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Sample records for maximum annual discharges

  1. At site and regional analysis of maximum annual and seasonal discharges and precipitation depths in the upper Hron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohnova, S.; Hlavcova, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors deal with the regional analysis of maximum annual and seasonal discharges and precipitation depths in the upper Hron region (Slovak Republic). This work has two objectives: (1) At site and regional analysis of annual and seasonal maximum design discharges in the upper Hron region; (2) Analysis of annual and seasonal maximum design precipitations in the connection of extreme runoff condition in the upper Hron region

  2. Change-Point and Trend Analysis on Annual Maximum Discharge in Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, F.; Villarini, G.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2008-12-01

    Annual maximum discharge records from 36 stations representing different hydro-climatic regimes in the continental United States with at least 100 years of records are used to investigate the presence of temporal trends and abrupt changes in mean and variance. Change point analysis is performed by means of two non- parametric (Pettitt and CUSUM), one semi-parametric (Guan), and two parametric (Rodionov and Bayesian Change Point) tests. Two non-parametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) and one parametric (Pearson) tests are applied to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) models are also used to parametrically model the streamflow data exploiting their flexibility to account for changes and temporal trends in the parameters of distribution functions. Additionally, serial correlation is assessed in advance by computing the autocorrelation function (ACF), and the Hurst parameter is estimated using two estimators (aggregated variance and differenced variance methods) to investigate the presence of long range dependence. The results of this study indicate lack of long range dependence in the maximum streamflow series. At some stations the authors found a statistically significant change point in the mean and/or variance, while in general they detected no statistically significant temporal trends.

  3. Maximum known stages and discharges of New York streams and their annual exceedance probabilities through September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Gary R.; Murray, Patricia M.; Lumia, Richard; Suro, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Maximum known stages and discharges at 1,400 sites on 796 streams within New York are tabulated. Stage data are reported in feet. Discharges are reported as cubic feet per second and in cubic feet per second per square mile. Drainage areas range from 0.03 to 298,800 square miles; excluding the three sites with larger drainage areas on the St. Lawrence and Niagara Rivers, which drain the Great Lakes, the maximum drainage area is 8,288 square miles (Hudson River at Albany). Most data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilations and records, but some were provided by State, local, and other Federal agencies and by private organizations. The stage and discharge information is grouped by major drainage basins and U.S. Geological Survey site number, in downstream order. Site locations and their associated drainage area, period(s) of record, stage and discharge data, and flood-frequency statistics are compiled in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Flood frequencies were derived for 1,238 sites by using methods described in Bulletin 17B (Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1982), Ries and Crouse (2002), and Lumia and others (2006). Curves that “envelope” maximum discharges within their range of drainage areas were developed for each of six flood-frequency hydrologic regions and for sites on Long Island, as well as for the State of New York; the New York curve was compared with a curve derived from a plot of maximum known discharges throughout the United States. Discharges represented by the national curve range from at least 2.7 to 4.9 times greater than those represented by the New York curve for drainage areas of 1.0 and 1,000 square miles. The relative magnitudes of discharge and runoff in the six hydrologic regions of New York and Long Island suggest the largest known discharges per square mile are in the southern part of western New York and the Catskill Mountain area, and the smallest are on Long Island.

  4. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  5. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1

  6. Estimation of peak discharge quantiles for selected annual exceedance probabilities in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.; Ishii, Audrey L.

    2016-06-28

    This report provides two sets of equations for estimating peak discharge quantiles at annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of 0.50, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 (recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years, respectively) for watersheds in Illinois based on annual maximum peak discharge data from 117 watersheds in and near northeastern Illinois. One set of equations was developed through a temporal analysis with a two-step least squares-quantile regression technique that measures the average effect of changes in the urbanization of the watersheds used in the study. The resulting equations can be used to adjust rural peak discharge quantiles for the effect of urbanization, and in this study the equations also were used to adjust the annual maximum peak discharges from the study watersheds to 2010 urbanization conditions.The other set of equations was developed by a spatial analysis. This analysis used generalized least-squares regression to fit the peak discharge quantiles computed from the urbanization-adjusted annual maximum peak discharges from the study watersheds to drainage-basin characteristics. The peak discharge quantiles were computed by using the Expected Moments Algorithm following the removal of potentially influential low floods defined by a multiple Grubbs-Beck test. To improve the quantile estimates, regional skew coefficients were obtained from a newly developed regional skew model in which the skew increases with the urbanized land use fraction. The drainage-basin characteristics used as explanatory variables in the spatial analysis include drainage area, the fraction of developed land, the fraction of land with poorly drained soils or likely water, and the basin slope estimated as the ratio of the basin relief to basin perimeter.This report also provides the following: (1) examples to illustrate the use of the spatial and urbanization-adjustment equations for estimating peak discharge quantiles at ungaged

  7. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  8. Evaluating Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Series for Estimating Frequency of Small Magnitude Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of frequent floods is important for characterising channel morphology, riparian and aquatic habitat, and informing river restoration efforts. This paper presents results from an analysis on frequency estimates of low magnitude floods using the annual maximum and partial series data compared to actual flood series. Five frequency distribution models were fitted to data from 24 gauging stations in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon catchments in north-eastern Australia. Based on the goodness of fit test, Generalised Extreme Value, Generalised Pareto and Log Pearson Type 3 models were used to estimate flood frequencies across the study region. Results suggest frequency estimates based on a partial series are better, compared to an annual series, for small to medium floods, while both methods produce similar results for large floods. Although both methods converge at a higher recurrence interval, the convergence recurrence interval varies between catchments. Results also suggest frequency estimates vary slightly between two or more partial series, depending on flood threshold, and the differences are large for the catchments that experience less frequent floods. While a partial series produces better frequency estimates, it can underestimate or overestimate the frequency if the flood threshold differs largely compared to bankfull discharge. These results have significant implications in calculating the dependency of floodplain ecosystems on the frequency of flooding and their subsequent management.

  9. Modelling non-stationary annual maximum flood heights in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maposa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we fit a time-dependent generalised extreme value (GEV distribution to annual maximum flood heights at three sites: Chokwe, Sicacate and Combomune in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique. A GEV distribution is fitted to six annual maximum time series models at each site, namely: annual daily maximum (AM1, annual 2-day maximum (AM2, annual 5-day maximum (AM5, annual 7-day maximum (AM7, annual 10-day maximum (AM10 and annual 30-day maximum (AM30. Non-stationary time-dependent GEV models with a linear trend in location and scale parameters are considered in this study. The results show lack of sufficient evidence to indicate a linear trend in the location parameter at all three sites. On the other hand, the findings in this study reveal strong evidence of the existence of a linear trend in the scale parameter at Combomune and Sicacate, whilst the scale parameter had no significant linear trend at Chokwe. Further investigation in this study also reveals that the location parameter at Sicacate can be modelled by a nonlinear quadratic trend; however, the complexity of the overall model is not worthwhile in fit over a time-homogeneous model. This study shows the importance of extending the time-homogeneous GEV model to incorporate climate change factors such as trend in the lower Limpopo River basin, particularly in this era of global warming and a changing climate. Keywords: nonstationary extremes; annual maxima; lower Limpopo River; generalised extreme value

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The 1987 Annual Report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith Atomic Energy Establishment and monitoring of the environment is given. The report covers waste discharges to the sea and the earth atmosphere and the associated environmental monitoring. (UK)

  11. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  12. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  13. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Company's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1990 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety and the Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical groups doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I includes, for each of the Company's sites, annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical groups doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each chapter. (author)

  15. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  16. Annual survey of radioactive discharges in Great Britain 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Details are given of main discharges to the environment of radioactive waste in 1978 together with those in 1977 and 1976 for comparison with comment on the environmental effect of the discharges in 1977. The statutory control over the discharges of radioactive wastes in Great Britain is outlined in the Introduction. Details of the discharges are set out in tabular form, grouped under: UKAEA establishments; the Radiochemical Centre Limited; British Nuclear Fuels Limited; CEGB and SSEB nuclear power stations; Ministry of Defence. Part 7 deals with radioactivity in drinking waters and rivers. (U.K.)

  17. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wickert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins – the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  18. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report supplements BNFL's Health and Safety Annual Report and lists 1988 discharges and environmental monitoring for the following sites: Sellafield, Chapelcross, Drigg Storage and Disposal Site, Springfields Works, Capenhurst Works. (UK)

  19. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements and updates the Company's Environment Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment since 1977. This year the report is again sub-divided into two complementary volumes. Volume I consists of site papers, one for each of the Company's sites and includes annual data on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Critical group doses for each site are presented in summary tables at the beginning of each Site paper. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation regulating the Company's discharges and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (Author)

  20. Modelling of extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia based on annual maximum and partial duration series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Shinyie, Wendy Ling; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two series of data for extreme rainfall events are generated based on Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Methods, derived from 102 rain-gauge stations in Peninsular from 1982-2012. To determine the optimal threshold for each station, several requirements must be satisfied and Adapted Hill estimator is employed for this purpose. A semi-parametric bootstrap is then used to estimate the mean square error (MSE) of the estimator at each threshold and the optimal threshold is selected based on the smallest MSE. The mean annual frequency is also checked to ensure that it lies in the range of one to five and the resulting data is also de-clustered to ensure independence. The two data series are then fitted to Generalized Extreme Value and Generalized Pareto distributions for annual maximum and partial duration series, respectively. The parameter estimation methods used are the Maximum Likelihood and the L-moment methods. Two goodness of fit tests are then used to evaluate the best-fitted distribution. The results showed that the Partial Duration series with Generalized Pareto distribution and Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation provides the best representation for extreme rainfall events in Peninsular Malaysia for majority of the stations studied. Based on these findings, several return values are also derived and spatial mapping are constructed to identify the distribution characteristic of extreme rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia.

  1. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    A report is given on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of British Nuclear Fuels Limited Works and Sites, i.e. the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes information on liquid and airborne radioactive effluents and solid radioactive waste at each of the Company's Works and Sites. Assessments are made of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on ICRP recommendations and in accordance with advice given by the NRPB. The report showed that at no time during 1980 did discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the Works exceed those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Environmental monitoring studies also showed that the radiation exposure in 1980 of the most highly exposed groups of the general population was significantly lower than the Annual Limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  2. Estimate of annual daily maximum rainfall and intense rain equation for the Formiga municipality, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Mara Rodrigues Borges

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the probabilistic behavior of rainfall is extremely important to the design of drainage systems, dam spillways, and other hydraulic projects. This study therefore examined statistical models to predict annual daily maximum rainfall as well as models of heavy rain for the city of Formiga - MG. To do this, annual maximum daily rainfall data were ranked in decreasing order that best describes the statistical distribution by exceedance probability. Daily rainfall disaggregation methodology was used for the intense rain model studies and adjusted with Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF and Exponential models. The study found that the Gumbel model better adhered to the data regarding observed frequency as indicated by the Chi-squared test, and that the exponential model best conforms to the observed data to predict intense rains.

  3. Maximum temperature accounts for annual soil CO2 efflux in temperate forests of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyong; Xu, Meili; Kang, Fengfeng; Jianxin Sun, Osbert

    2015-01-01

    It will help understand the representation legality of soil temperature to explore the correlations of soil respiration with variant properties of soil temperature. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth was hourly logged through twelve months. Basing on the measured soil temperature, soil respiration at different temporal scales were calculated using empirical functions for temperate forests. On monthly scale, soil respiration significantly correlated with maximum, minimum, mean and accumulated effective soil temperatures. Annual soil respiration varied from 409 g C m−2 in coniferous forest to 570 g C m−2 in mixed forest and to 692 g C m−2 in broadleaved forest, and was markedly explained by mean soil temperatures of the warmest day, July and summer, separately. These three soil temperatures reflected the maximum values on diurnal, monthly and annual scales. In accordance with their higher temperatures, summer soil respiration accounted for 51% of annual soil respiration across forest types, and broadleaved forest also had higher soil organic carbon content (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon content (SMBC), but a lower contribution of SMBC to SOC. This added proof to the findings that maximum soil temperature may accelerate the transformation of SOC to CO2-C via stimulating activities of soil microorganisms. PMID:26179467

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1991. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  5. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1992. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements British Nuclear Fuel plc's Health and Safety Annual Report by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environmental and critical group doses. BNFL has published Annual Reports on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment, covering the period from 1977 to the present. For 1991 this report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  6. Trends in Mean Annual Minimum and Maximum Near Surface Temperature in Nairobi City, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lukoye Makokha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term urban modification of mean annual conditions of near surface temperature in Nairobi City. Data from four weather stations situated in Nairobi were collected from the Kenya Meteorological Department for the period from 1966 to 1999 inclusive. The data included mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures, and was first subjected to homogeneity test before analysis. Both linear regression and Mann-Kendall rank test were used to discern the mean annual trends. Results show that the change of temperature over the thirty-four years study period is higher for minimum temperature than maximum temperature. The warming trends began earlier and are more significant at the urban stations than is the case at the sub-urban stations, an indication of the spread of urbanisation from the built-up Central Business District (CBD to the suburbs. The established significant warming trends in minimum temperature, which are likely to reach higher proportions in future, pose serious challenges on climate and urban planning of the city. In particular the effect of increased minimum temperature on human physiological comfort, building and urban design, wind circulation and air pollution needs to be incorporated in future urban planning programmes of the city.

  7. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model predictions of annual maximum pesticide concentrations in high vulnerability watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Michael F; Peranginangin, Natalia; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Chen, Wenlin

    2018-05-01

    Recent national regulatory assessments of potential pesticide exposure of threatened and endangered species in aquatic habitats have led to increased need for watershed-scale predictions of pesticide concentrations in flowing water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the ability of the uncalibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations in the flowing water bodies of highly vulnerable small- to medium-sized watersheds. The SWAT was applied to 27 watersheds, largely within the midwest corn belt of the United States, ranging from 20 to 386 km 2 , and evaluated using consistent input data sets and an uncalibrated parameterization approach. The watersheds were selected from the Atrazine Ecological Exposure Monitoring Program and the Heidelberg Tributary Loading Program, both of which contain high temporal resolution atrazine sampling data from watersheds with exceptionally high vulnerability to atrazine exposure. The model performance was assessed based upon predictions of annual maximum atrazine concentrations in 1-d and 60-d durations, predictions critical in pesticide-threatened and endangered species risk assessments when evaluating potential acute and chronic exposure to aquatic organisms. The simulation results showed that for nearly half of the watersheds simulated, the uncalibrated SWAT model was able to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations within a narrow range of uncertainty resulting from atrazine application timing patterns. An uncalibrated model's predictive performance is essential for the assessment of pesticide exposure in flowing water bodies, the majority of which have insufficient monitoring data for direct calibration, even in data-rich countries. In situations in which SWAT over- or underpredicted the annual maximum concentrations, the magnitude of the over- or underprediction was commonly less than a factor of 2, indicating that the model and uncalibrated parameterization

  8. Stochastic structure of annual discharges of large European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Milan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water resource has become a guarantee for sustainable development on both local and global scales. Exploiting water resources involves development of hydrological models for water management planning. In this paper we present a new stochastic model for generation of mean annul flows. The model is based on historical characteristics of time series of annual flows and consists of the trend component, long-term periodic component and stochastic component. The rest of specified components are model errors which are represented as a random time series. The random time series is generated by the single bootstrap model (SBM. Stochastic ensemble of error terms at the single hydrological station is formed using the SBM method. The ultimate stochastic model gives solutions of annual flows and presents a useful tool for integrated river basin planning and water management studies. The model is applied for ten large European rivers with long observed period. Validation of model results suggests that the stochastic flows simulated by the model can be used for hydrological simulations in river basins.

  9. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This annual report, the seventh, aims to provide full information on our discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). These Authorisations, one for discharges to the sea and one for discharges to the atmosphere, require that Winfrith establish a need to discharge; that we apply Best Practicable Means (BPM) to reduce our discharges; that our discharges are below set Authorised Limits; and that schedules of effluent and environmental monitoring are established. As a 'back stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group -exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down therefore the pattern of discharges for 1991 differs from previous years. Discharges are generally reduced resulting in an even lower dose to the critical group, well below 1% of the ICRP limit and much less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose. (author)

  10. An analysis of annual maximum streamflows in Terengganu, Malaysia using TL-moments approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ummi Nadiah; Shabri, Ani; Zakaria, Zahrahtul Amani

    2013-02-01

    TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to determine the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over 12 stations in Terengganu, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: generalized pareto (GPA), generalized logistic, and generalized extreme value distribution. The influence of TL-moments on estimated probability distribution functions are examined by evaluating the relative root mean square error and relative bias of quantile estimates through Monte Carlo simulations. The boxplot is used to show the location of the median and the dispersion of the data, which helps in reaching the decisive conclusions. For most of the cases, the results show that TL-moments with one smallest value was trimmed from the conceptual sample (TL-moments (1,0)), of GPA distribution was the most appropriate in majority of the stations for describing the annual maximum streamflow series in Terengganu, Malaysia.

  11. Estimating distribution parameters of annual maximum streamflows in Johor, Malaysia using TL-moments approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jan, Nur Amalina; Shabri, Ani

    2017-01-01

    TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to identify the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over seven stations in Johor, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: Three-parameter lognormal (LN3) and Pearson Type III (P3) distribution. The main objective of this study is to derive the TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 methods for LN3 and P3 distributions. The performance of TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 was compared with L-moments through Monte Carlo simulation and streamflow data over a station in Johor, Malaysia. The absolute error is used to test the influence of TL-moments methods on estimated probability distribution functions. From the cases in this study, the results show that TL-moments with four trimmed smallest values from the conceptual sample (TL-moments [4, 0]) of LN3 distribution was the most appropriate in most of the stations of the annual maximum streamflow series in Johor, Malaysia.

  12. STATIONARITY OF ANNUAL MAXIMUM DAILY STREAMFLOW TIME SERIES IN SOUTH-EAST BRAZILIAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damázio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/cadest.2014.18302The paper presents a statistical analysis of annual maxima daily streamflow between 1931 and 2013 in South-East Brazil focused in detecting and modelling non-stationarity aspects. Flood protection for the large valleys in South-East Brazil is provided by multiple purpose reservoir systems built during 20th century, which design and operation plans has been done assuming stationarity of historical flood time series. Land cover changes and rapidly-increasing level of atmosphere greenhouse gases of the last century may be affecting flood regimes in these valleys so that it can be that nonstationary modelling should be applied to re-asses dam safety and flood control operation rules at the existent reservoir system. Six annual maximum daily streamflow time series are analysed. The time series were plotted together with fitted smooth loess functions and non-parametric statistical tests are performed to check the significance of apparent trends shown by the plots. Non-stationarity is modelled by fitting univariate extreme value distribution functions which location varies linearly with time. Stationarity and non-stationarity modelling are compared with the likelihood ratio statistic. In four of the six analyzed time series non-stationarity modelling outperformed stationarity modelling.Keywords: Stationarity; Extreme Value Distributions; Flood Frequency Analysis; Maximum Likelihood Method.

  13. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Health and Safety Annual Report of British Nuclear Fuels plc by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. This report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. The sites involved are: Sellafield where the main activities are irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing and the Calder Hall nuclear station; the Drigg radioactive waste storage and disposal site; the Chapelcross nuclear power station; Springfields Works which manufactures nuclear fuels; Capenhurst Works where uranium isotopic enrichment plants are operated. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  14. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report supplements the Health and Safety Annual Report of British Nuclear Fuels plc by providing more detailed information on radioactive discharges, monitoring of the environment and critical group doses. This report has been sub-divided into two complementary parts. Volume I includes annual data for each of the Company sites on radioactive discharges into the environment and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. The sites involved are: Sellafield where the main activities are irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing and the Calder Hall nuclear station; the Drigg radioactive waste storage and disposal site; the Chapelcross nuclear power station; Springfields Works which manufactures nuclear fuels; Capenhurst Works where uranium isotopic enrichment plants are operated. Volume II reproduces the Certificates of Authorisation under which the Company operates and the statutory environmental monitoring programmes which relate to them. (author)

  15. Comparison of annual maximum series and partial duration series methods for modeling extreme hydrologic events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter F.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Two different models for analyzing extreme hydrologic events, based on, respectively, partial duration series (PDS) and annual maximum series (AMS), are compared. The PDS model assumes a generalized Pareto distribution for modeling threshold exceedances corresponding to a generalized extreme value......). In the case of ML estimation, the PDS model provides the most efficient T-year event estimator. In the cases of MOM and PWM estimation, the PDS model is generally preferable for negative shape parameters, whereas the AMS model yields the most efficient estimator for positive shape parameters. A comparison...... of the considered methods reveals that in general, one should use the PDS model with MOM estimation for negative shape parameters, the PDS model with exponentially distributed exceedances if the shape parameter is close to zero, the AMS model with MOM estimation for moderately positive shape parameters, and the PDS...

  16. Identification of "ever-cropped" land (1984-2010) using Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites: Southwestern Kansas case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susan K; Sylvester, Kenneth M

    2012-06-01

    A time series of 230 intra- and inter-annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images was used to identify land that was ever cropped during the years 1984 through 2010 for a five county region in southwestern Kansas. Annual maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) image composites (NDVI(ann-max)) were used to evaluate the inter-annual dynamics of cropped and non-cropped land. Three feature images were derived from the 27-year NDVI(ann-max) image time series and used in the classification: 1) maximum NDVI value that occurred over the entire 27 year time span (NDVI(max)), 2) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for all years (NDVI(sd)), and 3) standard deviation of the annual maximum NDVI values for years 1984-1986 (NDVI(sd84-86)) to improve Conservation Reserve Program land discrimination.Results of the classification were compared to three reference data sets: County-level USDA Census records (1982-2007) and two digital land cover maps (Kansas 2005 and USGS Trends Program maps (1986-2000)). Area of ever-cropped land for the five counties was on average 11.8 % higher than the area estimated from Census records. Overall agreement between the ever-cropped land map and the 2005 Kansas map was 91.9% and 97.2% for the Trends maps. Converting the intra-annual Landsat data set to a single annual maximum NDVI image composite considerably reduced the data set size, eliminated clouds and cloud-shadow affects, yet maintained information important for discriminating cropped land. Our results suggest that Landsat annual maximum NDVI image composites will be useful for characterizing land use and land cover change for many applications.

  17. Methods to estimate annual mean spring discharge to the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Many individual springs and groups of springs discharge water from volcanic rocks that form the north canyon wall of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill. Previous estimates of annual mean discharge from these springs have been used to understand the hydrology of the eastern part of the Snake River Plain. Four methods that were used in previous studies or developed to estimate annual mean discharge since 1902 were (1) water-budget analysis of the Snake River; (2) correlation of water-budget estimates with discharge from 10 index springs; (3) determination of the combined discharge from individual springs or groups of springs by using annual discharge measurements of 8 springs, gaging-station records of 4 springs and 3 sites on the Malad River, and regression equations developed from 5 of the measured springs; and (4) a single regression equation that correlates gaging-station records of 2 springs with historical water-budget estimates. Comparisons made among the four methods of estimating annual mean spring discharges from 1951 to 1959 and 1963 to 1980 indicated that differences were about equivalent to a measurement error of 2 to 3 percent. The method that best demonstrates the response of annual mean spring discharge to changes in ground-water recharge and discharge is method 3, which combines the measurements and regression estimates of discharge from individual springs.

  18. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2005 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrances, Carol J; Cullen, Karen A; Kozak, Lola Jean

    2007-12-01

    This report presents 2005 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey. The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2005, data were collected for approximately 375,000 discharges. Of the 473 eligible nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 444 (94 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.7 million discharges from nonfederal short-stay hospitals occurred in 2005. Discharges used 165.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Persons 65 years and over accounted for 38 percent of the hospital discharges and 44 percent of the days of care. The proportion of discharges whose status was described as routine discharge or discharged to the patient's home declined with age, from 91 percent for inpatients under 45 years of age to 41 percent for those 85 years and over. Hospitalization for malignant neoplasms decreased from 1990-2005. The hospitalization rate for asthma was the highest for children under 15 years of age and those 65 years of age and over. The rate was lowest for those 15-44 years of age. Thirty-eight percent of hospital discharges had no procedures performed, whereas 12 percent had four or more procedures performed. An episiotomy was performed during a majority of vaginal deliveries in 1980 (64 percent), but by 2005, it was performed during less than one of every five vaginal deliveries (19 percent).

