka, K.-V.; Wilkens, V.
2012-10-01
The reliable description of the ultrasonic fields of high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) devices is a prerequisite concerning the safe application of the method in the daily clinical routine. Since ultrasonic sensors used for the characterization of diagnostic fields are at high risk of being damaged in the strong therapeutic fields, the measurements are carried out in burst mode to reduce the acting temporal-average intensities. For the thorough investigation of possible differences between the excitation in continuous wave (cw) and burst mode, the temporal-average total acoustic output powers of two types of HITU transducers with f-numbers of approximately 1 and with working frequencies between 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were investigated by means of a radiation force balance. The maximum cw equivalent power level was 300 W the duty cycles varied between 1% and 90%. In addition, the possible effect of the transducer-target distance was investigated. It was found that the different turn-on and turn-off behaviour of the transducers caused variations of the effective duty cycle, depending on the power level and the power amplifier used. The temporal-average power declined with increasing distance as expected, and no focal anomaly was detected.
The maximum rotation of a galactic disc
Bottema, R
1997-01-01
The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...
Cycle Average Peak Fuel Temperature Prediction Using CAPP/GAMMA+
Tak, Nam-il; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In order to obtain a cycle average maximum fuel temperature without rigorous efforts, a neutronics/thermo-fluid coupled calculation is needed with depletion capability. Recently, a CAPP/GAMMA+ coupled code system has been developed and the initial core of PMR200 was analyzed using the CAPP/GAMMA+ code system. The GAMMA+ code is a system thermo-fluid analysis code and the CAPP code is a neutronics code. The General Atomics proposed that the design limit of the fuel temperature under normal operating conditions should be a cycle-averaged maximum value. Nonetheless, the existing works of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) only calculated the maximum fuel temperature at a fixed time point, e.g., the beginning of cycle (BOC) just because the calculation capability was not ready for a cycle average value. In this work, a cycle average maximum fuel temperature has been calculated using CAPP/GAMMA+ code system for the equilibrium core of PMR200. The CAPP/GAMMA+ coupled calculation was carried out for the equilibrium core of PMR 200 from BOC to EOC to obtain a cycle average peak fuel temperature. The peak fuel temperature was predicted to be 1372 .deg. C near MOC. However, the cycle average peak fuel temperature was calculated as 1181 .deg. C, which is below the design target of 1250 .deg. C.
Rashid, Md. Mamunur, E-mail: mdmamunur.rashid@mymail.unisa.edu.au [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Beecham, Simon, E-mail: simon.beecham@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Chowdhury, Rezaul K., E-mail: rezaulkabir@uaeu.ac.ae [Centre for Water Management and Reuse, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, PO Box 15551 (United Arab Emirates)
2015-10-15
A generalized linear model was fitted to stochastically downscaled multi-site daily rainfall projections from CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) for the Onkaparinga catchment in South Australia to assess future changes to hydrologically relevant metrics. For this purpose three GCMs, two multi-model ensembles (one by averaging the predictors of GCMs and the other by regressing the predictors of GCMs against reanalysis datasets) and two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were considered. The downscaling model was able to reasonably reproduce the observed historical rainfall statistics when the model was driven by NCEP reanalysis datasets. Significant bias was observed in the rainfall when downscaled from historical outputs of GCMs. Bias was corrected using the Frequency Adapted Quantile Mapping technique. Future changes in rainfall were computed from the bias corrected downscaled rainfall forced by GCM outputs for the period 2041–2060 and these were then compared to the base period 1961–2000. The results show that annual and seasonal rainfalls are likely to significantly decrease for all models and scenarios in the future. The number of dry days and maximum consecutive dry days will increase whereas the number of wet days and maximum consecutive wet days will decrease. Future changes of daily rainfall occurrence sequences combined with a reduction in rainfall amounts will lead to a drier catchment, thereby reducing the runoff potential. Because this is a catchment that is a significant source of Adelaide's water supply, irrigation water and water for maintaining environmental flows, an effective climate change adaptation strategy is needed in order to face future potential water shortages. - Highlights: • A generalized linear model was used for multi-site daily rainfall downscaling. • Rainfall was downscaled from CMIP5 GCM outputs. • Two multi-model ensemble approaches were used. • Bias was corrected using the Frequency Adapted Quantile Mapping
Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants
Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.
1971-01-01
Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)
Ergodic averages via dominating processes
Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie
2006-01-01
We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...
Research management and research output
Anita Bosch
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by
Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems
Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min
2013-07-01
In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.
Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho
2015-06-01
We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.
Zero Suppression and Data Compression for SDD Output in the ALICE Experiment
Alberici, G; De Remigis, P; Mazza, G; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Werbrouck, A E
1999-01-01
We describe a proposal for the zero suppression and data compression for the Silicon Drift Detectors in the ALICE experiment. The proposal seeks to maintain maximum precision within the limits of data transmission bandwidth, to retain two-dimensional cluster reconstructability and to monitor statistically the background. Two thresholds (high and low) are employed to facilitate understanding of the cluster neighbourhoods. This choice also helps to suppress single high background peaks and provides a statistically cleaner sample for background monitoring. Background average and standard deviation are monitored by counting the zero signal (due to negative inputs to the ADCs) and the signals above the thresholds, then using a minimisation algorithm. Background counts which overflow the small counter ranges are discarded to avoid wasting bits and then corrected statistically offline.First the 10-bit output of the ADCs is compressed to 8 bits using a quasi-parabolic monotonic characteristic which requires no conver...
Quality, precision and accuracy of the maximum No. 40 anemometer
Obermeir, J. [Otech Engineering, Davis, CA (United States); Blittersdorf, D. [NRG Systems Inc., Hinesburg, VT (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper synthesizes available calibration data for the Maximum No. 40 anemometer. Despite its long history in the wind industry, controversy surrounds the choice of transfer function for this anemometer. Many users are unaware that recent changes in default transfer functions in data loggers are producing output wind speed differences as large as 7.6%. Comparison of two calibration methods used for large samples of Maximum No. 40 anemometers shows a consistent difference of 4.6% in output speeds. This difference is significantly larger than estimated uncertainty levels. Testing, initially performed to investigate related issues, reveals that Gill and Maximum cup anemometers change their calibration transfer functions significantly when calibrated in the open atmosphere compared with calibration in a laminar wind tunnel. This indicates that atmospheric turbulence changes the calibration transfer function of cup anemometers. These results call into question the suitability of standard wind tunnel calibration testing for cup anemometers. 6 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
A. Gelfan
2015-02-01
Full Text Available An approach is proposed to assess hydrological simulation uncertainty originating from internal atmospheric variability. The latter is one of three major factors contributing to the uncertainty of simulated climate change projections (along with so-called "forcing" and "climate model" uncertainties. Importantly, the role of the internal atmospheric variability is the most visible over the spatial–temporal scales of water management in large river basins. The internal atmospheric variability is represented by large ensemble simulations (45 members with the ECHAM5 atmospheric general circulation model. The ensemble simulations are performed using identical prescribed lower boundary conditions (observed sea surface temperature, SST, and sea ice concentration, SIC, for 1979–2012 and constant external forcing parameters but different initial conditions of the atmosphere. The ensemble of the bias-corrected ECHAM5-outputs as well as ensemble averaged ECHAM5-output are used as the distributed input for ECOMAG and SWAP hydrological models. The corresponding ensembles of runoff hydrographs are calculated for two large rivers of the Arctic basin: the Lena and the Northern Dvina rivers. A number of runoff statistics including the mean and the SD of the annual, monthly and daily runoff, as well as the annual runoff trend are assessed. The uncertainties of runoff statistics caused by the internal atmospheric variability are estimated. It is found that the uncertainty of the mean and SD of the runoff has a distinguished seasonal dependence with maximum during the periods of spring-summer snowmelt and summer-autumn rainfall floods. A noticeable non-linearity of the hydrological models' response to the ensemble ECHAM5 output is found most strongly expressed for the Northern Dvine River basin. It is shown that the averaging over ensemble members effectively filters stochastic term related to internal atmospheric variability. The simulated trends are close to
Science policy through stimulating scholarly output. Reanalyzing the Australian case
Van den Besselaar, P.; Heyman, U.; Sandström, U.
2016-07-01
There is a long standing debate about perverse effects of performance indicators. A main target is science policy using stimulation of output as instrument. The criticism is to a large extent based on a study of the Australian science policy in the early 1990s. Linda Butler studied the effects and argued that the effect was an growth of output, but also a decrease of average quality of the output. These results have been cited many times. In this paper we reanalyze this case and show that the analysis of Butler was wrong: the new Australian science policy did not only increase the output of the system, but also the quality went up. We discuss the implications. (Author)
Federica Cerina
Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.
Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo
2015-01-01
Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389
1972-01-01
A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.
Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo
2015-01-01
Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.
Ozyazici, E. M.
1980-01-01
Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.
Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?
Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2015-01-01
) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...
Post, Richard F.
2016-02-23
A circuit-based technique enhances the power output of electrostatic generators employing an array of axially oriented rods or tubes or azimuthal corrugated metal surfaces for their electrodes. During generator operation, the peak voltage across the electrodes occurs at an azimuthal position that is intermediate between the position of minimum gap and maximum gap. If this position is also close to the azimuthal angle where the rate of change of capacity is a maximum, then the highest rf power output possible for a given maximum allowable voltage at the minimum gap can be attained. This rf power output is then coupled to the generator load through a coupling condenser that prevents suppression of the dc charging potential by conduction through the load. Optimized circuit values produce phase shifts in the rf output voltage that allow higher power output to occur at the same voltage limit at the minimum gap position.
High average power supercontinuum sources
J C Travers
2010-11-01
The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.
Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging
Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio
2010-01-01
Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...
WANG Yi; TAO Xiao-feng
2007-01-01
In this article, an inter-antenna inter-subblock shifting and inversion (IASSI) scheme is proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in multi-input multi- output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO- OFDM) systems. It exploits multiple antennas and subblocks to provide additional degrees of freedom to benefit the system. To reduce the implementation complexity of the proposed scheme, two simple suboptimal schemes are further presented based on the minimum current maximum criterion; one adopts sequential search and the other employs random binary grouping. The simulation results exhibit the effectiveness of these proposed schemes.
Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2015-01-01
This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...
Replacing a battery by a nanogenerator with 20 V output
Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)
2012-01-03
Replacing batteries by nanogenerators (NGs) in small consumer electronics is one of the goals in the emerging field of self-powered nanotechnology. We show that the maximum measured output voltage of an NG optimized with pretreatments on the as-grown ZnO nanowire films reaches 20 V and the output current exceeds 6 {mu}A, which corresponds to a power density of 0.2 W cm{sup -3}. The NG is also demonstrated to replace a battery for driving a electronic watch. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Mirror averaging with sparsity priors
Dalalyan, Arnak
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.
Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2013-04-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output
Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas
2012-06-01
We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-10-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
Intensity contrast of the average supergranule
Langfellner, J; Gizon, L
2016-01-01
While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...
An efficiency-enhanced 2X/1.5X SC charge pump with auto-adjustable output regulation for PCM
Lei, Yu; Chen, Houpeng; Li, Xi; Wang, Qian; Fan, Xi; Hu, Jiajun; Liu, Aimeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaoyun; Tian, Zhen; Song, Zhitang
2016-10-01
This paper presents a 2X/1.5X switched-capacitor charge pump for phase change memory (PCM). For a 16-bitparallelism PCM, the set/reset time is more than 100 ns, and the charge pump should output a minimum 60 mA load current. The proposed charge pump can supply 4.1 V voltage and 0-60 mA current for PCM, with an input voltage range of 2.2-3.5 V. It can also automatically change the power conversion ratio between the 2X/1.5X modes according to input voltage. For the improvement of efficiency and load transient response, an auto-adjustable output regulation scheme is employed. In this scheme, two new reference voltages are introduced and compared with output voltage. Average lasting time of the enable signal changes under different load conditions. The Enable signal then controls booster's power transistors switching to regulate output voltage. In this way, output voltage was controlled within a permissible range. The charge pump has been designed and simulated in a 40nm CMOS process. The results show maximum power efficiency in 30 mA load current is 90.73%, and conversion ratio control increases the efficiency by 23.06% in 3 V.
System convergence in transport models: algorithms efficiency and output uncertainty
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2015-01-01
much in the literature. The paper first investigates several variants of the Method of Successive Averages (MSA) by simulation experiments on a toy-network. It is found that the simulation experiments produce support for a weighted MSA approach. The weighted MSA approach is then analysed on large......-scale in the Danish National Transport Model (DNTM). It is revealed that system convergence requires that either demand or supply is without random noise but not both. In that case, if MSA is applied to the model output with random noise, it will converge effectively as the random effects are gradually dampened...... in the MSA process. In connection to DNTM it is shown that MSA works well when applied to travel-time averaging, whereas trip averaging is generally infected by random noise resulting from the assignment model. The latter implies that the minimum uncertainty in the final model output is dictated...
