WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximizing resource utilization

  1. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  2. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  3. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  4. Optimal Computing Resource Management Based on Utility Maximization in Mobile Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile crowdsourcing, as an emerging service paradigm, enables the computing resource requestor (CRR to outsource computation tasks to each computing resource provider (CRP. Considering the importance of pricing as an essential incentive to coordinate the real-time interaction among the CRR and CRPs, in this paper, we propose an optimal real-time pricing strategy for computing resource management in mobile crowdsourcing. Firstly, we analytically model the CRR and CRPs behaviors in form of carefully selected utility and cost functions, based on concepts from microeconomics. Secondly, we propose a distributed algorithm through the exchange of control messages, which contain the information of computing resource demand/supply and real-time prices. We show that there exist real-time prices that can align individual optimality with systematic optimality. Finally, we also take account of the interaction among CRPs and formulate the computing resource management as a game with Nash equilibrium achievable via best response. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed distributed algorithm can potentially benefit both the CRR and CRPs. The coordinator in mobile crowdsourcing can thus use the optimal real-time pricing strategy to manage computing resources towards the benefit of the overall system.

  5. Maximizing the utility of monitoring to the adaptive management of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, William L.; Moore, Clinton T.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Data collection is an important step in any investigation about the structure or processes related to a natural system. In a purely scientific investigation (experiments, quasi-experiments, observational studies), data collection is part of the scientific method, preceded by the identification of hypotheses and the design of any manipulations of the system to test those hypotheses. Data collection and the manipulations that precede it are ideally designed to maximize the information that is derived from the study. That is, such investigations should be designed for maximum power to evaluate the relative validity of the hypotheses posed. When data collection is intended to inform the management of ecological systems, we call it monitoring. Note that our definition of monitoring encompasses a broader range of data-collection efforts than some alternative definitions – e.g. Chapter 3. The purpose of monitoring as we use the term can vary, from surveillance or “thumb on the pulse” monitoring (see Nichols and Williams 2006), intended to detect changes in a system due to any non-specified source (e.g. the North American Breeding Bird Survey), to very specific and targeted monitoring of the results of specific management actions (e.g. banding and aerial survey efforts related to North American waterfowl harvest management). Although a role of surveillance monitoring is to detect unanticipated changes in a system, the same result is possible from a collection of targeted monitoring programs distributed across the same spatial range (Box 4.1). In the face of limited budgets and many specific management questions, tying monitoring as closely as possible to management needs is warranted (Nichols and Williams 2006). Adaptive resource management (ARM; Walters 1986, Williams 1997, Kendall 2001, Moore and Conroy 2006, McCarthy and Possingham 2007, Conroy et al. 2008a) provides a context and specific purpose for monitoring: to evaluate decisions with respect to achievement

  6. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  7. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  8. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  9. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  10. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  11. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  12. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  13. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth science department chairs are generally scientists who have little/no formal administrative training. The common rotation of faculty members in three-six year cycles distributes the heavy leadership responsibilities but involves little preparation beforehand to deal with budgets, fundraising, personnel issues, confrontations, and crises. The amount of information exchange and support upon exit and handoff to the next chair is variable. Resources for chairs include workshops, meetings (ranging from annual meetings of geoscience chairs to monthly meetings of small groups of chairs from various disciplines on a campus), discussions, and online resources. These resources, some of which we designed in the past several years, provide information and support for chairs, help them share best practices, and reduce time spent “reinventing the wheel”. Most of these resources involve groups of chairs in our discipline who meet together. The AGU Board of Heads and Chairs of Earth and Space Science Departments offers annual one-day workshops at the Fall AGU meeting. The specific topics vary from year to year; they have included goals and roles of heads and chairs, fundraising and Advisory Boards, student recruitment, interdisciplinarity, dual-career couples, and undergraduate research. The workshop provides ample opportunities for open discussion. Annual one-two day meetings of groups of geoscience department chairs (e.g., research universities in a particular region) provide an opportunity for chairs to share specific data about their departments (e.g., salaries, graduate student stipends, information about facilities) and discuss strategies. At the College of William and Mary, a small group of chairs meets monthly throughout the year; each session includes time for open discussion as well as a more structured discussion on a particular topic (e.g., merit review, development and fundraising, mentoring early career faculty and the tenure process, leadership styles

  14. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  15. Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

  16. PLANNING ROUTES ACROSS ECONOMIC TERRAINS: MAXIMIZING UTILITY, FOLLOWING HEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value. We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes.

  17. Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W. Davis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.

  18. Planning for partnerships: Maximizing surge capacity resources through service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lavonne M; Reams, Paula K; Canclini, Sharon B

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks and natural or human-caused disasters can strain the community's surge capacity through sudden demand on healthcare activities. Collaborative partnerships between communities and schools of nursing have the potential to maximize resource availability to meet community needs following a disaster. This article explores how communities can work with schools of nursing to enhance surge capacity through systems thinking, integrated planning, and cooperative efforts.

  19. Case Study: Organizational Realignment at Tripler Army Medical Center to Reflect "Best Business Practice." Facilitate Coordinated Care, and Maximize the Use of Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gawlik, John

    2000-01-01

    ...) was established to evaluate Tripler's Utilization Management, Resource Management, Managed Care, Patient Administration, Information Management, and Clinical Support divisions to maximize billing...

  20. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt...... their activities to a smaller amount of floor space, which would make it possible to have more than one activity on the floor at the same time. Hence, to achieve better utilization during prime time, further analysis and research could focus on how activities in sport halls can be adapted to include more......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  1. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  2. Resource utilization during software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  3. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  4. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  5. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  6. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E. A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  7. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  8. Maximizing your ability to compete as a municipal electrical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacOdrum, B.

    1996-01-01

    The implications of the MacDonald Committee's recommendations on introducing competition to Ontario's electricity industry were reviewed from the point of view of Toronto Hydro, the largest municipal utility and Ontario Hydro's largest customer. Issues examined included (1) the consequences of unbundling Ontario Hydro's generating, transmission and distribution functions, (2) the structural change option of phasing-in competition among Ontario Hydro and municipal and other private generators, (3) enhancing the efficiency of the distribution sector, and (4) the relative benefits and consequences of private equity as a means of enhancing competition through the sale of Ontario Hydro's generating assets, or the sale of non-essential business operations. Recommendations to the Committee included the need for the transmission grid to remain under public control, for electricity pricing to take into account the variable environmental impact of different generating types, and the need for transferring regulatory authority over municipal electric utilities from Ontario Hydro to the Ontario Energy Board

  9. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  10. Forest biological diversity interactions with resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T. Mok

    1992-01-01

    The most important forest resources of the Asia-Pacific region are the highly diverse rain forests. Utilization of the resource is a natural and inevitable consequence of the region's socio-economic development. The sustainable management and development of forest resources in the region can be achieved by implementing conservational forestry, which is based on...

  11. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  12. Optimal resource assignment in workflows for maximizing cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Akhil; Dijkman, R.M.; Song, Minseok; Daniel, Fl.; Wang, J.; Weber, B.

    2013-01-01

    A workflow is a team process since many actors work on various tasks to complete an instance. Resource management in such workflows deals with assignment of tasks to workers or actors. In team formation, it is necessary to ensure that members of a team are compatible with each other. When a workflow

  13. Maximizing Technological Resources in Plastic Surgery Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2015-11-01

    Modern plastic surgery resident education demands the acquisition of an ever-increasing fund of knowledge and familiarity with more surgical techniques than ever before. This all must take place within the context and boundaries of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-mandated restrictions on work hours as well as balance of education and service. Technological resources have been developed and can be used to complement the skills that residents acquire while performing their day-to-day activities such as taking care of patients, reading textbooks and journal articles, and assisting or performing surgical procedures. Those complementary resources provide the benefits of portability and accessibility, and can thus be conveniently incorporated into the hectic daily life of a resident. This article presents a summary of the most commonly used currently available advanced technologies in plastic surgery resident education, and suggestions for integration of those technologies into a curriculum.