  19. THE 2003 -2007 MINIMUM, MAXIMUM AND MEDIUM DISCHARGE ANALYSIS OF THE LATORIŢA-LOTRU WATER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Elena MIHĂESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2003 -2007 minimum, maximum and medium discharge analysis of the Latoriţa-Lotru water system From a functional point of view, the Lotru and Latoriţa make up a water system by the junction of the two high hydro energetic potential water flows. The Lotru springs from the Parâng Massif with a spring quota of over 1900m and an outfall quota of 298m, which makes for an altitude difference of 1602m; it is the affluent of the Olt River, has a course length of 76 km and a minimum discharge of 20m3/s. Its reception hollow is of 1024 km2. Latoriţa springs from the Latoriţa Mountains, it is a small river with an average discharge of 2.7m3/s and is an affluent of the Lotru. Together, the two make up a high hydro energetic potential system, valorized in the system of lakes which serve the Ciunget Hydro-Electric Power Plant. Galbenu and Petrimanu are two reservoirs built on the Latoriţa River and on the Lotru, we have Vidra reservoir, Balindru, Mălaia and Brădişor. The discharge analysis of these rivers is very important in view of a good risk management, especially consisting in floods and high level waters, even in the case of artificial water flows such as the Latoriţa-Lotru water system.

  20. Regional analysis of annual maximum rainfall using TL-moments method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani Bin; Daud, Zalina Mohd; Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd

    2011-06-01

    Information related to distributions of rainfall amounts are of great importance for designs of water-related structures. One of the concerns of hydrologists and engineers is the probability distribution for modeling of regional data. In this study, a novel approach to regional frequency analysis using L-moments is revisited. Subsequently, an alternative regional frequency analysis using the TL-moments method is employed. The results from both methods were then compared. The analysis was based on daily annual maximum rainfall data from 40 stations in Selangor Malaysia. TL-moments for the generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized logistic (GLO) distributions were derived and used to develop the regional frequency analysis procedure. TL-moment ratio diagram and Z-test were employed in determining the best-fit distribution. Comparison between the two approaches showed that the L-moments and TL-moments produced equivalent results. GLO and GEV distributions were identified as the most suitable distributions for representing the statistical properties of extreme rainfall in Selangor. Monte Carlo simulation was used for performance evaluation, and it showed that the method of TL-moments was more efficient for lower quantile estimation compared with the L-moments.

  1. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  2. The effect of land use change to maximum and minimum discharge in Cikapundung River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Arno Adi; Putro, Anton Winarto; Kusuma, M. Syahril B.; Natasaputra, Suardi

    2017-11-01

    Land use change are become issues for many river basin in the world, including Cikapundung River Basin in West Java. Cikapundung River is one of the main water sources of Bandung City water supply system. In the other hand, as one of the tributaries of Citarum River, Cikapundung also contributes to flooding in the Southern part of Bandung. Therefore, it is important to analyze the effect of land use change on Cikapundung river discharge, to maintain the reliability of water supply system and to minimize flooding in Bandung Basin. Land use map of Cikapundung River in 2009 shows that residential area (49.7%) and mixed farming (42.6%), are the most dominant land use type, while dry agriculture (19.4%) and forest (21.8%) cover the rest. The effect of land use change in Cikapundung River Basin is simulated by using Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) through 3 land use change scenarios: extreme, optimum, and existing. By using the calibrated parameters, simulation of the extreme land use change scenario with the decrease of forest area by 77.7% and increase of developed area by 57.0% from the existing condition resulted in increase of Qmax/Qmin ratio from 5.24 to 6.10. Meanwhile, simulation of the optimum land use change scenario with the expansion of forest area by 75.26% from the existing condition resulted in decrease of Qmax/Qmin ratio from 5.24 to 4.14. Although Qmax/Qmin ratio of Cikapundung is still relatively small, but the simulation shows the important of water resources analysis in providing river health indicator, as input for land use planning.

  3. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1993. V. 2: Certificates of authorisation and environmental monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc's Certificates of Authorisation, under which it operates, are reproduced in the second volume of the 1993 Annual Report on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring of the Environment. The report also includes environmental monitoring programmes relating to discharge authorisation for each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites. (UK)

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) provides a comprehensive range of nuclear fuel cycle services, ie the purification and processing of uranium ore concentrates, the enrichment of uranium, the manufacture of uranium and plutonium based fuels, the reprocessing of irradiated fuel, and the conditioning and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive wastes. Some of these activities give rise to discharges of radioactive isotopes to the environment. This annual report follows the pattern established in 1977 in that it gives information on radioactive discharges, through authorised and scheduled outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of the Company's Works and sites, ie Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfield Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. It also includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population (the critical group) for the most important environmental pathways in the vicinity of each site. Information for the period 1971-76 inclusive has also been published by BNFL and prior to 1971, the year in which BNFL was formed, information was published by the UKAEA. An appendix contains certificates of Authorisation granted by the DOE, MAFF and Scottish Office imposing limits and conditions relating to methods of disposal and quantities to be discharged. (author)

  5. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2002 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola J; Owings, Maria F; Hall, Margaret J

    2005-03-01

    This report presents 2002 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2002, data were collected for approximately 327,000 discharges. Of the 474 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 445 (94 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 33.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2002. They used 164.2 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.9 days. Common first-listed discharge diagnoses included delivery, ischemic heart disease, psychoses, pneumonia, and malignant neoplasms. Inpatients had 6.8 million cardiovascular procedures and 6.6 million obstetric procedures. Males had higher rates for cardiac procedures such as cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft, but males and females had similar rates of pacemaker procedures. The number and rate of all cesarean deliveries, primary and repeat, rose from 1995 to 2002; the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped from 35.5 in 1995 to 15.8 in 2002.

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This annual report, the sixth of its type, aims to provide full information on discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). All the data are presented at the end of the report in tabular form. Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). The numerical values of the Authorised Limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of Best Practicable Means (BPM). As a ''back stop'', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down and a decision taken, later, that reactor operation would cease. The pattern of discharges thus changed in the last quarter of the year and discharges in future will be lower, and of a different pattern, than those of the past twenty years. The dose to the critical group, which is already less than 2% of the ICRP limit and less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose will drop further in future years. (Author)

  7. National hospital discharge survey: 2004 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; DeFrances, Carol Jean; Hall, Margaret Jean

    2006-10-01

    This report presents 2004 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2004, data were collected for approximately 371,000 discharges. Of the 476 eligible nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 439 (92 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.9 million inpatients were discharged from nonfederal short-stay hospitals in 2004. They used 167.9 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Hospital use by age ranged from 4.3 million days of care for patients 5-14 years of age to 31.8 million days of care for 75-84 year olds. Almost a third of patients 85 years and over were discharged from hospitals to long-term care institutions. Diseases of the circulatory system was the leading diagnostic category for males. Childbirth was the leading category for females, followed by circulatory diseases. The proportion of HIV discharges who were 40 years of age and over increased from 40 percent in 1995 to 67 percent in 2004. The rate of cardiac catheterizations was higher for males than for females and higher for patients 65-74 and 75-84 years of age than for older or younger groups. The average length of stay for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries decreased from 1980 through 1995 but stays for vaginal deliveries increased 24 percent during the period from 1995 to 2004.

  8. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2003 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; Lees, Karen A; DeFrances, Carol J

    2006-05-01

    This report presents 2003 national estimates and trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2003, data were collected for approximately 320,000 discharges. Of the 479 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 426 (89 percent) responded to the survey. An estimated 34.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2003. They used 167.3 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.8 days. Females used almost one-third more days of hospital care than males. Patients with five or more diagnoses rose from 29 percent of discharges in 1990 to 57 percent in 2003. The leading diagnostic category was respiratory diseases for children under 15 years, childbirth for 15-44 year olds, and circulatory diseases for patients 45 years of age and over. Only surgical procedures were performed for 27 percent of discharges, 18 percent had surgical and nonsurgical procedures, and 16 percent had only nonsurgical procedures. A total of 664,000 coronary angioplasties were performed, and stents were inserted during 86 percent of these procedures with drug-eluting stents used in 28 percent. The number and rate of total and primary cesarean deliveries rose from 1995 to 2003. The rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped 58 percent, from 35.5 in 1995 to 14.8 in 2003.

  9. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2001 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lola Jean; Owings, Maria F; Hall, Margaret J

    2004-06-01

    This report presents 2001 national estimates and selected trend data on the use of non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Estimates are provided by selected patient and hospital characteristics, diagnoses, and surgical and nonsurgical procedures performed. Admission source and type, collected for the first time in the 2001 National Hospital Discharge Survey, are shown. The estimates are based on data collected through the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). The survey has been conducted annually since 1965. In 2001, data were collected for approximately 330,000 discharges. Of the 477 eligible non-Federal short-stay hospitals in the sample, 448 (94 percent) responded to the survey. Estimates of diagnoses and procedures are presented according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code numbers. Rates are computed with 2001 population estimates based on the 2000 census. The appendix includes a comparison of rates computed with 1990 and 2000 census-based population estimates. An estimated 32.7 million inpatients were discharged from non-Federal short-stay hospitals in 2001. They used 159.4 million days of care and had an average length of stay of 4.9 days. Common first-listed discharge diagnoses included delivery, psychoses, pneumonia, malignant neoplasm, and coronary atherosclerosis. Males had higher rates for procedures such as cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass graft, and females had higher rates for procedures such as cholecystectomy and total knee replacement. The rates of all cesarean deliveries, primary and repeat, rose from 1995 to 2001; the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery dropped 37 percent during this period.

  10. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The numerical values of the authorised limits are based on past performance, future requirements and the application of BPM. As a 'back-stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population -the critical group - exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. During 1989 some small changes took place in our discharge patterns, our environmental monitoring and in the assessment of critical group doses. These changes are discussed in the introductions to the two parts of this report where the relevant Authorisations are also discussed. This report, the fifth of our annual series, has as its aim the provision, to the general public, of full information on discharges from the SGHWR reactor and other smaller sources at Winfrith and the associated environmental monitoring programmes. Some improvements in presentation have been made. The data, mainly provided graphically in the main text, are still compared with authorised limits or derived levels, but numerical values are now given. The graphs refer to specifically authorised radio-nuclides e.g. tritium, rather than to gross activity. Previous reports were restricted to monitoring at the site boundary and to off-site monitoring. Some data are now given in the report for on-site monitoring. (author)

  11. On Selection of the Probability Distribution for Representing the Maximum Annual Wind Speed in East Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, Gh. I.; El-Hemamy, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify an appropriate probability model and best plotting position formula which represent the maximum annual wind speed in east Cairo. This model can be used to estimate the extreme wind speed and return period at a particular site as well as to determine the radioactive release distribution in case of accident occurrence at a nuclear power plant. Wind speed probabilities can be estimated by using probability distributions. An accurate determination of probability distribution for maximum wind speed data is very important in expecting the extreme value . The probability plots of the maximum annual wind speed (MAWS) in east Cairo are fitted to six major statistical distributions namely: Gumbel, Weibull, Normal, Log-Normal, Logistic and Log- Logistic distribution, while eight plotting positions of Hosking and Wallis, Hazen, Gringorten, Cunnane, Blom, Filliben, Benard and Weibull are used for determining exceedance of their probabilities. A proper probability distribution for representing the MAWS is selected by the statistical test criteria in frequency analysis. Therefore, the best plotting position formula which can be used to select appropriate probability model representing the MAWS data must be determined. The statistical test criteria which represented in: the probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC), the root mean square error (RMSE), the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and the maximum absolute error (MAE) are used to select the appropriate probability position and distribution. The data obtained show that the maximum annual wind speed in east Cairo vary from 44.3 Km/h to 96.1 Km/h within duration of 39 years . Weibull plotting position combined with Normal distribution gave the highest fit, most reliable, accurate predictions and determination of the wind speed in the study area having the highest value of PPCC and lowest values of RMSE, RRMSE and MAE

  12. Analytical solution for the problem of maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction in gravity flow discharge chutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinic, Slavisa [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljevo (RS)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, an analytical solution for the problem of finding profiles of gravity flow discharge chutes required to achieve maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction is obtained by application of variational calculus. The model of a particle which moves down a rough curve in a uniform gravitational field is used to obtain a solution of the problem for various boundary conditions. The projection sign of the normal reaction force of the rough curve onto the normal to the curve and the restriction requiring that the tangential acceleration be non-negative are introduced as the additional constraints in the form of inequalities. These inequalities are transformed into equalities by introducing new state variables. Although this is fundamentally a constrained variational problem, by further introducing a new functional with an expanded set of unknown functions, it is transformed into an unconstrained problem where broken extremals appear. The obtained equations of the chute profiles contain a certain number of unknown constants which are determined from a corresponding system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The obtained results are compared with the known results from the literature. (orig.)

  13. Magnetron sputtering system with an annual discharge zone and two cathode modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, V. A.; Yasyunas, A. A.; Kovrigo, V. M.; Kotov, D. A.; Shiripov, V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, general discharge characteristics of a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system with an annual sputtering zone and a high target usage coefficient designed for transparent conducting coatings are shown. Two coupled DC-cathodes are used to improve coating uniformity. Radial sputtered material fluxes are being created. The engineered magnetic system is extremely balanced (G-factor is much higher than 2) and thus provides maximal effective operating power higher than 6 kW. The effectiveness of a magnetic trap results in a fast work cycle (less than 1.5 min) and a high target material usage coefficient (higher than 40%). A multipole magnetic field with null magnetic flux density zones lower target’s surface is being created. There is an influence between cathode modules despite mutual magnetic isolation, so magnetic conductors-shunts are used to weaken it. The magnetron can be used to sputter both metals and conducting ceramics (including ITO). (authors)

  14. Spatial variability of maximum annual daily rain under different return periods at the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roriz Luciano Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of maximum daily rain and its return period in a region is an important tool to soil conservation, hydraulic engineering and preservation of road projects. The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability of maximum annual daily rain considering different return periods, at the Rio de Janeiro State. The data set was composed by historical series of 119 rain gauges, for 36 years of observation. The return periods, estimated by Gumbel distribution, were 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The spatial variability of the return periods was evaluated by semivariograms. All the return periods presented spatial dependence, with exponential and spherical model fitted to the experimental semivariograms. The parameters of the fitted semivariogram model were very similar; however, it was observed the presence of higher nugget effects for semivariograms of longer return periods. The values of maximum annual daily average rain in all the return periods increased from north to south and from countryside to the coast. In the region between the Serra do Mar range and the coast, besides increasing in magnitude, an increase in the spatial variability of the studied values with increasing return periods was also noticed. This behavior is probably caused by the orographic effect. The interpolated maps were more erratic for higher return periods and at the North, Northeast and Coastal Plain regions, in which the installation of new pluviometric stations are recommended.

  15. The application of a Grey Markov Model to forecasting annual maximum water levels at hydrological stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Chi, Kun; Zhang, Qiyi; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2012-03-01

    Compared with traditional real-time forecasting, this paper proposes a Grey Markov Model (GMM) to forecast the maximum water levels at hydrological stations in the estuary area. The GMM combines the Grey System and Markov theory into a higher precision model. The GMM takes advantage of the Grey System to predict the trend values and uses the Markov theory to forecast fluctuation values, and thus gives forecast results involving two aspects of information. The procedure for forecasting annul maximum water levels with the GMM contains five main steps: 1) establish the GM (1, 1) model based on the data series; 2) estimate the trend values; 3) establish a Markov Model based on relative error series; 4) modify the relative errors caused in step 2, and then obtain the relative errors of the second order estimation; 5) compare the results with measured data and estimate the accuracy. The historical water level records (from 1960 to 1992) at Yuqiao Hydrological Station in the estuary area of the Haihe River near Tianjin, China are utilized to calibrate and verify the proposed model according to the above steps. Every 25 years' data are regarded as a hydro-sequence. Eight groups of simulated results show reasonable agreement between the predicted values and the measured data. The GMM is also applied to the 10 other hydrological stations in the same estuary. The forecast results for all of the hydrological stations are good or acceptable. The feasibility and effectiveness of this new forecasting model have been proved in this paper.

  16. Methods for estimating annual exceedance-probability discharges and largest recorded floods for unregulated streams in rural Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Regression analysis techniques were used to develop a : set of equations for rural ungaged stream sites for estimating : discharges with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent : annual exceedance probabilities, which are equivalent to : ann...

  17. FLO1K, global maps of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow at 1 km resolution from 1960 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Beck, Hylke E.; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2018-03-01

    Streamflow data is highly relevant for a variety of socio-economic as well as ecological analyses or applications, but a high-resolution global streamflow dataset is yet lacking. We created FLO1K, a consistent streamflow dataset at a resolution of 30 arc seconds (~1 km) and global coverage. FLO1K comprises mean, maximum and minimum annual flow for each year in the period 1960-2015, provided as spatially continuous gridded layers. We mapped streamflow by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) regression. An ensemble of ANNs were fitted on monthly streamflow observations from 6600 monitoring stations worldwide, i.e., minimum and maximum annual flows represent the lowest and highest mean monthly flows for a given year. As covariates we used the upstream-catchment physiography (area, surface slope, elevation) and year-specific climatic variables (precipitation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, aridity index and seasonality indices). Confronting the maps with independent data indicated good agreement (R2 values up to 91%). FLO1K delivers essential data for freshwater ecology and water resources analyses at a global scale and yet high spatial resolution.

  18. Mapping mean annual and monthly river discharges: geostatistical developments for incorporating river network dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauquet, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Regional hydrology is one topic that shows real improvement in partly due to new statistical development and computation facilities. Nevertheless theoretical difficulties for mapping river regime characteristics or recover these features at un gauged location remain because of the nature of the variable under study: river flows are related to a specific area that is defined by the drainage basin, are spatially organised by the river network with upstream-downstream dependencies. Estimations of hydrological descriptors are required for studying links with ecological processes at different spatial scale, from local site where biological or/and water quality data are available to large scale for sustainable development purposes. This presentation aims at describing a method for runoff pattern along the main river network. The approach dedicated to mean annual runoff is based on geostatistical interpolation procedures to which a constraint of water budget has been added. Expansion in Empirical Orthogonal Function has been considered in combination with kriging for interpolating mean monthly discharges. The methodologies are implemented within a Geographical Information System and illustrated by two study cases (two large basins in France). River flow regime descriptors are estimated for basins of more than 50km 2 . Opportunities of collaboration with a partition of France into hydro-eco regions derived from geology and climate considerations is discussed. (Author)

  19. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This report gives information on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring, for all of the British Nuclear Fuel Company's Works and Sites ie the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. The report includes assessment of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and in accordance with advice given by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on the application of the Commission's recommendations in the UK. It is recognised that certain consequences of exposure are believed not to occur unless a threshold dose to a particular part of the body is exceeded and that other possible consequences can be evaluated by computing an effective dose equivalent. In both cases limits are stated, the latter being 5 millisievert (500 millirem) per annum, together with the comment that it would be prudent to restrict actual continuous exposure over a whole lifetime to an average of 1 millisievert (100 millirem) per annum. The assessments are based on data recommended by ICRP. Where these data are not yet available the assessments are based on data published by NRPB as interim recommendations. The percentage of the effective dose equivalent limit is quoted together with the individual contributions to it. Where other limits, which are 'threshold' in nature and cannot be summed, are apparently more restrictive a textual comment is made. (author)

  20. Climate-simulated raceway pond culturing: quantifying the maximum achievable annual biomass productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana in the contiguous USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Chavis, A.; Edmundson, S.; Rye, D.; Hobbs, S.; Sun, N.; Wigmosta, M.

    2017-09-13

    Chlorella sorokiniana (DOE 1412) emerged as one of the most promising microalgae strains from the NAABB consortium project, with a remarkable doubling time under optimal conditions of 2.57 hr-1. However, its maximum achievable annual biomass productivity in outdoor ponds in the contiguous United States remained unknown. In order to address this knowledge gap, this alga was cultured in indoor LED-lighted and temperature-controlled raceways in nutrient replete freshwater (BG-11) medium at pH 7 under conditions simulating the daily sunlight intensity and water temperature fluctuations during three seasons in Southern Florida, an optimal outdoor pond culture location for this organism identified by biomass growth modeling. Prior strain characterization indicated that the average maximum specific growth rate (µmax) at 36 ºC declined continuously with pH, with µmax corresponding to 5.92, 5.83, 4.89, and 4.21 day-1 at pH 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively. In addition, the maximum specific growth rate declined nearly linearly with increasing salinity until no growth was observed above 35 g/L NaCl. In the climate-simulated culturing studies, the volumetric ash-free dry weight-based biomass productivities during the linear growth phase were 57, 69, and 97 mg/L-day for 30-year average light and temperature simulations for January (winter), March (spring), and July (summer), respectively, which corresponds to average areal productivities of 11.6, 14.1, and 19.9 g/m2-day at a constant pond depth of 20.5 cm. The photosynthetic efficiencies (PAR) in the three climate-simulated pond culturing experiments ranged from 4.1 to 5.1%. The annual biomass productivity was estimated as ca. 15 g/m2-day, nearly double the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2015 State of Technology annual cultivation productivity of 8.5 g/m2-day, but this is still significantly below the projected 2022 target of ca. 25 g/m2-day (U.S. DOE, 2016) for economic microalgal biofuel production, indicating the need for

  1. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The report gives information on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring for all the Works and Sites of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the latter. The report includes assessment of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as advised by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). This year account is taken of new recommendations, ICRP 26, which emphasise the importance of justification and optimisation of practices leading to radiological exposure, and revises the method for evaluating the significance of such exposure. This method recognises that certain consequences of exposure are believed not to occur unless a threshold dose to a particular part of the body is exceeded and that other possible consequences can be evaluated by computing an effective dose equivalent. In both cases limits are stated, the latter being numerically equal to the previous 5 millisievert (500 millirem) per annum whole body dose limit. In addition ICRP comment that it would be prudent to restrict actual continuous exposure over a whole life time to within an average of 1 millisievert (100 millirem) per annum. The assessments are based on data published by NRPB as interim recommendations until ICRP data becomes available. (author)

  2. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013 : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the Iowa DOT has used the Iowa Runoff Chart and single-variable regional regression equations (RREs) from a USGS report : (published in 1987) as the primary methods to estimate annual exceedance-probability discharge : (AEPD) for small...

  3. Diagnostic of annual cycle and effects of the ENSO about the maximum intensity of duration rains between 1 and 24 hours at the Andes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, German; Mesa, Oscar; Toro, Vladimir; Agudelo, Paula; Alvarez, Juan F; Arias, Paola; Moreno, Hernan; Salazar, Luis; Vieira, Sara

    2002-01-01

    We study the distribution of maximum rainfall events during the annual cycle, for storms ranging from 1 to 24-hour in duration; by using information over 51 rain gauges locate at the Colombian Andes. Also, the effects of both phases of ENSO (El Nino and La Nina) are quantified. We found that maximum rainfall intensity events occur during the rainy periods of march-may and September-November. There is a strong similarity between the annual cycle of mean total rainfall and that of the maximum intensities of rainfall over the tropical Andes. This result is quite consistent throughout the three ranges of the Colombian Andes. At inter annual timescales, we found that both phases of ENSO are associated with disturbances of maximum rainfall events; since during La Nina there are more intense precipitation events than during El Nino, overall, for durations longer than 3 hours, rainfall intensity gets reduced by one order of magnitude with respect to shorter durations (1-3 hours). The most extreme recorded rainfall events are apparently not associated with the annual and inter annual large scales forcing and appear to be randomly generated by the important role of the land surface atmosphere in the genesis and dynamics of intense storm over central Colombia

  4. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment, 1996. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL)'s 1996 report on radioactive discharges from its various sites and monitoring of the surrounding environments are described. For each of the Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst sites, details are given on normal operations, radioactive discharges in gaseous, liquid or solid forms, environmental monitoring routines and collective dose and critical group estimates. The second, linked, volume of this report covers certificates of authorisation issued to the company. (UK)

  5. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    A report is given on the liquid, airborne and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Works and sites for 1982, i.e. Sellafield Site and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. At no time during 1982 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the above Works exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. (U.K.)

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    A report is given on discharges and disposal of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's Company Works and Sites during 1981. At no time during 1981 have discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes at any of the Works or Sites exceeded those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Similarly, environmental monitoring studies have shown that the radiation doses to the most highly exposed group of the general population were significantly lower than the dose limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  7. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Information is given on the liquid, airborne, and solid radioactive discharges through authorised outlets, and on environmental monitoring for all of BNFL's works and sites for 1984; ie Sellafield site and Drigg storage and disposal site; Chapelcross works; Springfields works and Ulnes Walton disposal site; Capenhurst works. Included is assessment of radiation doses to representative members of the most highly exposed group of the general population for the most important environmental pathways. (author)

  8. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.