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility
Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui
2011-01-01
Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...
Ensemble average theory of gravity
Khosravi, Nima
2016-12-01
We put forward the idea that all the theoretically consistent models of gravity have contributions to the observed gravity interaction. In this formulation, each model comes with its own Euclidean path-integral weight where general relativity (GR) has automatically the maximum weight in high-curvature regions. We employ this idea in the framework of Lovelock models and show that in four dimensions the result is a specific form of the f (R ,G ) model. This specific f (R ,G ) satisfies the stability conditions and possesses self-accelerating solutions. Our model is consistent with the local tests of gravity since its behavior is the same as in GR for the high-curvature regime. In the low-curvature regime the gravitational force is weaker than in GR, which can be interpreted as the existence of a repulsive fifth force for very large scales. Interestingly, there is an intermediate-curvature regime where the gravitational force is stronger in our model compared to GR. The different behavior of our model in comparison with GR in both low- and intermediate-curvature regimes makes it observationally distinguishable from Λ CDM .
High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers
Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B
1999-10-01
A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M{sup 2} = 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M{sup 2} value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M{sup 2} < 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods.
Change Rate Control of Photovoltaic Generation Output and Calculation of Necessary Capacitance
Satoh, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Satoshi; Nakamura, Koichi; Kakimoto, Naoto
The photovoltaic (PV) generator changes its power output with the weather. If the PV output changes fast, the power system may require more load-following capability and spinning-reserve. This paper proposes a method of controlling the change rate of the PV output. The PV generator is combined with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The moving average is used to eliminate short period fluctuations of the PV output. The output of the power conversion system (PCS) is determined by the moving average. The output changes within a limited rate. The capacitor voltage is maintained at a constant value to make the capacitor as small as possible. The necessary capacitance is theoretically derived. The effectiveness of this method is verified by the experiment.
Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.
Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian
2012-03-01
We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.
Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery
Chih-Yuan Tseng
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.
Efficiency at maximum power of thermally coupled heat engines.
Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph
2012-04-01
We study the efficiency at maximum power of two coupled heat engines, using thermoelectric generators (TEGs) as engines. Assuming that the heat and electric charge fluxes in the TEGs are strongly coupled, we simulate numerically the dependence of the behavior of the global system on the electrical load resistance of each generator in order to obtain the working condition that permits maximization of the output power. It turns out that this condition is not unique. We derive a simple analytic expression giving the relation between the electrical load resistance of each generator permitting output power maximization. We then focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of the whole system to demonstrate that the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency may not always be recovered: The EMP varies with the specific working conditions of each generator but remains in the range predicted by irreversible thermodynamics theory. We discuss our results in light of nonideal Carnot engine behavior.
Random output and hospital performance.
Barros, Pedro Pita
2003-11-01
Many countries are under pressure to reform health care financing and delivery. Hospital care is one part of the health system that is under scrutiny. Private management initiatives are a possible way to increase efficiency in health care delivery. This motivates the interest in developing methodologies to assess hospital performance, recognizing hospitals as a different sort of firm. We present a simple way to describe hospital production: hospital output as a change in the distribution of survival probabilities. This output definition allows us to separate hospital production from patients' characteristics. The notion of "better performance" has a precise meaning: (first-order) stochastic dominance of a distribution of survival probabilities over another distribution. As an illustration, we compare, for an important DRG, private and public management and find that private management performs better, mainly in the range of high-survival probabilities. The measured performance difference cannot be attributed to input prices or to economies of scale and/or scope. It reflects pure technological and organisational differences.
Dark output characteristic of γ-ray irradiated CMOS digital imagesensors
无
2002-01-01
The quality of dark output images from the CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) black and white (B&W) digital image sensors captured before and after γ-ray irradiation was studied. The characteristic parameters of the dark output images captured at different radiation dose, e.g. average brightness and its non-uniformity of dark output images, were analyzed by our test software. The primary explanation for the change of the parameters with the radiation dose was given.
Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks
Saliji, Albulena
2016-01-01
The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.
Auxetic piezoelectric energy harvesters for increased electric power output
Li, Qiang; Kuang, Yang; Zhu, Meiling
2017-01-01
This letter presents a piezoelectric bimorph with auxetic (negative Poisson's ratio) behaviors for increased power output in vibration energy harvesting. The piezoelectric bimorph comprises a 2D auxetic substrate sandwiched between two piezoelectric layers. The auxetic substrate is capable of introducing auxetic behaviors and thus increasing the transverse stress in the piezoelectric layers when the bimorph is subjected to a longitudinal stretching load. As a result, both 31- and 32-modes are simultaneously exploited to generate electric power, leading to an increased power output. The increasing power output principle was theoretically analyzed and verified by finite element (FE) modelling. The FE modelling results showed that the auxetic substrate can increase the transverse stress of a bimorph by 16.7 times. The average power generated by the auxetic bimorph is 2.76 times of that generated by a conventional bimorph.
GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators
Huang, Chi-Te
2010-04-07
Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Regulating output of a fuel supply channel of blocks 500 MW
Smetana, A.Z.; Feofilov, G.P.; Nemerskiy, B.V.; Rayevskiy, S.A.
1980-01-01
The operating optimal regime of a channel of fuel supply is guaranteed with maximum fuel load. In this case it is necessary to stabilize the load of fuel supply and to prevent evacuation of any of the bend sections in order to exclude damages to the feeders because of dynamic impacts of the loaded fuel. Currently control of the output of the feeders is done by an operator. Tests of the Troitskiy GRES indicated the average load of the channel of fuel supply 75% and difficulties in the work of the operator. Consequently, the Ural All-Union Heat-Engineering Institute developed the SAU. A flow sheet is presented for the system of regulation with continuous change in output of the feeders. For the loading device of blocks 500 MW equipped with feeders with 4-velocity electric motors, a logical automatic control has been developed which realizes optimal algorithm of operation on whose basis a graph has been developed for transitions of the automatic control. A plan is presented for stabilizing the productivity of fuel supply realizing this algorithm of control. On the whole, the system of automatic stabilization implements an integrated law of regulation of output, makes it possible to prevent complete emptying of the bins by simultaneous regulation of the load of the conveyer at the assigned level. It makes it possible to reduce the specific fuel consumption unit of electric energy increase reliability and quality of operation of the unit, free the personnel from the need of tracing the level of fuel in the bins and improve the conditions of its operation.
Ma, Xunjun; Lu, Yang; Wang, Fengjiao
2017-09-01
This paper presents the recent advances in reduction of multifrequency noise inside helicopter cabin using an active structural acoustic control system, which is based on active gearbox struts technical approach. To attenuate the multifrequency gearbox vibrations and resulting noise, a new scheme of discrete model predictive sliding mode control has been proposed based on controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Its implementation only needs input/output data, hence a broader frequency range of controlled system is modelled and the burden on the state observer design is released. Furthermore, a new iteration form of the algorithm is designed, improving the developing efficiency and run speed. To verify the algorithm's effectiveness and self-adaptability, experiments of real-time active control are performed on a newly developed helicopter model system. The helicopter model can generate gear meshing vibration/noise similar to a real helicopter with specially designed gearbox and active struts. The algorithm's control abilities are sufficiently checked by single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output experiments via different feedback strategies progressively: (1) control gear meshing noise through attenuating vibrations at the key points on the transmission path, (2) directly control the gear meshing noise in the cabin using the actuators. Results confirm that the active control system is practical for cancelling multifrequency helicopter interior noise, which also weakens the frequency-modulation of the tones. For many cases, the attenuations of the measured noise exceed the level of 15 dB, with maximum reduction reaching 31 dB. Also, the control process is demonstrated to be smoother and faster.
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
1985-01-01
Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Dabrowski, Mariusz P
2015-01-01
We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Abolishing the maximum tension principle
Mariusz P. Da̧browski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.
Output regulation problem for discrete-time linear time-delay systems by output feedback control
Yamin YAN; Jie HUANG
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the output regulation problem of discrete linear time-delay systems by output feedback control. We have established some results parallel to those for the output regulation problem of continuous linear time-delay systems.
Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?
Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2015-01-01
The ability of courts to generate political change has long been debated in national, comparative, and international politics. In the examination of the interaction between judicial and legislative politics, scholars have disagreed on the degree of judicial power and the ability of politics...... to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...
On the maximum sufficient range of interstellar vessels
Cartin, Daniel
2011-01-01
This paper considers the likely maximum range of space vessels providing the basis of a mature interstellar transportation network. Using the principle of sufficiency, it is argued that this range will be less than three parsecs for the average interstellar vessel. This maximum range provides access from the Solar System to a large majority of nearby stellar systems, with total travel distances within the network not excessively greater than actual physical distance.
Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs
Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad
2011-01-01
Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.
Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045
Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.
Gabriele Grandi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper gives the complete analysis of the output current ripple in three-phase voltage source inverters considering the different discontinuous pulse-width modulation (DPWM strategies. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically evaluated over the fundamental period and compared among the most used DPWMs, including positive and negative clamped (DPWM+ and DPWM−, and the four possible combinations between them, usually named as DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2, and DPWM3. The maximum and the average values of peak-to-peak current ripple are estimated, and a simple method to correlate the ripple envelope with the ripple rms is proposed and verified. Furthermore, all the results obtained by DPWMs are compared to the centered pulse-width modulation (CPWM, equivalent to the space vector modulation to identify the optimal pulse-width modulation (PWM strategy as a function of the modulation index, taking into account the different average switching frequency. In this way, the PWM technique providing for the minimum output current ripple is identified over the whole modulation range. The analytical developments and the main results are experimentally verified by current ripple measurements with a three-phase PWM inverter prototype supplying an induction motor load.
Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.
Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p sea-level. A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.
Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings
Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren
2003-01-01
The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.
Remizov, Ivan D
2009-01-01
In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.
Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia
Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.
2015-02-24
This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.
The Testability of Maximum Magnitude
Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.
2012-12-01
Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.
Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.
Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang
2016-07-01
Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.
Maximum entropy principle and texture formation
Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier
2006-01-01
The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.
Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia
Atsushi eNambu
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.
Model output: fact or artefact?
Melsen, Lieke
2015-04-01
As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a
Choubey, Ambar; Mondal, Shyamal; Singh, Ravindra; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Datta, P. K.; Oak, S. M.
2014-08-01
We report on the generation of high average power linearly p-polarized beam in long pulse operation of dual rod Nd:YAG laser. A z-fold resonator configuration has been designed using simple optical scheme to provide effective birefringence compensation, compactness, and reduction of alignment criticality. Using this geometry, a maximum linearly p-polarized average output power of 415 W and a pulse energy of 150 J was achieved with a slope efficiency of 4.3%, which is on higher side for typical lamp pumped long pulse Nd:YAG lasers. For effective birefringence compensation, an intra-cavity concave mirror based imaging system, a 90° quartz rotator, and a re-entrant feedback mirror has been used. This scheme resulted in an enhancement of p-polarized output power of more than 80% as compared to the p-polarized output power without birefringence compensation. Depolarization loss in the resonator has also been reduced significantly from a value of 35% to a value of ~1.8% after birefringence compensation.
Measurement of the average lifetime of b hadrons
Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Bechtluft, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Ditmarr, M.; Djambazov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Klöckner, R.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Ro, S.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Terzi, G.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Warner, C.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, J. G.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zaitsev, N.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, G. J.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration
1993-11-01
The average lifetime of b hadrons has been measured using the L3 detector at LEP, running at √ s ≈ MZ. A b-enriched sample was obtained from 432538 hadronic Z events collected in 1990 and 1991 by tagging electrons and muons from semileptonic b hadron decays. From maximum likelihood fits to the electron and muon impact parameter distributions, the average b hadron lifetime was measured to be τb = (1535 ± 35 ± 28) fs, where the first error is statistical and the second includes both the experimental and the theoretical systematic uncertainties.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...
Thermodynamic hardness and the maximum hardness principle
Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto
2017-08-01
An alternative definition of hardness (called the thermodynamic hardness) within the grand canonical ensemble formalism is proposed in terms of the partial derivative of the electronic chemical potential with respect to the thermodynamic chemical potential of the reservoir, keeping the temperature and the external potential constant. This temperature dependent definition may be interpreted as a measure of the propensity of a system to go through a charge transfer process when it interacts with other species, and thus it keeps the philosophy of the original definition. When the derivative is expressed in terms of the three-state ensemble model, in the regime of low temperatures and up to temperatures of chemical interest, one finds that for zero fractional charge, the thermodynamic hardness is proportional to T-1(I -A ) , where I is the first ionization potential, A is the electron affinity, and T is the temperature. However, the thermodynamic hardness is nearly zero when the fractional charge is different from zero. Thus, through the present definition, one avoids the presence of the Dirac delta function. We show that the chemical hardness defined in this way provides meaningful and discernible information about the hardness properties of a chemical species exhibiting integer or a fractional average number of electrons, and this analysis allowed us to establish a link between the maximum possible value of the hardness here defined, with the minimum softness principle, showing that both principles are related to minimum fractional charge and maximum stability conditions.
Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment
Lehman, Martin
2013-10-01
The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.
High Average Current Electron Guns for High-Power FELs
2009-12-09
FELs 10 Appendix B: Thermionic Injectors 11 Appendix C: Grid Fields and Bunch Emittance 13 Appendix D: PARMELA Simulation of an IOT Gun 16...Inductive Output Tube ( IOT ) amplifiers [32-34] and can generate average currents of ~1 A, peak currents of ~ 5-10 A, cathode-anode voltages of ~ 35...of grid wires, centered at z = zG and x = ±a, ±3a, ±5a, ..., is given by <D(JC,Z) = - X n = ±l.±3. Fa(x,z) Gn(x,z) ( C3 ) where *0 = (1 / 2
PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications
Chuan Li
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%. Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.
PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications.
Li, Chuan; Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Xingzhao; Xu, Dong; He, Kai
2016-04-11
The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-0.3PbTiO₃(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-xPbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young's modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm². The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.
Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index
Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng
2015-01-01
The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...
Bounds on Average Time Complexity of Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
In this chapter, bounds on the average depth and the average weighted depth of decision trees are considered. Similar problems are studied in search theory [1], coding theory [77], design and analysis of algorithms (e.g., sorting) [38]. For any diagnostic problem, the minimum average depth of decision tree is bounded from below by the entropy of probability distribution (with a multiplier 1/log2 k for a problem over a k-valued information system). Among diagnostic problems, the problems with a complete set of attributes have the lowest minimum average depth of decision trees (e.g, the problem of building optimal prefix code [1] and a blood test study in assumption that exactly one patient is ill [23]). For such problems, the minimum average depth of decision tree exceeds the lower bound by at most one. The minimum average depth reaches the maximum on the problems in which each attribute is "indispensable" [44] (e.g., a diagnostic problem with n attributes and kn pairwise different rows in the decision table and the problem of implementing the modulo 2 summation function). These problems have the minimum average depth of decision tree equal to the number of attributes in the problem description. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Ward, Sophie L.; Neill, Simon P.; Scourse, James D.; Bradley, Sarah L.; Uehara, Katsuto
2016-11-01
The spatial and temporal distribution of relative sea-level change over the northwest European shelf seas has varied considerably since the Last Glacial Maximum, due to eustatic sea-level rise and a complex isostatic response to deglaciation of both near- and far-field ice sheets. Because of the complex pattern of relative sea level changes, the region is an ideal focus for modelling the impact of significant sea-level change on shelf sea tidal dynamics. Changes in tidal dynamics influence tidal range, the location of tidal mixing fronts, dissipation of tidal energy, shelf sea biogeochemistry and sediment transport pathways. Significant advancements in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling of the region have been made in recent years, and earlier palaeotidal models of the northwest European shelf seas were developed using output from less well-constrained GIA models as input to generate palaeobathymetric grids. We use the most up-to-date and well-constrained GIA model for the region as palaeotopographic input for a new high resolution, three-dimensional tidal model (ROMS) of the northwest European shelf seas. With focus on model output for 1 ka time slices from the Last Glacial Maximum (taken as being 21 ka BP) to present day, we demonstrate that spatial and temporal changes in simulated tidal dynamics are very sensitive to relative sea-level distribution. The new high resolution palaeotidal model is considered a significant improvement on previous depth-averaged palaeotidal models, in particular where the outputs are to be used in sediment transport studies, where consideration of the near-bed stress is critical, and for constraining sea level index points.
Relationship between Multi-Output Partially Bent Functions and Multi-Output Bent Functions
ZHAO Yaqun; JU Guizhi; WANG Jue
2006-01-01
In this paper, the definition of multi-output partially Bent functions is presented and some properties are discussed. Then the relationship between multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions is given in Theorem 4, which includes Walsh spectrum expression and function expression. This shows that multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions can define each other in principle. So we obtain the general method to construct multi-output partially Bent functions from multi-output Bent functions.
Efficiency at maximum power of a discrete feedback ratchet
Jarillo, Javier; Tangarife, Tomás; Cao, Francisco J.
2016-01-01
Efficiency at maximum power is found to be of the same order for a feedback ratchet and for its open-loop counterpart. However, feedback increases the output power up to a factor of five. This increase in output power is due to the increase in energy input and the effective entropy reduction obtained as a consequence of feedback. Optimal efficiency at maximum power is reached for time intervals between feedback actions two orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic time of diffusion over a ratchet period length. The efficiency is computed consistently taking into account the correlation between the control actions. We consider a feedback control protocol for a discrete feedback flashing ratchet, which works against an external load. We maximize the power output optimizing the parameters of the ratchet, the controller, and the external load. The maximum power output is found to be upper bounded, so the attainable extracted power is limited. After, we compute an upper bound for the efficiency of this isothermal feedback ratchet at maximum power output. We make this computation applying recent developments of the thermodynamics of feedback-controlled systems, which give an equation to compute the entropy reduction due to information. However, this equation requires the computation of the probability of each of the possible sequences of the controller's actions. This computation becomes involved when the sequence of the controller's actions is non-Markovian, as is the case in most feedback ratchets. We here introduce an alternative procedure to set strong bounds to the entropy reduction in order to compute its value. In this procedure the bounds are evaluated in a quasi-Markovian limit, which emerge when there are big differences between the stationary probabilities of the system states. These big differences are an effect of the potential strength, which minimizes the departures from the Markovianicity of the sequence of control actions, allowing also to
Determination of output factors for stereotactic radiosurgery beams
Fan, J.; Paskalev, K.; Wang, L.; Jin, L.; Li, J.; Eldeeb, A.; Ma, C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)
2009-11-15
Scanditronix photon field diode are consistently higher for all the cones. Especially for the 5 mm cone, the difference is more than 10%. Overall, the results suggested that the new method can help overcoming the detector volume averaging effect and the positioning uncertainties, which constitute the major challenge in small radiosurgical beam output factor measurement, and provide reliable output factors.
Economics and Maximum Entropy Production
Lorenz, R. D.
2003-04-01
Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.
Output order in immediate serial recall.
Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff
2007-07-01
In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.
Output Regulation of the Arneodo Chaotic System
Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan
2010-01-01
This paper solves the problem of regulating the output of the Arneodo chaotic system (1981), which is one of the paradigms of chaotic dynamical systems. Explicitly, using the state feedback control laws, the output of the Arneodo chaotic system is regulated so as to track constant reference signals as well as to track periodic reference signals. The control laws are derived using the regulator equations of Byrnes and Isidori (1990), which provide the solution of the output regulation problem ...
Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation
Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja H.
2015-01-01
The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability function as a possibly uncomputable expression in an intermediate language. This program is then analyzed, transformed, and approximated. The result is a closed form expression that computes an over...
Sinopec H1 Oil Output Climbs Slightly
2012-01-01
Sinopec Corp., China's largest oil refiner, announced in late-July that its crude oil output rose 4.33 percent to 163 million barrels year-on-year in the first half. Domestic crude oil output was up 1. 16 percent to 152 million barrels during the period, while overseas output jtmlped 82.46 percent to 11,13 million barrels, according to an unaudited repo,t released by tile company.
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Maximum mutual information regularized classification
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2014-09-07
In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.
Continuous-wave high specific output power Ar-He-Xe laser with transverse RF excitation
Udalov, Yu.B.; Peters, P.J.M.; Heeman-Ilieva, M.B.; Witteman, W.J.; Ochkin, V.N.
1994-01-01
A transverse RF excited gas discharge has been successfully used to produce a CW Ar-He-Xe laser. A maximum output power of 330 mW has been obtained from an experimental device with 37 cm active length and a 2.25 (DOT) 2.25 cm2 cross-section. This corresponds to a specific output power of about 175 m
The strong maximum principle revisited
Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James
In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.
Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.
Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C
2013-12-01
Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations.
Maximum likelihood identification of aircraft stability and control derivatives
Mehra, R. K.; Stepner, D. E.; Tyler, J. S.
1974-01-01
Application of a generalized identification method to flight test data analysis. The method is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion and includes output error and equation error methods as special cases. Both the linear and nonlinear models with and without process noise are considered. The flight test data from lateral maneuvers of HL-10 and M2/F3 lifting bodies are processed to determine the lateral stability and control derivatives, instrumentation accuracies, and biases. A comparison is made between the results of the output error method and the ML method for M2/F3 data containing gusts. It is shown that better fits to time histories are obtained by using the ML method. The nonlinear model considered corresponds to the longitudinal equations of the X-22 VTOL aircraft. The data are obtained from a computer simulation and contain both process and measurement noise. The applicability of the ML method to nonlinear models with both process and measurement noise is demonstrated.
Level sets of multiple ergodic averages
Ai-Hua, Fan; Ma, Ji-Hua
2011-01-01
We propose to study multiple ergodic averages from multifractal analysis point of view. In some special cases in the symbolic dynamics, Hausdorff dimensions of the level sets of multiple ergodic average limit are determined by using Riesz products.
Power output in vertical jumps: Does optimum loading depend on activity profiles?
Pazin, Nemanja; Berjan, Bobana; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Markovic, Goran; Jaric, Slobodan
2013-01-01
The previously proposed Maximum Dynamic Output hypothesis (MDO; i.e. the optimum load for maximizing the power output during jumping is one's own body) was tested on individuals of various activity profiles. Forty males (10 strength-trained athletes, 10 speed-trained athletes, 10 physically active non-athletes, and 10 sedentary individuals) performed different vertical jumps on a force plate while a pulley system was used to either reduce or increase the subject's body weight by 10–30%. As expected, an increase in external loading resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.001) in force output and a concomitant decrease of peak jumping velocity in all groups of participants. The main finding, however, was that all groups revealed the maximum peak and mean power output at approximately the subjects’ own body weight although their weight represented prominently different percentage of their maximum dynamic strength. While a significant (p < 0.05), albeit moderate, 'group × load' interaction in one jump was observed for the peak power output, the individual optimum load for maximizing the power output number did not differ among the groups. Although apparently further research on various types of movements is needed, the present results provide, so far, the strongest support of the MDO hypothesis. PMID:22864398
Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit
金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹
2006-01-01
Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.
Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices
del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann
2008-01-01
Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.
Extension Sliding Mode Controller for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Meng-Hui Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Fuel cells (FCs are characterized by low pollution, low noise, and high efficiency. However, the voltage-current response of an FC is nonlinear, with the result that there exists just one operating point which maximizes the output power given a particular set of operating conditions. Accordingly, the present study proposes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT control scheme based on extension theory to stabilize the output of an FC at the point of maximum power. The simulation results confirm the ability of the controller to stabilize the output power at the maximum power point despite sudden changes in the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and membrane water content. Moreover, the transient response time of the proposed controller is shown to be faster than that of existing sliding mode (SM and extremum seeking (ES controllers.
High Power Tm3+-Doped Fiber Lasers Tuned by a Variable Reflective Output Coupler
Yulong Tang
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Wide wavelength tuning by a variable reflective output coupler is demonstrated in high-power double-clad Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers diode-pumped at ∼790 nm. Varying the output coupling from 96% to 5%, the laser wavelength is tuned over a range of 106 nm from 1949 to 2055 nm. The output power exceeds 20 W over 90-nm range and the maximum output power is 32 W at 1949 nm for 51-W launched pump power, corresponding to a slope efficiency of ∼70%. Assisted with different fiber lengths, the tuning range is expanded to 240 nm from 1866 to 2107 nm with the output power larger than 10 W.
无
2011-01-01
[Objective] The research aimed to analyze temporal and spatial variation characteristics of temperature in Shangqiu City during 1961-2010.[Method] Based on temperature data in eight meteorological stations of Shangqiu during 1961-2010,by using trend analysis method,the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of annual average temperature,annual average maximum and minimum temperatures,annual extreme maximum and minimum temperatures,daily range of annual average temperature in Shangqiu City were analy...
Quantitative Analysis Method of Output Loss due to Restriction for Grid-connected PV Systems
Ueda, Yuzuru; Oozeki, Takashi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Itou, Takamitsu; Kitamura, Kiyoyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yokota, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hiroyuki
Voltage of power distribution line will be increased due to reverse power flow from grid-connected PV systems. In the case of high density grid connection, amount of voltage increasing will be higher than the stand-alone grid connection system. To prevent the over voltage of power distribution line, PV system's output will be restricted if the voltage of power distribution line is close to the upper limit of the control range. Because of this interaction, amount of output loss will be larger in high density case. This research developed a quantitative analysis method for PV systems output and losses to clarify the behavior of grid connected PV systems. All the measured data are classified into the loss factors using 1 minute average of 1 second data instead of typical 1 hour average. Operation point on the I-V curve is estimated to quantify the loss due to the output restriction using module temperature, array output voltage, array output current and solar irradiance. As a result, loss due to output restriction is successfully quantified and behavior of output restriction is clarified.
Average-Time Games on Timed Automata
Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh
2009-01-01
An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...