  14. Self-Access Centers: Maximizing Learners’ Access to Center Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Tanner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in TESL-EJ March 2009, Volume 12, Number 4 (http://tesl-ej.org/ej48/a2.html. Reprinted with permission from the authors.Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC at Brigham Young University’s English Language Center (ELC more effectively. Students took two surveys regarding their use of the SASC. The first survey was given before the website and database were made available. A second survey was administered 12 weeks after students had been introduced to the resource. An analysis of the data shows that students tend to use SASC resources more autonomously as a result of having a web-based database. The survey results suggest that SAC managers can encourage more autonomous use of center materials by provided a website and database to help students find appropriate materials to use to learn English.

  15. Coverage-maximization in networks under resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Subrata; Brusch, Lutz; Deutsch, Andreas; Ganguly, Niloy

    2010-06-01

    Efficient coverage algorithms are essential for information search or dispersal in all kinds of networks. We define an extended coverage problem which accounts for constrained resources of consumed bandwidth B and time T . Our solution to the network challenge is here studied for regular grids only. Using methods from statistical mechanics, we develop a coverage algorithm with proliferating message packets and temporally modulated proliferation rate. The algorithm performs as efficiently as a single random walker but O(B(d-2)/d) times faster, resulting in significant service speed-up on a regular grid of dimension d . The algorithm is numerically compared to a class of generalized proliferating random walk strategies and on regular grids shown to perform best in terms of the product metric of speed and efficiency.

  16. Resourceful utilization technology for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a description of new applications that will contribute in increasing the demand for natural gas. First, technical issues to turn natural gas into a more resourceful fuel (efficient transportation and storage, integrated utilization of energies, uses as non-fuel), and also pitch-based high performance carbon materials and utilization techniques in the field of energy (isotropic carbon fiber, activated carbon fiber, spherical carbon micro-beads, high modulus carbon fiber). (TEC)

  17. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  18. Utilization of Community Institutional and Organizational Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of the utilization of community institutional and community organizational resources on the implementation of adult basic literacy and functional literacy programmes in Cross River State. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested. The survey research design was adopted for the study.

  19. Resource and utilization of Estonian hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, P.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Estonian hydropower resources and their utilization at present as well as prospective for the future are presented in this paper. A short overview of advantages of small hydropower stations and related issues is given. Some technological aspects are treated briefly. (authors)

  20. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Dauben, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

  1. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  3. User Utility Oriented Queuing Model for Resource Allocation in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is one of the most important research topics in servers. In the cloud environment, there are massive hardware resources of different kinds, and many kinds of services are usually run on virtual machines of the cloud server. In addition, cloud environment is commercialized, and economical factor should also be considered. In order to deal with commercialization and virtualization of cloud environment, we proposed a user utility oriented queuing model for task scheduling. Firstly, we modeled task scheduling in cloud environment as an M/M/1 queuing system. Secondly, we classified the utility into time utility and cost utility and built a linear programming model to maximize total utility for both of them. Finally, we proposed a utility oriented algorithm to maximize the total utility. Massive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed model.

  4. Thorium resources and energy utilization (14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, thorium reactor has been attracting attention from the viewpoint of safety. Regarding thorium as the resources for nuclear energy, this paper explains its estimated reserves in the whole world and each country, its features such as the situation of utilization, and the reason why it attracts attention now. The following three items are taken up here as the typical issues among the latest topics on thorium: (1) utilization of thorium as a tension easing measure against environmental effects involved in nuclear energy utilization, (2) thorium-based reactor as the next generation type reactor with improved safety, and (3) thorium utilization as the improvement policy of nuclear proliferation resistance. The outline, validity, and problems of these items are explained. Thorium reactor has been adopted as a research theme since the 1950s up to now mainly in the U.S. However, it is not enough in the aspect of technological development and also insufficient in the verification of reliability based on technological demonstration, compared with uranium-fueled light-water reactor. This paper explains these situations, and discusses the points for thorium utilization and future prospects. (A.O.)

  5. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi; Nagai, Hideo; Runggaldier, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  6. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  7. Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) will be the first in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration on Mars. Competitively...

  8. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  9. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Nichols, Pamela A; Snavely, Theresa M; Camera, Lindsay J; Mauger, David T

    2010-08-05

    The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). p 80; stratified chi square. Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 +/- 17.9, ISS of 18.0 +/- 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (>/= 5 days), ventilator days (>/= 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay >/= 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  10. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  11. The self employed occupational and environmental health nurse: maximizing business success by managing financial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, S R; Papp, E

    2000-04-01

    The occupational and environmental health nurse entrepreneur can avoid business failure by engaging in a planning process that maximizes financial resources. Successful financial management involves understanding key financial reports and using those reports as management tools to "keep score" on the business. The prices the occupational and environmental health nurse entrepreneur charges for services will have a direct effect on the success of the business. Payroll, earnings, and expense records are useful management tools to help the occupational and environmental health nurse entrepreneur track the business and meet legal requirements.

  12. A Utility-Based Downlink Radio Resource Allocation for Multiservice Cellular DS-CDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shabany

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel framework is proposed to model downlink resource allocation problem in multiservice direct-sequence code division multiple-access (DS-CDMA cellular networks. This framework is based on a defined utility function, which leads to utilizing the network resources in a more efficient way. This utility function quantifies the degree of utilization of resources. As a matter of fact, using the defined utility function, users' channel fluctuations and their delay constraints along with the load conditions of all BSs are all taken into consideration. Unlike previous works, we solve the problem with the general objective of maximizing the total network utility instead of maximizing the achieved utility of each base station (BS. It is shown that this problem is equivalent to finding the optimum BS assignment throughout the network, which is mapped to a multidimensional multiple-choice knapsack problem (MMKP. Since MMKP is NP-hard, a polynomial-time suboptimal algorithm is then proposed to develop an efficient base-station assignment. Simulation results indicate a significant performance improvement in terms of achieved utility and packet drop ratio.

  13. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  14. A Utility Maximizing and Privacy Preserving Approach for Protecting Kinship in Genomic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gulce; Ayday, Erman; Tastan, Oznur

    2017-09-12

    Rapid and low cost sequencing of genomes enabled widespread use of genomic data in research studies and personalized customer applications, where genomic data is shared in public databases. Although the identities of the participants are anonymized in these databases, sensitive information about individuals can still be inferred. One such information is kinship. We define two routes kinship privacy can leak and propose a technique to protect kinship privacy against these risks while maximizing the utility of shared data. The method involves systematic identification of minimal portions of genomic data to mask as new participants are added to the database. Choosing the proper positions to hide is cast as an optimization problem in which the number of positions to mask is minimized subject to privacy constraints that ensure the familial relationships are not revealed.We evaluate the proposed technique on real genomic data. Results indicate that concurrent sharing of data pertaining to a parent and an offspring results in high risks of kinship privacy, whereas the sharing data from further relatives together is often safer. We also show arrival order of family members have a high impact on the level of privacy risks and on the utility of sharing data. Available at: https://github.com/tastanlab/Kinship-Privacy. erman@cs.bilkent.edu.tr or oznur.tastan@cs.bilkent.edu.tr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has...

  16. Colonoscopy resource availability and colonoscopy utilization in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Webber

    2017-04-01

    The availability of colonoscopy resources improved in Ontario between 2007 and 2013. However, the geographic variation in resource availability and findings that higher colonoscopy resource availability is associated with higher colonoscopy utilization suggest that certain areas of the province may be under-resourced. These areas may be appropriate targets for efforts to improve colonoscopy capacity in Ontario.