  9. Variation of Maximum Tree Height and Annual Shoot Growth of Smith Fir at Various Elevations in the Sygera Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Čufar, Katarina; Eckstein, Dieter; Liang, Eryuan

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about tree height and height growth (as annual shoot elongation of the apical part of vertical stems) of coniferous trees growing at various altitudes on the Tibetan Plateau, which provides a high-elevation natural platform for assessing tree growth performance in relation to future climate change. We here investigated the variation of maximum tree height and annual height increment of Smith fir (Abies georgei var. smithii) in seven forest plots (30 m×40 m) along two altitudinal transects between 3,800 m and 4,200/4,390 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Four plots were located on north-facing slopes and three plots on southeast-facing slopes. At each site, annual shoot growth was obtained by measuring the distance between successive terminal bud scars along the main stem of 25 trees that were between 2 and 4 m high. Maximum/mean tree height and mean annual height increment of Smith fir decreased with increasing altitude up to the tree line, indicative of a stress gradient (the dominant temperature gradient) along the altitudinal transect. Above-average mean minimum summer (particularly July) temperatures affected height increment positively, whereas precipitation had no significant effect on shoot growth. The time series of annual height increments of Smith fir can be used for the reconstruction of past climate on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In addition, it can be expected that the rising summer temperatures observed in the recent past and anticipated for the future will enhance Smith fir's growth throughout its altitudinal distribution range. PMID:22396738

  10. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  11. Parameterization of vertical chlorophyll a in the Arctic Ocean: impact of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum on regional, seasonal, and annual primary production estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ardyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting water-column phytoplankton biomass from near-surface measurements is a common approach in biological oceanography, particularly since the advent of satellite remote sensing of ocean color (OC. In the Arctic Ocean, deep subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCMs that significantly contribute to primary production (PP are often observed. These are neither detected by ocean color sensors nor accounted for in the primary production models applied to the Arctic Ocean. Here, we assemble a large database of pan-Arctic observations (i.e., 5206 stations and develop an empirical model to estimate vertical chlorophyll a (Chl a according to (1 the shelf–offshore gradient delimited by the 50 m isobath, (2 seasonal variability along pre-bloom, post-bloom, and winter periods, and (3 regional differences across ten sub-Arctic and Arctic seas. Our detailed analysis of the dataset shows that, for the pre-bloom and winter periods, as well as for high surface Chl a concentration (Chl asurf; 0.7–30 mg m−3 throughout the open water period, the Chl a maximum is mainly located at or near the surface. Deep SCMs occur chiefly during the post-bloom period when Chl asurf is low (0–0.5 mg m−3. By applying our empirical model to annual Chl asurf time series, instead of the conventional method assuming vertically homogenous Chl a, we produce novel pan-Arctic PP estimates and associated uncertainties. Our results show that vertical variations in Chl a have a limited impact on annual depth-integrated PP. Small overestimates found when SCMs are shallow (i.e., pre-bloom, post-bloom > 0.7 mg m−3, and the winter period somehow compensate for the underestimates found when SCMs are deep (i.e., post-bloom −3. SCMs are, however, important seasonal features with a substantial impact on depth-integrated PP estimates, especially when surface nitrate is exhausted in the Arctic Ocean and where highly stratified and oligotrophic conditions prevail.

  12. Vazões máximas e mínimas para bacias hidrográficas da região alto Rio Grande, MG Maximum and minimum discharges for Alto Rio Grande region basins, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Vazões máximas são grandezas hidrológicas aplicadas a projetos de obras hidráulicas e vazões mínimas são utilizadas para a avaliação das disponibilidades hídricas em bacias hidrográficas e comportamento do escoamento subterrâneo. Neste estudo, objetivou-se à construção de intervalos de confiança estatísticos para vazões máximas e mínimas diárias anuais e sua relação com as características fisiográficas das 6 maiores bacias hidrográficas da região Alto Rio Grande à montante da represa da UHE-Camargos/CEMIG. As distribuições de probabilidades Gumbel e Gama foram aplicadas, respectivamente, para séries históricas de vazões máximas e mínimas, utilizando os estimadores de Máxima Verossimilhança. Os intervalos de confiança constituem-se em uma importante ferramenta para o melhor entendimento e estimativa das vazões, sendo influenciado pelas características geológicas das bacias. Com base nos mesmos, verificou-se que a região Alto Rio Grande possui duas áreas distintas: a primeira, abrangendo as bacias Aiuruoca, Carvalhos e Bom Jardim, que apresentaram as maiores vazões máximas e mínimas, significando potencialidade para cheias mais significativas e maiores disponibilidades hídricas; a segunda, associada às bacias F. Laranjeiras, Madre de Deus e Andrelândia, que apresentaram as menores disponibilidades hídricas.Maximum discharges are applied to hydraulic structure design and minimum discharges are used to characterize water availability in hydrographic basins and subterranean flow. This study is aimed at estimating the confidence statistical intervals for maximum and minimum annual discharges and their relationship wih the physical characteristics of basins in the Alto Rio Grande Region, State of Minas Gerais. The study was developed for the six (6 greatest Alto Rio Grande Region basins at upstream of the UHE-Camargos/CEMIG reservoir. Gumbel and Gama probability distribution models were applied to the

  13. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  14. 'Global change' impact of inter-annual variation in water discharge as a driving factor to dredging and spoil disposal in the river Rhine system and of turbidity in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; de Jong, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Between 1970 to 2000, the annual mean suspended matter (SPM) concentrations in the Vlie and Marsdiep tidal inlets of the Wadden Sea varied over five times. The present paper examines the possible relationship between SPM in the Wadden Sea and changing river Rhine discharges and dredging operations.

  15. The consequences of a reduction in the administratively applied maximum annual dose equivalent level for an individual in a group of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.T.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis is described for predicting the consequences of a reduction in the administratively applied maximum dose equivalent level to individuals in a group of workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiations, for the situation in which no changes are made to the working environment. This limitation of the maximum individual dose equivalent is accommodated by allowing the number of individuals in the working group to increase. The derivation of the analysis is given, together with worked examples, which highlight the important assumptions that have been made and the conclusions that can be drawn. The results are obtained in the form of the capacity of the particular working environment to accommodate the limitation of the maximum individual dose equivalent, the increase in the number of workers required to carry out the productive work and any consequent increase in the occupational collective dose equivalent. (author)

  16. The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll- a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hout, C.M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.; Gerkema, T.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of 1.8 years of data gives an understanding of the response to varying forcing of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) in a coastal turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Both temporal and vertical concentration variations in the near-bed layer (0–2 m) in the shallow (11

  17. The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, van der C.M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.; Gerkema, T.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of 1.8. years of data gives an understanding of the response to varying forcing of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) in a coastal turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Both temporal and vertical concentration variations in the near-bed layer (0-2. m) in the shallow

  18. The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hout, C. M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M. J. N.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Rozemeijer, M. J. C.; Gerkema, T.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of 1.8 years of data gives an understanding of the response to varying forcing of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) in a coastal turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Both temporal and vertical concentration variations in the near-bed layer (0-2 m) in the shallow (11 m deep) coastal zone at 1 km off the Dutch coast are shown. Temporal variations in the concentration of both parameters are found on tidal and seasonal scales, and a marked response to episodic events (e.g. storms). The seasonal cycle in the near-bed CHL-a concentration is determined by the spring bloom. The role of the wave climate as the primary forcing in the SPM seasonal cycle is discussed. The tidal current provides a background signal, generated predominantly by local resuspension and settling and a minor role is for advection in the cross-shore and the alongshore direction. We tested the logarithmic Rouse profile to the vertical profiles of both the SPM and the CHL-a data, with respectively 84% and only 2% success. The resulting large percentage of low Rouse numbers for the SPM profiles suggest a mixed suspension is dominant in the TMZ, i.e. surface SPM concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as near-bed concentrations.

  19. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  20. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  1. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  2. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Bales, Jerad; Bates, Paul D.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110km) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1mskm to a maximum of 5.1mskm. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2mskm). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2mskm ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades.

  4. Influence of Climate Change on River Discharge in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Goler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on the river discharge characteristics in four catchment basins within Austria is investigated using a hydrological model. Input for the model are daily climate data generated from three regional climate models (RCMs over the time period 1951–2100 using the A1B emission scenario. Due to the complex terrain of the basins, the climate data has been downscaled to a resolution of 1km×1km$1\\,\\text{km}\\times1\\,\\text{km}$. The hydrological model includes processes such as meltwater from snow and glaciers; surface, subsurface, and groundwater flows; and evapotranspiration. The modelling results show that, although only one RCM exhibits a significant reduction in the mean annual discharge towards the end of the 21st century, all RCMs exhibit significant changes in the seasonal distribution of the discharge. In particular, for basins whose discharge is dependent on water stored as snow, there will be a shift in the time of maximum river discharge to earlier in the year as the snow and ice melt earlier. During the winter months the discharge is forecasted to be higher than at present, which would lead to the number of days of low discharge being reduced. However, the earlier snow melt means that the available water for the summer months will be reduced, leading to lower discharges than present, and thus an increase in the number of low discharge days.

  5. Comparisons of estimates of annual exceedance-probability discharges for small drainage basins in Iowa, based on data through water year 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the Iowa Department of Transportation : has used the Iowa Runoff Chart and single-variable regional-regression equations (RREs) from a U.S. Geological Survey : report (published in 1987) as the primary methods to estimate : annual exce...

  6. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  7. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  8. A method for assessing the annual dose to the most exposed individual from tritium and 14C reactor discharges to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1979-10-01

    A method is described for assessing the annual dose to the most exposed individual from routine releases of tritium and 14 C to the atmosphere during normal reactor operations. A detailed assessment has been made of the resulting equilibrium contamination levels in a range of foodstuffs typical of an average UK diet and of the annual doses resulting from a chronic intake of tritium and 14 C via inhalation, ingestion and, additionally, in the case of tritium, via skin absorption. Equilibrium annual doses from the global circulation of tritium and 14 C have also been calculated. Upper limits to the effective annual dose-equivalents to the most exposed individual were found to be 0.6 rem.yr -1 and 100 rem.yr -1 per Ci.yr -1 release of tritium and 14 C respectively, with the ingestion pathway contributing significantly to the overall exposure. The most exposed individual was found to be a Reference 10 year old child. The methods outlined for calculating the ingestion dose from tritium and 14 C releases hav been incorporated into the more generally applicable code FOODDOSE. The code may be used to make more realistic dose calculations to the individuals based on site-specific surveys of variables such as local meteorology, local diet and local land use for agriculture, which may lead to doses smaller than the upper limit values quoted by factors of 20 and 200 for tritium and 14 C respectively. (author)

  9. Analyzing temporal changes in maximum runoff volume series of the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmova, Dana; Pekarova, Pavla; Onderka, Milan; Pekar, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Several hypotheses claim that more extremes in climatic and hydrologic phenomena are anticipated. In order to verify such hypotheses it is inevitable to examine the past periods by thoroughly analyzing historical data. In the present study, the annual maximum runoff volumes with t-day durations were calculated for a 130-year series of mean daily discharge of Danube River at Bratislava gauge (Slovakia). Statistical methods were used to clarify how the maximum runoff volumes of the Danube River changed over two historical periods (1876-1940 and 1941-2005). The conclusion is that the runoff volume regime during floods has not changed significantly during the last 130 years.

  10. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  11. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  12. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  13. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  14. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  15. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  17. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  19. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  1. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  2. Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat

    2010-01-01

    We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.

  3. Maximum permissible dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter presents a historic overview of the establishment of radiation guidelines by various national and international agencies. The use of maximum permissible dose and maximum permissible body burden limits to derive working standards is discussed

  4. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  5. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  6. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-09-01

    The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel

  8. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  10. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  11. Discharge residence of TLD tagged fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1974-01-01

    Although visual observations suggested that fish remained in the discharge for considerable periods, temperature-sensitive tags indicated the majority of fish spend less than 50 hr or 10 percent of the time at discharge temperatures. During 1974 a second fish tagging study was conducted, using temperature-sensitive tags to yield discharge residence times of Lake Michigan salmonids at Point Beach thermal discharge. Preliminary results revealed that many fish tag values were close to Unit I line indicating that calculated maximum discharge residence times for these fish will be nearly 100 percent of the elapsed time

  12. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  13. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  14. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  15. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  16. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  17. Reconstructing the history of 14C discharges from Sellafield. Part 2. Aquatic discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.T.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Naysmith, F.H.; Anderson, R.; Naysmith, P.; Kershaw, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to 1984, the reported marine 14 C discharges from Sellafield were estimates: 0.2 TBq per annum from 1952 to 1969 and 1 TBq per annum until 1984 when measurements commenced. The relationship between the net excess 14 C activity in annually collected Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis) seaweed samples and the annual discharges (estimated and measured) implies that the discharges were not as constant as the estimates. Based on the relationship between post-1984 measured discharges and the excess 14 C in the seaweed, two simple empirical models were used to re-calculate the discharges between 1967 and 1984. Gamma-spectrometry measurements on the seaweed also indicate that Porphyra is a sensitive indicator of changes in discharge of other radionuclides, brought about by the introduction of new waste clean-up technologies within Sellafield. (author)

  18. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  19. Robust Maximum Association Estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfons (Andreas); C. Croux (Christophe); P. Filzmoser (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum association between two multivariate variables X and Y is defined as the maximal value that a bivariate association measure between one-dimensional projections αX and αY can attain. Taking the Pearson correlation as projection index results in the first canonical correlation

  20. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  1. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  2. Excimer lamp pumped by a triggered discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Flora, F.; Giordano, G.; Letardi, T.; Renieri, A.; Schina, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Clementi, G.; Muzzi, F.; Zheng, C.E. [EL.EN. (Electronic Engineering), Florence (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    Radiation characteristics and discharge performances of an excimer lamp are described. The discharge of the HCl/Xe gas mixture at an atmospheric pressure, occurring near the quartz tube wall, is initiated by a trigger wire. A maximum total UV energy of about 0.4 J in a (0.8-0.9) {mu}s pulse, radiated from a 10 cm discharge length, is obtained with a total discharge input energy of 8 J. Excimer lamps are the preferred choice for medical and material processing irradiations, when the monochromaticity or coherence of UV light is not required, due to their low cost, reliability and easy maintenance.

  3. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  4. The last glacial maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  5. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  6. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  7. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  8. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  9. 33 CFR 154.1029 - Worst case discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. The discharge from each pipe is calculated as follows: The maximum time to discover the release from the pipe in hours, plus the maximum time to shut down flow from the pipe in hours (based on... vessel regardless of the presence of secondary containment; plus (2) The discharge from all piping...

  10. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  11. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  12. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  13. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  14. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  16. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  18. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yunji; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  19. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2006-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  1. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  2. Ground-water discharge determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, other available hydrologic components, and shallow water-level changes, Oasis Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiner, S.R.; Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Smith LaRue, J.; Elliott, P.E.; Nylund, W.E.; Fridrich, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    component of 0.5 foot, is estimated to be about 6,000 acre-feet. Annual subsurface outflow from Oasis Valley into the Amargosa Desert is estimated to be between 30 and 130 acre-feet. Estimates of total annual ground-water withdrawal from Oasis Valley by municipal and non-municipal users in 1996 and 1999 are 440 acre-feet and 210 acre-feet, respectively. Based on these values, natural annual ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley is about 6,100 acre-feet. Total annual discharge was 6,500 acre-feet in 1996 and 6,300 acre-feet in 1999. This quantity of natural ground-water discharge from Oasis Valley exceeds the previous estimate made in 1962 by a factor of about 2.5. Water levels were measured in Oasis Valley to gain additional insight into the ET process. In shallow wells, water levels showed annual fluctuations as large as 7 feet and daily fluctuations as large as 0.2 foot. These fluctuations may be attributed to water loss associated with evapotranspiration. In shallow wells affected by E T, annual minimum depths to water generally occurred in winter or early spring shortly after daily ET reached minimum rates. Annual maximum depths to water generally occurred in late summer or fall shortly after daily ET reached maximum rates. The magnitude of daily water-level fluctuations generally increased as ET increased and decreased as depth to water increased

  3. Examining the Utility of Coral Ba/Ca as a Paleo-Proxy for Interannual River Discharge Variability Along the Pacific Coast of Panamá

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, L. D.; Linsley, B. K.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Climate along the Pacific coast of Panamá is largely dictated by seasonal N/S shifts in the Intertropical Convergence zone (ITCZ) and the consequent oscillations in precipitation. During the Panamanian wet season (May-Nov.) river discharge (Q) reaches its maximum and serves as a potential source of trace elements, such as Ba, to reefs. Near shore corals can record the waterborne trace metal history in their aragonite skeletons, which can then be exploited as a paleo-proxy for river discharge. We present two high-resolution Ba/Ca records from nearby Porites corals in the Gulf of Chiriquí, Panamá in an effort to better understand the long-term discharge and precipitation history of the region. Both corals record similar annual average Ba/Ca values throughout the time series' (R=0.55) suggesting that they are faithfully recording water column Ba levels at a large scale. A monthly composite average of both coral Ba/Ca records is positively correlated to an average of all available river discharge data (n= 5) (R=0.42). While instrumental data are relatively sparse and discontinuous, there is a significant relationship between the two variables producing a Ba/Ca-discharge relationship where Q (m3/s)= Ba/Ca(μmol/mol)×49.97(μmol/mol)(m3/s)-1-190.85. The Ba/Ca peaks correspond to the annual minima in our paired near-monthly resolved coral δ18O measurements, further supporting that maximum Q in the Gulf is concurrent with the annual salinity minima and precipitation maximum. Coral Ba/Ca in the Gulf of Chiriquí indicates that annual average river Q into the Gulf has varied from 50 to 133 m3/s over from 1966 to 1983. As inferred from our Ba/Ca data, interannual variability of river Q accounts for 25% of total variance (after removing the seasonal cycle) and a long-term secular trend of increasing river Q accounts for 30%. Our Porites coral Ba/Ca records from the Pacific side of Panamá provide an opportunity to supplement the limited instrumental river discharge data

  4. Coal-fired power plant: airborne routine discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    2005-01-01

    critical group assessed. This group is considered to consist of self-sustaining farmers, having their fields in the zone of the highest annual air concentrations and depositions. The doses from the direct exposure by the plume (external irradiation and inhalation) were calculated straight-away from the maximum concentrations of 226 Ra and the other radionuclides of the natural decay chains in the plume. For the doses from the deposition onto the soil, the accumulation of the radionuclides in the soil with time, has to be estimated, over the life span of the power plant (assumed to be 70 years). Principal results are presented and discussed

  5. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  6. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  7. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  8. New shower maximum trigger for electrons and photons at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, D.

    1994-08-01

    For the 1994 Tevatron collider run, CDF has upgraded the electron and photon trigger hardware to make use of shower position and size information from the central shower maximum detector. For electrons, the upgrade has resulted in a 50% reduction in backgrounds while retaining approximately 90% of the signal. The new trigger also eliminates the background to photon triggers from single-phototube discharge

  9. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  10. FDX: a fast discharge homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the fundamental limitations to the discharge times of homopolar generators. As a result of the study, a Fast Discharge Experiment (FDX) was proposed. FDX is a small (365 kJ), counterrotating disk type homopolar generator designed to explore the limits to homopolar generator discharge times. The FDX rotors are forged aluminum alloy with flame sprayed copper slip rings. Solid copper graphite brushes are used with a 95% packing factor on the slip rings. The high magnetic field required for fast discharge (3.6 T average) is provided by discharging the CEM 5.0 MJ homopolar generator into a four-turn, graphite-reinforced, room temperature copper coil. Since the field is pulsed and FDX rotors cannot be self motored, they are brought up to speed with two 37 kW air turbines. The two aluminum rotors are 30 cm in diameter and of a rimmed, modified constant stress configuration. They are designed for a maximum operating speed of 28,000 r/min at which point they each store 182.5 kJ and develop 104 V. The aluminum discharge coax is approximately 38 cm in diameter and is designed to carry the 1.88 MA anticipated from a half speed (14,000 r/min) short circuit discharge which would stop the rotors in 1.0 ms. It is predicted that the machine will ring on its own internal impedance for approximately five cycles in this mode. The discharge coax is shorted by four very fast making switches. Additional impedance can be introduced into the discharge circuit by extending the switch coaxes to allow full speed 1.4 MA discharges in approximately 3.5 ms

  11. Discharge of radionuclides in liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the aims of the Radiation Health Committee of the National Health and Medical Research Council, through Council recommendations, is to achieve some degree of uniformity in State legislation applied to the public health aspects of radiation. In developing the recommendation on the discharge of radionuclides to sewerage systems the Committee made use of the comparatively new concept of the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI)

  12. Trends of river discharges in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaga, F; Kobold, M; Frantar, P

    2008-01-01

    Trends of river discharges are very important in recognition of climate changes and also in water management. In last years droughts and floods are more and more frequent, therefore monitoring and investigating of hydrological situation became one of the guidance scientific approach. In analysis of mean annual discharges made in Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for the Environment in last years, statistical significance trend was find out only by rivers of northwest alpine region [1] [2] [3]. In recent research of time changing discharges, presumption of generally decreasing of water quantity all over Slovenia was confirmed. Our basic conclusion - in Slovenia it is well recognized decreasing of water quantity in long period of observation. This fact and also worsening of water quality became alarming problems of our future, especially in dry months of the year.

  13. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  14. Discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, Adriana R.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is creating a database of information on radioactive discharges to atmospheric and aquatic environments from nuclear and radioactive installations, and from facilities using radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. The database is expected to facilitate the analysis of worldwide trends in discharge levels and provide a basis for assessing the impact of the discharges on humans and on the environment. In November 2002 took place the first meeting of national contact points and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN in Spanish) was present as the counterpart for the provision of discharge data from Argentina. This paper, presented in the above mentioned meeting, is a general overview of the radioactive discharges control in Argentina including the legal infrastructure, the population dose assessment methodology and the main characteristics of the facilities in the country with authorized radioactive discharges to the environment. It is mentioned their location, release mode, surface water body type, main radionuclides and typical annual release activities. (author)

  15. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  16. Impact of water and sediment discharges on subaqueous delta evolution in Yangtze Estuary from 1950 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-ping Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine how the subaqueous delta evolution depends on the water and sediment processes in the Yangtze Estuary, the amounts of water and sediment discharged into the estuary were studied. The results show that, during the period from 1950 to 2010, there was no significant change in the annual water discharge, and the multi-annual mean water discharge increased in dry seasons and decreased in flood seasons. However, the annual sediment discharge and the multi-annual mean sediment discharge in flood and dry seasons took on a decreasing trend, and the intra-annual distribution of water and sediment discharges tended to be uniform. The evolution process from deposition to erosion occurred at the −10 m and −20 m isobaths of the subaqueous delta. The enhanced annual water and sediment discharges had a silting-up effect on the delta, and the effect of sediment was greater than that of water. Based on data analysis, empirical curves were built to present the relationships between the water and sediment discharges over a year or in dry and flood seasons and the erosion/deposition rates in typical regions of the subaqueous delta, whose evolution followed the pattern of silting in flood seasons and scouring in dry seasons. Notably, the Three Gorges Dam has changed the distribution processes of water and sediment discharges, and the dam's regulating and reserving functions can benefit the subaqueous delta deposition when the annual water and sediment discharges are not affected.

  17. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  18. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  19. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  20. Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-11-15

    A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

  1. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  2. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  3. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  4. Analysis of Partial Discharge Activity for Evaluation of the State of High Power Electric Generators Stator Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Sorin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the importance of trending of partial discharge activity in assessing the insulation condition. It is presented the principle of the measurement method and the quantities that characterize partial discharges and also the criteria utilized for the assessement of the insulation condition of the hydrogenerators. Results of the measurements made on several hydrogenerators are presented, like the variation with time of the two main quantities that characterize the partial discharges, maximum magnitude, Qm and the normalized quantity, NQN over a period of about 10 years. Further, a classification of the insulation condition by 3 main and 2 intermediary categories and the definition of these categories are given. The criteria used for the assessment of the insulation condition are presented in the form of a table: quantitative criteria by the ± NQN and ± Qm values and qualitative criteria for the analysis of the 2D and 3D diagrams. At the end of each set of measurements, an analyze of the insulation condition annual evaluation is made, also a verdict is put, and of course, the recommendations made relating to the maintenance and the decisions that have been taken. The paper ends with several considerations on the method of on-line partial discharges and especially, on the conditions for valid trending activity in time.