Haseli, Y
2016-05-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal efficiency and power production of typical models of endoreversible heat engines at the regime of minimum entropy generation rate. The study considers the Curzon-Ahlborn engine, the Novikov's engine, and the Carnot vapor cycle. The operational regimes at maximum thermal efficiency, maximum power output and minimum entropy production rate are compared for each of these engines. The results reveal that in an endoreversible heat engine, a reduction in entropy production corresponds to an increase in thermal efficiency. The three criteria of minimum entropy production, the maximum thermal efficiency, and the maximum power may become equivalent at the condition of fixed heat input.
Maximum entropy production in daisyworld
Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.
2012-05-01
Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.
Maximum stellar iron core mass
F W Giacobbe
2003-03-01
An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is signiﬁcantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.
Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics
Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish
2011-01-01
In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...
Practice Output in College Language Classroom
张岩
2010-01-01
<正>Practice output constitutes an indispensable part in second language learning.Relevant theories like"Interface Position"and"Comprehensible Output"are discussed in order to analyze in detail how this practice can actually facilitate acquisition and finally pave the way for communicative output—a goal all language learners are striving for.
Wilkinson, Gene L.
The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…
The Role of Output in Grammar Learning
尹莉; 段薇; 谢璐
2014-01-01
In China, English teachers tend to emphasize a lot on the importance of grammar learning because knowledge of gram⁃mar is the base of the competence of communication. This thesis just focuses on how output affects students ’grammar learning by analyzing the role of output in learning of English and the strategies of English learning.
Multi-output programmable quantum processor
Yu, Yafei; Feng, Jian; Zhan, Mingsheng
2002-01-01
By combining telecloning and programmable quantum gate array presented by Nielsen and Chuang [Phys.Rev.Lett. 79 :321(1997)], we propose a programmable quantum processor which can be programmed to implement restricted set of operations with several identical data outputs. The outputs are approximately-transformed versions of input data. The processor successes with certain probability.
THE NONSTATIONARITY OF GERMAN AGGREGATE OUTPUT
ZELHORST, D; DEHAAN, J
1993-01-01
In this paper the stationarity of German per capita output for the period 1870-1989 is examined, using both a parametric and a non-parametric approach. The standard unit root tests and the scaled variogram suggest that German output is not stationary. Following the approach suggested by Perron (1989
Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited
Crt Kostevc
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.
AN EFFICIENT APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD SIGNAL DETECTION FOR MIMO SYSTEMS
Cao Xuehong
2007-01-01
This paper proposes an efficient approximate Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection method for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, which searches local area instead of exhaustive search and selects valid search points in each transmit antenna signal constellation instead of all hyperplane. Both of the selection and search complexity can be reduced significantly. The method performs the tradeoff between computational complexity and system performance by adjusting the neighborhood size to select the valid search points. Simulation results show that the performance is comparable to that of the ML detection while the complexity is only as the small fraction of ML.
2011-01-10
...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...
Output beam analysis of high power COIL
Deli Yu(于德利); Fengting Sang(桑凤亭); Yuqi Jin(金玉奇); Yizhu Sun(孙以珠)
2003-01-01
As the output power of a chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) increases, the output laser beam instabilityappears as the far-field beam spot drift and deformation for the large Fresnel number unstable resonator.In order to interpret this phenomenon, an output beam mode simulation code was developed with the fastFourier transform method. The calculation results show that the presence of the nonuniform gain in COILproduces a skewed output intensity distribution, which causes the mirror tilt and bulge due to the thermalexpansion. With the output power of COIL increases, the mirror surfaces, especially the back surface ofthe scraper mirror, absorb more and more heat, which causes the drift and deformation of far field beamspot seriously. The initial misalignment direction is an important factor for the far field beam spot driftingand deformation.
Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output
XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu
2014-01-01
This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.
Heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes
Evans, N. A.; Durand, N. A.
Seven types of pyrotechnic igniters were each mounted at one end of a closed cylindrical bore hole representative of the center hole in a thermal battery. Measurements of local bore wall temperature, T(sub w), using commercially available, fast response (10 microsec) sheathed chromel-constantan thermocouples allowed calculation of local heat transfer rates, q, and wall heat flows, Q. The principal charge constituents of all these igniters were titanium and potassium perchlorate, while three types also contained barium styphnate as an ignition sensitizer. Igniter closure disc materials included glass-ceramic, glass, metal (plain, scored, with and without capture cone), and kapton/RTV. All igniters produced the lowest values of T(sub w) and q at the beginning of the bore, and, except for the igniter with the kapton/RTV closure disc, these quantities increased with distance along the bore. For igniters containing only titanium/potassium perchlorate, the rates of increase of Q along the bore length, compared with those for T(sub w) and q, were generally lower and more variable. The inclusion of barium styphnate produced rates of change in Q that were essentially constant to the end of the bore. The highest overall average wall temperatures were achieved by two igniter types with metal closure discs and no capture cone. No clear correlation was established between peak bore pressure and maximum wall temperature.
Heat transfer characteristics of igniter output plumes
Evans, N.A.; Durand, N.A.
1989-01-01
Seven types of pyrotechnic igniters were each mounted at one end of a closed cylindrical bore hole representative of the center hole in a thermal battery. Measurements of local bore wall temperature, T/sub w/, using commercially available, fast response (10 /mu/sec) sheathed chromel-constantan thermocouples allowed calculation of local heat transfer rates, q, and wall heat flows, Q. The principal charge constituents of all these igniters were titanium and potassium perchlorate, while three types also contained barium styphnate as an ignition sensitizer. Igniter closure disc materials included glass-ceramic, glass, metal (plain, scored, with and without capture cone), and kapton/RTV. All igniters produced the lowest values of T/sub w/ and q at the beginning of the bore, and, except for the igniter with the kapton/RTV closure disc, these quantities increased with distance along the bore. For igniters containing only titanium/potassium perchlorate, the rates of increase of Q along the bore length, compared with those for T/sub w/ and q, were generally lower and more variable. The inclusion of barium styphnate produced rates of change in Q that were essentially constant to the end of the bore. The highest overall average wall temperatures were achieved by two igniter types with metal closure discs and no capture cone. No clear correlation was established between peak bore pressure and maximum wall temperature. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Measurement of cardiac output from dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT
Yee, Seonghwan, E-mail: Seonghwan.Yee@Beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States); Scalzetti, Ernest M. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: To introduce a method of estimating cardiac output from the dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT that is primarily used to determine the optimal time window of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Methods: Dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT series, acquired for eight patients, were retrospectively analyzed. The dynamic CT series was acquired, prior to the main CTPA, in cine mode (1 frame/s) for a single slice at the level of the main pulmonary artery covering the cross sections of ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA) during the infusion of iodinated contrast. The time series of contrast changes obtained for DA, which is the downstream of AA, was assumed to be related to the time series for AA by the convolution with a delay function. The delay time constant in the delay function, representing the average time interval between the cross sections of AA and DA, was determined by least square error fitting between the convoluted AA time series and the DA time series. The cardiac output was then calculated by dividing the volume of the aortic arch between the cross sections of AA and DA (estimated from the single slice CT image) by the average time interval, and multiplying the result by a correction factor. Results: The mean cardiac output value for the six patients was 5.11 (l/min) (with a standard deviation of 1.57 l/min), which is in good agreement with the literature value; the data for the other two patients were too noisy for processing. Conclusions: The dynamic single-slice pulmonary circulation time CT series also can be used to estimate cardiac output.
The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.
2011-07-01
A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.
Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting
Maxwell Peter
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational
Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control
Nimrod Vázquez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.
Resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings based on maximum entropy model
ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong
2006-01-01
The resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings (OAS) is studied based on the maximum entropy model.There are two model outputs,where either the first two characters form a word or the last two characters form a word.The features of the model include one word in context of OAS,the current OAS and word probability relation of two kinds of segmentation results.OAS in training text is found by the combination of the FMM and BMM segmentation method.After feature tagging they are used to train the maximum entropy model.The People Daily corpus of January 1998 is used in training and testing.Experimental results show a closed test precision of 98.64% and an open test precision of 95.01%.The open test precision is 3,76% better compared with that of the precision of common word probability method.
Maximum-power quantum-mechanical Carnot engine.
Abe, Sumiyoshi
2011-04-01
In their work [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)], Bender, Brody, and Meister have shown by employing a two-state model of a particle confined in the one-dimensional infinite potential well that it is possible to construct a quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot engine through changes of both the width of the well and the quantum state in a specific manner. Here, a discussion is developed about realizing the maximum power of such an engine, where the width of the well moves at low but finite speed. The efficiency of the engine at the maximum power output is found to be universal independently of any of the parameters contained in the model.
Prediction of Double Layer Grids' Maximum Deflection Using Neural Networks
Reza K. Moghadas
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Efficient neural networks models are trained to predict the maximum deflection of two-way on two-way grids with variable geometrical parameters (span and height as well as cross-sectional areas of the element groups. Backpropagation (BP and Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks are employed for the mentioned purpose. The inputs of the neural networks are the length of the spans, L, the height, h and cross-sectional areas of the all groups, A and the outputs are maximum deflections of the corresponding double layer grids, respectively. The numerical results indicate that the RBF neural network is better than BP in terms of training time and performance generality.
Studying gas emission rhythms based on data of mines with high gas output
Kovacs, F.
1983-01-01
Based on data of measuring ventilation of 21 cleaning faces, an analysis was made of the change in gas release in time. During the days of work and interruption in work, the gas output is practically the same. Based on analysis of the weekly rhythm of gas release, one can determine the order for danger in individual days of the week. The gas output essentially is independent of the day of the week. Collapse of the roof causes a spasmodic increase in gas output. Frequency of collapse is in a close relationship to the average rate of advance of the cleaning face. With an increase in the rate of advance of the face, one can decrease the average specific output of gas.
WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES
刘永平; 许贵桥
2003-01-01
This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.
Bombelli, Paolo; Iyer, Durgaprasad Madras Rajaraman; Covshoff, Sarah; McCormick, Alistair J; Yunus, Kamran; Hibberd, Julian M; Fisher, Adrian C; Howe, Christopher J
2013-01-01
Vascular plant bio-photovoltaics (VP-BPV) is a recently developed technology that uses higher plants to harvest solar energy and the metabolic activity of heterotrophic microorganisms in the plant rhizosphere to generate electrical power. In the present study, electrical output and maximum power output variations were investigated in a novel VP-BPV configuration using the crop plant rice (Oryza sativa L.) or an associated weed, Echinochloa glabrescens (Munro ex Hook. f.). In order to compare directly the physiological performances of these two species in VP-BPV systems, plants were grown in the same soil and glasshouse conditions, while the bio-electrochemical systems were operated in the absence of additional energy inputs (e.g. bias potential, injection of organic substrate and/or bacterial pre-inoculum). Diurnal oscillations were clearly observed in the electrical outputs of VP-BPV systems containing the two species over an 8-day growth period. During this 8-day period, O. sativa generated charge ∼6 times faster than E. glabrescens. This greater electrogenic activity generated a total charge accumulation of 6.75 ± 0.87 Coulombs for O. sativa compared to 1.12 ± 0.16 for E. glabrescens. The average power output observed over a period of about 30 days for O. sativa was significantly higher (0.980 ± 0.059 GJ ha(-1) year(-1)) than for E. glabrescens (0.088 ± 0.008 GJ ha(-1) year(-1)). This work indicates that electrical power can be generated in both VP-BPV systems (O. sativa and E. glabrescens) when bacterial populations are self-forming. Possible reasons for the differences in power outputs between the two plant species are discussed.
Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems
朱位秋
1996-01-01
A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.
NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)
California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...
Phase space reconstruction using input-output time series data
Walker, David M.; Tufillaro, Nicholas B.
1999-10-01
In this paper we suggest that an extension of a procedure recently proposed by Wayland et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 580 (1993)] for recognizing determinism in an autonomous time series can also be used as a diagnostic for determining an appropriate embedding dimension for driven (``input-output'') systems. We compare the results of this extension to the results produced by the extensions to the method of false nearest neighbors put forward by Rhodes and Morari [Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Seattle, edited by The American Automatic Control Council (IEEE, Piscataway, 1995)] and the method of averaged false nearest neighbors by Cao et al. [Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 8, 1491 (1998)].
Output Regulation of the Arneodo Chaotic System
Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of regulating the output of the Arneodo chaotic system (1981, which is one of the paradigms of chaotic dynamical systems. Explicitly, using the state feedback control laws, the output of the Arneodo chaotic system is regulated so as to track constant reference signals as well as to track periodic reference signals. The control laws are derived using the regulator equations of Byrnes and Isidori (1990, which provide the solution of the output regulation problem for nonlinear control systems involving neutrally stable exosystem dynamics. Numerical results are shown to verify the results.
Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine
Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.
1983-01-01
A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.
Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow
Richard W. Johnson
2012-09-01
A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical
2011-01-01
Single-stage grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems have advantages such as simple topology, high efficiency, etc. However, since all the control objectives such as the maximum power point tracking (with the utility voltage, and harmonics reduction for output current need to be considered simultaneously, the complexity of the control scheme is much increased. In this paper a new type of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and reactive power simul...
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces
无
2000-01-01
The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.
Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models
de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.
1998-01-01
Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared
Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case
Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.
2007-01-01
We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situ
Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case
Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.
We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW
Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium
Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.
1951-01-01
By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
2010-07-19
... CFR Part 3015, Subpart V, and the final rule related notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983... Average Payments/Maximum Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the annual adjustments to the ``national average payments,'' the amount...
Javad Faiz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A UPS inverter operates in wide load impedance ranges from resistive to capacitive or inductive load. At the same time, fast transient load response, good load regulation and good switching frequency suppression is required. The variation of the load impedance changes the filter transfer characteristic and thus the output voltage value. In this paper, an analysis and simulation of the single phase voltage source uninterruptible power supply (UPS with fourth order filter (multiple-filter in output inverter, based on the state space averaging and small signal linearization technique, is proposed. The simulation results show the high quality sinusoidal output voltage at different loads, with THD less than %5.
General and Local: Averaged k-Dependence Bayesian Classifiers
Limin Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The inference of a general Bayesian network has been shown to be an NP-hard problem, even for approximate solutions. Although k-dependence Bayesian (KDB classifier can construct at arbitrary points (values of k along the attribute dependence spectrum, it cannot identify the changes of interdependencies when attributes take different values. Local KDB, which learns in the framework of KDB, is proposed in this study to describe the local dependencies implicated in each test instance. Based on the analysis of functional dependencies, substitution-elimination resolution, a new type of semi-naive Bayesian operation, is proposed to substitute or eliminate generalization to achieve accurate estimation of conditional probability distribution while reducing computational complexity. The final classifier, averaged k-dependence Bayesian (AKDB classifiers, will average the output of KDB and local KDB. Experimental results on the repository of machine learning databases from the University of California Irvine (UCI showed that AKDB has significant advantages in zero-one loss and bias relative to naive Bayes (NB, tree augmented naive Bayes (TAN, Averaged one-dependence estimators (AODE, and KDB. Moreover, KDB and local KDB show mutually complementary characteristics with respect to variance.
Fiber laser pumped high power mid-infrared laser with picosecond pulse bunch output.
Wei, Kaihua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang
2013-10-21
We report a novel quasi-synchronously pumped PPMgLN-based high power mid-infrared (MIR) laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The pump laser is a linearly polarized MOPA structured all fiberized Yb fiber laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The output from a mode-locked seed fiber laser was directed to pass through a FBG reflector via a circulator to narrow the pulse duration from 800 ps to less than 50 ps and the spectral FWHM from 9 nm to 0.15 nm. The narrowed pulses were further directed to pass through a novel pulse multiplier through which each pulse was made to become a pulse bunch composing of 13 sub-pulses with pulse to pulse time interval of 1.26 ns. The pulses were then amplified via two stage Yb fiber amplifiers to obtain a linearly polarized high average power output up to 85 W, which were then directed to pass through an isolator and to pump a PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator via quasi-synchronization pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output. High MIR output with average power up to 4 W was obtained at 3.45 micron showing the feasibility of such pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output.
Output power control for large wind power penetration in small power system
Senjyu, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Uehara, Akie; Yona, Atsushi; Sekine, Hideomi [University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea)
2009-11-15
Nowadays, wind turbine generator (WTG) is increasingly required to provide control capabilities regarding output power. Under this scenario, this paper proposes an output power control of WTG using pitch angle control connected to small power systems. By means of the proposed method, output power control of WTG considering states of power system becomes possible, and in general both conflicting objectives of output power leveling and acquisition power increase are achieved. In this control approach, WTG is given output power command by fuzzy reasoning which has three inputs for average wind speed, variance of wind speed, and absolute average of frequency deviation. Since fuzzy reasoning is used, it is possible to define output power command corresponding to wind speed condition and changing capacity of power system momentarily. Moreover, high performance pitch angle control based on output power command is achieved by generalized predictive control (GPC). The simulation results by using actual detailed model for wind power system show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)
New results on averaging theory and applications
Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume
2016-08-01
The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.
Memory-based parallel data output controller
Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
A memory-based parallel data output controller employs associative memories and memory mapping to decommutate multiple channels of telemetry data. The output controller contains a random access memory (RAM) which has at least as many address locations as there are channels. A word counter addresses the RAM which provides as it outputs an encoded peripheral device number and a MSB/LSB-first flag. The encoded device number and a bit counter address a second RAM which contains START and STOP flags to pick out the required bits from the specified word number. The LSB/MSB, START and STOP flags, along with the serial input digital data go to a control block which selectively fills a shift register used to drive the parallel data output bus.
THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...
iya beji
monetary policy can be used to stimulate agricultural output even if only in the .... require higher lags than could be accommodated given the number of our data .... Time Series with a Unit Root”, Journal of the American Statistical Association,.
Scaling of global input-output networks
Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming
2016-06-01
Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.
OFFSHORE OIL OUTPUT MORE THAN SCHEDULED
无
1997-01-01
@@ China Offshore Oil Nan Hai East Corp (CONHE) is one of four subsidiaries of the China National Offshore Oil Corp.The first-quarter output was an encouraging 220 000 tons more than the planned goal for that period.
Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output
Zhang Dingmin
2002-01-01
@@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.
Coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves
Li, Guolin; Shu, Ting; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Jianhua; Jin, Zhenxing; Yin, Yi; Wu, Dapeng; Zhu, Jun; Ren, Heming; Yang, Jie
2010-12-01
The coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves is a promising technique for the development of high power microwave technologies, as it can enhance the output capacities of presently studied devices. According to the investigations on the spatial filtering method and waveguide filtering method, the hybrid filtering method is proposed for the coupling output of multichannel high power microwaves. As an example, a specific structure is designed for the coupling output of S/X/X band three-channel high power microwaves and investigated with the hybrid filtering method. In the experiments, a pulse of 4 GW X band beat waves and a pulse of 1.8 GW S band microwave are obtained.
Output Measures and Library Space Planning.
Lushington, Nolan
1987-01-01
Draws some initial connections between library performance measures and library space planning and collection management. Output measure surveys are suggested for establishing hierarchies of use and appropriate design of environments for housing the collection. Four references are listed. (MES)
Picosecond mid-infrared amplifier for high average power.
Botha, LR
2007-04-01
Full Text Available are similar. The saturation fluence for a multi level system can be written as z PhEsat σ υ 2 = With σ the stimulated emission cross section and P the pressure of the laser. 1/z... is essentially the average number of populated rotational levels. For our case z=0.07 and 181054.1 −×=σ cm2. Thus for a 10 atm laser the saturation fluence is: 2 18 1334 /1173 07.01017/12 10109.210626.6 cmmJxEsat = ××× ××× = − − The maximum...
The Average-Case Area of Heilbronn-Type Triangles
Jiang, T.; Li, Ming; Vitányi, Paul
1999-01-01
From among $ {n \\choose 3}$ triangles with vertices chosen from $n$ points in the unit square, let $T$ be the one with the smallest area, and let $A$ be the area of $T$. Heilbronn's triangle problem asks for the maximum value assumed by $A$ over all choices of $n$ points. We consider the average-case: If the $n$ points are chosen independently and at random (with a uniform distribution), then there exist positive constants $c$ and $C$ such that $c/n^3 < \\mu_n < C/n^3$ for all large enough val...
Recent advances in phase shifted time averaging and stroboscopic interferometry
Styk, Adam; Józwik, Michał
2016-08-01
Classical Time Averaging and Stroboscopic Interferometry are widely used for MEMS/MOEMS dynamic behavior investigations. Unfortunately both methods require an extensive measurement and data processing strategies in order to evaluate the information on maximum amplitude at a given load of vibrating object. In this paper the modified strategies of data processing in both techniques are introduced. These modifications allow for fast and reliable calculation of searched value, without additional complication of measurement systems. Through the paper the both approaches are discussed and experimentally verified.
Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering
Yan, Xiao-Bo
2017-01-01
We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become prosperous if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, and fr...
APPROXIMATE OUTPUT REGULATION FOR AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS
Yali DONG; Daizhan CHENG; Huashu QIN
2003-01-01
Output regulation for affine nonlinear systems driven by an exogenous signal is investigated in this paper. In the absence of the standard exosystem hypothesis, we assume availability of the instantaneous values of the exogenous signal and its first time-derivative for use in the control law.For affine nonlinear systems, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the solvability of approximate output regulation problem are obtained. The precise form of the control law is presented under some suitable assumptions.
Climate, CO2, and the history of North American grasses since the Last Glacial Maximum.
Cotton, Jennifer M; Cerling, Thure E; Hoppe, Kathryn A; Mosier, Thomas M; Still, Christopher J
2016-03-01
The spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene is one of the most important ecological transitions of the Cenozoic, but the primary driver of this global expansion is widely debated. We use the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) of bison and mammoth tissues as a proxy for the relative abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in their grazing habitat to determine climatic and atmospheric CO2 controls on C4 grass distributions from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present. We predict the spatial variability of grass δ(13)C in North America using a mean of three different methods of classification and regression tree (CART) machine learning techniques and nine climatic variables. We show that growing season precipitation and temperature are the strongest predictors of all single climate variables. We apply this CART analysis to high-resolution gridded climate data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) mean paleoclimate model outputs to produce predictive isotope landscape models ("isoscapes") for the current, mid-Holocene, and LGM average δ(13)C of grass-dominated areas across North America. From the LGM to the present, C4 grass abundances substantially increased in the Great Plains despite concurrent increases in atmospheric CO2. These results suggest that changes in growing season precipitation rather than atmospheric CO2 were critically important in the Neogene expansion of C4 grasses.
Comparison of point forecast accuracy of model averaging methods in hydrologic applications
Diks, C.G.H.; Vrugt, J.A.
2010-01-01
Multi-model averaging is currently receiving a surge of attention in the atmospheric, hydrologic, and statistical literature to explicitly handle conceptual model uncertainty in the analysis of environmental systems and derive predictive distributions of model output. Such density forecasts are nece
Light output and energy resolution of Ce sup 3 sup + -doped scintillators
Dorenbos, P
2002-01-01
The systematic trends regarding wavelength of emission, maximum obtainable scintillation light output, gamma-ray energy resolution, and scintillation decay time of Ce sup 3 sup + -doped fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, oxides, sulfides, and selenides are reviewed. Theoretical limits will be compared with actually achieved values. The relation between energy resolution and non-proportional response of scintillators will be discussed.
High-Precision Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit In Dual Phase Output Mode
Theerayut Jamjaem
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This paper present high-precision half-wave rectifier circuit in dual phase output mode by 0.5 μm CMOS technology, +/- 1.5 V low voltage, it has received input signal and sent output current signal, respond in high frequency. The main structure compound with CMOS inverter circuit, common source circuit, and current mirror circuit. Simulation and confirmation quality of working by PSpice program, then it able to operating at maximum frequency about 100 MHz, maximum input current range about 400 μAp-p, high precision output signal, low power dissipation, and uses a little transistor.Keywords-component; half-wave; rectifier circuit; highprecession; dual phase;
Predicting Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle 24
Nipa J Bhatt; Rajmal Jain; Malini Aggarwal
2009-03-01
A few prediction methods have been developed based on the precursor technique which is found to be successful for forecasting the solar activity. Considering the geomagnetic activity aa indices during the descending phase of the preceding solar cycle as the precursor, we predict the maximum amplitude of annual mean sunspot number in cycle 24 to be 111 ± 21. This suggests that the maximum amplitude of the upcoming cycle 24 will be less than cycles 21–22. Further, we have estimated the annual mean geomagnetic activity aa index for the solar maximum year in cycle 24 to be 20.6 ± 4.7 and the average of the annual mean sunspot number during the descending phase of cycle 24 is estimated to be 48 ± 16.8.
Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics
Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried
2016-01-01
We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.
Average-passage flow model development
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.
FREQUENTIST MODEL AVERAGING ESTIMATION: A REVIEW
Haiying WANG; Xinyu ZHANG; Guohua ZOU
2009-01-01
In applications, the traditional estimation procedure generally begins with model selection.Once a specific model is selected, subsequent estimation is conducted under the selected model without consideration of the uncertainty from the selection process. This often leads to the underreporting of variability and too optimistic confidence sets. Model averaging estimation is an alternative to this procedure, which incorporates model uncertainty into the estimation process. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in model averaging from the frequentist perspective, and some important progresses have been made. In this paper, the theory and methods on frequentist model averaging estimation are surveyed. Some future research topics are also discussed.
Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds
Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.
2002-01-01
Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752
Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging
Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L
2010-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.