  17. Preference and Priority in Federal Funding: Aligning Federal Resources to Maximize Program Investment Efficiency and Impacts in Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the document, Preference and Priority in Federal Funding: Aligning Federal Resources to Maximize Program Investment Efficiency and Impacts in Communities - Lessons from EPA’s Brownfields Program.

  18. Resource management in utility and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Han

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reviews the existing market-oriented strategies for economically managing resource allocation in distributed systems. It describes three new schemes that address cost-efficiency, user incentives, and allocation fairness with regard to different scheduling contexts. The first scheme, taking the Amazon EC2? market as a case of study, investigates the optimal resource rental planning models based on linear integer programming and stochastic optimization techniques. This model is useful to explore the interaction between the cloud infrastructure provider and the cloud resource c

  19. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  20. Usability testing of two e-learning resources: methods to maximize potential for clinician use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Chignell, Mark; Straus, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Rigorous usability testing of e-learn-ing resources is an important prerequisite to their wide-spread use among clinicians. This study demonstrates the application of an evidence-based approach to usability testing of two stroke-related e-learning resources (StrokEngine). 14 stroke rehabilitation clinicians (occupational therapists and physiotherapists) from Ontario, Canada participated in a 1.5 h in-person testing session. Clinicians navigated StrokEngine in search of information to answer questions on stroke assessment/intervention. Their search patterns were observed and clinicians provided verbal/written feedback about StrokEngine. Content analysis was used to generate themes and categorize them under two broad categories: facilitators and barriers to use. Five key facilitators and three key barriers to Strok-Engine use were identified and related to screen format, layout/organization, ease of navigation, quality of content, likelihood of using StrokEngine in the future, and system dysfunctions. All 14 clinicians were very or extremely satisfied with the layout/organization, quality and clinical relevance of the content, stating that they were likely to use StrokEngine in the future. All identified barriers from this study were addressed with website modifications in order to maximize the usability and navigability of StrokEngine. This rigorous methodology for usability testing can be applied during the design process of any e-learning resource.

  1. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  2. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  3. Energy Resource Planning. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclescu, T.; Domschke, W.; Bazacliu, G.; Dumbrava, V.

    1996-01-01

    For a thermal power plants system, the primary energy resources cost constitutes a significant percentage of the total system operational cost. Therefore a small percentage saving in primary energy resource allocation cost for a long term, often turns out to be a significant monetary value. In recent years, with a rapidly changing fuel supply situation, including the impact of energy policies changing, this area has become extremely sensitive. Natural gas availability has been restricted in many areas, coal production and transportation cost have risen while productivity has decreased, oil imports have increased and refinery capacity failed to meet demand. The paper presents a mathematical model and a practical procedure to solve the primary energy resource allocation. The objectives is to minimise the total energy cost over the planning period subject to constraints with regards to primary energy resource, transportation and energy consumption. Various aspects of the proposed approach are discussed, and its application to a power system is illustrated.(author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  4. Determinants of resource needs and utilization among refugees over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Michelle; Aldhalimi, Abir; Lumley, Mark A; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Judith E; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2016-04-01

    This study examined refugees' resource needs and utilization over time, investigated the relationships between pre-displacement/socio-demographic variables and resource needs and utilization, and explored the role of resource needs and utilization on psychiatric symptom trajectories. Iraqi refugees to the United States (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival and at 1-year intervals for 2 years for socio-demographic variables and pre-displacement trauma experiences, their need for and utilization of 14 different resources, and PTSD and depressive symptoms. Although refugees reported reduction of some needs over time (e.g., need for cash assistance declined from 99 to 71 %), other needs remained high (e.g., 99 % of refugees reported a need for health care at the 2-year interview). Generally, the lowest needs were reported after 2 years, and the highest utilization occurred during the first year post-arrival. Pre-displacement trauma exposure predicted high health care needs but not high health care utilization. Both high need for and use of health care predicted increasing PTSD and depressive symptoms. Specifically, increased use of psychological care across the three measurement waves predicted more PTSD and depression symptoms at the 2-year interview. Differences emerged between need for and actual use of resources, especially for highly trauma-exposed refugees. Resettlement agencies and assistance programs should consider the complex relationships between resource needs, resource utilization, and mental health during the early resettlement period.

  5. Coverage maximization under resource constraints using a nonuniform proliferating random walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sudipta; Ganguly, Niloy

    2013-02-01

    Information management services on networks, such as search and dissemination, play a key role in any large-scale distributed system. One of the most desirable features of these services is the maximization of the coverage, i.e., the number of distinctly visited nodes under constraints of network resources as well as time. However, redundant visits of nodes by different message packets (modeled, e.g., as walkers) initiated by the underlying algorithms for these services cause wastage of network resources. In this work, using results from analytical studies done in the past on a K-random-walk-based algorithm, we identify that redundancy quickly increases with an increase in the density of the walkers. Based on this postulate, we design a very simple distributed algorithm which dynamically estimates the density of the walkers and thereby carefully proliferates walkers in sparse regions. We use extensive computer simulations to test our algorithm in various kinds of network topologies whereby we find it to be performing particularly well in networks that are highly clustered as well as sparse.

  6. Energy efficiency and SINR maximization beamformers for cognitive radio utilizing sensing information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service

  7. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  8. Resource allocation via sum-rate maximization in the uplink of multi-cell OFDMA networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    In this paper, we consider maximizing the sum rate in the uplink of a multi-cell orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network. The problem has a non-convex combinatorial structure and is known to be NP-hard. Because of the inherent complexity of implementing the optimal solution, firstly, we derive an upper bound (UB) and a lower bound (LB) to the optimal average network throughput. Moreover, we investigate the performance of a near-optimal single cell resource allocation scheme in the presence of inter-cell interference, which leads to another easily computable LB. We then develop a centralized sub-optimal scheme that is composed of a geometric programming-based power control phase in conjunction with an iterative subcarrier allocation phase. Although the scheme is computationally complex, it provides an effective benchmark for low complexity schemes even without the power control phase. Finally, we propose less complex centralized and distributed schemes that are well suited for practical scenarios. The computational complexity of all schemes is analyzed, and the performance is compared through simulations. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed low complexity schemes can achieve comparable performance with that of the centralized sub-optimal scheme in various scenarios. Moreover, comparisons with the UB and LB provide insight on the performance gap between the proposed schemes and the optimal solution. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  10. Internet - a resource for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slone, B.J. III; Richardson, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    Internet is the name of the largest computer network in the world. It is actually a collection of many networks all running the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite, connected through gateways and sharing common names and address spaces. Its purpose is to facilitate sharing of resources at participating organizations, which include government agencies, educational institutions, and private corporations. The Internet roots begin with the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in 1958. In 1969, the DOD formed a computer network for ARPA and gave it the name ARPANET. It was designed to help government scientists communicate and share information by allowing remote computer log-in and program execution, but it quickly became a tool for sharing information through file transfer, electronic mail, and interest-group mailing lists. In 1970, ARPA became the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and ARPANET became DARPANET. By 1980, the DARPANET had grown in size, and other connecting networks were being developed. To support system growth and performance, it was recognized that a new communication protocol was required. In 1983, DARPANET split into DARPANET and MILNET (Military Network), and the Internet was formed when the Defense Communications Agency, which managed both networks, mandated the use of TCP/IP for connected hosts. In 1986, the National Science Foundation (NSF) joined Internet. The NSF created NSFNET to link several national supercomputer centers to support scholarly research. It now comprises 17 networks, connecting to 23 midlevel wide-area networks across the continent. In turn, the midlevel networks link computers in more than 1000 university, government, and commercial research organizations throughout the world

  11. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  12. Awareness and utilization of open access resources in Asom Bur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the extent of awareness and utilization of open access resources in University of Mkar library (Asom Bur Learning Resource Centre). One hundred (100) undergraduate students out of a total of about One thousand and fifty (1,050) were randomly selected. Descriptive survey design was employed and ...