  5. Radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report on Radioactive Discharges and Monitoring the Environment, 1988, summarises the programmes of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst for monitoring the discharges of radioactive materials to the sea and the environment. Critical groups and environmental exposure pathways are identified and collective doses to these groups estimated. The disposal of radioactive wastes at each site is discussed. Certificates of authorisation are presented. A summary of recommended doses of specific radionuclides is given. (Author)

  6. Modeling and optimization of the multichannel spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhi-Bo; Wu Yun; Jia Min; Song Hui-Min; Li Ying-Hong; Sun Zheng-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of this multichannel spark discharge, considering the delay time in the breakdown process, the electric transforming of the discharge channel from a capacitor to a resistor induced by the air breakdown, and the varying plasma resistance in the discharge process. The good agreement between the experimental and the simulated results validated the accuracy of this model. Based on this model, the influence of the circuit parameters on the maximum discharge channel number (MDCN) is investigated. Both the input voltage amplitude and the breakdown voltage threshold of each discharge channel play a critical role. With the increase of the input voltage and the decrease of the breakdown voltage, the MCDN increases almost linearly. With the increase of the discharge capacitance, the MDCN first rises and then remains almost constant. With the increase of the circuit inductance, the MDCN increases slowly but decreases quickly when the inductance increases over a certain value. There is an optimal value of the capacitor connected to the discharge channel corresponding to the MDCN. Finally, based on these results, to shorten the discharge time, a modified multichannel discharge circuit is developed and validated by the experiment. With only 6-kV input voltage, 31-channels discharge is achieved. The breakdown voltage of each electrode gap is larger than 3 kV. The modified discharge circuit is certain to be widely used in the PSJA flow control field. (paper)

  7. Plasma sheath dynamics in pinch discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, A.A.Abd-Fattah

    1995-01-01

    The main interest of the study was to understand the dynamic and to determine the plasma parameters in the 3.5 meter θ-pinch discharge. The 3.5 meter thetatron plasma device has been reconstructed and developed which consist of four capacitor banks: a) Main pinch capacitor bank, (θ-pinch bank) consists of 40 capacitors connected in parallel each of 1.5 μ F., with maximum energy equal to 48 k Joule. b) Preionization capacitor bank (z-pinch) consists of capacitors connected in series each of 1.5μ F., with maximum energy to 0.94 k Joule. c) Bias field bank consists of 4 capacitors connected in parallel each of 38μ F., with maximum energy equal to 4.46 k Joule. d) Screw pinch capacitor bank consists of 5 capacitors connected in parallel each of 1.5μ F., with maximum energy equal to 6 k Joule

  8. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  9. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  10. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  11. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  12. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  13. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  14. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  15. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  16. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  17. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  18. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  19. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  20. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  1. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  2. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  3. Annual plan, December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This annual plan is being provided as required under Section 'D' of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board Information Letter IL 90-8. The objective is to provide the Board, NOVA Gas Transmission (NGTL) customers and other interested parties with a comprehensive overview of NOVA Gas Transmission's pipeline system expansion plans for the gas year 2000/ 2001, and the winter season of the 2001/2002 gas year. The plan includes descriptions of NGTL's design assumptions and criteria, as well as long term outlook for field deliverability, productive capability, gas deliveries, proposed facility additions, capital expenditures, revenue requirements and firm service demand rates. Major factors affecting the facility requirements for the period under consideration are a decrease in the maximum day delivery volume at the Empress border point, an increase in intra-Alberta maximum day delivery volumes and associated decline in productive capability. Chapter One of the Plan describes the the Annual Plan process itself; Chapter Two is devoted to a discussion of facilities design methodology; Chapter Three deals with economic assumptions; Chapter Four describes design flow, while Chapters Five and Six outline the mainline , meter stations, laterals, and lateral loops facility requirements. Chapter Seven provides and overview of the capital and financial forecasts. tabs., figs.

  4. Neutron spectra unfolding with maximum entropy and maximum likelihood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shikoh; Tsunoda, Toshiharu

    1989-01-01

    A new unfolding theory has been established on the basis of the maximum entropy principle and the maximum likelihood method. This theory correctly embodies the Poisson statistics of neutron detection, and always brings a positive solution over the whole energy range. Moreover, the theory unifies both problems of overdetermined and of underdetermined. For the latter, the ambiguity in assigning a prior probability, i.e. the initial guess in the Bayesian sense, has become extinct by virtue of the principle. An approximate expression of the covariance matrix for the resultant spectra is also presented. An efficient algorithm to solve the nonlinear system, which appears in the present study, has been established. Results of computer simulation showed the effectiveness of the present theory. (author)

  5. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  6. Radiation doses from discharges into the sea at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boge, R.; Nordlinder, S.

    1981-04-01

    Control measurements of the activity discharges and the radioecological concentrations at the Oskarshamn site are reported. The actual discharges were much lower than the allowed maximum discharges. The calculated individual and collective doses are small, and the effect on the recipient is negligible, considering both men and ecosystems. (L.E.)

  7. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  8. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  9. Potential relationships between the river discharge and the precipitation in the Jinsha River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxu; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; He, Qifang; Bai, Yiran; Zhang, Ruoyu

    2018-02-01

    The relationships between the river discharge and the precipitation in the Jinsha River basin are discussed in this study. In addition, the future precipitation trend from 2011-2050 and its potential influence on the river discharge are analysed by applying the CCLM-modelled precipitation. According to the observed river discharge and precipitation, the annual river discharge at the two main hydrological stations displays good correlations with the annual precipitation in the Jinsha River basin. The predicted future precipitation tends to change similarly as the change that occurred during the observation period, whereas the monthly distributions over a year could be more uneven, which is unfavourable for water resources management.

  10. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  11. Barrier discharge. The transferred charge and ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, V.I.; Samoilovich, V.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have undertaken an experimental investigation of the influence of the conditions of barrier discharge implementation such as: the discharge gap value, the type of gas, and the polarity and dielectric permittivity of the dielectric electrode on the value of charge transferred in a micro-discharge. It is shown that the increase in the specific capacitance of the electrodes leads to proportional increase in the transferred charge value, reaching 100-200 nC in a discharge gap 1 mm, in air. In this case the amplitude and duration of a current pulse in the microdischarge reach, respectively, 10 to 15 A and 40 ns. It is also demonstrated that in air with increase in the discharge gap value one can observe a decrease in the efficiency of the ozone synthesis whereas in oxygen there exists a more complicated dependence: the maximum of efficiency is observed at a discharge gap value of 0.7 to 1.0 mm. (orig.)

  12. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  13. Maximum Water Hammer Sensitivity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Emadi; Abbas Solemani

    2011-01-01

    Pressure waves and Water Hammer occur in a pumping system when valves are closed or opened suddenly or in the case of sudden failure of pumps. Determination of maximum water hammer is considered one of the most important technical and economical items of which engineers and designers of pumping stations and conveyance pipelines should take care. Hammer Software is a recent application used to simulate water hammer. The present study focuses on determining significance of ...

  14. Maximum Gene-Support Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Shan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomes and genes diversify during evolution; however, it is unclear to what extent genes still retain the relationship among species. Model species for molecular phylogenetic studies include yeasts and viruses whose genomes were sequenced as well as plants that have the fossil-supported true phylogenetic trees available. In this study, we generated single gene trees of seven yeast species as well as single gene trees of nine baculovirus species using all the orthologous genes among the species compared. Homologous genes among seven known plants were used for validation of the finding. Four algorithms—maximum parsimony (MP, minimum evolution (ME, maximum likelihood (ML, and neighbor-joining (NJ—were used. Trees were reconstructed before and after weighting the DNA and protein sequence lengths among genes. Rarely a gene can always generate the “true tree” by all the four algorithms. However, the most frequent gene tree, termed “maximum gene-support tree” (MGS tree, or WMGS tree for the weighted one, in yeasts, baculoviruses, or plants was consistently found to be the “true tree” among the species. The results provide insights into the overall degree of divergence of orthologous genes of the genomes analyzed and suggest the following: 1 The true tree relationship among the species studied is still maintained by the largest group of orthologous genes; 2 There are usually more orthologous genes with higher similarities between genetically closer species than between genetically more distant ones; and 3 The maximum gene-support tree reflects the phylogenetic relationship among species in comparison.

  15. LCLS Maximum Credible Beam Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.

    2005-01-01

    The maximum credible beam power is defined as the highest credible average beam power that the accelerator can deliver to the point in question, given the laws of physics, the beam line design, and assuming all protection devices have failed. For a new accelerator project, the official maximum credible beam power is determined by project staff in consultation with the Radiation Physics Department, after examining the arguments and evidence presented by the appropriate accelerator physicist(s) and beam line engineers. The definitive parameter becomes part of the project's safety envelope. This technical note will first review the studies that were done for the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SSRL, where a photoinjector similar to the one proposed for the LCLS is being tested. In Section 3 the maximum charge out of the gun for a single rf pulse is calculated. In Section 4, PARMELA simulations are used to track the beam from the gun to the end of the photoinjector. Finally in Section 5 the beam through the matching section and injected into Linac-1 is discussed

  16. Discharge Estimation in a Lined Canal Using Information Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a new method and technology to measure the discharge in a lined canal in Taiwan. An Acoustic Digital Current Meter mounted on a measurement platform is used to measure the velocities over the full cross-section for establishing the measurement method. The proposed method primarily employs Chiu’s Equation which is based on entropy to establish a constant ratio the relation between the maximum and mean velocities in an irrigation canal, and compute the maximum velocity by the observed velocity profile. In consequence, the mean velocity of the lined canal can be rapidly determined by the maximum velocity and the constant ratio. The cross-sectional area of the artificial irrigation canal can be calculated for the water stage. Finally, the discharge in the lined canal can be efficiently determined by the estimated mean velocity and the cross-sectional area. Using the data of discharges and stages collected in the Wan-Dan Canal, the correlation of stage and discharge is also developed for remote real-time monitoring and estimating discharge from the pumping station. Overall, Chiu’s Equation is demonstrated to reliably and accurately measure discharge in a lined canal, and can serve as reference for future calibration for a stage-discharge rating curve.

  17. Riverine discharges to Chesapeake Bay: Analysis of long-term (1927–2014) records and implications for future flows in the Chesapeake Bay basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Moyer, Douglas; Mills, Aaron L.

    2017-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay (CB) basin is under a total maximum daily load (TMDL) mandate to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads to the bay. Identifying shifts in the hydro-climatic regime may help explain observed trends in water quality. To identify potential shifts, hydrologic data (1927–2014) for 27 watersheds in the CB basin were analyzed to determine the relationships among long-term precipitation and stream discharge trends. The amount, frequency, and intensity of precipitation increased from 1910 to 1996 in the eastern U.S., with the observed increases greater in the northeastern U.S. than the southeastern U.S. The CB watershed spans the north-to-south gradient in precipitation increases, and hydrologic differences have been observed in watersheds north relative to watersheds south of the Pennsylvania—Maryland (PA-MD) border. Time series of monthly mean precipitation data specific to each of 27 watersheds were derived from the Precipitation-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) dataset, and monthly mean stream-discharge data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey streamgage records. All annual precipitation trend slopes in the 18 watersheds north of the PA-MD border were greater than or equal to those of the nine south of that border. The magnitude of the trend slopes for 1927–2014 in both precipitation and discharge decreased in a north-to-south pattern. Distributions of the monthly precipitation and discharge datasets were assembled into percentiles for each year for each watershed. Multivariate correlation of precipitation and discharge within percentiles among the groups of northern and southern watersheds indicated only weak associations. Regional-scale average behaviors of trends in the distribution of precipitation and discharge annual percentiles differed between the northern and southern watersheds. In general, the linkage between precipitation and discharge was weak, with the linkage weaker in the northern watersheds

  18. Investigations of MHD activity in ASDEX discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.; Gernhardt, J.; Klueber, O.; Wagner, F.

    1984-06-01

    This report makes a strong attempt to relate some specific observations of MHD activity in ADEX discharges to observations made on the Doublet III and PDX tokamaks and to theoretical work on high β MHD modes at GA and PPPL. Three topics are discussed. The first topic is the detailed analysis of the time history of MHD activity in a β discharge. The β limit discharge in ASDEX is identified as a discharge in which, during constant neutral beam power, β reaches a maximum and then decreases, often to a lower steady level if the heating pulse is long enough. During the L phase of this discharge, the MHD activity observed in the B coils is both a continuous and bursting coupled m >= 1 mode of the 'fishbone' type. When β is rising in the H phase, this mode disappears; only ELMs are present. At βsub(max), a different mode appears, the m=2, n=1 tearing mode, which grows rapidly as β decreases. The second topic is the very new observation of the fishbone-like mode in a discharge heated by combined neutral beam and ion cyclotron heating power. The mode characteristics are modulated by sawtooth oscillations in a manner consistent with the importance of q(0) in the stability of this mode. The third topic is the search for ELM precursors in discharges designed to have no other competing and complicating MHD activity. In these cases nonaxisymmetric precursors to the Hsub(α) spike were observed. Hence, it appears that an MHD mode, rather than an energy balance problem, must be the origin of the ELM. (orig./GG)

  19. A water availability and low-flow analysis of the Tagliamento River discharge in Italy under changing climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Gunawardhana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the effects of projected variations in precipitation and temperature on snowfall-snowmelt processes and subsequent river discharge variations in the Tagliamento River in Italy. A lumped-parameter, non-linear, rainfall-runoff model with 10 general circulation model (GCM scenarios was used. Spatial and temporal changes in snow cover were assessed using 15 high-quality Landsat images. The 7Q10 low-flow probability distribution approximated by the Log-Pearson type III distribution function was used to examine river discharge variations with respect to climate extremes in the future. On average, the results obtained for 10 scenarios indicate a consistent warming rate for all time periods, which may increase the maximum and minimum temperatures by 2.3 °C (0.6–3.7 °C and 2.7 °C (1.0–4.0 °C, respectively, by the end of the 21st century compared to the present climate. Consequently, the exponential rate of frost day decrease for 1 °C winter warming in lower-elevation areas is approximately three-fold (262% higher than that in higher-elevation areas, revealing that snowfall in lower-elevation areas will be more vulnerable under a changing climate. In spite of the relatively minor changes in annual precipitation (−17.4 ~ 1.7% compared to the average of the baseline (1991–2010 period, snowfall will likely decrease by 48–67% during the 2080–2099 time period. The mean river discharges are projected to decrease in all seasons, except winter. The low-flow analysis indicated that while the magnitude of the minimum river discharge will increase (e.g. a 25% increase in the 7Q10 estimations for the winter season in the 2080–2099 time period, the number of annual average low-flow events will also increase (e.g. 16 and 15 more days during the spring and summer seasons, respectively, in the 2080–2099 time period compared to the average during the baseline period, leading to a future with a highly variable river discharge

  20. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  1. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  2. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  3. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  4. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  5. 25 CFR 141.36 - Maximum finance charges on pawn transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum finance charges on pawn transactions. 141.36... PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Pawnbroker Practices § 141.36 Maximum finance charges on pawn transactions. No pawnbroker may impose an annual finance charge greater than twenty-four percent...

  6. Extreme Maximum Land Surface Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1992-09-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of observations of land surface temperatures. Some of these, almost all made in situ, reveal maximum values in the 50°-70°C range, with a few, made in desert regions, near 80°C. Consideration of a simplified form of the surface energy balance equation, utilizing likely upper values of absorbed shortwave flux (1000 W m2) and screen air temperature (55°C), that surface temperatures in the vicinity of 90°-100°C may occur for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.2 W m1 K1). Numerical simulations confirm this and suggest that temperature gradients in the first few centimeters of soil may reach 0.5°-1°C mm1 under these extreme conditions. The study bears upon the intrinsic interest of identifying extreme maximum temperatures and yields interesting information regarding the comfort zone of animals (including man).

  7. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  8. Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirov, R.H.; Asinovsky, E.I.; Samoilov, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures was experimentally examined. The average ozone concentration in the volume of the discharge tube was less at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperatures. The production of condensed ozone have been determined by measuring the ozone concentration when the walls was heated and ozone evaporated. The energy yield of ozone generation at cryogenic temperatures has been calculated. The maximum value was 200 g/kWh

  9. Discharge data from 50 selected rivers for GCM validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duemenil, L.; Isele, K.; Liebscher, H.J.; Schroeder, U.; Schumacher, M.; Wilke, K.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Report refers to a joint project between GRDC Koblenz and MPI Hamburg. The Global Runoff Data Centre operates under the auspieces of WMO at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde) in Koblenz. River discharge data of the 50 largest rivers provide an independent data source for the validation of the hydrological cycle in general circulation models. This type of data is particularly valuable, because in some cases the available time series are exceptionally long. The data are presented as time series of annual average discharge (averaged over the period for which data is available, see below for caveats) and as annual cycles of monthly mean discharge averaged over the length of the time series available. (orig./KW)

  10. System for memorizing maximum values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-08-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either linear or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  11. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  12. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  13. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  14. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  15. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  16. Assessing the Effects of Climate on Global Fluvial Discharge Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, M. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.

    2017-12-01

    Plink-Bjorklund (2015) established the link between precipitation seasonality and river discharge variability in the monsoon domain and subtropical rivers (see also Leier et al, 2005; Fielding et al., 2009), resulting in distinct morphodynamic processes and a sedimentary record distinct from perennial precipitation zone in tropical rainforest zone and mid latitudes. This study further develops our understanding of discharge variability using a modern global river database created with data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). The database consists of daily discharge for 595 river stations and examines them using a series of discharge variability indexes (DVI) on different temporal scales to examine how discharge variability occurs in river systems around the globe. These indexes examine discharge of individual days and monthly averages that allows for comparison of river systems against each other, regardless of size of the river. Comparing river discharge patterns in seven climate zones (arid, cold, humid subtropics, monsoonal, polar, rainforest, and temperate) based off the Koppen-Geiger climate classifications reveals a first order climatic control on discharge patterns and correspondingly sediment transport. Four groupings of discharge patterns emerge when coming climate zones and DVI: persistent, moderate, seasonal, and erratic. This dataset has incredible predictive power about the nature of discharge in fluvial systems around the world. These seasonal effects on surface water supply affects river morphodynamics and sedimentation on a wide timeframe, ranging from large single events to an inter-annual or even decadal timeframe. The resulting sedimentary deposits lead to differences in fluvial architecture on a range of depositional scales from sedimentary structures and bedforms to channel complex systems. These differences are important to accurately model for several reasons, ranging from stratigraphic and paleoenviromental reconstructions to more

  17. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  18. Discharges to the environment and environmental protection at CEGB power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper will cover the principles, methods and results obtained in environmental protection in relation to atmospheric discharges made routinely during power generation); air pollution control; nuclear power stations (type of discharge, annual discharges, environmental monitoring); fossil fuelled power stations; health effects; trace elements; long range transport and acid rain; future coal fired plant; carbon dioxide. (U.K.)

  19. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  20. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  1. Discharge behaviors during plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Run; Wu, Jie; Xue, Wenbin; Qu, Yao; Yang, Chaolin; Wang, Bin; Wu, Xianying

    2014-01-01

    A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was performed on the 2024 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte to fabricate ceramic coatings under a constant voltage. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to evaluate the characteristics of plasma discharge during PEO process. The plasma electron temperature and density were obtained by analyzing the spectral lines of OES, and the atomic ionization degree in discharge zone was calculated in terms of Saha thermal ionization equation. The illumination intensity of plasma discharge and the temperature in the interior of alloy were measured. Combining the surface morphology and cross-sectional microstructure with the optical emission spectra and illumination at different discharge stage, a discharge model in the growth of PEO ceramic coatings was proposed. It is found that there are two discharge modes of type A with small spark size and type B with large spark size, and the latter only appears in the intermediate stage of PEO process. The illumination intensity has a maximum value in the initial stage of oxidation with many sparks of discharge type A. The electron temperature in plasma discharge zone is about 3000 K–7000 K and atomic ionization degree of Al is about 2.0 × 10 −5 –7.2 × 10 −3 , which depend on discharge stage. The discharge type B plays a key role on the electron temperature and atomic ionization degree. The electron density keeps stable in the range of about 8.5 × 10 21  m −3 –2.6 × 10 22  m −3 . - Highlights: • The characteristics of PEO plasma discharge was evaluated by OES. • Electron temperature, concentration, atomic ionization degree were calculated. • Discharge model for the growth of PEO coatings was proposed. • Temperature in the interior of alloy during PEO process was measured

  2. Spectroscopic study of ohmically heated Tokamak discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Michelis, C. de; Mattioli, M.

    1980-07-01

    Tokamak discharges interact strongly with the wall and/or the current aperture limiter producing recycling particles, which penetrate into the discharge and which can be studied spectroscopically. Working gas (hydrogen or deuterium) is usually studied observing visible Balmer lines at several toroidal locations. Absolute measurements allow to obtain both the recycling flux and the global particle confinement time. With sufficiently high resolution the isotopic plasma composition can be obtained. The impurity elements can be divided into desorbed elements (mainly oxygen) and eroded elements (metals from both walls and limiter) according to the plasma-wall interaction processes originating them. Space-and time-resolved emission in the VUV region down to about 20 A will be reviewed for ohmically-heated discharges. The time evolution can be divided into four phases, not always clearly separated in a particular discharge: a) the initial phase, lasting less than 10 ms (the so-called burn-out phase), b) the period of increasing plasma current and electron temperature, lasting typically 10 - 100 ms, c) an eventual steady state (plateau of the plasma current with almost constant density and temperature), d) the increase of the electron density up to or just below the maximum value attainable in a given device. For all these phases the results reported from different devices will be described and compared

  3. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  4. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  6. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  7. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Erickson, G.J.; Neudorfer, P.O.

    1992-01-01

    Bayesian probability theory and Maximum Entropy methods are at the core of a new view of scientific inference. These 'new' ideas, along with the revolution in computational methods afforded by modern computers allow astronomers, electrical engineers, image processors of any type, NMR chemists and physicists, and anyone at all who has to deal with incomplete and noisy data, to take advantage of methods that, in the past, have been applied only in some areas of theoretical physics. The title workshops have been the focus of a group of researchers from many different fields, and this diversity is evident in this book. There are tutorial and theoretical papers, and applications in a very wide variety of fields. Almost any instance of dealing with incomplete and noisy data can be usefully treated by these methods, and many areas of theoretical research are being enhanced by the thoughtful application of Bayes' theorem. Contributions contained in this volume present a state-of-the-art overview that will be influential and useful for many years to come

  8. Seasonal forecasting of discharge for the Raccoon River, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele; Bradley, Allen; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The state of Iowa (central United States) is regularly afflicted by severe natural hazards such as the 2008/2013 floods and the 2012 drought. To improve preparedness for these catastrophic events and allow Iowans to make more informed decisions about the most suitable water management strategies, we have developed a framework for medium to long range probabilistic seasonal streamflow forecasting for the Raccoon River at Van Meter, a 8900-km2 catchment located in central-western Iowa. Our flow forecasts use statistical models to predict seasonal discharge for low to high flows, with lead forecasting times ranging from one to ten months. Historical measurements of daily discharge are obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Van Meter stream gage, and used to compute quantile time series from minimum to maximum seasonal flow. The model is forced with basin-averaged total seasonal precipitation records from the PRISM Climate Group and annual row crop production acreage from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Services database. For the forecasts, we use corn and soybean production from the previous year (persistence forecast) as a proxy for the impacts of agricultural practices on streamflow. The monthly precipitation forecasts are provided by eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), with lead times ranging from 0.5 to 11.5 months, and a resolution of 1 decimal degree. Additionally, precipitation from the month preceding each season is used to characterize antecedent soil moisture conditions. The accuracy of our modelled (1927-2015) and forecasted (2001-2015) discharge values is assessed by comparison with the observed USGS data. We explore the sensitivity of forecast skill over the full range of lead times, flow quantiles, forecast seasons, and with each GCM. Forecast skill is also examined using different formulations of the statistical models, as well as NMME forecast

  9. Krypton excimer laser oscillation by discharge pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takahiro; Tabe, Yoshitaka; Kubodera, Shoichi; Sasaki, Wataru; Kawanaka, Junji

    2001-01-01

    We have demonstrated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser oscillation of the krypton excimer (Kr 2 *) excited by a compact self-sustained discharge device. We have observed a spectral narrowing of the Kr 2 * emission centered at 147.8 nm. A deconvoluted spectral width is 0.5 nm (FWHM), which reveals a contrast to a 13 nm spectral width of the spontaneous emission. The Kr 2 * intensity has increased one order of magnitude when a charging voltage was increased larger than 29 kV. The success of the lasing in the VUV spectral region has been attributed to the success of a stable glow discharge of Kr at 10 atm. The pulse width of the VUV laser radiation is 400 ns (FWHM). The maximum output energy measured is as large as 150 μJ. (author)

  10. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  11. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  12. Regression models of discharge and mean velocity associated with near-median streamflow conditions in Texas: utility of the U.S. Geological Survey discharge measurement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A database containing more than 16,300 discharge values and ancillary hydraulic attributes was assembled from summaries of discharge measurement records for 391 USGS streamflow-gauging stations (streamgauges) in Texas. Each discharge is between the 40th- and 60th-percentile daily mean streamflow as determined by period-of-record, streamgauge-specific, flow-duration curves. Each discharge therefore is assumed to represent a discharge measurement made for near-median streamflow conditions, and such conditions are conceptualized as representative of midrange to baseflow conditions in much of the state. The hydraulic attributes of each discharge measurement included concomitant cross-section flow area, water-surface top width, and reported mean velocity. Two regression equations are presented: (1) an expression for discharge and (2) an expression for mean velocity, both as functions of selected hydraulic attributes and watershed characteristics. Specifically, the discharge equation uses cross-sectional area, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area of the watershed, and mean annual precipitation of the location; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.95 and residual standard error of approximately 0.23 base-10 logarithm (cubic meters per second). The mean velocity equation uses discharge, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area, and mean annual precipitation; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.50 and residual standard error of approximately 0.087 third root (meters per second). Residual plots from both equations indicate that reliable estimates of discharge and mean velocity at ungauged stream sites are possible. Further, the relation between contributing drainage area and main-channel slope (a measure of whole-watershed slope) is depicted to aid analyst judgment of equation applicability for ungauged sites. Example applications and computations are provided and discussed within a real-world, discharge

  13. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  14. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  15. Modeling the probability distribution of peak discharge for infiltrating hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-07-01

    Hillslope response plays a fundamental role in the prediction of peak discharge at the basin outlet. The peak discharge for the critical duration of rainfall and its probability distribution are needed for designing urban infrastructure facilities. This study derives the probability distribution, denoted as GABS model, by coupling three models: (1) the Green-Ampt model for computing infiltration, (2) the kinematic wave model for computing discharge hydrograph from the hillslope, and (3) the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model for computing design rainfall intensity. The Hortonian mechanism for runoff generation is employed for computing the surface runoff hydrograph. Since the antecedent soil moisture condition (ASMC) significantly affects the rate of infiltration, its effect on the probability distribution of peak discharge is investigated. Application to a watershed in Sicily, Italy, shows that with the increase of probability, the expected effect of ASMC to increase the maximum discharge diminishes. Only for low values of probability, the critical duration of rainfall is influenced by ASMC, whereas its effect on the peak discharge seems to be less for any probability. For a set of parameters, the derived probability distribution of peak discharge seems to be fitted by the gamma distribution well. Finally, an application to a small watershed, with the aim to test the possibility to arrange in advance the rational runoff coefficient tables to be used for the rational method, and a comparison between peak discharges obtained by the GABS model with those measured in an experimental flume for a loamy-sand soil were carried out.