The Average Lower Connectivity of Graphs
Ersin Aslan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For a vertex v of a graph G, the lower connectivity, denoted by sv(G, is the smallest number of vertices that contains v and those vertices whose deletion from G produces a disconnected or a trivial graph. The average lower connectivity denoted by κav(G is the value (∑v∈VGsvG/VG. It is shown that this parameter can be used to measure the vulnerability of networks. This paper contains results on bounds for the average lower connectivity and obtains the average lower connectivity of some graphs.
Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P
2008-10-31
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.
Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy
Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
2005-01-01
of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...
Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states
Zhang, Lin; Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun K.
2017-02-01
Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.
R Wave Extraction Based on the Maximum First Derivative plus the Maximum Value of the Double Search
Wen-po Yao; Wen-li Yao; Min Wu; Tie-bing Liu
2016-01-01
R-wave detection is the main approach for heart rate variability analysis and clinical application based on R-R interval. The maximum ifrst derivative plus the maximum value of the double search algorithm is applied on electrocardiogram (ECG) of MIH-BIT Arrhythmia Database to extract R wave. Through the study of algorithm's characteristics and R-wave detection method, data segmentation method is modified to improve the detection accuracy. After segmentation modification, average accuracy rate of 6 sets of short ECG data increase from 82.51% to 93.70%, and the average accuracy rate of 11 groups long-range data is 96.61%. Test results prove that the algorithm and segmentation method can accurately locate R wave and have good effectiveness and versatility, but may exist some undetected problems due to algorithm implementation.
Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生
2003-01-01
Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.
Influence of Clusters on the Intensity of Innovation Outputs
Miroslav Žižka
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The article evaluates the impact of clusters on innovation outputs in the regions of the Czech Republic. The research was divided into four main phases. An overview of all institutionalised clusters in the Czech Republic, including innate clusters, was compiled in the first phase. Location quotients were used to identify innate clusters. For institutionalised clusters the main declared field specialisation, membership basis and cluster age were established. In the second phase, 5 most important branches were defined per each region by number of employees. Subsequently, the hypotheses that innovation characteristics of the regions depend on the number of clusters, their average age and the number of members were tested. Innovations were characterised by patent applications, utility models, total R&D expenditure and export of technology services. All values were examined as incremental for the period of 2009 to 2012 per one full-time researcher. None of the determined hypotheses were confirmed. There is no systematic dependence between the innovation outputs in the regions and clusters. The possible reasons for this fact are discussed in the article, such as the short time clusters have been operating in the CR, the impact of the economic crisis or underestimating the existence of innate clusters. In the last phase of the research, innovation outputs were evaluated for the branches with operating clusters in respective regions and compared with total innovations per branch in the CR. Two regions were selected to serve as an example. The analysis showed that innate non-institutionalised clusters can also have a major impact on innovation outputs in regions.
Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...
Appeals Council Requests - Average Processing Time
Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual data from 1989 through 2015 for the average processing time (elapsed time in days) for dispositions by the Appeals Council (AC) (both...
Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...
Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...
MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...
Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures
Page, Don N
2014-01-01
The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...
A practical guide to averaging functions
Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa
2016-01-01
This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...
Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections
Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)
2014-11-28
Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.
Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections
Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth
2014-11-01
Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.
Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...
Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...
Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.
Mayerhöfer, Thomas G
2005-09-01
A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.
Cosmic Inhomogeneities and the Average Cosmological Dynamics
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.
2008-01-01
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a `dark energy'. However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the \\emph{in}homogeneous Universe, the averaged \\emph{homogeneous} Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic ini...
Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ
Tomáš Balogh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.
Analysis of output trends from Varian 2100C/D and 600C/D accelerators.
Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R
2011-01-07
Analysis of Varian linear accelerator output trends is reported. Two groups, consisting of four matched Varian 2100C/D and four matched Varian 600C/D accelerators, with different designs of monitor chamber, have been investigated and the data acquired from regular calibrated ion chamber/electrometer measurements of the output performance of the eight accelerators analysed. The trend of machine output with time, having removed the effect of adjusting the monitor chamber response, was compared on a monthly and annual basis for monitor chambers with ages ranging between 1 year and 7 years. The results indicate that the response is generally consistent within each set of accelerators with different monitor chamber designs. Those used in a Varian 600C/D machine result in a reduction in measured output over time, with an average monthly reduction of 0.35 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The chambers used in a 2100C/D accelerator result in an increase in measured output over time, with an average monthly increase of 0.26 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The output increase then reduces towards the end of this period of time, with the average monthly change falling to -0.03 ± 0.02% for the following 3 years. The output response trend was similar for all clinical energies used on the 2100C/D accelerators--6, 15 MV x-ray beams, and 4, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beams. By tracking these changes it has been possible to predict the response over time to allow appropriate adjustments in monitor chamber response to maintain a measured accelerator output within tolerance and give confidence in performance. It has also provided data to indicate the need for planned preventative intervention and indicate if the monitor chamber response is behaving as expected.
Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Raftry, Sean; Brooks, Cristy; Dowswell, Ben; Romero, Rick; Green, Simon
2013-12-01
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (F max) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFD max) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. F max declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.
Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.
Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice
2004-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.
Response requirements as constraints on output.
Zeiler, M D; Buchman, I B
1979-07-01
Two experiments studied how added response requirements affected fixed-interval schedule performance. Experiment 1 involved tandem fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules, and Experiment 2 studied conjunctive fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedules. In both, pigeons' output, defined as overall response rate or as responses during the interval, first increased and then decreased as the ratio was raised. With small ratio requirements, the frequency of reinforcement in time either did not change or decreased slightly. With progressively larger ratios, reinforcement frequency decreased consistently. Alternative explanations were discussed. The first, a reinforcement theory account, was that response strength is an increasing monotonic function of both the response requirement and reinforcement frequency, and the bitonic output function represents interacting effects. Increases in the response requirement accompanied by small changes in reinforcement frequency enhance output, but further increases result in large enough decrements in reinforcement frequency so that output is lowered. The second explanation does not view reinforcement as a basic process but, instead, derives from concepts of economics and conservation. Organisms allocate their behavior among alternatives so as to maximize value, where value is a function of the responses that can occur in a given situation under the set of restrictions imposed by particular schedules. One form of this theory explicitly predicts that output is a bitonic function of ratio requirements in simple ratio schedules. However, it was not clear that this model could explain the present effects involving joint ratio and interval schedule restrictions.
Output Synchronization of Nonidentical Linear Multiagent Systems.
Wu, Yuanqing; Su, Hongye; Shi, Peng; Lu, Renquan; Wu, Zheng-Guang
2017-01-01
In this paper, the problem of output synchronization is investigated for the heterogeneous network with an uncertain leader. It is assumed that parameter perturbations influence the nonidentical linear agents, whose outputs are controlled to track the output of an uncertain leader. Based on the hierarchical structure of the communication graph, a novel control scheme is proposed to guarantee the output synchronization. As there exist parameter uncertainties in the models of the agents, the internal model principle is used to gain robustness versus plant parameter uncertainties. Furthermore, as the precise model of the leader is also not available, the adaptive control principle is adopted to tune the parameters in the local controllers. The developed new technique is able to simultaneously handle uncertainties in the follower parameters as well as the leader parameters. The agents in the upper layers will be treated as the exosystems of the agents in the lower layers. The local controllers are constructed in a sequential order. It is shown that the output synchronization can be achieved globally asymptotically and locally exponentially. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the theoretic results obtained.
2012-12-01
portable devices where system size and efficiency are the primary design factors. Size and efficiency also govern the use of multiple MPPTs at the sub... mechanisms responsible for the energy losses in a switch-mode converter are the same. They include the components responsible for conduction, capacitor...designed to directly power a load as done in this test. The SPV-1020 may require an appropriate battery charger such as the STEVAL SEA05 battery
An Analysis of Output on English Vocabulary Acquisition
曾娅妮
2014-01-01
Output Hypothesis was proposed by Swain in 1985, her Output Hypothesis is regarded as the most important and in-fluential one. However, few studies research and analyze the effect of output on vocabulary acquisition. The findings of this study suggest the importance of output in vocabulary acquisition. Furthermore, in the interactive mode output can help learners acquire vocabulary.
MAXIMUM POWEWR POINT TRACKING SYSTEM FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION: A REVIEW
I. Elzein
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing attention towards the use of renewable energy sources. Among them solar energy is one of the most promising green energy resources due to its environment sustainability and inexhaustibility. However photovoltaic systems (PhV suffer from big cost of equipment and low efficiency. Moreover, the solar cell V-I characteristic is nonlinear and varies with irradiation and temperature. In general, there is a unique point of PhV operation, called the Maximum Power Point (MPP, in which the PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum output power. The location of the MPP is not known in advance, but can be located, either through calculation models or by search algorithms. Therefore MPPT techniques are important to maintain the PV array’s high efficiency. Many different techniques for MPPT are discussed. This review paper hopefully will serve as a convenient tool for future work in PhV power conversion.
William Harvey, Peter Lauremberg and cardiac output.
Teichmann, G
1992-11-01
In 1636, the Rostock professor of medicine and the art of poetry, Peter Lauremberg (1585-1639), was one of the earliest to mention circulation which had been discovered by William Harvey and documented in his anatomical manual. In 1628 William Harvey proved the existence of the blood circulation by calculating the "cardiac output in a half an hour (semihora)". The answer to the question why Harvey chose half an hour as the time range can be found in the way of measuring time usual at that period. The sandglasses were turned half-hourly in maritime navigation and the wheel-clocks on shore had only the hour-hand. Improved chronometry was one of the prerequisites for measuring cardiac output. The minute-hand became usual after 1700 and the second-hand later on. Taking into consideration the alterations of cardiac output made the latter one of the most important circulation parameters in diagnostics, prognostication and therapeutics.
Pole placement with constant gain output feedback
Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.
1972-01-01
Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.
PV output smoothing with energy storage.
Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan
2012-03-01
This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.
Effect of water intake on sweat output
K. V. Mani
1961-07-01
Full Text Available The effect of drinking volumes of water in excess of normal requirement at a given time on sweat output was studied under two conditions of body activity namely marching and standing, and two conditions of exposure namely sun and shade. It was found that (1drinking large volumes of water causes a significant and appreciable increase in sweat output, of the order of 0.8 gm/kg/hr; and (2 this increase is very nearly the same under all the conditions studied. It is suggested that changes in tonicity of the plasma may be the main cause for this phenomenon. It is also pointed out that this increased sweat output is not a loss to the body.
Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers
Tomczyk Krzysztof
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.
Output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator
Tesfa, S
2007-01-01
We study the squeezing as well as the statistical properties of the output radiation from a degenerate parametric oscillator coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. It is found that the degree of squeezing of the output radiation is less than the corresponding cavity radiation. However, for output radiation the correlation of the quadrature operators evaluated at different times also exhibits squeezing, which is the reason for quenching of the overall noise in one of the quadrature components of the squeezing spectrum even when the oscillator is coupled to a vacuum reservoir. Moreover, coupling the oscillator to the squeezed vacuum reservoir enhances the squeezing exponentially and it also increases the mean photon number.
A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors
Ostrowski, Mariusz
2016-04-01
Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub
Averaged controllability of parameter dependent conservative semigroups
Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique
2017-02-01
We consider the problem of averaged controllability for parameter depending (either in a discrete or continuous fashion) control systems, the aim being to find a control, independent of the unknown parameters, so that the average of the states is controlled. We do it in the context of conservative models, both in an abstract setting and also analysing the specific examples of the wave and Schrödinger equations. Our first result is of perturbative nature. Assuming the averaging probability measure to be a small parameter-dependent perturbation (in a sense that we make precise) of an atomic measure given by a Dirac mass corresponding to a specific realisation of the system, we show that the averaged controllability property is achieved whenever the system corresponding to the support of the Dirac is controllable. Similar tools can be employed to obtain averaged versions of the so-called Ingham inequalities. Particular attention is devoted to the 1d wave equation in which the time-periodicity of solutions can be exploited to obtain more precise results, provided the parameters involved satisfy Diophantine conditions ensuring the lack of resonances.
Average Temperatures in the Southwestern United States, 2000-2015 Versus Long-Term Average
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how the average air temperature from 2000 to 2015 has differed from the long-term average (1895–2015). To provide more detailed information,...
Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives
Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn
2007-01-01
-phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress......The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/Â¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three...
Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules
Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2013-06-15
Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.
Input/Output Subroutine Library Program
Collier, James B.
1988-01-01
Efficient, easy-to-use program moved easily to different computers. Purpose of NAVIO, Input/Output Subroutine Library, provides input/output package of software for FORTRAN programs that is portable, efficient, and easy to use. Implemented as hierarchy of libraries. At bottom is very small library containing only non-portable routines called "I/O Kernel." Design makes NAVIO easy to move from one computer to another, by simply changing kernel. NAVIO appropriate for software system of almost any size wherein different programs communicate through files.
The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem
BAGHERIAN; Mehri
2010-01-01
We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.
Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy
Wiltshire, David L
2013-01-01
These lecture notes review the theoretical problems associated with coarse-graining the observed inhomogeneous structure of the universe at late epochs, of describing average cosmic evolution in the presence of growing inhomogeneity, and of relating average quantities to physical observables. In particular, a detailed discussion of the timescape scenario is presented. In this scenario, dark energy is realized as a misidentification of gravitational energy gradients which result from gradients in the kinetic energy of expansion of space, in the presence of density and spatial curvature gradients that grow large with the growth of structure. The phenomenology and observational tests of the timescape model are discussed in detail, with updated constraints from Planck satellite data. In addition, recent results on the variation of the Hubble expansion on < 100/h Mpc scales are discussed. The spherically averaged Hubble law is significantly more uniform in the rest frame of the Local Group of galaxies than in t...
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
R Alexander Bentley
Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC
Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel
2008-11-01
Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking
Liu, Shu-Jun
2012-01-01
Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering and analysis of bacterial convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser
Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A
2001-05-23
We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.
Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors
Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)
2014-06-15
Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.
The modulated average structure of mullite.
Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X
2015-06-01
Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real
A singularity theorem based on spatial averages
J M M Senovilla
2007-07-01
Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.
Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context
Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary
2014-09-01
This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.
SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS
K. L. Goluoglu
2000-06-09
The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.
An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.
2004-01-01
Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...
Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA
Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.
2014-01-01
As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...
Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.
Cade, Brian S
2015-09-01
Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t
Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences
Cade, Brian S.
2015-01-01
Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the
Er:YAG crystal temperature influence on laser output characteristics
Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Hlinomaz, Kryštof; Jelínková, Helena
2017-02-01
The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of the temperature of the Er:YAG active medium on laser properties in eye-safe spectral region for three various pump wavelengths. The tested Er:YAG sample doped by 0.5% of Er3+ ions had a cylindrical shape with 25mm in length and 5mm in diameter. The absorption spectrum of the Er:YAG active medium in the range from 1400nm up to 1700nm for temperatures 80K and 300K was measured. The crystal was placed inside the vacuum chamber of a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat. The temperature was controlled within the 80 - 340K temperature range. Three pump sources generating at 1535, 1452, and 1467nm were applied. The first one was flash lamp pumped Er:glass laser (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, pulse duration 1 ms, pulse energy 148 mJ). The further two sources were fiber coupled laser diodes (repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse duration 10 ms, maximum pulse energies 106mJ and 195 mJ). The semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a pump curved mirror and output plan coupler with a reflectivity of 90% @ 1645 nm. The laser output characteristics were investigated in dependence on temperature of active medium for three laser pumping systems. The output energy has an optimum in dependence on active medium temperature and pump wavelengths. The maximal generated laser energies were 16.2mJ (90 K), 28.7mJ (120 K), and 33.2mJ (220 K), for pump wavelengths 1452 nm, 1467 nm, and 1535 nm, respectively.
Rolling bearing feature frequency extraction using extreme average envelope decomposition
Shi, Kunju; Liu, Shulin; Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Hongli
2016-09-01
The vibration signal contains a wealth of sensitive information which reflects the running status of the equipment. It is one of the most important steps for precise diagnosis to decompose the signal and extracts the effective information properly. The traditional classical adaptive signal decomposition method, such as EMD, exists the problems of mode mixing, low decomposition accuracy etc. Aiming at those problems, EAED(extreme average envelope decomposition) method is presented based on EMD. EAED method has three advantages. Firstly, it is completed through midpoint envelopment method rather than using maximum and minimum envelopment respectively as used in EMD. Therefore, the average variability of the signal can be described accurately. Secondly, in order to reduce the envelope errors during the signal decomposition, replacing two envelopes with one envelope strategy is presented. Thirdly, the similar triangle principle is utilized to calculate the time of extreme average points accurately. Thus, the influence of sampling frequency on the calculation results can be significantly reduced. Experimental results show that EAED could separate out single frequency components from a complex signal gradually. EAED could not only isolate three kinds of typical bearing fault characteristic of vibration frequency components but also has fewer decomposition layers. EAED replaces quadratic enveloping to an envelope which ensuring to isolate the fault characteristic frequency under the condition of less decomposition layers. Therefore, the precision of signal decomposition is improved.
On the average uncertainty for systems with nonlinear coupling
Nelson, Kenric P.; Umarov, Sabir R.; Kon, Mark A.
2017-02-01
The increased uncertainty and complexity of nonlinear systems have motivated investigators to consider generalized approaches to defining an entropy function. New insights are achieved by defining the average uncertainty in the probability domain as a transformation of entropy functions. The Shannon entropy when transformed to the probability domain is the weighted geometric mean of the probabilities. For the exponential and Gaussian distributions, we show that the weighted geometric mean of the distribution is equal to the density of the distribution at the location plus the scale (i.e. at the width of the distribution). The average uncertainty is generalized via the weighted generalized mean, in which the moment is a function of the nonlinear source. Both the Rényi and Tsallis entropies transform to this definition of the generalized average uncertainty in the probability domain. For the generalized Pareto and Student's t-distributions, which are the maximum entropy distributions for these generalized entropies, the appropriate weighted generalized mean also equals the density of the distribution at the location plus scale. A coupled entropy function is proposed, which is equal to the normalized Tsallis entropy divided by one plus the coupling.
Carville, Serena F; Rutherford, Olga M; Newham, Di J
2006-02-01
There are conflicting reports of the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on strength preservation in postmenopausal women, while any effect on power output has received little attention. Decreased steadiness of force generation has been reported in older muscles and may be related to the hormonal changes associated with the menopause, but the effect of HRT has not been investigated. We have studied the effect of HRT on strength, power output and isometric force steadiness in healthy women. Sixteen young (aged 27.4 +/- 1.4 years, mean +/- SEM) and 29 postmenopausal women were studied. Fifteen of the latter were taking HRT (68.1 +/- 1.4 years, HRT+) and 14 (70.5 +/- 1.5 years, HRT-) had never done so. During isometric quadriceps contractions the force steadiness (coefficient of variation of force) was measured at 10, 25, 50 and 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The average power generated by an explosive leg extension was recorded. The HRT- group generated less power (110.2 +/- 7.2 W) than both the HRT+ (136.5 +/- 10.9 W, P = 0.027) and young (136.2 +/- 5.8 W, P = 0.027) subjects. Power output was similar in the HRT+ and younger subjects. The HRT- subjects were weaker than the younger ones (241.3 +/- 14.0 N vs. 297.6 +/- 13 N, P = 0.006). The strength of the HRT+ group (255.5 +/- 14 N) was not significantly different to the other two groups. There was no difference in steadiness between the three groups at any of the force levels. HRT appears to maintain power output to a greater extent than isometric strength in postmenopausal women. There was no evidence for an effect of either age or HRT on isometric steadiness in the quadriceps.
Parameterized Traveling Salesman Problem: Beating the Average
Gutin, G.; Patel, V.
2016-01-01
In the traveling salesman problem (TSP), we are given a complete graph Kn together with an integer weighting w on the edges of Kn, and we are asked to find a Hamilton cycle of Kn of minimum weight. Let h(w) denote the average weight of a Hamilton cycle of Kn for the weighting w. Vizing in 1973 asked
On averaging methods for partial differential equations
Verhulst, F.
2001-01-01
The analysis of weakly nonlinear partial differential equations both qualitatively and quantitatively is emerging as an exciting eld of investigation In this report we consider specic results related to averaging but we do not aim at completeness The sections and contain important material which
Discontinuities and hysteresis in quantized average consensus
Ceragioli, Francesca; Persis, Claudio De; Frasca, Paolo
2011-01-01
We consider continuous-time average consensus dynamics in which the agents’ states are communicated through uniform quantizers. Solutions to the resulting system are defined in the Krasowskii sense and are proven to converge to conditions of ‘‘practical consensus’’. To cope with undesired chattering
Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated
Hansen, Lars Kai
2000-01-01
Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...
A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity
Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio
2014-01-01
In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…
Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic li...
Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives
Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael
Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...
Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light
Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...
Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis
Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…
A dynamic analysis of moving average rules
Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.
2006-01-01
The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
High average-power induction linacs
Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.
1989-03-15
Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.
High Average Power Optical FEL Amplifiers
Ben-Zvi, I; Litvinenko, V
2005-01-01
Historically, the first demonstration of the FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL amplifier and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance a 100 kW average power FEL. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting energy recovery linacs combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs with some advantages. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Li...
Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions
Natalia V. Skripnik
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.
Materials for high average power lasers
Marion, J.E.; Pertica, A.J.
1989-01-01
Unique materials properties requirements for solid state high average power (HAP) lasers dictate a materials development research program. A review of the desirable laser, optical and thermo-mechanical properties for HAP lasers precedes an assessment of the development status for crystalline and glass hosts optimized for HAP lasers. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
A dynamic analysis of moving average rules
C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes
2006-01-01
The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use
Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment
Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.
2010-01-01
The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function und
On optimal output regulation for linear systems
Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah; Shi, Guoyong
2003-01-01
The classical output regulation problem formulation for linear systems has a number of shortcomings; among them a primary one is that it does not take into account the transient response. Although this problem has been studied since the 1970s, a complete picture has not emerged yet. We formulate and
On output regulation for linear systems
Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah
2001-01-01
For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order � to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, � to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals wheneve
Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil
Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.
Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation
Posch, Olaf
empirical link between e ective tax rates and output volatility, with some evidence of a cointegrating relationship. In accordance with theory, taxes on labor income and corporate income empirically are found to be negatively related to volatility of macro aggregates whereas the capital tax ratio has...
Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.
Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.
1981-01-01
A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)
Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication
Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...
Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication
Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...
Multiple output timing and trigger generator
Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.
Capital Power:From Input to Output
You Wanlong; Alice
2009-01-01
@@ After thirty yeas "going out" of China overseas investment,we learn from our failed lessons and also successful experience.Chinese enterprises are now standing at a new starting point of "going out".China is transforming from "capital input power" to "capital output power".
Analysis of variance for model output
Jansen, M.J.W.
1999-01-01
A scalar model output Y is assumed to depend deterministically on a set of stochastically independent input vectors of different dimensions. The composition of the variance of Y is considered; variance components of particular relevance for uncertainty analysis are identified. Several analysis of va
Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.
Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.
1981-01-01
A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)
Turbo decoding using two soft output values
李建平; 潘申富; 梁庆林
2004-01-01
It is well known that turbo decoding always begins from the first component decoder and supposes that the apriori information is "0" at the first iterative decoding. To alternatively start decoding at two component decoders, we can gain two soft output values for the received observation of an input bit. It is obvious that two soft output values comprise more sufficient extrinsic information than only one output value obtained in the conventional scheme since different start points of decoding result in different combinations of the a priori information and the input codewords with different symbol orders due to the permutation of an interleaver. Summarizing two soft output values for erery bit before making hard decisions, we can correct more errors due to their complement. Consequently, turbo codes can achieve better error correcting performance than before in this way. Simulation results show that the performance of turbo codes using the novel proposed decoding scheme can get a growing improvement with the increment of SNR in general compared to the conventional scheme. When the bit error probability is 10-5, the proposed scheme can achieve 0.5 dB asymptotic coding gain or so under the given simulation conditions.
Input-output, expandable-parity network
Mckevitt, J. F., III
1974-01-01
Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.
Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation
Posch, Olaf
the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...
Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts
Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik
2015-01-01
In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...
What shapes output of policy reform?
Carlsen, Kirsten
This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Forest...
Smoothing the output from a DAC
Wagner, C.
1980-01-01
Circuit smooths stepped waveform from analog-to-digital converter without appreciable phase shift between stepped input signal and smoothed output signal and without any effect from stepping rate. Waveform produced is suitable for driving controls used in manufacturing processes, aerospace systems, and automobiles.
Minimum output entropy of Gaussian channels
Lloyd, S; Maccone, L; Pirandola, S; Garcia-Patron, R
2009-01-01
We show that the minimum output entropy for all single-mode Gaussian channels is additive and is attained for Gaussian inputs. This allows the derivation of the channel capacity for a number of Gaussian channels, including that of the channel with linear loss, thermal noise, and linear amplification.
Adaptive Output Tracking of Driven Oscillators
Lili Diao
2008-01-01
of the output tracking error to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. In addition, good approximation of the unknown nonlinearities is also achieved by incorporating a persistent exciting signal in the parameter update law. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an application to a cardiac conduction system modelled by two coupled driven oscillators.
The impact of monetary policy on output and inflation in India: A frequency domain analysis
Salunkhe Bhavesh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the recent past, several attempts by the RBI to control inflation through tight monetary policy have ended up slowing the growth process, thereby provoking prolonged discussion among academics and policymakers about the efficacy of monetary policy in India. Against this backdrop, the present study attempts to estimate the causal relationship between monetary policy and its final objectives; i.e., growth, and controlling inflation in India. The methodological tool used is testing for Granger Causality in the frequency domain as developed by Lemmens et al. (2008, and monetary policy has been proxied by the weighted average call money rate. In view of the fact that output gap is one of the determinants of future inflation, an attempt has also been made to study the causal relationship between output gap and inflation. The results of empirical estimation show a bi-directional causality between policy rate and inflation and between policy rate and output, which implies that the monetary authorities in India were equally concerned about inflation and output growth when determining policy. Furthermore, any attempt to control inflation affects output with the same or even greater magnitude than inflation, thereby damaging the growth process. The relationship between output gap and inflation was found to be positive, as reported in earlier studies for India. Furthermore, the output gap causes inflation only in the short-tomediumrun.