  13. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...

  14. Reallocating Human Resources to Maximize Student Achievement: A Critical Case Study of a Southern California School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazener, Adrianna Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study applied the Evidence-Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) as a framework for determining how district leadership could potentially reallocate human resources to maximize the opportunity for student achievement, relying heavily on the ten strategies for doubling student performance (Odden, 2009; Odden & Archibald, 2009) and the…

  15. Energy efficiency and SINR maximization beamformers for cognitive radio utilizing sensing information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we consider a cognitive radio multi-input multi-output environment in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency and signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service constraints. Since the optimization of energy efficiency problem is not a convex problem, we transform it into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) form to guarantee a global optimal solution. Analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the other scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.

  16. A Method of Determination of an Acquisition Program in Order to Maximize the Total Utility Using Linear Programming in Integer Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Cristian Ioan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves in a different way the problem of maximization of the total utility using the linear programming in integer numbers. The author uses the diofantic equations (equations in integers numbers and after a decomposing in different cases, he obtains the maximal utility.

  17. Improving ATLAS computing resource utilization with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, Jaroslava; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    HammerCloud is a framework to commission, test, and benchmark ATLAS computing resources and components of various distributed systems with realistic full-chain experiment workflows. HammerCloud contributes to ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) Operations and automation efforts, providing the automated resource exclusion and recovery tools, that help re-focus operational manpower to areas which have yet to be automated, and improve utilization of available computing resources. We present recent evolution of the auto-exclusion/recovery tools: faster inclusion of new resources in testing machinery, machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection, categorized resources as master vs. slave for the purpose of blacklisting, and a tool for auto-exclusion/recovery of resources triggered by Event Service job failures that is being extended to other workflows besides the Event Service. We describe how HammerCloud helped commissioning various concepts and components of distributed systems: simplified configuration of qu...

  18. Profit maximization algorithms for utility companies in an oligopolistic energy market with dynamic prices and intelligent users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic energy pricing provides a promising solution for the utility companies to incentivize energy users to perform demand side management in order to minimize their electric bills. Moreover, the emerging decentralized smart grid, which is a likely infrastructure scenario for future electrical power networks, allows energy consumers to select their energy provider from among multiple utility companies in any billing period. This paper thus starts by considering an oligopolistic energy market with multiple non-cooperative (competitive utility companies, and addresses the problem of determining dynamic energy prices for every utility company in this market based on a modified Bertrand Competition Model of user behaviors. Two methods of dynamic energy pricing are proposed for a utility company to maximize its total profit. The first method finds the greatest lower bound on the total profit that can be achieved by the utility company, whereas the second method finds the best response of a utility company to dynamic pricing policies that the other companies have adopted in previous billing periods. To exploit the advantages of each method while compensating their shortcomings, an adaptive dynamic pricing policy is proposed based on a machine learning technique, which finds a good balance between invocations of the two aforesaid methods. Experimental results show that the adaptive policy results in consistently high profit for the utility company no matter what policies are employed by the other companies.

  19. Maximize Minimum Utility Function of Fractional Cloud Computing System Based on Search Algorithm Utilizing the Mittag-Leffler Sum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha W. Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum min utility function (MMUF problem is an important representative of a large class of cloud computing systems (CCS. Having numerous applications in practice, especially in economy and industry. This paper introduces an effective solution-based search (SBS algorithm for solving the problem MMUF. First, we suggest a new formula of the utility function in term of the capacity of the cloud. We formulate the capacity in CCS, by using a fractional diffeo-integral equation. This equation usually describes the flow of CCS. The new formula of the utility function is modified recent active utility functions. The suggested technique first creates a high-quality initial solution by eliminating the less promising components, and then develops the quality of the achieved solution by the summation search solution (SSS. This method is considered by the Mittag-Leffler sum as hash functions to determine the position of the agent. Experimental results commonly utilized in the literature demonstrate that the proposed algorithm competes approvingly with the state-of-the-art algorithms both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency.

  20. Utilization of saline water and land: Reclaiming lost resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Mujtaba

    2001-01-01

    There is an abundance of saline water on the globe. Large tracts of land are arid and/or salt-affected, and a large number of plant species are known to be salt-tolerant. It would seem obvious that salt tolerant plants (halophytes) have a role in utilizing the two wasted resources, saline water and wastelands. We will briefly describe how these resources can be fruitfully utilized and how the IAEA has helped several countries to demonstrate the possibility of cultivating salt tolerant plant species on arid saline wastelands for economic and environmental benefit. After some brief introductory remarks we will discuss the results of the project

  1. Current NASA Plans for Mars In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald

    2018-01-01

    The presentation is to provide relevant information to the NASA funded Center for the Utilization of Biological Engineering in Space (CUBES) Institute. The presentation cover the following: 1) What is In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), 2) What are the resources of interest at the Moon and Mars, 3) ISRU-related mission requirements and ISRU economics, 4) Challenges and Risk for ISRU, 5) Concept of Operation for Mars ISRU Systems, 6) Current State of the Art (SOA) in ISRU, and 7) Current ISRU development and mission status.

  2. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  3. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  4. Space Resource Utilization: Technologies and Potential Synergism with Terrestrial Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Space Resources and Their Uses: The idea of using resources in space to support human exploration and settlement or for economic development and profit beyond the surface of Earth has been proposed and discussed for decades. Work on developing a method to extract oxygen from lunar regolith started even before humans set foot on the Moon for the first time. The use of space resources, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), involves the processes and operations to harness and utilize resources in space (both natural and discarded) to create products for subsequent use. Potential space resources include water, solar wind implanted volatiles (hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, etc.), vast quantities of metals and minerals in extraterrestrial soils, atmospheric constituents, unlimited solar energy, regions of permanent light and darkness, the vacuum and zero-gravity of space itself, trash and waste from human crew activities, and discarded hardware that has completed its primary purpose. ISRU covers a wide variety of concepts, technical disciplines, technologies, and processes. When considering all aspects of ISRU, there are 5 main areas that are relevant to human space exploration and the commercialization of space: 1. Resource Characterization and Mapping, 2. In Situ Consumables Production, 3. Civil Engineering and Construction, 4. In Situ Energy Production and Storage, and 5. In Situ Manufacturing.

  5. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  6. Availability and Utilization of Information Resources and Service by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper recommends improvement in library budgetary allocation, more community sensitization on library services, urgent completion of the library complex at the main campus and commissioning of the e-library project. Key Words: Availability, utilization, information, resources, sources, academic, staff, university.

  7. Utilization of digitized information resources by academic staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reported on the utilization of the digitized information resources amongst the academic staff of Waziri Umaru federal polytechnic Birnin Kebbi and Federal College of Education Technical Gusau. The paper gave an overview of digitization and its initiatives in academic libraries in Nigeria. The paper tried to ...

  8. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  9. Effect of vertical integration on the utilization of hardwood resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of vertical integration in promoting the efficient utilization of the hardwood resource in the eastern United States was assessed during a series of interviews with vertically integrated hardwood manufacturers in the Appalachian region. Data from 19 companies that responded to the 1996 phone survey indicate that: 1) vertically integrated hardwood...