  16. DC corona discharge ozone production enhanced by magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekárek, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the effect of a stationary magnetic field on the production of ozone from air at atmospheric pressure by a negative corona discharge in a cylindrical electrode configuration. We used a stainless steel hollow needle placed at the axis of the cylindrical discharge chamber as a cathode. The outer wall of the cylinder was used as an anode. The vector of magnetic induction was perpendicular to the vector of current density. We found that: (a) the magnetic field extends the current voltage range of the discharge; (b) for the discharge in the Trichel pulses regime and in the pulseless glow regime, the magnetic field has no substantial effect on the discharge voltage or on the concentration of ozone that is produced; (c) for the discharge in the filamentary streamer regime for a particular current, the magnetic field increases the discharge voltage and consequently an approximately 30% higher ozone concentration can be obtained; (d) the magnetic field does not substantially increase the maximum ozone production yield. A major advantage of using a magnetic field is that the increase in ozone concentration produced by the discharge can be obtained without additional energy requirements.

  17. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  18. RF torch discharge combined with conventional burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janca, J.; Tesar, C.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the combined flame-rf-plasma reactor and experimental examination of this reactor are presented. For the determination of the temperature in different parts of the combined burner plasma the methods of emission spectroscopy were used. The temperatures measured in the conventional burner reach the maximum temperature 1900 K but in the burner with the superimposed rf discharge the neutral gas temperature substantially increased up to 2600 K but also the plasma volume increases substantially. Consequently, the resident time of reactants in the reaction zone increases

  19. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  20. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  1. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  2. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  3. AIR ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE DISCHARGERS FOR OPERATION IN HIGH-FREQUENCY SWITCHING MODE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Yevdoshenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Operation of two designs of compact multigap dischargers has been investigated in a high-frequency switching mode. It is experimentally revealed that the rational length of single discharge gaps in the designs is 0.3 mm, and the maximum switching frequency is 27000 discharges per second under long-term stable operation of the dischargers. It is shown that in pulsed corona discharge reactors, the pulse front sharpening results in increasing the operating electric field strength by 1.3 – 1.8 times.

  4. Ramp discharge in Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, W.H.; Beshara, A.B.; El-Bialy, A.B.; Masoud, M.M. [Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Dept., N.R.C., Atomic Energy Authority, Enshass (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    A ramp Z-pinch discharge is designed and built in order to increase the pinch ratio and obtain a maximum contraction, and to increase the temperature. The discharge chamber is a cylindrical Pyrex tube of 25 cm long, 18.5 cm, 20 cm inner and outer diameter and two circular Aluminum plates of radius 15 cm separated by 21 cm are inserted into the tube. The tube is filled with He gas at 0.1 mbar. Two capacitor banks are used, the first bank 30 {mu}F and the second fast bank 1.3 {mu}F. The charging voltage was 8 kV for both banks. The discharge current and voltage of each bank are measured by potential divider and Rogowski coil respectively. Also the plasma inductance and resistance are obtained for each case. The plasma inductance has its peak value 300 nH at 4 {mu}s, while the plasma resistance has it minimum 8 m{omega} at the same time in the case of conventional discharge (single bank). In the case of ramp discharge, the inductance has two peaks 440 nH, 380 nH at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively, while the resistance has two minimum 4 m{omega}, 20 m{omega} at at 4 {mu}s, 9.5 {mu}s respectively. The temperature has been measure spectroscopically by using relative continuum intensity ratio method. The temperature has its peak value 38 eV at 4 {mu}s for single bank case, while it larger peak value 55 eV for ramp case. (orig.)

  5. Critical discharge of fluids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seewald, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic relations during discharge of fluids and gases are complex and a closed solution does not seem to be available. For the modeling of leakage accidents in nuclear power plants basic considerations are suitable for statements on the maximum mass flow, and thus the leak rate. The maximum mass flow is reached when the critical velocity is reached in the smallest cross section. This allows the appropriate design of safety systems for one-phase and two-phase flows. For German NPP simulators the hydrodynamics simulation program RELAP5-3D is used. The simulator center operates a 1:10 scale gas model of a two-loop PWR type reactor. The observable phenomena have occurred in nuclear power plants. The characteristics for a visualization of two-phase flows are not available in the simulation software and have to be added by correlations with experimental results. The realization of expectations on digital visualization techniques is discussed.

  6. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  7. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  8. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  9. Annual, semi-annual and ter-annual variations of gravity wave momentum flux in 13 years of SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Strube, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the variations at different time scales such as the annual cycle, the semiannual oscillation (SAO), the ter-annual cycle (about four monthly) and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal mean GW amplitudes and GW momentum flux (GWMF) have been investigated using satellite observations from 2002-2014 and combining ECMWF high resolution data with the GORGRAT model. The global distribution (patterns) of spectral amplitudes of GW momentum flux in stratosphere and mesosphere (from 30 km to 90 km) show that the annual cycle is the most predominant variation, and then are SAO, ter-annual cycle and QBO. For annual components, two relatively isolated amplitude maxima appear in each hemisphere: a subtropical maximum is associated with convective sources in summer, a mid and high latitude maximum is associated with the polar vortex in winter. In the subtropics, GWs propagate upward obliquely to the higher latitudes. The winter maximum in the southern hemisphere has larger momentum flux than that one in the northern hemisphere. While on the SH the phase (i.e. time corresponding to the maximum GWMF) continuously descends with the maximum in July in the upper mesosphere and in September in the lower stratosphere, on the northern hemisphere, the phase has no visible altitude dependence with a maximum in December. For semiannual variations, in the MLT (70-80 km) region, there is an obvious enhancement of spectral amplitude at equatorial latitudes which relate to the dissipation of convectively forced GWs. The SAO in absolute momentum flux and the annual cycle in zonal momentum flux indicated that the variations at mid-latitudes (about from 30°-40°) are not a SAO signals but rather an annual cycle when the direction of GWMF is considered. The ter-annual cycle may be related to the duration of active convection in subtropical latitudes (from June to Sep. in north hemisphere) Indications for QBO are found latitude extension to mid-latitudes in stratosphere of

  10. Discharges of nuclear waste into the Kola Bay and its impact on human radiological doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matishov, Genady G.; Matishov, Dimitry G.; Namjatov, Alexey A.; Carroll, JoLynn; Dahle, Salve

    2000-01-01

    The civilian nuclear icebreaker facility, RTP ''ATOMFLOT,'' is located in Kola Bay, Northwest Russia, as are several nuclear installations operated by the Russian Northern Fleet. A treatment plant at the Atomflot facility discharges purified nuclear waste into the bay at an annual rate of 500 m 3 . As a result of plant modifications this rate will soon increase to 5000 m 3 /yr. Evidence of minor leakages of 60 Co are reported by in the vicinity of Atomflot as well as near several military installations in Kola and the adjacent Motovsky Bays. 137 Cs levels reported in the present study for seawater and seaweed collected from locations within the bays are at expected levels except in the vicinity of Atomflot, where the 137 Cs level in a seaweed sample was 46±5 Bq/kg w.w. indicating significant uptake of radionuclides to biota. Uptake also may be occurring in higher trophic levels of the food web through environmental exchange and/or biotransformation. We consider the impact of the present and anticipated discharges from Atomflot through a radiological dose assessment for humans consuming fish from Kola Bay. Mixing and transport of nuclear waste is simulated using a simple box model. Maximum doses, assuming consumption of 100 kg/yr of fish, are below 10 -9 Sv/yr; the planned ten-fold increase in the discharge of treated waste will increase the doses to below 10 -8 Sv/yr. Using data on radionuclide levels in sediments and assuming equilibrium partitioning of radionuclides among sediment, seawater and fish, we estimate that the total doses to humans consuming fish from different areas of Kola and Motovsky Bays, including adjacent to military-controlled nuclear installations, are ∼10 -7 Sv/yr. Nuclear activities in Kola and Motovsky Bays thus far have had minimal impact on the environment. Discharges from the treatment plant currently account for less than 0.2% of the total dose predictions. The increase in discharges from the treatment plant is not expected to change

  11. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  12. Estimating extreme river discharges in Europe through a Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale hydrological modelling of flood hazards requires adequate extreme discharge data. In practise, models based on physics are applied alongside those utilizing only statistical analysis. The former require enormous computational power, while the latter are mostly limited in accuracy and spatial coverage. In this paper we introduce an alternate, statistical approach based on Bayesian networks (BNs), a graphical model for dependent random variables. We use a non-parametric BN to describe the joint distribution of extreme discharges in European rivers and variables representing the geographical characteristics of their catchments. Annual maxima of daily discharges from more than 1800 river gauges (stations with catchment areas ranging from 1.4 to 807 000 km2) were collected, together with information on terrain, land use and local climate. The (conditional) correlations between the variables are modelled through copulas, with the dependency structure defined in the network. The results show that using this method, mean annual maxima and return periods of discharges could be estimated with an accuracy similar to existing studies using physical models for Europe and better than a comparable global statistical model. Performance of the model varies slightly between regions of Europe, but is consistent between different time periods, and remains the same in a split-sample validation. Though discharge prediction under climate change is not the main scope of this paper, the BN was applied to a large domain covering all sizes of rivers in the continent both for present and future climate, as an example. Results show substantial variation in the influence of climate change on river discharges. The model can be used to provide quick estimates of extreme discharges at any location for the purpose of obtaining input information for hydraulic modelling.

  13. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  15. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  16. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  17. Study of the switching rate of gas-discharge devices based on the open discharge with counter-propagating electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P. P.; Lavrukhin, M. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.

    2015-01-01

    The switching rate of gas-discharge devices “kivotrons” based on the open discharge with counter-propagating electron beams has been experimentally studied. Structures with 2-cm 2 overall cathode area were examined. The switching time was found to show a monotonic decrease with increasing the working-gas helium pressure and with increasing the voltage across the discharge gap at breakdown. The minimum switching time was found to be ∼240 ps at 17 kV voltage, and the maximum rate of electric-current rise limited by the discharge-circuit inductance was 3 × 10 12  A/s

  18. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  19. acceleration observed in an audio air gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    an audio air gas discharge enclosed in a pyrex glass of 34 mm diameter and 25 cm long , lead to trace the occurrence of an unusual phenomenon. injected relative huge light spots of intense brightness, distributed regularly on the contour and in the center of one of the discharge electrodes, are observed. very high heat is pronounced on both electrodes, while, one of them is higher than the other it attains 660 degree C in 3-4 minutes. series of photographs and registered video films define and clarify the sequence of events that describe the observed phenomenon. the plasma is created by applying an audio power through the electrodes of an air gas discharge of 10 khz and up to 500 watts power supply. the discharge voltage is up to 900 volts: the discharge current flowing through the plasma attains 360 mA. it is found that the discharge system must attain its optimal working conditions in order to produce the amazing phenomena. the obtained plasma is classified as the maximum conditions borders of a γ-discharge type. at these conditions, the corresponding maximum electron temperature and density are 16 eV and 10 15 cm -3 respectively . the observation system succeeded to reveal and to clarify the sequence of the phenomenon events. in addition, by means of the scanning electron microscope and the energy dispersive x- ray systems, the effects on the electrodes surface are investigated and analyzed. the optical observations, in conjunction with the micrograph and surface microanalysis,demonstrate the collision occurrence, of powered agglomerations groups, to the electrode surface. detailed interpretation of that phenomenon suggests a molecular acceleration gaining their energy from the formed plasma due to optimal discharge working conditions. as a consequence, due to the ions agglomerates size this procedure could be considered as a mesoscopic acceleration technique.

  20. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  1. A pulser-sustainer carbon monoxide electric-discharge supersonic laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D. J.; Srinivasan, G.

    1977-01-01

    Operation of a CW CO electric-discharge supersonic laser with a pulser-sustainer discharge is described. High-power operation as well as independent control over electron energy and density are demonstrated. Maximum input power achieved to date is 100 kW. The maximum output power is 6 kW or 10% of the sustainer positive-column power. Much improved performance appears possible.

  2. Numerical study on discharge process of microcavity plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Guangqing; Xue Weihua; Wang Dongxue; Zhu Guoqiang; Zhu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of plasma parameters during high pressure discharge in the microcavity with a hollow anode was numerically studied, with a two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The simulations were performed with argon at 13.3 kPa. The numerical results show that during the discharge the electric field around the cathode transforms from an axial field to a radial field, the plasma density gets the maximum value on the central line of the cavity and the location of the maximum density moves from the region near anode at the initial stage to the cathode vicinity at the stable stage, and the maximum electron temperature occurs in the ring sheath of cathode. (authors)

  3. Joint annual report of the environment monitoring in 1996 according to the Agreement between the Government of the Slovak Republic and the Government of Hungary about Certain Temporary Measures and Discharges to the Danube and Mosoni Danube, signed on April 19, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocinger, D.; Kovacs, A.

    1997-06-01

    This annual report contains next parts: Preface; (1) Surface water quantity; (2) Surface water quality; (3) Ground water regime; (4) Ground water quality; (5) Soil moisture monitoring; (6) Forest monitoring; (7) Monitoring of biota; Proposals and three appendixes

  4. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  5. The estimation of probable maximum precipitation: the case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, M Carmen; Rodríguez, Raül; Nieto, Raquel; Redaño, Angel

    2008-12-01

    A brief overview of the different techniques used to estimate the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is presented. As a particular case, the 1-day PMP over Catalonia has been calculated and mapped with a high spatial resolution. For this purpose, the annual maximum daily rainfall series from 145 pluviometric stations of the Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (Spanish Weather Service) in Catalonia have been analyzed. In order to obtain values of PMP, an enveloping frequency factor curve based on the actual rainfall data of stations in the region has been developed. This enveloping curve has been used to estimate 1-day PMP values of all the 145 stations. Applying the Cressman method, the spatial analysis of these values has been achieved. Monthly precipitation climatological data, obtained from the application of Geographic Information Systems techniques, have been used as the initial field for the analysis. The 1-day PMP at 1 km(2) spatial resolution over Catalonia has been objectively determined, varying from 200 to 550 mm. Structures with wavelength longer than approximately 35 km can be identified and, despite their general concordance, the obtained 1-day PMP spatial distribution shows remarkable differences compared to the annual mean precipitation arrangement over Catalonia.

  6. Syncrude annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd. is the world's largest producer of custom made crude oil from the oil sands, and the largest single source of oil in Canada. This annual report claimed many outstanding achievements for 1994. A new production record resulted in higher revenue, lower unit operating costs, increased cash flow, improved productivity, and higher net income. With a focus on technology development and continuous improvement in operations, including environment, health and safety performance, operating results are projected to improve further. The formation of the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD) early in 1994 was a major step assuring maximum leverage from every dollar expended to realize this objective. Production of Syncrude Sweet Blend is expected to rise by over 10 million barrels to 81 million barrels a year at an average cash operating expenditure of Can$12.00/ barrel by the year 2000. The Corporation's business plans include capital investments for major projects, such as the North Mine hydrotransport, product quality enhancements, and upgrading facilities expansion. 4 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Latitudinal Change of Tropical Cyclone Maximum Intensity in the Western North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study obtained the latitude where tropical cyclones (TCs) show maximum intensity and applied statistical change-point analysis on the time series data of the average annual values. The analysis results found that the latitude of the TC maximum intensity increased from 1999. To investigate the reason behind this phenomenon, the difference of the average latitude between 1999 and 2013 and the average between 1977 and 1998 was analyzed. In a difference of 500 hPa streamline between the two ...

  8. Lodos de esgoto alcalinizados em solos do estado do Paraná: taxa de aplicação máxima anual e comparação entre métodos para recomendação agrícola Alkaline sewage sludge on soils of Paraná state: maximum annual application rate and comparison between methods for agricultural recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Clarice Poggere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Para o uso agrícola do lodo de esgoto higienizado por processo de estabilização alcalina prolongada (lodo EAP, além de estabelecer limites de aplicação máxima conforme a legislação, é necessário estudar atributos dos lodos e dos solos que favoreçam as metodologias de sua recomendação. Objetivou-se determinar a taxa de aplicação máxima anual (TAMA de lodo EAP pelo critério de elevação do pH para 20 lodos e solos do estado do Paraná; determinar a influência dos atributos desses solos nos valores da TAMA de lodo EAP; avaliar o uso dos métodos de saturação por bases (V% e pH referência (SMP, utilizando como padrão o método da incubação. Empregou-se o ensaio de incubação para lodo EAP aplicado ao solo, conforme metodologia oficial. Os resultados indicam que as TAMA de lodo EAP variaram de 10 a >80 Mg.ha-1 para as 20 regionais estudadas; Os atributos químicos (capacidade de troca de cátions, H+Al e carbono e físico (argila são os que melhor definem a determinação da TAMA, apresentando relação diretamente proporcional. Os métodos do V% e do pH referência (SMP para pH H2O 5,5 mostraram-se seguros quanto à recomendação agrícola.For agricultural use of alkalinized sludge (AS, beyond to establish the maximum application limits to comply with the legislation, it is necessary to study the attributes of sludges and soils that favor the methodologies of its recommendation. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum annual application rate (MAAR of alkalinized sludge (AS according to the pH elevation criterion for 20 sludge origins and soils of the Paraná state; to determine the influence of soil attributes over the MAAR of AS; to evaluate two methods rate calculation for AS, the base saturation (V% and pH reference (SMP by comparing with the standard incubation methodology for AS sludge application. It was used incubation test for AS applied to soil, following official methodology. The results

  9. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004) was 1,170 cubic feet per second on December 7, 1982. The daily mean water temperature of Big Spring was monitored during water years 2001 through 2004 and showed little variability, ranging from 13 to 15? C (degree Celsius). Water temperatures generally vary less than 1? C throughout the year. The warmest temperatures occur during October and November and decrease until April, indicating Big Spring water temperature does show a slight seasonal variation. The use of the traditional hydrograph separation program HYSEP to determine the base flow and quick flow or runoff components at Big Spring failed to yield base-flow and quick-flow discharge curves that matched observations of spring characteristics. Big Spring discharge data were used in combination with specific conductance data to develop an improved hydrograph separation method for the spring. The estimated annual mean quick flow ranged from 15 to 48 cubic feet per second for the HYSEP analysis and ranged from 26 to 154 cubic feet per second for the discharge and specific conductance method for water years 2001 to 2004. Using the discharge and specific conductance method, the estimated base-flow component rises abruptly as the spring hydrograph rises, attains a peak value on the same day as the discharge peak, and then declines abruptly from its peak value. Several days later, base flow begins to increase again at an approximately linear trend, coinciding with the time at which the percentage of quick flow has reached a maximum after each recharge-induced discharge peak. The interval between the discharge peak and the peak in percentage quick flow ranges from 8 to 11 days for seven hydrograph peaks, consistent with quick-flow traveltime estimates by dye-trace tests from the mature karst Hurricane Creek Basin in the central part of the recharge area. Concentrations of environmental tracers chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113)

  10. On the regime transitions during the formation of an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, T; Bogaerts, A; Brok, W J M; Van Dijk, J

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature. If during the electrical current pulse a glow discharge is reached, then this pulse will last only a few microseconds in operating periods of sinusoidal voltage with lengths of about 10 to 100 μs. In this paper we demonstrate that right before a glow discharge is reached, the discharge very closely resembles the commonly assumed Townsend discharge structure, but actually contains some significant differing features and hence should not be considered as a Townsend discharge. In order to clarify this, we present calculation results of high time and space resolution of the pulse formation. The results indicate that indeed a maximum of ionization is formed at the anode, but that the level of ionization remains high and that the electric field at that time is significantly disturbed. Our results also show where this intermediate structure comes from. (fast track communication)

  11. Experimental study of surface dielectric barrier discharge in air and its ozone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekárek, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    For surface dielectric barrier discharge in air we studied the effects of frequency of the driving voltage on dissipated power, asymmetry of amplitudes of the discharge voltage, discharge UV emission, ozone production, ozone production of the discharge with TiO 2 and of the discharge in magnetic field. We found that for a particular voltage the dissipated power is higher for the frequency of the driving voltage of 26.3 kHz than for the frequency of 10.9 kHz; peak values of the positive half-periods of the discharge voltage are higher than peak values of the negative half-periods; intensity of the discharge UV emissions for wavelengths of 320-420 nm is for both frequencies a linear function of power; maximum ozone concentration for the frequency of the driving voltage of 26.3 kHz is obtained with smaller power than for the frequency of 10.9 kHz; placement of TiO 2 particles into the discharge chamber increases for both frequencies of the driving voltage maximum ozone concentration produced by the discharge and for the frequency of the driving voltage of 26.3 kHz increases ozone production yield. Finally, there is no observable effect of magnetic field on concentration of ozone produced by the discharge as well as on production yield. (paper)

  12. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  13. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  14. Orderly Discharging Strategy for Electric Vehicles at Workplace Based on Time-of-Use Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the parking features of electric vehicles (EVs and load of production unit, a power supply system including EVs charging station was established, and an orderly discharging strategy for EVs was proposed as well to reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging. Based on the target of maximizing the annual income of producer, considering the total benefits of EV discharging, the electric vehicle aggregator (EVA and time-of-use (TOU price were introduced to establish the optimization scheduling model of EVs discharging. Furthermore, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA combined with the penalty function methods was applied to solve the model. It can be shown from the simulation results that the optimal solution obtained by IAFSA is regarded as the orderly discharging strategy for EVs, which could reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging.

  15. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  16. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  17. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  18. Modelling maximum canopy conductance and transpiration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much current interest in predicting the maximum amount of water that can be transpired by Eucalyptus trees. It is possible that industrial waste water may be applied as irrigation water to eucalypts and it is important to predict the maximum transpiration rates of these plantations in an attempt to dispose of this ...

  19. Density limit in ASDEX discharges with peaked density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Niedermeyer, H.; Loch, R.; Mertens, V.; Mueller, E.R.; Soeldner, F.X.; Wagner, F.