Speaking Math--A Voice Input, Speech Output Calculator for Students with Visual Impairments
Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Joshi, Gauri S.; Sheikh, Waseem; Schleppenbach, Dave
2011-01-01
This project explored a newly developed computer-based voice input, speech output (VISO) calculator. Three high school students with visual impairments educated at a state school for the blind and visually impaired participated in the study. The time they took to complete assessments and the average number of attempts per problem were recorded…
20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.
2010-04-01
... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...
Effect of argon plasma treatment on the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator
Cheng, Guang-Gui; Jiang, Shi-Yu; Li, Kai; Zhang, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Ning-Yi; Ding, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Wei
2017-08-01
Physical and chemical properties of the polymer surface play great roles in the output performance of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Specific texture on the surface of polymer can enlarge the contact area and enhance the power output performance of TENG. In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films with smooth and micro pillar arrays on the surface were prepared respectively. The surfaces were treated by argon plasma before testing their output performance. By changing treatment parameters such as treating time and plasma power, surfaces with different roughness and their relationship were achieved. The electrical output performances of the assembled TENG for each specimen showed that argon plasma treatment has a significant etching effect on the PDMS surface and greatly strengthen its output performance. The average surface roughness of PDMS film increases with the etching time from 5 mins to 15 mins when the argon plasma power is 60 W. Nevertheless, the average surface roughness is inversely proportional to the treatment time for the power of 90W. When treated with 90 W and 5 mins, many uniform micro pillars appeared on the both PDMS surface, and the output performance of the TENG for plasma treated smooth surface is 2.6 times larger than that before treatment. The output voltage increases from 42 V to 72 V, and the short circuit current increases from 4.2 μA to 8.3 μA after plasma treatment of the micro pillar array surface. However, this plasma treatment has time-efficient due to the hydrophobic recovery property of Ar plasma treated PDMS surface, both output voltage and short circuit current decrease significantly after 3 months.
Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter
2012-10-07
Induction heating equipment is a source of strong and nonhomogeneous magnetic fields, which can exceed occupational reference levels. We investigated a case of an induction tempering tunnel furnace. Measurements of the emitted magnetic flux density (B) were performed during its operation and used to validate a numerical model of the furnace. This model was used to compute the values of B and the induced in situ electric field (E) for 15 different body positions relative to the source. For each body position, the computed B values were used to determine their maximum and average values, using six spatial averaging schemes (9-285 averaging points) and two averaging algorithms (arithmetic mean and quadratic mean). Maximum and average B values were compared to the ICNIRP reference level, and E values to the ICNIRP basic restriction. Our results show that in nonhomogeneous fields, the maximum B is an overly conservative predictor of overexposure, as it yields many false positives. The average B yielded fewer false positives, but as the number of averaging points increased, false negatives emerged. The most reliable averaging schemes were obtained for averaging over the torso with quadratic averaging, with no false negatives even for the maximum number of averaging points investigated.
High-energy nanosecond radially polarized beam output from Nd:YAG amplifiers
Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Xudong; Pu, Jixiong
2017-04-01
Radially polarized laser beam amplification up to the 772 mJ using flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers was demonstrated. In the experiments, a nanosecond radially polarized seed beam was converted from a conventional Q-switched Nd:YAG laser output with a polarization converter and then amplified with two Nd:YAG amplifier stages. A maximum amplification output energy up to 772 mJ was achieved at 10 Hz with a 10-ns pulse, corresponding to an amplification factor of 323%. Excellent conservation of polarization was also obtained during the amplification.
Short Tm3+-doped fiber lasers with watt-level output near 2 μm
Yulong Tang; Yong Yang; Xiaojin Cheng; Jianqiu Xu
2008-01-01
High-power operation of diode-pumped fiber lasers at wavelength near 2μm are demonstrated with short length of heavily Tm3+-doped silica glass fibers. With 7-cm long fiber, a laser at near 2 μm is obtained with the threshold of 135 mW, maximum output power of 1.09 W, and slope efficiency of 9.6% with respect to the launched power from a laser diode at 790 nm. The output stability of this fiber laser is within 5%.The dependence of the performance of fiber lasers on the operation temperature and cavity configuration parameters is also investigated.
BIAN Fuping; DAI Min
2005-01-01
This paper extends the stochastic frontier production theory to the case of multiple outputs and calculate the measurement of efficiency using the production theory. We further apply this method to construct the stochastic frontier production model with undesirable outputs. Finally, the model is used in an HIV immunology model and the efficient drug treatment strategies are then explored.All the models are estimated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method. Stochastic errors are considered in this model, which is an advantage over other deterministic efficiency models. Some of our conclusions agree with those published in related papers.
Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence
Shinto Eguchi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.
Smith, Christopher; Willits, Steven; Bull, Diana; Fontaine, Arnold
2014-01-01
This paper presents work completed by The Applied Research Laboratory at The Pennsylvania State University, in conjunction with Sandia National Labs, on the optimization of the power conversion chain (PCC) design to maximize the Average Annual Electric Power (AAEP) output of an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) device. The design consists of two independent stages. First, the design of a floating OWC, a Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB), and second the design of the PCC. The pneumatic power output ...
Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier
Aaron Meehan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.
ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE
Carmen BOGHEAN
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.
Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry
Vladimirov, A. P.
2014-05-01
For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.
Effects of bruxism on the maximum bite force
Todić Jelena T.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bruxism is a parafunctional activity of the masticatory system, which is characterized by clenching or grinding of teeth. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of bruxism has impact on maximum bite force, with particular reference to the potential impact of gender on bite force values. Methods. This study included two groups of subjects: without and with bruxism. The presence of bruxism in the subjects was registered using a specific clinical questionnaire on bruxism and physical examination. The subjects from both groups were submitted to the procedure of measuring the maximum bite pressure and occlusal contact area using a single-sheet pressure-sensitive films (Fuji Prescale MS and HS Film. Maximal bite force was obtained by multiplying maximal bite pressure and occlusal contact area values. Results. The average values of maximal bite force were significantly higher in the subjects with bruxism compared to those without bruxism (p 0.01. Maximal bite force was significantly higher in the males compared to the females in all segments of the research. Conclusion. The presence of bruxism influences the increase in the maximum bite force as shown in this study. Gender is a significant determinant of bite force. Registration of maximum bite force can be used in diagnosing and analysing pathophysiological events during bruxism.
Elastic Cube Actuator with Six Degrees of Freedom Output
Pengchuan Wang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Unlike conventional rigid actuators, soft robotic technologies possess inherent compliance, so they can stretch and twist along every axis without the need for articulated joints. This compliance is exploited here using dielectric elastomer membranes to develop a novel six degrees of freedom (6-DOF polymer actuator that unifies ordinarily separate components into a simple cubic structure. This cube actuator design incorporates elastic dielectric elastomer membranes on four faces which are coupled by a cross-shaped end effector. The inherent elasticity of each membrane greatly reduces kinematic constraint and enables a 6-DOF actuation output to be produced via the end effector. An electro-mechanical model of the cube actuator is presented that captures the non-linear hyperelastic behaviour of the active membranes. It is demonstrated that the model accurately predicts actuator displacement and blocking moment for a range of input voltages. Experimental testing of a prototype 60 mm device demonstrates 6-DOF operation. The prototype produces maximum linear and rotational displacements of ±2.6 mm (±4.3% and ±4.8° respectively and a maximum blocking moment of ±76 mNm. The capacity for full 6-DOF actuation from a compact, readily scalable and easily fabricated polymeric package enables implementation in a range of mechatronics and robotics applications.
Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe
Agrawal, D. C.
2013-01-01
The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…
Endogenous average cost based access pricing
Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis
2006-01-01
We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...
The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities without averaging
Chatterjee, Sourav
2009-01-01
The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities are one of the most mysterious features of spin glasses. We prove the GG identities in a large class of models that includes the Edwards-Anderson model, the random field Ising model, and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the presence of a random external field. Previously, the GG identities were rigorously proved only `on average' over a range of temperatures or under small perturbations.
Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe
Agrawal, D. C.
2013-01-01
The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…
Average Light Intensity Inside a Photobioreactor
Herby Jean
2011-01-01
Full Text Available For energy production, microalgae are one of the few alternatives with high potential. Similar to plants, algae require energy acquired from light sources to grow. This project uses calculus to determine the light intensity inside of a photobioreactor filled with algae. Under preset conditions along with estimated values, we applied Lambert-Beer's law to formulate an equation to calculate how much light intensity escapes a photobioreactor and determine the average light intensity that was present inside the reactor.
Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature
Ballatore, P.
Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.
Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel
Mikael Johnson
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.
On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers
Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore
2016-01-01
In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...
A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.
Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor
2013-02-25
Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.
Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy
Robert Schoen
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.
Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil
HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang
2009-01-01
To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.
Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil
无
2009-01-01
To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy
2004-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.
Xiong-Hua, Zheng; Bao-Fu, Zhang; Zhong-Xing, Jiao; Biao, Wang
2016-01-01
We present a continuous-wave singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with 1.5% output coupling of the resonant signal wave, based on an angle-polished MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), pumped by a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm. The output-coupled optical parametric oscillator delivers a maximum total output power of 4.19 W with 42.8% extraction efficiency, across a tuning range of 1717 nm in the near- and mid-infrared region. This indicates improvements of 1.87 W in output power, 19.1% in extraction efficiency and 213 nm in tuning range extension in comparison with the optical parametric oscillator with no output coupling, while at the expense of increasing the oscillation threshold by a factor of ˜ 2. Moreover, it is confirmed that the finite output coupling also contributes to the reduction of the thermal effects in crystal. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61308056, 11204044, 11232015, and 11072271), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20120171110005 and 20130171130003), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 14lgpy07), and the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201203).
Plasticity of the prolactin (PRL) axis: mechanisms underlying regulation of output in female mice.
Le Tissier, P R; Hodson, D J; Martin, A O; Romanò, N; Mollard, P
2015-01-01
The output of prolactin (PRL) is highly dynamic with dramatic changes in its secretion from the anterior pituitary gland depending on prevailing physiological status. In adult female mice, there are three distinct phases of output and each of these is related to the functions of PRL at specific stages of reproduction. Recent studies of the changes in the regulation of PRL during its period of maximum output, lactation, have shown alterations at both the level of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. The PRL-secreting cells of the anterior pituitary are organised into a homotypic network in virgin animals, facilitating coordinated bouts of activity between interconnected PRL cells. During lactation, coordinated activity increases due to the changes in structural connectivity, and this drives large elevations in PRL secretion. Surprisingly, these changes in connectivity are maintained after weaning, despite reversion of PRL output to that of virgin animals, and result in an augmented output of hormone during a second lactation. At the level of the hypothalamus, tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, the major inhibitors of PRL secretion, have unexpectedly been shown to remain responsive to PRL during lactation. However, there is an uncoupling between TIDA neuron firing and dopamine secretion, with a potential switch to enkephalin release. Such a process may reinforce hormone secretion through dual disinhibition and stimulation of PRL cell activity. Thus, integration of signalling along the hypothalamo-pituitary axis is responsible for increased secretory output of PRL cells during lactation, as well as allowing the system to anticipate future demands.
Dalenbäck, J; Fändriks, L; Olbe, L; Sjövall, H
1996-01-01
Human gastric interdigestive acid and bicarbonate outputs vary cyclically in association with the migrating motor complex (MMC). These phenomena were studied in 26 healthy volunteers by constant-flow gastric perfusion, with continuous recording of pH and Pco2 in mixed gastric effluent and concomitant open-tip manometry of gastroduodenal motility. Stable acid and bicarbonate outputs were registered during less than 50% of the MMC cycle. Acid secretion started to increase 71 +/- 3% into the cycle, with maximum output during antral phase III. Bicarbonate output increased biphasically 1) 40 +/- 5% into the cycle, coinciding with reflux of bile, and 2) at the end of duodenal phase III when the aspirate was devoid of bile. The bicarbonate peak associated with phase III was abolished by atropine (0.01 mg/kg iv, n = 8) and by pyloric occlusion (n = 9) but remained unchanged after omeprazole (n = 10). The acid peak was abolished by both atropine and omeprazole. It is concluded that the MMC-related changes in acid and alkaline outputs represent two different and independent phenomena. Acid secretion cyclicity is due to periodical variations in cholinergic stimulation of the parietal cells. In contrast, the phase III-associated increase in bicarbonate output is due to duodenogastric reflux.
A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator
Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai
2016-08-01
To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.