  10. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  11. Adaptive interaction a utility maximization approach to understanding human interaction with technology

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The frame

  12. Reservoirs operation and water resources utilization coordination in Hongshuihe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chonghao; Chi, Kaige; Pang, Bo; Tang, Hongbin

    2018-06-01

    In the recent decade, the demand for water resources has been increasing with the economic development. The reservoirs of cascade hydropower stations in Hongshuihe basin, which are constructed with a main purpose of power generation, are facing more integrated water resources utilization problem. The conflict between power generation of cascade reservoirs and flood control, shipping, environmental protection and water supply has become increasingly prominent. This paper introduces the general situation and integrated water demand of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin, and it analyses the impact of various types of integrated water demand on power generation and supply. It establishes mathematic models, constrained by various types of integrated water demand, to guide the operation and water resources utilization management of cascade reservoirs in Hongshuihe basin. Integrated water coordination mechanism of Hongshuihe basin is also introduced. It provides a technical and management guide and demonstration for cascade reservoirs operation and integrated water management at home and abroad.

  13. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  14. Resource allocation via sum-rate maximization in the uplink of multi-cell OFDMA networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Dawy, Zaher

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider maximizing the sum rate in the uplink of a multi-cell orthogonal frequency-division multiple access network. The problem has a non-convex combinatorial structure and is known to be NP-hard. Because of the inherent

  15. Planning for Micro-grid with Static Voltage Stability and Maximizing Renewable Energy Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youfu; Zhang, Yuhong; Lv, Xuehai; Zhang, Wentai; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Changhua; Chen, Xin

    2017-05-01

    The access position and capacity of distribution generation (DG) affect the static voltage stability of micro-grid, thus affecting the renewable energy utilization. In the current reform of the energy supply side, a multi-objective optimization model is established, aiming at the abandoning wind and abandoning light problem. This model has three advantages, which are the largest renewable energy utilization, static voltage stability of micro-grid and the minimum cost of DG investment considering environmental benefits. It can effectively promote the use of wind power, photovoltaic power generation and other renewable energy sources. In this paper, the multi-objective optimization problem is transformed into a single objective programming problem by using the deviation method; the optimal solution of multi-objective function is solved by using particle swarm optimization algorithm, so as to establish the planning scheme of micro-grid. Simulation results prove the correctness and feasibility of the optimization method.

  16. Utilizing Maximal Independent Sets as Dominating Sets in Scale-Free Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzsy, N.; Molnar, F., Jr.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    Dominating sets provide key solution to various critical problems in networked systems, such as detecting, monitoring, or controlling the behavior of nodes. Motivated by graph theory literature [Erdos, Israel J. Math. 4, 233 (1966)], we studied maximal independent sets (MIS) as dominating sets in scale-free networks. We investigated the scaling behavior of the size of MIS in artificial scale-free networks with respect to multiple topological properties (size, average degree, power-law exponent, assortativity), evaluated its resilience to network damage resulting from random failure or targeted attack [Molnar et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8321 (2015)], and compared its efficiency to previously proposed dominating set selection strategies. We showed that, despite its small set size, MIS provides very high resilience against network damage. Using extensive numerical analysis on both synthetic and real-world (social, biological, technological) network samples, we demonstrate that our method effectively satisfies four essential requirements of dominating sets for their practical applicability on large-scale real-world systems: 1.) small set size, 2.) minimal network information required for their construction scheme, 3.) fast and easy computational implementation, and 4.) resiliency to network damage. Supported by DARPA, DTRA, and NSF.

  17. Maximizing mandibular prosthesis stability utilizing linear occlusion, occlusal plane selection, and centric recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Richard A; Williamson, Anne E; Bowley, John; Toothaker, Randy

    2004-03-01

    The stability of mandibular complete dentures may be improved by reducing the transverse forces on the denture base through linear (noninterceptive) occlusion, selecting an occlusal plane that reduces horizontal vectors of force at occlusal contact, and utilizing a central bearing intraoral gothic arch tracing to record jaw relations. This article is intended to acquaint the reader with one technique for providing stable complete denture prostheses using the aforementioned materials, devices, and procedures.

  18. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sanstad, Alan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plans filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.

  19. ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; Söderlund, Karin; Ferguson, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

  20. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  1. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  2. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lin [Energy Research Institute of the State Planning Commission, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author) 4 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  3. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dai

    1995-01-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  4. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  5. Safety and resource utilization of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Tung Feng; Shiuh-Lin Hwang; Chih-Lung Lin; I-Chen Lee; King-Teh Lee

    2012-01-01

    Degenerative cervical spondylosis (DCS) is part of the aging process and is the most common reason for degenerative changes with the spinal column. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a major option for operative management of DCS in our institution. This retrospective study investigated the frequency of postoperative complications and resource utilization in 145 patients who underwent ACDF procedures from January 2009 to December 2011. Patients with degenerative changes that in...

  6. Predictors of resource utilization in transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrew S; Chapple, Kristina

    2013-08-01

    The short-term cost associated with subspecialized surgical care is an increasingly important metric and economic concern. This study sought to determine factors associated with hospital charges in patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing disease in an effort to identify the drivers of resource utilization. The authors analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) hospital discharge database from 2007 to 2009 to determine factors that influenced hospital charges in patients who had undergone transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing disease. The NIS discharge database approximates a 20% sample of all inpatient admissions to nonfederal US hospitals. A multistep regression model was developed that adjusted for patient demographics, acuity measures, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, and complications. In 116 hospitals, 454 transsphenoidal operations were performed. The mean hospital charge was $48,272 ± $32,060. A multivariate regression model suggested that the primary driver of resource utilization was length of stay (LOS), followed by surgeon volume, hospital characteristics, and postoperative complications. A 1% increase in LOS increased hospital charges by 0.60%. Patient charges were 13% lower when performed by high-volume surgeons compared with low-volume surgeons and 22% lower in large hospitals compared with small hospitals. Hospital charges were 12% lower in cases with no postoperative neurological complications. The proposed model accounted for 46% of hospital charge variance. This analysis of hospital charges in transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing disease suggested that LOS, hospital characteristics, surgeon volume, and postoperative complications are important predictors of resource utilization. These findings may suggest opportunities for improvement.

  7. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  8. Forest resources and utilization in Canada to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, G H; Grinnell, H R

    1971-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the relation between the demand for Canada's forest products and the supply of timber available to meet this demand. The future of the Canadian forest products economy is forecast at 5-year intervals from 1975 to 2000, and the demand for individual products and product groups, both domestic and export, is shown. These estimates are then used to derive estimates of roundwood demand for the projection periods. The report then describes the timber resource of Canada, quantitatively and qualitatively, and discusses the factors that influence the growth and mortality of this resource. Factors which might change, and therefore affect the utilization of this forest resource, are also discussed. It is concluded that at the national level of data aggregation, no physical shortage of wood fiber is indicated, although on the bases of region, species, and timber quality, imbalances can exist. One important limiting factor to the supply situation is the inaccessibility of much of Canada's timber. Accessibility is increasing, and utilization is improving through harvesting technology, but the major opportunity for improvement seems to lie in the area of manufacturing technology. If the large hardwood surplus already within allocated forest areas were used in manufacturing, a considerable part of the projected demand could be met without opening up new forest areas. With respect to forest development, serious problems have been observed stemming from inadequate resource data and planning. These problems will have to be remedied if economic supplies are to be available in the future. 37 refs., 16 figs., 54 tabs.

  9. Utilization of negative beat-frequencies for maximizing the update-rate of OFDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Haniel; Botsev, Yakov; Hahami, Meir; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-07-01

    In traditional OFDR systems, the backscattered profile of a sensing fiber is inefficiently duplicated to the negative band of spectrum. In this work, we present a new OFDR design and algorithm that remove this redundancy and make use of negative beat frequencies. In contrary to conventional OFDR designs, it facilitates efficient use of the available system bandwidth and enables distributed sensing with the maximum allowable interrogation update-rate for a given fiber length. To enable the reconstruction of negative beat frequencies an I/Q type receiver is used. In this receiver, both the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) components of the backscatter field are detected. Following detection, both components are digitally combined to produce a complex backscatter signal. Accordingly, due to its asymmetric nature, the produced spectrum will not be corrupted by the appearance of negative beat-frequencies. Here, via a comprehensive computer simulation, we show that in contrast to conventional OFDR systems, I/Q OFDR can be operated at maximum interrogation update-rate for a given fiber length. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of I/Q OFDR to utilize negative beat-frequencies for long-range distributed sensing.