    1989-01-01

    Results concerning the density limit in OH and NI-heated ASDEX discharges with the usually observed broad density profiles have been reported earlier: In ohmic discharges with high q a (q-cylindrical is used throughout this paper) the Murakami parameter (n e R/B t ) is a good scaling parameter. At the high densities edge cooling is observed causing the plasma to shrink until an m=2-instability terminates the discharge. When approaching q a =2 the density limit is no longer proportional to I p ; a minimum exists in n e,max (q a ) at q a ∼2.15. With NI-heating the density limit increases less than proportional to the heating power; the behaviour during the pre-disruptive phase is rather similar to the one of OH discharges. There are specific operating regimes on ASDEX leading to discharges with strongly peaked density profiles: the improved ohmic confinement regime, counter neutral injection, and multipellet injection. These regimes are characterized by enhanced energy and particle confinement. The operational limit in density for these discharges is, therefore, of great interest having furthermore in mind that high central densities are favourable in achieving high fusion yields. In addition, further insight into the mechanisms of the density limit observed in tokamaks may be obtained by comparing plasmas with rather different density profiles at their maximum attainable densities. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. Optimum Discharge Burnup and Cycle Length for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secker, Jeffrey R.; Johansen, Baard J.; Stucker, David L.; Ozer, Odelli; Ivanov, Kostadin; Yilmaz, Serkan; Young, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a pressurized water reactor fuel management study determining the optimum discharge burnup and cycle length. A comprehensive study was performed considering 12-, 18-, and 24-month fuel cycles over a wide range of discharge burnups. A neutronic study was performed followed by an economic evaluation. The first phase of the study limited the fuel enrichments used in the study to 235 U consistent with constraints today. The second phase extended the range of discharge burnups for 18-month cycles by using fuel enriched in excess of 5 wt%. The neutronic study used state-of-the-art reactor physics methods to accurately determine enrichment requirements. Energy requirements were consistent with today's high capacity factors (>98%) and short (15-day) refueling outages. The economic evaluation method considers various component costs including uranium, conversion, enrichment, fabrication and spent-fuel storage costs as well as the effect of discounting of the revenue stream. The resulting fuel cycle costs as a function of cycle length and discharge burnup are presented and discussed. Fuel costs decline with increasing discharge burnup for all cycle lengths up to the maximum discharge burnup considered. The choice of optimum cycle length depends on assumptions for outage costs

  1. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  2. Annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report describes the duties and responsibilities of the Ship-source Oil Pollution (SOPF) Administrator of Canada, which includes investigating and assessing all claims filed against SOPF, and reviewing the activities of the the International Oil Pollution Compensation (IOPC) Fund in his capacity as leader of the Canadian delegation to the Assembly of IOPC Funds. The annual review also provides a summary of all active Canadian ship-source oil spill claims. A variety of issues and challenges facing SOPF are highlighted. Among these are the Arctic Response Strategy of the Canadian Coast Guard; port reception facilities for oily waste; illegal discharge of oily waste at sea; oil spill response regime changes; limitations of ship-owners' liability; and changes in IOPC regime and its impact on SOPF. Various visits to Canadian response organizations, and attendance by the SOPF Administrator during the year at seminars on oil spills, freshwater spills, and natural resource damage assessment are reviewed. There is also a review of SOPF financial obligations to the IOPC Fund, and a summary of expenditures incurred. Appendices contain extended summaries of the International Compensation regime, brief summaries of the meetings of the 1971 and the 1992 IOPC Fund Executive Committee and Assembly sessions, changes introduced by the 1992 protocols, and lists of contracting states to the 1992 and the 1969/1971 protocols. 6 appendices

  3. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimates of peak flood discharge for 21 sites in the Front Range in Colorado in response to extreme rainfall in September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2016-03-21

    Extreme rainfall in September 2013 caused destructive floods in part of the Front Range in Boulder County, Colorado. Erosion from these floods cut roads and isolated mountain communities for several weeks, and large volumes of eroded sediment were deposited downstream, which caused further damage of property and infrastructures. Estimates of peak discharge for these floods and the associated rainfall characteristics will aid land and emergency managers in the future. Several methods (an ensemble) were used to estimate peak discharge at 21 measurement sites, and the ensemble average and standard deviation provided a final estimate of peak discharge and its uncertainty. Because of the substantial erosion and deposition of sediment, an additional estimate of peak discharge was made based on the flow resistance caused by sediment transport effects.Although the synoptic-scale rainfall was extreme (annual exceedance probability greater than 1,000 years, about 450 millimeters in 7 days) for these mountains, the resulting peak discharges were not. Ensemble average peak discharges per unit drainage area (unit peak discharge, [Qu]) for the floods were 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those for the maximum worldwide floods with similar drainage areas and had a wide range of values (0.21–16.2 cubic meters per second per square kilometer [m3 s-1 km-2]). One possible explanation for these differences was that the band of high-accumulation, high-intensity rainfall was narrow (about 50 kilometers wide), oriented nearly perpendicular to the predominant drainage pattern of the mountains, and therefore entire drainage areas were not subjected to the same range of extreme rainfall. A linear relation (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.69) between Qu and the rainfall intensity (ITc, computed for a time interval equal to the time-of-concentration for the drainage area upstream from each site), had the form: Qu=0.26(ITc-8.6), where the coefficient 0.26 can be considered to be an

  5. Analysis of conditions for magnetron discharge initiation at vacuum camera testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeneva, Raina; Dineff, Peter; Darjanova, Denitza

    2002-01-01

    Models of electric field distribution for two typical cases of vacuum camera internal pressure control are investigated. New relations between the maximum magnetron discharge current value I max and the maximum electric field strength radial component value E τ max are established. (Author)

  6. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  7. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  8. CQI project improves discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    At Gibson Rehab Center in Williamsport, PA, a continuous quality improvement project to bolster the institution's discharge planning process has resulted in increased satisfaction and an award for quality. The 15-month project was spearheaded by a multidisciplinary team charged with identifying areas that had a significant impact on customer service and suggesting better ways of delivering that service. Among the changes the group suggested were establishing a weekly discharge planning group for new neuro patients, assigning a discharge coordinator for each treatment team, and creating an interdisciplinary communication sheet for the home health therapy staff.

  9. Monitoring and assessment of radionuclide discharges from Temelín Nuclear Power Plant into the Vltava River (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Ivanovová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Simonek, Pavel; Jedináková-Krízová, Vĕra

    2009-02-01

    The paper summarizes impacts of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the Vltava and Labe River basins. The study is based on the results of long-term monitoring carried out before the plant operation (1989-2000), and subsequently during the plant operation (2001-2005). In the first period, the main objective was to determine background radionuclide levels remaining in the environment after global fallout and due to the Chernobyl accident. A decrease in the concentrations of (90)Sr, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, which was observed before the plant operation, continued also during the subsequent period. Apart from tritium, the results of the observation did not indicate any impacts of the plant on the concentrations of activation and fission products in the hydrosphere. The annual average tritium concentrations in the Vltava River were in agreement with predicted values. The maximum annual average tritium concentration (13.5 Bq L(-1)) was observed in 2004 downstream from the wastewater discharge in the Vltava River at Solenice. Estimated radiation doses for adults due to intakes of river water as drinking water contaminated by tritium are below 0.1 microSv y(-1).

  10. California study compares natural/drilling discharge contaminants offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, W.G.; Imamura, E.; Barminski, J.R.; Neff, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of drilling fluid and this paper reports that cuttings discharges in the southern Santa Maria basin offshore California indicates that the amount of metal and hydrocarbon contaminants from drilling operations is small relative to that from natural sources. The metal and hydrocarbon discharges were calculated for only one of the three platforms discharging between 1986 and 1989 in the Point Arguello field. However, assuming concentrations are similar on each platform, the combined input of metals and hydrocarbons over the 3-year period was still low (except for barium and lead) compared to the average annual flux from natural sources. The MMS is monitoring the Santa Maria basin to understand possible long-term environmental effects of oil and gas development (California Monitoring Program, Phase II; and Effects of OCS Production Platforms on Rocky Reef Fishes and Fisheries). A site-specific study area was established to determine effects of drilling-related discharges at Chevron U.S.S. Inc.'s platform Hidalgo in the Point Arguello field. Part of the study included review of discharge records for platforms Hidalgo, Hermosa (Chevron), and Harvest (Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.)

  11. How could discharge management affect Florida spring fish assemblage structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten; Codner, Keneil; Gibbs, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    Freshwater bodies are increasingly affected by reductions in water quantity and quality and by invasions of exotic species. To protect water quantity and maintain the ecological integrity of many water bodies in central Florida, a program of adopting Minimum Flows and Levels (MFLs) has begun for both lentic and lotic waters. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were relationships between discharge and stage, water quality, and biological parameters for Volusia Blue Spring, a first magnitude spring (discharge > 380,000 m 3 day -1 or 100 mgd) for which an MFL program was adopted in 2006. Over the course of fourteen years, we assessed fish density and diversity weekly, monthly, or seasonally with seine and snorkel counts. We evaluated annual changes in the assemblages for relationships with water quantity and quality. Low discharge and dissolved oxygen combined with high stage and conductivity produced a fish population with a lower density and diversity in 2014 than in previous years. Densities of fish taxonomic/functional groups also were low in 2014 and measures of water quantity were significant predictors of fish assemblage structure. As a result of the strong relationships between variation in discharge and an array of chemical and biological characteristics of the spring, we conclude that maintaining the historical discharge rate is important for preserving the ecological integrity of Volusia Blue Spring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical and electrical characteristics of hollow needle to plate atmospheric pressure discharge in nitrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Schmidt, Jiří; Pekárek, S.; Khun, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2006), s. 27 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference/59nd./. Columbus,Ohio, USA, 10.10.2006-13.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : positive corona discharge * streamer * mean repetition frequency * mean propagation velocity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. Potential effects of runoff, fluvial sediment, and nutrient discharges on the coral reefs of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M.C.; Webb, R.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Coral reefs, the foundation and primary structure of many highly productive and diverse tropical marine ecosystems, have been degraded by human activity in much of the earth's tropical oceans. To contribute to improved understanding of this problem, the potential relation between river sediment and nutrient discharges and degradation of coral reefs surrounding Puerto Rico was studied using streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data. Mean annual runoff for the 8711 km2 island is 911 mm, about 57% of mean annual precipitation (1600 mm). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico to coastal waters is estimated at 2.7-9.0 million metric tonnes. Storm runoff transports a substantial part of sediment: the highest recorded daily sediment discharge is 1-3.6 times the mean annual sediment discharge. Hurricane Georges (1998) distributed an average of 300 mm of rain across the island, equivalent to a volume of about 2.6 billion m3. Runoff of more than 1.0 billion m3 of water and as much as 5 to 10 million metric tonnes of sediment were discharged to the coast and shelf. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are as much as 10 times the estimated presettlement levels. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus concentrations in many Puerto Rico rivers are near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharges, which are predominantly episodic and intense, river-borne nutrient and fecal discharge is a less-intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs found near the mouths of rivers. Negative effects of riverderived sediment and nutrient discharge on coral reefs are especially pronounced on the north, southwest, and west coasts.

  14. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Non-radioactive monitoring program involved: repair of a leaking waste paint and solvent tank, installation of a pretreatment facility for liquid effluents from a plating shop; and construction discharge. Radioactivity was monitored for air with comparisons to the average annual population dose from neutron radiation and tritium in the waste water effluents

  15. MXLKID: a maximum likelihood parameter identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, D.T.

    1980-07-01

    MXLKID (MaXimum LiKelihood IDentifier) is a computer program designed to identify unknown parameters in a nonlinear dynamic system. Using noisy measurement data from the system, the maximum likelihood identifier computes a likelihood function (LF). Identification of system parameters is accomplished by maximizing the LF with respect to the parameters. The main body of this report briefly summarizes the maximum likelihood technique and gives instructions and examples for running the MXLKID program. MXLKID is implemented LRLTRAN on the CDC7600 computer at LLNL. A detailed mathematical description of the algorithm is given in the appendices. 24 figures, 6 tables

  16. Adaptation of the spore discharge mechanism in the basidiomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Stolze-Rybczynski

    Full Text Available Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum discharge distances of 1-2 mm have been reported for these fungi. In mushroom-forming species, however, spores are propelled over much shorter ranges. In gilled mushrooms, for example, discharge distances of <0.1 mm ensure that spores do not collide with opposing gill surfaces. The way in which the range of the mechanism is controlled has not been studied previously.In this study, we report high-speed video analysis of spore discharge in selected basidiomycetes ranging from yeasts to wood-decay fungi with poroid fruiting bodies. Analysis of these video data and mathematical modeling show that discharge distance is determined by both spore size and the size of the Buller's drop. Furthermore, because the size of Buller's drop is controlled by spore shape, these experiments suggest that seemingly minor changes in spore morphology exert major effects upon discharge distance.This biomechanical analysis of spore discharge mechanisms in mushroom-forming fungi and their relatives is the first of its kind and provides a novel view of the incredible variety of spore morphology that has been catalogued by traditional taxonomists for more than 200 years. Rather than representing non-selected variations in micromorphology, the new experiments show that changes in spore architecture have adaptive significance because they control the distance that the spores are shot through air. For this reason, evolutionary modifications to fruiting body architecture, including changes in gill separation and tube diameter in mushrooms, must be tightly linked to alterations in spore morphology.

  17. The role of discharge variability in the formation and preservation of alluvial sediment bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Christopher R.; Alexander, Jan; Allen, Jonathan P.

    2018-03-01

    Extant, planform-based facies models for alluvial deposits are not fully fit for purpose, because they over-emphasise plan form whereas there is little in the alluvial rock record that is distinctive of any particular planform, and because the planform of individual rivers vary in both time and space. Accordingly, existing facies models have limited predictive capability. In this paper, we explore the role of inter-annual peak discharge variability as a possible control on the character of the preserved alluvial record. Data from a suite of modern rivers, for which long-term gauging records are available, and for which there are published descriptions of subsurface sedimentary architecture, are analysed. The selected rivers are categorized according to their variance in peak discharge or the coefficient of variation (CVQp = standard deviation of the annual peak flood discharge over the mean annual peak flood discharge). This parameter ranges over the rivers studied between 0.18 and 1.22, allowing classification of rivers as having very low ( 0.90) annual peak discharge variance. Deposits of rivers with very low and low peak discharge variability are dominated by cross-bedding on various scales and preserve macroform bedding structure, allowing the interpretation of bar construction processes. Rivers with moderate values preserve mostly cross-bedding, but records of macroform processes are in places muted and considerably modified by reworking. Rivers with high and very high values of annual peak discharge variability show a wide range of bedding structures commonly including critical and supercritical flow structures, abundant in situ trees and transported large, woody debris, and their deposits contain pedogenically modified mud partings and generally lack macroform structure. Such a facies assemblage is distinctively different from the conventional fluvial style recorded in published facies models but is widely developed both in modern and ancient alluvial

  18. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  19. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  20. Ion source of discharge type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enchevich, I.B. [TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korenev, S.A. [JINR, Hihg Energy Physics Lab., Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm{sup 2}; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10{sup -6} Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  1. Ion source of discharge type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Korenev, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm 2 ; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10 -6 Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  2. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  3. Underground Test Area Calendar Year 2014 Annual Sampling Analysis Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the analytical data for the 2014 fiscal year (FY) and calendar year (CY) (October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2014), and an evaluation of the data to ensure that the Sampling Plan’s objectives are met. In addition to samples collected and analyzed for the Sampling Plan, some NNSS wells are monitored by NNSA/NFO to demonstrate compliance with State-issued water discharge permits; with protection of groundwater from ongoing radiological waste disposal activities (compliance wells); and to demonstrate that the onsite drinking water supply is below SDWA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) (public water system [PWS] wells). While not all sampled locations are required by the Sampling Plan, these samples are relevant to its objectives and are therefore presented herein for completeness purposes. Special investigations that took place in 2014 that are relevant to the Sampling Plan are also presented. This is the first annual report released to support Sampling Plan implementation.

  4. Underground Test Area Calendar Year 2014 Annual Sampling Analysis Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the analytical data for the 2014 fiscal year (FY) and calendar year (CY) (October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2014), and an evaluation of the data to ensure that the Sampling Plan's objectives are met. In addition to samples collected and analyzed for the Sampling Plan, some NNSS wells are monitored by NNSA/NFO to demonstrate compliance with State-issued water discharge permits; with protection of groundwater from ongoing radiological waste disposal activities (compliance wells); and to demonstrate that the onsite drinking water supply is below SDWA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) (public water system [PWS] wells). While not all sampled locations are required by the Sampling Plan, these samples are relevant to its objectives and are therefore presented herein for completeness purposes. Special investigations that took place in 2014 that are relevant to the Sampling Plan are also presented. This is the first annual report released to support Sampling Plan implementation.

  5. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  6. Radioactive waste discharges from UKAEA establishments during 1996 and associated monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, A.K.M.; Forbes, S.A.; Hughes, B.; Richardson, E.

    1997-08-01

    This annual report is published by the Safety Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and provides information on radioactive discharges from its sites. The Culcheth site was closed and then redeveloped during the end of 1993 and the Springfields site became part of BNFL in October 1994. No operations involving the need to discharge radioactivity are undertaken at the Risley site. After discussions with the Authorising Departments at that time, the discharge authorisations were revoked on 1 July 1994. These sites are therefore no longer included in this report. UKAEA has published annual radioactive waste discharges and associated monitoring results since 1963. This report is intended to give a relatively short factual overview of UKAEA waste discharge and disposal, and its impact on the environment. Additional information may be found in annual discharge reports published by the individual UKAEA establishments and the UKAEA Report on Safety and the Environment 1996-97 due to be issued at the end of September 1997. (UK)

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  8. Maximum neutron flux in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.V.

    1968-12-01

    Direct approach to the problem is to calculate spatial distribution of fuel concentration if the reactor core directly using the condition of maximum neutron flux and comply with thermal limitations. This paper proved that the problem can be solved by applying the variational calculus, i.e. by using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. Mathematical model of reactor core is based on the two-group neutron diffusion theory with some simplifications which make it appropriate from maximum principle point of view. Here applied theory of maximum principle are suitable for application. The solution of optimum distribution of fuel concentration in the reactor core is obtained in explicit analytical form. The reactor critical dimensions are roots of a system of nonlinear equations and verification of optimum conditions can be done only for specific examples

  9. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  10. Maximum phytoplankton concentrations in the sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, G.A.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A simplification of plankton dynamics using coagulation theory provides predictions of the maximum algal concentration sustainable in aquatic systems. These predictions have previously been tested successfully against results from iron fertilization experiments. We extend the test to data collect...

  11. High tension generator for corona barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltag, O.; Costandache, D.; Gheorghiu, M.; Paraschivescu, A.; Popa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Different types of high-voltage generators are in use for the study of low pressure (or atmospheric) discharges. Mostly used are the Tesla coils generators or the power generators working in linear or switching regime. The Tesla coils generators have the advantage of a simple bloc diagram. In exchange, they have a number of short-comings, such as: the difficulty in modifying the frequency of the high voltage pulses, generation of a high voltage and frequency pulse train, the amplitude is not constant.This paper presents a high-voltage generator meant to be used in the study of the dielectric barrier discharges (DBD). The bloc diagram is presented. Performances obtained are as follows: - Generated frequency: 10 Hz - 100 Hz, 100 Hz - 1 KHz, 1 KHz - 10 KHz; - High voltage pulses control: a single pulse from an internal or external generator; - Synchronization with the oscilloscope, variable delay: 5 μs - 0.1 s; - Output voltage: variable both smoothly and in steps: 1 kV -15 kV; - High voltage polarity: mono and bipolar; - Output power during the continuous duty: 300 VA (maximum 600 VA for a short time); - Pulse energy: 0.23 J; - Pulse duration: 4 μs - 50 μs

  12. Filamentary and diffuse barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2001-01-01

    Barrier discharges, sometimes also referred to as dielectric-barrier discharges or silent discharges, are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharge is, that non-equilibrium plasma conditions in atmospheric-pressure gases can be established in an economic and reliable way. This has led to a number of important applications including industrial ozone generation, surface modification of polymers, plasma chemical vapor deposition, excitation of CO 2 lasers, excimer lamps and, most recently, large-area flat plasma display panels. Depending on the application, the width of the discharge gap can range from less than 0.1 mm to about 100 mm and the applied frequency from below line frequency to several gigahertz. Typical materials used for the insulating layer (dielectric barrier) are glass, quartz, ceramics but also thin enamel or polymer layers

  13. Compact continuous HF microwave-discharge mixing laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Bertrand, L.; Conturie, Y.; Mah, S.Q.; Monchalin, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a continuous chemical laser is discussed. Fluorine atoms are produced in a SF 6 + He mixture by means of a microwave-discharge apparatus that operates in a continuous mode. A maximum output power of 4 W is obtained for a 5 cm length of amplifying medium; this power output is primarily due to P transitions from the 1-0 and 2-1 bands. Weak transitions in the 3-2 band are also observed. The maximum value of measured gain is 0.11 cm -1 ; good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental values of gain. (auth)

  14. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  15. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  16. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  17. [Effect of maximum blood pressure fluctuation on prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke within 24 hours after hospital admission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Tang, Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, K; Zhao, J B

    2018-05-10

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the maximum blood pressure fluctuation within 24 hours after admission and the prognosis at discharge. Methods: The patients with ischemic stroke admitted in Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University within 24 hours after onset were consecutively selected from April 2016 to March 2017. The patients were grouped according to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure of the patients within 24 hours after admission were measured with bedside monitors and baseline data were collected. The patients were scored by NIHSS at discharge. The relationships between the maximum values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the prognosis at discharge were analyzed. Results: A total of 521 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They were divided into normal blood pressure group (82 cases) and hypertension group(439 cases). In normal blood pressure group, the maximum values of SBP and DBP were all in normal distribution ( P >0.05). The maximum value of SBP fluctuation was set at 146.6 mmHg. After adjustment for potential confounders, the OR for poor prognosis at discharge in patients with SBP fluctuation ≥146.6 mmHg was 2.669 (95 %CI : 0.594-11.992) compared with those with SBP fluctuation blood pressure at admission, the maximum values of SBP and DBP within 24 hours after admission had no relationship with prognosis at discharge. In acute ischemic stroke patients with hypertension at admission, the maximum values of SBP and DBP within 24 hours after admission were associated with poor prognosis at discharge.

  18. Performance of a CW double electric discharge for supersonic CO lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A. C.; Hanson, R. K.; Mitchner, M.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of a CW double discharge in supersonic CO mixtures are reported. Stable discharges in CO/N2 and CO/Ar mixtures, with a maximum energy loading of 0.5 eV/CO molecule, were achieved in a small-scale continuous-flow supersonic channel. Detailed measurements of the discharge characteristics were performed, including electrostatic probe measurements of floating potential and electron number density and spectroscopic measurements of the CO vibrational population distributions. The results of these measurements indicate that the vibrational excitation efficiency of the discharge is approximately 60%, for moderate levels of main discharge current. These experiments, on a small scale, demonstrate that the double-discharge scheme provides adequate vibrational energy loading for efficient CO laser operation under CW supersonic flow conditions.

  19. FTIR study of decomposition of carbon dioxide in dc corona discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G; Skalny, J D; Mason, N J

    2008-01-01

    The decomposition rate of carbon dioxide and the generation of ozone and carbon monoxide in coaxial corona discharges fed by pure CO 2 has been investigated in a dc corona discharge operated in both positive and negative polarities using FTIR spectroscopy. The degree of CO 2 decomposition is found to be dependent on the voltage, U, with a maximum CO 2 decomposition of nearly 10% found in a negative corona discharge for U = 7.5 kV. In all cases the amount of CO 2 decomposition was lower in positive polarity discharges than in negative polarity discharges operated under same conditions. CO and ozone were found to be the main products observed in the discharges.

  20. FTIR study of decomposition of carbon dioxide in dc corona discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, G; Skalny, J D [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F-2, 842 48, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mason, N J [Open University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-21

    The decomposition rate of carbon dioxide and the generation of ozone and carbon monoxide in coaxial corona discharges fed by pure CO{sub 2} has been investigated in a dc corona discharge operated in both positive and negative polarities using FTIR spectroscopy. The degree of CO{sub 2} decomposition is found to be dependent on the voltage, U, with a maximum CO{sub 2} decomposition of nearly 10% found in a negative corona discharge for U = 7.5 kV. In all cases the amount of CO{sub 2} decomposition was lower in positive polarity discharges than in negative polarity discharges operated under same conditions. CO and ozone were found to be the main products observed in the discharges.