  10. University-industry consortium: maximizing the use of limited resources for instructor training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, R.E.; Williams, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This proposed development effort would accomplish three major objectives, as follows: 1. To identify and verify, through job analysis, the critical professional tasks that must be performed by electric utility instructors. 2. To adapt and revise existing instructor training modules to make them self-contained and highly specific to the professional knowledge and skills needed by electric utility instructors. 3. To develop new instructor training modules, if needed, to meet utility instructor training needs that are not addressed by any existing materials. It is anticipated that approximately twenty (20) modules will be needed to address all of the critical instructor tasks identified during the job analysis phase. The National Center for Research in Vocational Education proposes that it would be very cost-effective and time-efficient to cooperatively undertake the development of the needed instructor training modules with a consortium of about to ten interested electric utility companies

  11. Addressing professional resource challenges facing modern utilities with technological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hodder, S. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing electric utilities regarding a shortage of highly qualified labour to maintain, refurbish and expand electrical infrastructure can be attributed to a wave of retirements in skilled employees, a shortage of entry-level workers and a rapidly increasing workload caused by investment in electricity infrastructure. Two solutions were presented for finding and sustaining an adequate personnel base. The first involved developing local talent, both entry-level and mid-career staff to ensure that work continuity and workplace safety are maintained. The second involved the implementation of technological solutions to help optimize the use of existing and future labour resources. This paper presented the human resource programs developed by Hydro One, the largest electrical transmission and distribution utility in the province of Ontario. Their initiatives include raising the profile of the utility work environment through strategic partnerships with educational institutions and developing in house offerings to supplement existing academic programs. This paper also presented a technical solution to address the resources challenges specifically associated with power system protection and control. The solution targets professional and skilled trades involved in the design, installation and maintenance of automated substations and protection and control systems. It is based on the premise that resource optimization can be achieved by reducing inconsistent design and construction practices and replacing these designs with highly standardized materials with digital communications using IEC 61850. This new technology should attract young professionals to the power engineering field while still maintaining a high comfort level with the established professional workforce. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Risk Decision Making Model for Reservoir Floodwater resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Floodwater resources utilization(FRU) can alleviate the shortage of water resources, but there are risks. In order to safely and efficiently utilize the floodwater resources, it is necessary to study the risk of reservoir FRU. In this paper, the risk rate of exceeding the design flood water level and the risk rate of exceeding safety discharge are estimated. Based on the principle of the minimum risk and the maximum benefit of FRU, a multi-objective risk decision making model for FRU is constructed. Probability theory and mathematical statistics method is selected to calculate the risk rate; C-D production function method and emergy analysis method is selected to calculate the risk benefit; the risk loss is related to flood inundation area and unit area loss; the multi-objective decision making problem of the model is solved by the constraint method. Taking the Shilianghe reservoir in Jiangsu Province as an example, the optimal equilibrium solution of FRU of the Shilianghe reservoir is found by using the risk decision making model, and the validity and applicability of the model are verified.

  14. Plant genotypic diversity reduces the rate of consumer resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2013-07-07

    While plant species diversity can reduce herbivore densities and herbivory, little is known regarding how plant genotypic diversity alters resource utilization by herbivores. Here, we show that an invasive folivore--the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)--increases 28 per cent in abundance, but consumes 24 per cent less foliage in genotypic polycultures compared with monocultures of the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). We found strong complementarity for reduced herbivore damage among plant genotypes growing in polycultures and a weak dominance effect of particularly resistant genotypes. Sequential feeding by P. japonica on different genotypes from polycultures resulted in reduced consumption compared with feeding on different plants of the same genotype from monocultures. Thus, diet mixing among plant genotypes reduced herbivore consumption efficiency. Despite positive complementarity driving an increase in fruit production in polycultures, we observed a trade-off between complementarity for increased plant productivity and resistance to herbivory, suggesting costs in the complementary use of resources by plant genotypes may manifest across trophic levels. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic diversity simultaneously alters resource utilization by both producers and consumers, and show that population genotypic diversity can increase the resistance of a native plant to an invasive herbivore.

  15. Scheduling sampling to maximize information about time dependence in experiments with limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    Looking for periodicity in sampled data requires that periods (lags) of different length are represented in the sampling plan. We here present a method to assist in planning of temporal studies with sparse resources, which optimizes the number of observed time lags for a fixed amount of samples w...

  16. Creating Highly Qualified Teachers: Maximizing University Resources to Provide Professional Development in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Dawn L.

    2009-01-01

    The "highly qualified teacher" requirement of No Child Left Behind has put pressure on rural school districts to recruit and retain highly qualified regular and special education teachers. If necessary, they may utilize uncertified, rural teachers with provisional certification; however, these teachers may find completing the necessary…

  17. X Marks the Spot: Creating and Managing a Single Service Point to Improve Customer Service and Maximize Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Mary Ann; Keshmiripour, Seti

    2016-01-01

    This article will describe how merging service points in an academic library is an opportunity to improve customer service and utilize staffing resources more efficiently. Combining service points provides libraries with the ability to create a more positive library experience for patrons by minimizing the ping-pong effect for assistance. The…

  18. Safety and resource utilization of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Tung; Hwang, Shiuh-Lin; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, I-Chen; Lee, King-Teh

    2012-09-01

    Degenerative cervical spondylosis (DCS) is part of the aging process and is the most common reason for degenerative changes with the spinal column. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a major option for operative management of DCS in our institution. This retrospective study investigated the frequency of postoperative complications and resource utilization in 145 patients who underwent ACDF procedures from January 2009 to December 2011. Patients with degenerative changes that involved cervical intervertebral levels C1-C2, spinal injury of traumatic origin, spinal tumors, or previous cervical fusion were excluded. Patients were then further classified into two groups: (1) level 1 or 2 disease (Group M) and (2) level 3 or 4 disease (Group S). Measures of mortality, complications after surgery as well as immediate reoperation for any reason were evaluated. Operation time, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization cost were defined as resource utilization. Ninety seven patients met the inclusion criteria and were further reviewed to characterize the sample better. There were no hematomas, airway complications or deaths, except in one patient who developed postoperative hemorrhage that required immediate surgical intervention, and resolved without any neurological deficit or casualty. Resource utilization indicated that the average operation time for Group S was significantly higher than for Group M (4.31±1.25 vs. 2.88±0.90 hours, p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost between the two groups (p=0.265 and p=0.649). Our results indicate that neurosurgical intervention is safe for patients with DSC. Postoperative complication rates associated with these procedures are low. When surgery is considered appropriate for patients with multilevel diseases, these data suggest that ACDF is a safe surgical option. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Safety and resource utilization of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tung Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative cervical spondylosis (DCS is part of the aging process and is the most common reason for degenerative changes with the spinal column. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF is a major option for operative management of DCS in our institution. This retrospective study investigated the frequency of postoperative complications and resource utilization in 145 patients who underwent ACDF procedures from January 2009 to December 2011. Patients with degenerative changes that involved cervical intervertebral levels C1–C2, spinal injury of traumatic origin, spinal tumors, or previous cervical fusion were excluded. Patients were then further classified into two groups: (1 level 1 or 2 disease (Group M and (2 level 3 or 4 disease (Group S. Measures of mortality, complications after surgery as well as immediate reoperation for any reason were evaluated. Operation time, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization cost were defined as resource utilization. Ninety seven patients met the inclusion criteria and were further reviewed to characterize the sample better. There were no hematomas, airway complications or deaths, except in one patient who developed postoperative hemorrhage that required immediate surgical intervention, and resolved without any neurological deficit or casualty. Resource utilization indicated that the average operation time for Group S was significantly higher than for Group M (4.31±1.25 vs. 2.88±0.90 hours, p<0.0001. There were no significant differences in length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost between the two groups (p=0.265 and p=0.649. Our results indicate that neurosurgical intervention is safe for patients with DSC. Postoperative complication rates associated with these procedures are low. When surgery is considered appropriate for patients with multilevel diseases, these data suggest that ACDF is a safe surgical option.