  1. The discharge behavior of lithium-ion batteries using the Dual-Potential Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Battery Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the discharge behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on the investigations, which have been done by the researchers [1– 19]. In this article, the battery's discharge behaviour at various discharge rates is studied and surface monitor, discharge curve, volume monitor...... to analysis the discharge behaviour of lithium-ion batteries. The results show that surface monitor plot of discharge curve at 1 C has a decreasing trend and volume monitor plot of maximum temperature in the domain has slightly increasing pattern over the simulation time. For the curves of discharge...... plot of maximum temperature in the domain and maximum temperature in the area are illustrated. Additionally, an external and internal short-circuit treatment for three cases have been studied. The Dual-Potential Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Battery Model (BM) was used by ANSYS FLUENT software...

  2. Field-based methods for evaluating the annual maximum specific conductivity tolerated by freshwater invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data includes chemical and biological samples from Ecoregion 69 in West Virginia. eco69_dupchem.csv: 1. Station-year with at least 6 conductivity samples, one in the...

  3. 53rd Annual Fuze Conference - Next Generation Fuzing - Maximum Advantage for the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    www.disneyconventionears.com/coronado DISNEY’S CORONADO SPRINGS RESORT FEATURES: RESORT RECREATION • Sand volleyball court • Health Club and Salon • Watercraft...technology developed for commercial markets • Cell phones • Computers / TV / VCR / Digital cameras & recorders • Personal GPS navigation • Games / Toys

  4. Comparison of annual maximum series and partial duration series methods for modeling extreme hydrologic events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Pearson, Charles P.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1997-01-01

    procedures are subsequently applied to flood records from 48 catchments in New Zealand. To identify homogeneous groupings of catchments, a split-sample regionalization approach based on catchment characteristics is adopted. The defined groups are more homogeneous for PDS data than for AMS data; a two...

  5. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... B objective. A time longer than 10 years, either by original scheduling or by subsequent extension... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND...) Minimum annual deposit. The minimum annual (based on each party's taxable year) deposit required by the...

  3. Coal-fired power stations - the radiological impact of effluent discharges to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.

    1980-06-01

    An assessment is made of the radiological impact of atmosphere discharges from a hypothetical 2000 MWe power station sited in Great Britain. The exposure pathways considered are external irradiation from the plume and from activity deposited on the ground, inhalation of material in the plume and material resuspended from land surfaces, and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The reduction in radiation exposure due to naturally-occurring 14 C by releases of stable carbon from the power station is also considered. The ingestion pathway is found to result in the highest individual doses, whereas the inhalation pathway makes the dominant contribution to collective dose. The most important radionuclides are 210 Pb, 210 Po and the thorium isotopes 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th. For 30 years operation of the power-station, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment truncated to 500 years is estimated to be 340 man Sv. The maximum annual committed effective dose equivalent to an individual is evaluated as 230 μSv, though it is considered improbable that this level of dose would be found in practice. (author)

  4. Electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikhrev, V.V.; Baronova, E.O. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Russian Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Numerical modelling of the process of electron beam generation in z-pinch discharges are presented. The proposed model represents the electron beam generation under turbulent plasma conditions. Strong current distribution inhomogeneity in the plasma column and the zigzag drift current motion through the plasma have accounted for the adequate generation process investigation. Electron beam is generated near the maximum of compression and it is not related with the current break effect. (author)

  5. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  6. Investigation of Peculiarities of a High-Voltage Pulsing Corona Discharge in Carbonic Gas and an Feature Using of Such Discharge for CO2 Dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, G.P.; Mirny, V.I.; Omelaenko, O.L.; Us, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    On laboratory stand of plasmochemical reactor the feature of CO 2 dissociation with the purpose of CO production in high-voltage pulsing corona discharge is investigated at a voltage up to 120 kV, a pulse length of a current 0,5 μs a repetition rate up to 100 Hz. Peculiarities of volt-ampere characteristics of such discharge are studied at different pressures of air and carbonic gas in the discharge chamber and construction of an interior electrode. It is established that in conditions of the carried out experiments a maximum efficiency of CO accretion does not exceed 3,5%

  7. Changing climate increases discharge and attenuates its seasonal distribution in the northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Berton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest is well-established as a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site for climate change and anthropogenic impacts studies on hydrological processes. It is located at the headwater regions of the Merrimack Watershed, the fourth largest basin in New England, USA. The watershed is mostly forested (67% with some developed regions (16%. Study focus: We assessed the scale-dependency of streamflow response to climate variation, river regulation, and development for dry, average, and wet years using long-term precipitation and discharge records. New hydrological insights for the region: The effects of basin scale were limited to discharges with exceedance probability less than 15% and greater than 60% and were expressed as lagged discharge in large sub-basins and earlier discharge in small catchments. Annual discharge responded to increases in annual precipitation but not to river regulation or land development. In general, the temporal trends showed less discharge in dry and greater discharge in wet hydrologic flow classes. Keywords: Climate change, Land development, Hydrologic indicator, Scale dependency, Merrimack river, Northeastern United States

  8. Effects of Xe Gas Content and Total Gas Pressure on the Discharge Characteristics of Colour Plasma Display Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wenbo; Han Mengju; Liang Zhihu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the Xe gas content and total gas pressure on the discharge characteristics of colour plasma display panels including the sustaining voltage margin, white-field chromaticity, discharge time lag (DTL), discharge current peak, and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the discharge current pulse, are experimentally studied. The results indicate that as the Xe gas content in the He-Ne-Xe gas mixture or total pressure increases, the sustaining voltage margin increases, the white-field chromaticity improves, and the discharge current peak has a maximum value, while DTL and FWHM have a minimum value. The mean electron energy in the gas mixture discharge is also calculated through a numerical solution of Boltzmann equation. The experimental results are explained from a view of the mean electron energy variations with the Xe gas content and total gas pressure

  9. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  16. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  18. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  19. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  20. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  1. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  2. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  3. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  4. Tonle Sap Lake Water Storage Change Over 24 Years From Satellite Observation and Its Link With Mekong River Discharge and Climate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Frappart, F.; Normandin, C.; Blarel, F.; Bourrel, L.; Aumont, M.; Azema, P.; Vu, P. L.; Lubac, B.; Darrozes, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Tonle Sap lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and is located within the Mekong basin (mainly in Cambodia). It is one of he most productive ecosystem of the world and provide two thirds of Cambodia fish catch. It also plays a unique role on the Mekong basin hydrological cycle: during the monsoon period, the Mekong river partially flows to the lake, whereas during the dry season, the lake flows to the Mekong delta. It is therefore crucial to monitor and take into account this lake to estimate Mekong discharge to the ocean. However, in situ measurements of lake level and river discharge are very sparse (especially during the last decades) and computing lake storage variation from in situ data only is difficult due to the huge annual variation of lake area. That's why, satellite data (nadir radar altimetry and visible imagery) have been used to study its volume variation and its relationship with climate events and Mekong river discharge. Multi-mission altimetry data have been extracted (Topex, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Jason-1, Jason-2, Saral and Jason-3, using CTOH data extraction tools) to derive a lake water level from1993 to 2016, which varies from 3 m to 12 m. Lake area have been computed from MODIS data from 2000 to 2016 and varies from 3,400 km2 to 11,800 km2. These dataset clearly shows a relationship between lake water level and area, which has been used to estimate lake water volume change from 1995 to 2016, with a minimum in 2015 and a maximum in 2011. Lake's droughts and floods can be observed during moderate and strong El Nino/La Nina events, enhanced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Besides, comparison with in situ discharge at the outlet of the Mekong basin (over 1995/2000 time period) shows that lake water level is 20 days time lagged and increases/decreases after Mekong discharge at its outlet. This time lag results of Mekong river partially flowing to the lake. Finally, high correlation between lake level and outlet discharge allows to

  5. Estimation and prediction of maximum daily rainfall at Sagar Island using best fit probability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Choudhury, B. U.

    2015-07-01

    Sagar Island, setting on the continental shelf of Bay of Bengal, is one of the most vulnerable deltas to the occurrence of extreme rainfall-driven climatic hazards. Information on probability of occurrence of maximum daily rainfall will be useful in devising risk management for sustaining rainfed agrarian economy vis-a-vis food and livelihood security. Using six probability distribution models and long-term (1982-2010) daily rainfall data, we studied the probability of occurrence of annual, seasonal and monthly maximum daily rainfall (MDR) in the island. To select the best fit distribution models for annual, seasonal and monthly time series based on maximum rank with minimum value of test statistics, three statistical goodness of fit tests, viz. Kolmogorove-Smirnov test (K-S), Anderson Darling test ( A 2 ) and Chi-Square test ( X 2) were employed. The fourth probability distribution was identified from the highest overall score obtained from the three goodness of fit tests. Results revealed that normal probability distribution was best fitted for annual, post-monsoon and summer seasons MDR, while Lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 were best fitted for pre-monsoon, monsoon and winter seasons, respectively. The estimated annual MDR were 50, 69, 86, 106 and 114 mm for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 years, respectively. The probability of getting an annual MDR of >50, >100, >150, >200 and >250 mm were estimated as 99, 85, 40, 12 and 03 % level of exceedance, respectively. The monsoon, summer and winter seasons exhibited comparatively higher probabilities (78 to 85 %) for MDR of >100 mm and moderate probabilities (37 to 46 %) for >150 mm. For different recurrence intervals, the percent probability of MDR varied widely across intra- and inter-annual periods. In the island, rainfall anomaly can pose a climatic threat to the sustainability of agricultural production and thus needs adequate adaptation and mitigation measures.

  6. Department of Thermonuclear Research. Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1988 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within a framework of two research programs: diagnostics of high-temperature plasma and nuclear technology. We describe theoretical investigations on the modelling of Tokamak edge plasmas, ion motions, atomic collisions, high-voltage electrode systems and plasma-focus (PF) facilities. The experimental studies on plasma-ion streams, high-current discharges of the PF-type, and on the interaction of ion beams with gaseous targets, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies on electronic and high-voltage systems, as well as applications of the IONOTRON type plasma devices. (author)

  7. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  8. Constructive and thermal design of a core fast discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, H.

    1979-08-01

    The present study is concerned with the development and thermal design of a fast discharge system for balls for the PR 3000 MWsub(th) process heat reactor. The term 'fast discharge system for balls' denotes a very short-time discharge procedure of the entire core contents, i.e. the flowing out of the fuel elements due to gravity into a receiver tank underneath the prestressed-concrete vessel. From a safety-engineering point of view, the fast discharge system for balls constitutes an additional possibility of active decay heat removal, besides the multiply redundant and diversitary reactor protection system, serving to further reduce the remaining residual risk. A fast discharge system for balls, however, is to be used only in the event of all the other possibilities of active decay heat removal having failed and when the maximum permissible temperatures for particularly exposed primary circuit components have been reached. However, the application range of such a system is restricted exclusively to high-temperature reactors with spherical fuel elements; the procedure cannot be applied to other reactor systems because of the rigidly fixed position of the fuel elements inside the core and for reasons of fuel element geometry. Besides the purpose of application, the influence of in-core temperature development on the possible actuation of the fast discharge system is being described in particular detail. This is followed by a description of the structural and thermal design of three specific major components, i.e. the piping system, shut-off devices and fuel element receiver tank, which will have to be installed additionally for the implementation of a fast discharge system for balls as compared to previous plant concepts. (orig.) [de

  9. Experiments on toroidal inductively coupled alternating-current gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lok, J.

    1976-01-01

    This report is on an experimental study of a toroidal, inductively coupled a.c. gas discharge sustained at pressures roughly between one tenth of a Torr and some tens of Torrs. After breakdown is obtained at low pressure, additional gas is let in. The energy is inductively coupled into the electrodeless discharge by means of an iron core transformer of which the toroidal plasma column is the secondary winding. The power dissipated in the plasma is between 80 and 260 kW and is delivered by a motor-generator system at a frequency of 8 kHz for times up to 2 seconds. A toroidal magnetic field of 0.5 T maximum can be supplied in a short pulse. Five different gases (hydrogen, deuterium, helium, argon, and nitrogen) are used. The pressure range in which the discharges are sustained is specified, and the dynamic current-voltage characteristics are given for different pressures. Some typical streak pictures with simultaneously obtained recordings of the time behaviour of the discharge current and of the loop voltage are presented for the initial phase - at low pressure - of the discharge. The shape and the position of fully developed discharges at various pressures are discussed on the basis of photographic observations. The temperature of hydrogen plasmas is derived both from the electrical conductivity and from the emission of line radiation. The values of the temperature obtained in these ways differ in magnitude and in time behaviour. A possible explanation of the discrepancy can be obtained in terms of expansion and contraction of electron density and temperature profiles during a period of the discharge current, if it is taken into account that the main part of the light emission always originates from the outer colder regions of the plasma. In a somewhat different pressure regime, this picture is confirmed by microwave measurements

  10. Flood discharge measurement of a mountain river – Nanshih River in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-C. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a more efficient method of flood discharge measurement in mountain rivers that accounts for personal safety, accuracy, and reliability. Because it is based on the relationships between mean and maximum velocities and between cross-sectional area and gauge height, the proposed method utilizes a flood discharge measurement system composed of an acoustic Doppler profiler and crane system to measure velocity distributions, cross-sectional area, and water depths. The flood discharge measurement system can be used to accurately and quickly measure flood data that is difficult to be collected by the conventional instruments. The measured data is then used to calibrate the parameters of the proposed method for estimating mean velocity and cross-sectional area. Then these observed discharge and gauge height can be used to establish the water stage–discharge rating curve. Therefor continuous and real-time estimations of flood discharge of a mountain river can become possible. The measurement method and system is applied to the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge. Once the method is established, flood discharge of the Nanshih River could be efficiently estimated using maximum velocity and the water stage. Results of measured and estimated discharges of the Nanshih River at the Lansheng Bridge differed only slightly from each other, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  11. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  12. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  13. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  14. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  15. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets

  16. Electron runaway in rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1992-10-01

    The critical electric field is computed as a function of pressure and starting energy for electrons to run away to high energies in moderate pressure discharges. The runaway conditions depend critically on the shape of the elastic cross section vs. energy curve. Computations are made for H, H 2 , and He gases, and it is shown that runaway occurs much more readily in atomic hydrogen than in the other gases. The values of the runaway fields are larger than would normally occur in dc discharges, where large voltages would lead to arc formation. However, in rf discharges such electric fields can be sustained over times long compared to electron transit times but short compared to ion transit times. (author)

  17. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  18. Experiments on Ion-Ion Plasmas From Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Walton, Scott; Blackwell, David; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Use of both positive and negative ions in plasma processing of materials has been shown to be advantageous[1] in terms of better feature evolution and control. In this presentation, experimental results are given to complement recent theoretical work[2] at NRL on the formation and decay of pulsed ion-ion plasmas in electron beam generated discharges. Temporally resolved Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry are used to investigate electron beam generated discharges during the beam on (active) and off (afterglow) phases in a variety of gas mixtures. Because electron-beam generated discharges inherently[3] have low electron temperatures (<0.5eV in molecular gases), negative ion characteristics are seen in the active as well as afterglow phases since electron detachment increases with low electron temperatures. Analysis of temporally resolved plasma characteristics deduced from these measurements will be presented for pure O_2, N2 and Ar and their mixtures with SF_6. Oxygen discharges show no noticeable negative ion contribution during the active or afterglow phase, presumably due to the higher energy electron attachment threshold, which is well above any electron temperature. In contrast, SF6 discharges demonstrate ion-ion plasma characteristics in the active glow and are completely ion-ion in the afterglow. Comparison between these discharges with published cross sections and production mechanisms will also be presented. [1] T.H. Ahn, K. Nakamura & H. Sugai, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 139 (1996); T. Shibyama, H. Shindo & Y. Horiike, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 254 (1996). [2] See presentation by R. F. Fernsler, at this conference. [3] D. Leonhardt, et al., 53rd Annual GEC, Houston, TX.

  19. Uniform and non-uniform modes of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air: fast imaging and spectroscopic measurements of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander

    2014-06-25

    In this study, we report experimental results on fast ICCD imaging of development of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric air and spectroscopic measurements of electric field in the discharge. Uniformity of the discharge images obtained with nanosecond exposure times were analyzed using chi-square test. The results indicate that DBD uniformity strongly depends on applied (global) electric field in the discharge gap, and is a threshold phenomenon. We show that in the case of strong overvoltage on the discharge gap (provided by fast rise times), there is transition from filamentary to uniform DBD mode which correlates to the corresponding decrease of maximum local electric field in the discharge.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  1. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  2. Plasma Discharge in Toroidal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usada, Widdi; Suryadi; Purwadi, Agus; Kasiyo

    1996-01-01

    A toroidal discharge apparatus has been made as an initial research in magnetic confinement system. This system consists of a capacitor, a RF source, an igniter system, a primary coil, a torus, and completed by Rogowski probe as a current detector. In this system, the discharge occurs when the minimum voltage is operated at 5 kV. The experiment result shows that the coupling factor is 0.35, it is proved that there is an equality between estimated and measurement results of the primary inductance i.e 8.5 μH

  3. Taming Instabilities in Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, T.; Krahnstover, N. O.; Mausbach, T.; Piel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental work on taming instabilities in plasma discharges is discussed. Instead of suppressing instabilities, it is desired to achieve control over their dynamics, done by perturbing appropriately the current flow in the external circuit of the discharge. Different discrete and continuous feedback as well as open-loop control schemes are applied. Chaotic oscillations in plasma diodes are controlled using the OGY discrete feedback scheme. This is demonstrated both in experiment and computer simulation. Weakly developed ionization wave turbulence is tamed by continuous feedback control. Open-loop control of stochastic fluctuations - stochastic resonance - is demonstrated in a thermionic plasma diode. (author)

  4. Liquid discharges from the use of radionuclides in medicine (diagnosis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero, R.; Agulla, M.M.; Ruiz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The production and discharge of liquid radioactive wastes as excreta from patients undergoing Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic (NMD) in a hospital were studied. Instantaneous and accumulated activity, discharged from the hospital to the sewage system, has been estimated keeping in mind radionuclide decay. This study would enable estimation of the environmental impact due to NMD procedures. Annual accumulated activities of 2.2 GBq ( 131 I), 1.847 GBq ( 99m Tc), 0.743 GBq ( 123 I), 0.337 GBq ( 67 Ga), 0.169 GBq ( 111 In) and 0.033 GBq ( 201 Tl) result from our model when applied to a European hospital. A comparison is made with calculations by other authors that do not consider the radionuclide decay and who overestimate by two orders of magnitude. Doses to critical people as sewage treatment workers are also significantly reduced. So, our results stress the importance of including the decay in the calculations

  5. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  6. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  7. Maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Veenings, B.; Asma, G.B.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the maximum potential preventive effect of hip protectors in older persons living in the community or homes for the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Emergency departments in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Hip fracture patients aged 70 and older who

  8. Maximum gain of Yagi-Uda arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, J.H.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Nilsson, E.

    1971-01-01

    Numerical optimisation techniques have been used to find the maximum gain of some specific parasitic arrays. The gain of an array of infinitely thin, equispaced dipoles loaded with arbitrary reactances has been optimised. The results show that standard travelling-wave design methods are not optimum....... Yagi–Uda arrays with equal and unequal spacing have also been optimised with experimental verification....

  9. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  10. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  11. The maximum-entropy method in superspace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Smaalen, S.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Schneider, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2003), s. 459-469 ISSN 0108-7673 Grant - others:DFG(DE) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : maximum-entropy method, * aperiodic crystals * electron density Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2003

  12. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  13. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum stipend established under this section. (e) A trainee at a non-Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental laboratory who is assigned to a Federal hospital, clinic, or medical or dental... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student...

  14. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel [Center for Theoretical Physics, British University of Egypt,Sherouk City 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University,Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Ali, Ahmed Farag [Centre for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University,Benha, 13518 (Egypt)

    2014-06-16

    Inspired by Jacobson’s thermodynamic approach, Cai et al. have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.75.084003 of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entropy-area law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p(ρ,a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p=ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  15. Scrape-off layer based modelling of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a scrape-off layer based interpretation of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges. In these discharges, JET edge parameters show a complicated time evolution as the density limit is approached and the limit is manifested as a non-disruptive density maximum which cannot be exceeded by enhanced gas puffing. The occurrence of Marfes, the manner of density control and details of recycling are essential elements of the interpretation. Scalings for the maximum density are given and compared with JET data. The relation to disruptive density limits, previously observed in JET carbon limiter discharges, and to density limits in divertor discharges is discussed. (author). 18 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  16. The impact of climate change on river discharges in Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in two climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) and river discharges and the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at six weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test was used to calculate trends, and the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: A general increase was identified in all the three parameters. The air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series. All data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation; in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series

  17. The impact of climate changes on rivers discharge in Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionus

    2015-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in temperature, precipitation, and river discharges as well as the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at 6 weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to calculate trends and their slopes, whereas the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: a general increase was identified in all the three variables; the air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series; all data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation, and in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series.

  18. Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmantal sources. During 1977, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 8.2 mrem. This represents about 8.2% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.6% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually

  19. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  20. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  1. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  2. Ions mobilities in corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtaev, Sh. A.; Bochkareva, G. V.; Sydykova, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion mobility in unipolar corona at small inter-electron distances (up to 0.01 m) when as coroning element serves micro-wire is consider. Experimental data of ion mobility in corona discharge external zone in atmospheric air are obtained and its comparative analysis with known data is worked out. (author)

  3. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Kanter, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N 2 (A),O and O 2 (a 1 Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm 2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O 3 . The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  4. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  5. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  6. Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around Tokai Reprocessing Plant. FY 2001. Document on present state of affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunihiko; Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto

    2002-06-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed since 1975, based on ''Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring''. This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant during April 2001 to March 2002. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring program, monitoring results, meteorological data and annual discharges from the plant. (author)

  7. Investigation of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a hybrid RF plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A. F.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Neklyudova, P. A.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B.; Ayrapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Sologub, V. A.; Pavlov, G. Ya.

    2016-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a prototype of a hybrid RF plasma system equipped with a solenoidal antenna are described. It is shown that an increase in the external magnetic field leads to the formation of a plasma column and a shift of the maximum ion current along the discharge axis toward the bottom flange of the system. The shape of the plasma column can be controlled via varying the configuration of the magnetic field.

  8. Investigation of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a hybrid RF plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, A. F.; Petrov, A. K., E-mail: alpetrov57@gmail.com; Vavilin, K. V.; Kralkina, E. A.; Neklyudova, P. A.; Nikonov, A. M.; Pavlov, V. B. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Ayrapetov, A. A.; Odinokov, V. V.; Sologub, V. A.; Pavlov, G. Ya. [Research Institute of Precision Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Results of an experimental study of the helicon discharge plasma parameters in a prototype of a hybrid RF plasma system equipped with a solenoidal antenna are described. It is shown that an increase in the external magnetic field leads to the formation of a plasma column and a shift of the maximum ion current along the discharge axis toward the bottom flange of the system. The shape of the plasma column can be controlled via varying the configuration of the magnetic field.

  9. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  10. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  11. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  12. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  13. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  14. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  15. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  16. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  17. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  18. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  19. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  20. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  1. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  2. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  3. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  4. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  5. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  6. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  7. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  8. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  9. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  10. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  11. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  13. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  14. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  15. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  16. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  17. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  18. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  19. Maximum likelihood estimation for integrated diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltazar-Larios, Fernando; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of parameters in diffusion models when the data is a discrete time sample of the integral of the process, while no direct observations of the process itself are available. The data are, moreover, assumed to be contaminated...... EM-algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in the diffusion model. As part of the algorithm, we use a recent simple method for approximate simulation of diffusion bridges. In simulation studies for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the CIR process the proposed method works...... by measurement errors. Integrated volatility is an example of this type of observations. Another example is ice-core data on oxygen isotopes used to investigate paleo-temperatures. The data can be viewed as incomplete observations of a model with a tractable likelihood function. Therefore we propose a simulated...

  20. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  1. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  2. Maximum entropy analysis of liquid diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Egelstaff, P.A.; Nickel, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum entropy method for reducing truncation effects in the inverse Fourier transform of structure factor, S(q), to pair correlation function, g(r), is described. The advantages and limitations of the method are explored with the PY hard sphere structure factor as model input data. An example using real data on liquid chlorine, is then presented. It is seen that spurious structure is greatly reduced in comparison to traditional Fourier transform methods. (author)

  3. Monthly sediment discharge changes and estimates in a typical karst catchment of southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Xu, Chaohao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Kelin; Yi, Ruzhou

    2017-12-01

    As one of the largest karst regions in the world, southwest China is experiencing severe soil erosion due to its special geological conditions, inappropriate land use, and lower soil loss tolerance. Knowledge and accurate estimations of changes in sediment discharge rates is important for finding potential measures to effectively control sediment delivery. This study investigated temporal variation in monthly sediment discharge (SD), and developed sediment rating curves and state-space model to estimate SD. Monthly water discharge, SD, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and normalized differential vegetation index during 2003-2015 collected from a typical karst catchment of Yujiang River were analyzed in present study. A Mann-Kendal test and Morlet wavelet analysis were employed to detect the changes in SD. Results indicated that a decreasing trend was observed in sediment discharge at monthly and annual scale. The water and sediment discharge both had a significant 1-year period, implying that water discharge has substantial influence on SD. The best state-space model using water discharge was a simple but effective model, accounting for 99% of the variation in SD. The sediment rating curves, however, represented only 78% of the variation in SD. This study provides an insight into the possibility of accurate estimation of SD only using water discharge with state-space model approach. State-space model is recommended as an effective approach for quantifying the temporal relationships between SD and its driving factors in karst regions of southwest China.