  20. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  1. Electric utility resource expansion planning using environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience of San Diego Gas ampersand Electric Company using environmental externalities in the expansion planning of its electrical system. This is the first time that this method of planning has been used in the electric utility industry in California. The paper reviews the conceptual development of the monetary values for environmental externalities and shows how the application of these values modifies the resource selection process. This paper should be of interest to professionals involved in policy issues relating to the use of environmental externalities as a means to improve the environment. The experience gained through this analyses should also benefit electric utility personnel involved in planning, and regulators interested in planning

  2. Global health resource utilization associated with pacemaker complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Catherine; Steenrod, Anna; Wolff, Claudia; Eggington, Simon; Wright, David Jay; Wyrwich, Kathleen W

    2017-07-01

    To estimate health resource utilization (HRU) associated with the management of pacemaker complications in various healthcare systems. Electrophysiologists (EPs) from four geographical regions (Western Europe, Australia, Japan, and North America) were invited to participate. Survey questions focused on HRU in the management of three chronic pacemaker complications (i.e. pacemaker infections requiring extraction, lead fractures/insulation breaches requiring replacement, and upper extremity deep venous thrombosis [DVT]). Panelists completed a maximum of two web-based surveys (iterative rounds). Mean, median values, and interquartile ranges were calculated and used to establish consensus. Overall, 32 and 29 panelists participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi panel, respectively. Consensus was reached on treatment and HRU associated with a typical pacemaker implantation and complications. HRU was similar across regions, except for Japan, where panelists reported the longest duration of hospital stay in all scenarios. Infections were the most resource-intensive complications and were characterized by intravenous antibiotics days of 9.6?13.5 days and 21.3?29.2 days for pocket and lead infections respectively; laboratory and diagnostic tests, and system extraction and replacement procedures. DVT, on the other hand, was the least resource intensive complication. The results of the panel represent the views of the respondents who participated and may not be generalizable outside of this panel. The surveys were limited in scope and, therefore, did not include questions on management of acute complications (e.g. hematoma, pneumothorax). The Delphi technique provided a reliable and efficient approach to estimating resource utilization associated with chronic pacemaker complications. Estimates from the Delphi panel can be used to generate costs of pacemaker complications in various regions.

  3. NEO Targets for Biological In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J. M.; Ernst, S. M.; Navarrete, J. U.; Gentry, D.

    2014-12-01

    We are investigating a mission architecture concept for low-cost pre-processing of materials on long synodic period asteroids using bioengineered microbes delivered by small spacecraft. Space exploration opportunities, particularly those requiring a human presence, are sharply constrained by the high cost of launching resources such as fuel, construction materials, oxygen, water, and foodstuffs. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have been proposed for supporting a human space presence. However, the combination of high initial investment requirements, delayed potential return, and uncertainty in resource payoff currently prevents their effective utilization.Biomining is the process in which microorganisms perform useful material reduction, sequestration or separation. It is commonly used in terrestrial copper extraction. Compared to physical and chemical methods of extraction it is slow, but very low cost, thus rendering economical even very poor ores. These advantages are potentially extensible to asteroid in situ resource utilization (ISRU).One of the first limiting factors for the use of biology in these environments is temperature. A survey of NEA data was conducted to identify those NEAs whose projected interior temperatures remained within both potential (-5 - 100 ºC) and preferred (15 - 45 ºC) ranges for the minimum projected time per synodic period without exceeding 100 ºC at any point. Approximately 2800 of the 11000 NEAs (25%) are predicted to remain within the potential range for at least 90 days, and 120 (1%) in the preferred range.A second major factor is water availability and stability. We have evaluated a design for a small-spacecraft-based injector which forces low-temperature fluid into the NEA interior, creating potentially habitable microniches. The fluid contains microbes genetically engineered to accelerate the degradation rates of a desired fraction of the native resources, allowing for more efficient material extraction upon a subsequent

  4. Wellhead to wire utilization of remote gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.; Hines, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Utilization of remote gas resources in developing countries continues to offer challenges and opportunities to producers and contractors. The Aguaytia Gas and Power Project is an example where perseverance and creativity resulted in successful utilization of natural gas resources in the Ucayali Region of Central Peru, a country which previously had no natural gas infrastructure. The resource for the project was first discovered by Mobil in 1961, and remained undeveloped for over thirty years due to lack of infrastructure and markets. Maple Gas won a competitively bid contract to develop the Aguaytia gas reserves in March of 1993. The challenges facing Maple Gas were to develop downstream markets for the gas, execute contracts with Perupetro S.A. and other Peruvian government entities, raise financing for the project, and solicit and execute engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for the execution of the project. The key to development of the downstream markets was the decision to generate electric power and transmit the power over the Andes to the main electrical grid along the coast of Peru. Supplemental revenue could be generated by gas sales to a small regional power plant and extraction of LPG and natural gasoline for consumption in the Peruvian market. Three separate lump sum contracts were awarded to Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) companies for the gas project, power project and transmission project. Each project presented its unique challenges, but the commonalities were the accelerated schedule, high rainfall in a prolonged wet season and severe logistics due to lack of infrastructure in the remote region. This presentation focuses on how the gas plant contractor, ABB Randall, working in harmony with the developer, Maple Gas, tackled the challenges to monetize a remote gas resource

  5. Resource allocation for maximizing prediction accuracy and genetic gain of genomic selection in plant breeding: a simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    Allocating resources between population size and replication affects both genetic gain through phenotypic selection and quantitative trait loci detection power and effect estimation accuracy for marker-assisted selection (MAS). It is well known that because alleles are replicated across individuals in quantitative trait loci mapping and MAS, more resources should be allocated to increasing population size compared with phenotypic selection. Genomic selection is a form of MAS using all marker information simultaneously to predict individual genetic values for complex traits and has widely been found superior to MAS. No studies have explicitly investigated how resource allocation decisions affect success of genomic selection. My objective was to study the effect of resource allocation on response to MAS and genomic selection in a single biparental population of doubled haploid lines by using computer simulation. Simulation results were compared with previously derived formulas for the calculation of prediction accuracy under different levels of heritability and population size. Response of prediction accuracy to resource allocation strategies differed between genomic selection models (ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction [RR-BLUP], BayesCπ) and multiple linear regression using ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS), leading to different optimal resource allocation choices between OLS and RR-BLUP. For OLS, it was always advantageous to maximize population size at the expense of replication, but a high degree of flexibility was observed for RR-BLUP. Prediction accuracy of doubled haploid lines included in the training set was much greater than of those excluded from the training set, so there was little benefit to phenotyping only a subset of the lines genotyped. Finally, observed prediction accuracies in the simulation compared well to calculated prediction accuracies, indicating these theoretical formulas are useful for making resource allocation

  6. Water Electrolysis for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sending humans to Mars for any significant amount of time will require capabilities and technologies that enable Earth independence. To move towards this independence, the resources found on Mars must be utilized to produce the items needed to sustain humans away from Earth. To accomplish this task, NASA is studying In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems and techniques to make use of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the water found on Mars. Among other things, these substances can be harvested and processed to make oxygen and methane. Oxygen is essential, not only for sustaining the lives of the crew on Mars, but also as the oxidizer for an oxygen-methane propulsion system that could be utilized on a Mars ascent vehicle. Given the presence of water on Mars, the electrolysis of water is a common technique to produce the desired oxygen. Towards this goal, NASA designed and developed a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis system, which was originally slated to produce oxygen for propulsion and fuel cell use in the Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project. As part of the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) project, this same electrolysis system, originally targeted at enabling in situ propulsion and power, operated in a life-support scenario. During HESTIA testing at Johnson Space Center, the electrolysis system supplied oxygen to a chamber simulating a habitat housing four crewmembers. Inside the chamber, oxygen was removed from the atmosphere to simulate consumption by the crew, and the electrolysis system's oxygen was added to replenish it. The electrolysis system operated nominally throughout the duration of the HESTIA test campaign, and the oxygen levels in the life support chamber were maintained at the desired levels.