  4. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  5. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  6. maximum neutron flux at thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.

    1968-10-01

    Since actual research reactors are technically complicated and expensive facilities it is important to achieve savings by appropriate reactor lattice configurations. There is a number of papers, and practical examples of reactors with central reflector, dealing with spatial distribution of fuel elements which would result in higher neutron flux. Common disadvantage of all the solutions is that the choice of best solution is done starting from the anticipated spatial distributions of fuel elements. The weakness of these approaches is lack of defined optimization criteria. Direct approach is defined as follows: determine the spatial distribution of fuel concentration starting from the condition of maximum neutron flux by fulfilling the thermal constraints. Thus the problem of determining the maximum neutron flux is solving a variational problem which is beyond the possibilities of classical variational calculation. This variational problem has been successfully solved by applying the maximum principle of Pontrjagin. Optimum distribution of fuel concentration was obtained in explicit analytical form. Thus, spatial distribution of the neutron flux and critical dimensions of quite complex reactor system are calculated in a relatively simple way. In addition to the fact that the results are innovative this approach is interesting because of the optimization procedure itself [sr

  7. New discharge tube with virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelmann, L.; Aubrecht, L.

    2003-01-01

    Till this time known methods of the excitation of the discharge between electrodes are using either secondary or thermo emission of electrons by the cathode. Usually we speak about the self-maintained discharge. Lifetime of the cathode, that is shortened by the emission, limits in principle, the lifetime of the whole discharge tube. The discharge can, according to the present state of the art, be induced also by the inductive way. Arrangement for excitation of such discharge is rather expensive. The construction of the inductive excited discharge tube is considerably influenced by the necessity of the limitation of the losses in excitation magnetic circuits. Especially length of the discharge and pressure of the working gas are limited by the economic standpoints. Function of the discharge is always connected with unwanted electromagnetic radiation, whose restraint is expensive and represents limiting factor for arrangement of the discharge tube (Authors)

  8. Charged particle emission effects on the characteristics of glow discharges with oscillating electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nikulin, S P

    2001-01-01

    One discusses the effect of selection of charged particles on conditions to maintain and the characteristics of a glow discharge with oscillating electrons. It is shown that there is a pressure dependent optimal level of ion selection when the energy efficiency of ion source reaches its maximum value. It is determined that departure of fast ionizing electrons affects negatively the discharge maintenance wile emission of slow plasma electrons may promote maintenance of a discharge high current shape. It is shown that high efficient electron emission without violation of a discharge stability may take place in a magnetic field due to different nature of spatial distributions of fast and slow particles in discharges with electron oscillation

  9. Application of maximum values for radiation exposure and principles for the calculation of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    The guide presents the definitions of equivalent dose and effective dose, the principles for calculating these doses, and instructions for applying their maximum values. The limits (Annual Limit on Intake and Derived Air Concentration) derived from dose limits are also presented for the purpose of monitoring exposure to internal radiation. The calculation of radiation doses caused to a patient from medical research and treatment involving exposure to ionizing radiation is beyond the scope of this ST Guide

  10. Body temperatures of fish feeding in the Point Beach thermal discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Thommes, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Between April and November, 1973, measurements of internal body temperature were made on 1310 fish caught by fishermen at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant. Records were also made of fish weight, length, and sex and intake and discharge temperatures. A table is presented to show mean monthly body temperatures and numbers of each species. Approximately 76 percent of the measurements were made on rainbow and brown trout, since these species accounted for 74 percent of the catch. Body temperatures of most fish were intermediate between intake and discharge temperatures. Results suggested that each species has rather specific seasonal temperature requirements and that the maximum discharge temperature was normally avoided by feeding fish

  11. Summary of personnel doses and discharge of radioactivity at Swedish nuclear power plants 1971-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, L.; Persson, Aa.

    1977-01-01

    The report is a summary of personnel doses and activity discharges from Swedish nuclear power plants during the first five years of electric power production by nuclear plants. The personnel doses for the Sweedish plants are lower than the corresponding values for American plants. The highest Swedish value is o,13 manrem per MWE and year. The discharge of radioactivity to the atmosphere from the Swedish plants has been for below the maximum permissible limits. The discharge of radioactivity to the water recipients was less than 1 % of what is permissible

  12. Measuring the availability to sediments and biota of radionuclides in wastes discharged to the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, M.D.; Hunt, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclides in waste discharged to the sea are taken up by marine sediments and organisms. The concentrations observed in these materials are determined by a complex process depending upon present and past discharges, and the rates of decay, dispersion, uptake and elimination. A simple, semi-empirical model is derived to predict current concentrations from historical discharges. An important parameter in this model is the mean availability time, the average time for which the radionuclide is effectively available to the material. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model's parameters are derived. The theory is applied to data collected in the marine environment near British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield. (Author)

  13. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  14. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  15. Land use change impacts on discharge analysis using SWAT model at Ciherang Pondok DAM catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamahadi, M. A.; Pandjaitan, N. H.; Rau, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    The prompt increase of population influenced the requirement for new regions to fulfill people’s primary needs. Its increased land use change and caused many impacts on the environment, including watersheds as well. Ciherang Pondok DAM catchment area is part of Cisadane watershed and was selected as the research area. This research aimed to analyse the water supply and water discharge change caused by the Urban Planning (RTRW) in 2020. The analysis was conducted using soil and water assessment tools (SWAT) model. Stages of this research were catchment area delineation, HRU identification, calibration and validation of models, and prediction of discharge and water demand. The result showed that RTRW of 2020 increased the maximum discharge of 1.6 m3/s and decreased the minimum discharge of 0.01 m3/s, hence the maximum and minimum discharge ratio increased 0.26% from 2016. Output discharge in 2020 at Ciherang Pondok Dam Catchment Area was classified as well, with discharge of 6.72 – 126.2 m3/s, and could fulfil water demand. For the best result, it is better to use climate data from weather stations inside the study area and it is required an improvement in data archiving system.

  16. Chronological trends in maximum and minimum water flows of the Teesta River, Bangladesh, and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaul H. Mondal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh shares a common border with India in the west, north and east and with Myanmar in the southeast. These borders cut across 57 rivers that discharge through Bangladesh into the Bay of Bengal in the south. The upstream courses of these rivers traverse India, China, Nepal and Bhutan. Transboundary flows are the important sources of water resources in Bangladesh. Among the 57 transboundary rivers, the Teesta is the fourth major river in Bangladesh after the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna and Bangladesh occupies about 2071 km2 . The Teesta River floodplain in Bangladesh accounts for 14% of the total cropped area and 9.15 million people of the country. The objective of this study was to investigate trends in both maximum and minimum water flow at Kaunia and Dalia stations for the Teesta River and the coping strategies developed by the communities to adjust with uncertain flood situations. The flow characteristics of the Teesta were analysed by calculating monthly maximum and minimum water levels and discharges from 1985 to 2006. Discharge of the Teesta over the last 22 years has been decreasing. Extreme low-flow conditions were likely to occur more frequently after the implementation of the Gozoldoba Barrage by India. However, a very sharp decrease in peak flows was also observed albeit unexpected high discharge in 1988, 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999 and 2004 with some in between April and October. Onrush of water causes frequent flash floods, whereas decreasing flow leaves the areas dependent on the Teesta vulnerable to droughts. Both these extreme situations had a negative impact on the lives and livelihoods of people dependent on the Teesta. Over the years, people have developed several risk mitigation strategies to adjust with both natural and anthropogenic flood situations. This article proposed the concept of ‘MAXIN (maximum and minimum flows’ for river water justice for riparian land.

  17. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  18. Estimating contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    Estimates of contaminant discharge rates from stabilized uranium tailings embankments are essential in evaluating long-term impacts of tailings disposal on groundwater resources. Contaminant discharge rates are a function of water flux through tailings covers, the mass and distribution of tailings, and the concentrations of contaminants in percolating pore fluids. Simple calculations, laboratory and field testing, and analytical and numerical modeling may be used to estimate water flux through variably-saturated tailings under steady-state conditions, which develop after consolidation and dewatering have essentially ceased. Contaminant concentrations in water discharging from the tailings depend on tailings composition, leachability and solubility of contaminants, geochemical conditions within the embankment, tailings-water interactions, and flux of water through the embankment. These concentrations may be estimated based on maximum reported concentrations, pore water concentrations, extrapolations of column leaching data, or geochemical equilibria and reaction pathway modeling. Attempts to estimate contaminant discharge rates should begin with simple, conservative calculations and progress to more-complicated approaches, as necessary

  19. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-01-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives

  20. Relativistic Electrons in Electric Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Deniz

    at the time when also gigantic electric discharges were observed at 10-90 km altitude in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the so called “jets” and “sprites”, commonly referred to as “Transient Luminous Events” (TLEs). TGFs were _rst thought connected to TLEs, but later research has pointed to lightning......Thunderstorms generate bursts of X- and Gamma radiation. When observed from spacecraft, the bursts are referred to as “Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes” (TGFs). They are bremsstrahlung from energetic electrons accelerated in thunderstorm electric _elds. The TGFs were _rst observed in the 90ties...... discharges as the source. The “Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor” (ASIM) for the International Space Station in 2016, led by DTU Space, and the French microsatellite TARANIS, also with launch in 2016, will identify with certainty the source of TGFs. In preparation for the missions, the Ph.D. project has...

  1. Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)

  2. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  3. Electrostatic probes in luminescent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da.

    1980-01-01

    A system to produce luminescent type plasma by continuos discharge and ionization by high frequency was constructed. The ionization was done in the air and in the argon under pressures from 3 to 10 mmHg. The parameters of a non magnetized collisional plasma and the parameters of a magnetized plasma such as, density, eletron temperature and potential, using a Langmuir probe with plane geometry, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Maximum values and classifications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The primary means of controlling the use of radiation are safety license procedure and the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions at places of radiation use. In Section 17 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) certain operations are exempted from the safety license. The exemption limits for the licensing of radioactive materials, the radiotoxicity classification of radionuclides related to such exemption limits, the annual limits on intake of radionuclides to be followed when monitoring internal radiation dose, as well as concentration limits in the breathing air are specified in the guide. Also the surface contamination limits which must be followed when monitoring working conditions at places of radiation use are presented. (4 refs., 6 tabs.)

  5. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  6. The predicted impacts to the groundwater and Columbia River from ammoniated water discharges to the 216-A-36B crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Conbere, W.; Freshley, M.D.; Hicks, R.J.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lamar, D.A.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    Impact from past and potential future discharges of ammoniated water to the 216-A-36B crib have on groundwater and river concentrations of hazardous chemical constitutents are studied. Until August 1987, the 216-A-36B crib, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site, accepted ammoniated water discharges. Although this study addresses known hazardous chemical constituents associated with such discharges, the primary concern is the discharge of NH 4 OH because of its microbiological conversion to NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus//. As a result of fuel decladding operations, material balance calculations indicate that NH 4 OH has been discharged to the 216-A-36B crib in amounts that exceed reportable quantities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. Although flow to the crib is relatively constant, the estimated NH 4 OH discharge varies from negligible to a maximum of 10,000 g-molesh. Because these discharges are intermittent, the concentration delivered to the groundwater is a function of soil sorption, microbiological conversion rates of NH 4 + to NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus//, and groundwater dispersion. This report provides results based on the assumptions of maximum, nominal, and discountinued NH 4 OH discharges to the crib. Consequently, the results show maximum and realistic estimates of NH 4 + , NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus// concentrations in the groundwater

  7. Maximum entropy decomposition of quadrupole mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, U. von; Dose, V.; Golan, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present an information-theoretic method called generalized maximum entropy (GME) for decomposing mass spectra of gas mixtures from noisy measurements. In this GME approach to the noisy, underdetermined inverse problem, the joint entropies of concentration, cracking, and noise probabilities are maximized subject to the measured data. This provides a robust estimation for the unknown cracking patterns and the concentrations of the contributing molecules. The method is applied to mass spectroscopic data of hydrocarbons, and the estimates are compared with those received from a Bayesian approach. We show that the GME method is efficient and is computationally fast

  8. Maximum power operation of interacting molecular motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, Natalia; Imparato, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    , as compared to the non-interacting system, in a wide range of biologically compatible scenarios. We furthermore consider the case where the motor-motor interaction directly affects the internal chemical cycle and investigate the effect on the system dynamics and thermodynamics.......We study the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of different traffic models for kinesin which are relevant in biological and experimental contexts. We find that motor-motor interactions play a fundamental role by enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency at maximum power of the motors...

  9. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  10. On the maximum drawdown during speculative bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, Giulia; Navarra, Mauro

    2007-08-01

    A taxonomy of large financial crashes proposed in the literature locates the burst of speculative bubbles due to endogenous causes in the framework of extreme stock market crashes, defined as falls of market prices that are outlier with respect to the bulk of drawdown price movement distribution. This paper goes on deeper in the analysis providing a further characterization of the rising part of such selected bubbles through the examination of drawdown and maximum drawdown movement of indices prices. The analysis of drawdown duration is also performed and it is the core of the risk measure estimated here.

  11. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristics....... This essentially means that the model allows for different conditions in the various channels, like different signal-to-noise ratios, microphone characteristics and reverberation. Moreover, the method does not assume that a certain array structure is used but rather relies on a more general model and is hence...

  12. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  13. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  14. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  15. Maximum entropy PDF projection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Paul M.

    2017-06-01

    We review maximum entropy (MaxEnt) PDF projection, a method with wide potential applications in statistical inference. The method constructs a sampling distribution for a high-dimensional vector x based on knowing the sampling distribution p(z) of a lower-dimensional feature z = T (x). Under mild conditions, the distribution p(x) having highest possible entropy among all distributions consistent with p(z) may be readily found. Furthermore, the MaxEnt p(x) may be sampled, making the approach useful in Monte Carlo methods. We review the theorem and present a case study in model order selection and classification for handwritten character recognition.

  16. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant.

  17. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  18. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  19. Ancestral sequence reconstruction with Maximum Parsimony

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Lina; Fischer, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    One of the main aims in phylogenetics is the estimation of ancestral sequences based on present-day data like, for instance, DNA alignments. One way to estimate the data of the last common ancestor of a given set of species is to first reconstruct a phylogenetic tree with some tree inference method and then to use some method of ancestral state inference based on that tree. One of the best-known methods both for tree inference as well as for ancestral sequence inference is Maximum Parsimony (...

  20. Effects of variability in probable maximum precipitation patterns on flood losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zischg, Andreas Paul; Felder, Guido; Weingartner, Rolf; Quinn, Niall; Coxon, Gemma; Neal, Jeffrey; Freer, Jim; Bates, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of the impacts of extreme floods is important for dealing with residual risk, particularly for critical infrastructure management and for insurance purposes. Thus, modelling of the probable maximum flood (PMF) from probable maximum precipitation (PMP) by coupling hydrological and hydraulic models has gained interest in recent years. Herein, we examine whether variability in precipitation patterns exceeds or is below selected uncertainty factors in flood loss estimation and if the flood losses within a river basin are related to the probable maximum discharge at the basin outlet. We developed a model experiment with an ensemble of probable maximum precipitation scenarios created by Monte Carlo simulations. For each rainfall pattern, we computed the flood losses with a model chain and benchmarked the effects of variability in rainfall distribution with other model uncertainties. The results show that flood losses vary considerably within the river basin and depend on the timing and superimposition of the flood peaks from the basin's sub-catchments. In addition to the flood hazard component, the other components of flood risk, exposure, and vulnerability contribute remarkably to the overall variability. This leads to the conclusion that the estimation of the probable maximum expectable flood losses in a river basin should not be based exclusively on the PMF. Consequently, the basin-specific sensitivities to different precipitation patterns and the spatial organization of the settlements within the river basin need to be considered in the analyses of probable maximum flood losses.

  1. Novel methods for estimating lithium-ion battery state of energy and maximum available energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; He, Tingting; Wei, Yiying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on temperature, current, aging dependencies of maximum available energy. • Study on the various factors dependencies of relationships between SOE and SOC. • A quantitative relationship between SOE and SOC is proposed for SOE estimation. • Estimate maximum available energy by means of moving-window energy-integral. • The robustness and feasibility of the proposed approaches are systematic evaluated. - Abstract: The battery state of energy (SOE) allows a direct determination of the ratio between the remaining and maximum available energy of a battery, which is critical for energy optimization and management in energy storage systems. In this paper, the ambient temperature, battery discharge/charge current rate and cell aging level dependencies of battery maximum available energy and SOE are comprehensively analyzed. An explicit quantitative relationship between SOE and state of charge (SOC) for LiMn_2O_4 battery cells is proposed for SOE estimation, and a moving-window energy-integral technique is incorporated to estimate battery maximum available energy. Experimental results show that the proposed approaches can estimate battery maximum available energy and SOE with high precision. The robustness of the proposed approaches against various operation conditions and cell aging levels is systematically evaluated.

  2. Downscaling climate projections for the Peruvian coastal Chancay-Huaral Basin to support river discharge modeling with WEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Olsson

    2017-10-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: On average, GCMs indicate increased annual mean temperatures by 3.1 °C (RCP4.5 and by 4.3 °C (RCP8.5 and precipitation sum by 20% (RCP4.5 and by 28% (RCP8.5. With increasing total precipitation, river discharges are also found to increase, but the variability among the GCMs is considerable. The largest increases in monthly discharge are projected to occur in the wet season (November − April − with up to 31% increase of December multi-model mean. Despite the larger annual discharge for the mean multi-model result, discharges in the dry season may decrease according to some GCMs, showing the need for an adapted future water management.

  3. Pulsed wire discharge apparatus for mass production of copper nanopowders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, H; Nishimura, S; Murai, K; Hayashi, Y; Suzuki, T; Nakayama, T; Jiang, W; Yamazaki, A; Seki, K; Niihara, K

    2007-05-01

    A pulsed wire discharge (PWD) apparatus for the mass production of nanopowders has been developed. The apparatus has a continuous wire feeder, which is operated in synchronization with a discharging circuit. The apparatus is designed for operation at a maximum repetition rate of 1.4 Hz at a stored energy of 160 J. In the present study, Cu nanopowder was synthesized using the PWD apparatus and the performance of the apparatus was examined. Cu nanopowder of 2.0 g quantity was prepared in N(2) gas at 100 kPa for 90 s. The particle size distribution of the Cu nanopowder was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and the mean surface diameter was determined to be 65 nm. The ratio of the production mass of the powder to input energy was 362 g/kW h.

  4. Emision of Cl2* molecules in a barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S M; Erofeev, M V; Sosnin, E A; Tarasenko, V F

    2008-01-01

    The energy and spectral parameters of emission of a barrier discharge in chlorine and its mixtures with inert gases are studied experimentally. The barrier discharge in chlorine was homogeneous at pressures up to ∼9 Torr and its spectrum contained the 3 Π 2g → 3 Π 2u , 3 Π 2g → 3 Σ 2u + and 1 Σ u + → 1 Σ g + bands of Cl 2 * molecules. After the addition of an inert gas, the 257.8-nm 3 Π 2g → 3 Π 2u band made the main contribution to the spectrum. The maximum efficiency and power of the Cl 2 excilamp were obtained for the chlorine-argon mixture and amounted to 0.7% and 1.3 W, respectively. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukes, Petr [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Clupek, Martin [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Babicky, Vaclav [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Janda, Vaclav [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 160 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sunka, Pavel [Department of Pulse Plasma Systems, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 3, PO Box 17, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2005-02-07

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min{sup -1}), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h{sup -1} for 40% argon content.

  6. Generation of ozone by pulsed corona discharge over water surface in hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, Petr; Clupek, Martin; Babicky, Vaclav; Janda, Vaclav; Sunka, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Ozone formation by a pulse positive corona discharge generated in the gas phase between a planar high voltage electrode made from reticulated vitreous carbon and a water surface with an immersed ground stainless steel plate electrode was investigated under various operating conditions. The effects of gas flow rate (0.5-3 litre min -1 ), discharge gap spacing (2.5-10 mm), applied input power (2-45 W) and gas composition (oxygen containing argon or nitrogen) on ozone production were determined. Ozone concentration increased with increasing power input and with increasing discharge gap. The production of ozone was significantly affected by the presence of water vapour formed through vaporization of water at the gas-liquid interface by the action of the gas phase discharge. The highest energy efficiency for ozone production was obtained using high voltage pulses of approximately 150 ns duration in Ar/O 2 mixtures with the maximum efficiency (energy yield) of 23 g kW h -1 for 40% argon content

  7. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  8. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  9. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  10. New approach to exploit optimally the PV array output energy by maximizing the discharge rate of a directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutelhig, Azzedine; Hadj Arab, Amar; Hanini, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mismatches on a designed d-c PV pumping system have been highlighted. • A new approach predicting the maximal discharge has been developed. • The approach has been discussed versus its linearity coefficient. • The approach effectiveness has been investigated and approved. • Theoretical and experimental obtained values have been compared and approved. - Abstract: A directly-coupled photovoltaic water pumping system (DC/PVPS) is generally designed by considering the worst month conditions on lowest daylight-hours, the maximum monthly daily required water volume and tank to store the excess water. In case of absence of hydraulic storage (water tank) or it is not enough dimensioned, the extra amount of pumped water is lost or is not reasonably used, when the system is operated on full daylight-hour. Beside that the extra amount of energy, which might be produced by the PV generator, is not exploited, when the system is operated only during a specified period-time needed to satisfy the demand. Beyond the accurate design that satisfying the end-user, a new approach has been developed as target to exploit maximally the PV array energy production, by maximizing the discharge rate of the system. The methodology consists of approaching maximally the demanded energy to the supplied energy on full operating day. Based on the demand/supply energy condition, the approach has been developed, upon the PV array and the pump performance models. The issued approach predicts the maximum delivery capacity of the system on monthly daily water volumes versus the monthly daily averages of solar irradiation, previously recorded. Its efficacy has been investigated and discussed according to the estimated and experimental values of its linearity coefficient, following the characterization tests of a designed system, carried out at our pumping test facility in Ghardaia (Algeria). The new theoretically and experimentally obtained flow-rates fit well, except

  11. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  12. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The report of the (United Kingdom) Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee for 1982-1983 falls under the headings: introduction and summary; review of the year; current sea disposal - the scientific evidence; liquid discharges from BNFL Sellafield; intermediate-level wastes; high-level wastes - the state of research on the options; transport of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; future work. (U.K.)

  13. Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities; they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities; and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the three norms of objective Bayesianism are usually justified in different ways. In this paper, we show that the three norms can all be subsumed under a single justification in terms of minimising worst-case expected loss. This, in turn, is equivalent to maximising a generalised notion of entropy. We suggest that requiring language invariance, in addition to minimising worst-case expected loss, motivates maximisation of standard entropy as opposed to maximisation of other instances of generalised entropy. Our argument also provides a qualified justification for updating degrees of belief by Bayesian conditionalisation. However, conditional probabilities play a less central part in the objective Bayesian account than they do under the subjective view of Bayesianism, leading to a reduced role for Bayes’ Theorem.

  14. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  15. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  16. Basic Studies of Distributed Discharge Limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-10

    electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of...plasma. 3.1.7 Vacuum Ultraviolet emission from pulsed discharges at atmospheric pressure. Fig. 6. Energy level diagram for molecular and...the utilized spectral simulation software, SPECTRAPLOT. 3.1.8 Non-intrusive diagnostic method for dissociation degree in pulsed discharges

  17. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  19. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  20. Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained atmospheric pressure glow discharge generates enhanced electricity in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Wang, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-01-01

    A Clostridium beijerinckii mutant M13 was derived from C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 by atmospheric pressure glow discharge. C. beijerinckii M13 generated a maximum output power density of 79.2 mW m(-2) and a maximum output voltage of 230 mV in a microbial fuel cell containing 1 g glucose l(-1) as carbon source and 0.15 g methyl viologen l(-1) as an electron carrier.