  7. Resource utilization for observation-status stays at children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Shah, Samir S; Hall, Matthew; Hain, Paul D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Del Beccaro, Mark A; Harding, John; Macy, Michelle L

    2013-06-01

    Observation status, in contrast to inpatient status, is a billing designation for hospital payment. Observation-status stays are presumed to be shorter and less resource-intensive, but utilization for pediatric observation-status stays has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe resource utilization characteristics for patients in observation and inpatient status in a national cohort of hospitalized children in the Pediatric Health Information System. This study was a retrospective cohort from 2010 of observation- and inpatient-status stays of ≤2 days; all children were admitted from the emergency department. Costs were analyzed and described. Comparison between costs adjusting for age, severity, and length of stay were conducted by using random-effect mixed models to account for clustering of patients within hospitals. Observation status was assigned to 67 230 (33.3%) discharges, but its use varied across hospitals (2%-45%). Observation-status stays had total median costs of $2559, including room costs and $678 excluding room costs. Twenty-five diagnoses accounted for 74% of stays in observation status, 4 of which were used for detailed analyses: asthma (n = 6352), viral gastroenteritis (n = 4043), bronchiolitis (n = 3537), and seizure (n = 3289). On average, after risk adjustment, observation-status stays cost $260 less than inpatient-status stays for these select 4 diagnoses. Large overlaps in costs were demonstrated for both types of stay. Variability in use of observation status with large overlap in costs and potential lower reimbursement compared with inpatient status calls into question the utility of segmenting patients according to billing status and highlights a financial risk for institutions with a high volume of pediatric patients in observation status.

  8. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  9. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  10. A strategy for investment in space resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1992-01-01

    Considerations governing a strategy for investment in the utilization of space resources are discussed. It is suggested on the basis of an examination of current trends in terms of historical processes which operate on new frontiers that the limited markets and unfamiliar technologies associated with space commercialization today may change dramatically in 20 years when lunar resources are accessible. It is argued that the uncertainty of such projections discourages investment at a useful scale unless a strategy for technology development can be implemented which provides tangible and marketable benefits in the intermediate term. At present, technologies can be identified which will be required (and therefore valuable) at the time of lunar settlement, and whose development can be planned to yield marketable intermediate products on earth. It is concluded that the formation of precompetitive collaborative research consortia in the industrial sector could reduce technical and economic risk in the early stages and could promote a favorable political environment for the future growth of space activities.

  11. Maximizing the benefit of health workforce secondment in Botswana: an approach for strengthening health systems in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grignon JS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jessica S Grignon,1,2 Jenny H Ledikwe,1,2 Ditsapelo Makati,2 Robert Nyangah,2 Baraedi W Sento,2 Bazghina-werq Semo1,2 1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, Botswana Abstract: To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. Keywords: human resources, health policy, health worker, HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR

  12. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  13. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  14. Utilization of bio-resources through nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamikazu Kume

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear technology such as gamma-ray, eb and ion beams is widely use for the utilization of bio-resources. Irradiation using gamma ray from 60 Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural uses. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding for medical and agricultural use. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding and the production of positron-emitting isotopes such as 11 C, 13 N, etc. It was succeeded to induce several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants in chrysanthemum and carnation by ion beams that have never produced by gamma-ray. The positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) has been developed to obtain a dynamic image of plant transport in situ. (Author)

  15. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  16. Utilization of Spent Resources in Support of Eco-Economic Decoupling in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Fikri Aulia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the development is often cause adverse environmental impacts. Adverse effects are environmental degradation and decreasing availability of resources. To overcome this, it is necessary that the development can still continue, the environment is not damaged, and the availability of resources is maintained. One effort is through eco - economic decoupling activities with the use of spent resources. The aim of study to determine the potential of spent resources in Central Java, knows the problems in the utilization of spent resources in Central Java, and to determine the impact of the utilization of spent resources in Central Java by a qualitative descriptive method. The results show that in the study have the potential of eco-economic decoupling indicated by the availability of spent resources and had done utilization of spent resources. However, this potential has not been optimally developed, because there are still some problems in its utilization. Problems in the use of spent resources are the lack of knowledge about eco-economic decoupling and spent resources among stakeholder, there is no specific policy on eco - economic decoupling, the lack of Local Government 's role in the utilization of spent resource, and the lack of synergy programs and activities in supporting the utilization of spent resources. Utilization of spent resources have positive impact to reduce pressure on the environment and natural resources, create a new job, and increase incomes for society.

  17. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally.

  18. improvisation and utilization of resources in the teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resources are inevitable in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and mathematics generally ... poor performance and low achievement in science and mathematics. Therefore these ..... Learning Resources for Primary science.

  19. Hospital admission planning to optimize major resources utilization under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Admission policies for elective inpatient services mainly result in the management of a single resource: the operating theatre as it is commonly considered as the most critical and expensive resource in a hospital. However, other bottleneck resources may lead to surgery cancellations, such as bed

  20. Impact on healthcare resource utilization of multiple sclerosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Ruíz-Beato, Elena; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-12-29

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with a high socioeconomic impact. The aim of this study was to assess healthcare resources utilization and costs in a sample of patients with MS. A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from 19 primary care centres in Asturias and Catalonia, Spain. Adult patients diagnosed with MS were distributed into two groups according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 0-3.5 (no-moderate disability) and 4-9.5 (severe disability). Healthcare (direct cost) and non-healthcare costs (work productivity losses) were analysed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for correction, p < 0.05. A multiple regression model was performed to obtain the variables associated with costs. A total of 222 patients were analyzed; mean (SD) age: 45.5 (12.5) years, 64.4% female, and 62.2% presented a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS. Median EDSS score was 2.5, with 68.5% of the patients with no to moderate disability. The mean annual cost per MS patient was €25,103. For no-moderate and severe disability, the ANCOVA-adjusted mean annual cost was €23,157 and €29,242, respectively (p = 0.013). Direct costs and MS disease-modifying therapy accounted for 39.4% and 31.7% of the total costs, respectively. The total costs were associated with number of relapses (β = 0.135, p = 0.001), time since diagnosis (β = 0.281, p = 0.023), and age (β = 0.198, p = 0.037). Multiple sclerosis imposes a substantial economic burden on the Spanish National Health System, patients and society as a whole. Costs significantly correlated with disease progression.

  1. Biomass for biorefining: Resources, allocation, utilization, and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of biomass in the development of renewable energy, the availability and allocation of biomass, its preparation for use in biorefineries, and the policies affecting biomass are discussed in this chapter. Bioenergy development will depend on maximizing the amount of biomass obtained fro...

  2. Wind as a utility-grade supply resource: A planning framework for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.S.; Litchfield, J.

    1993-12-01

    Many areas throughout the United States possess favorable wind resources that, as yet, remain undeveloped. This paper provides valuable information on the type of information developers can provide, utility interpretation of the information in regard to electric energy and capacity attributes, and wind resource characteristics of interest to utilities. The paper also reviews key utility planning contexts within which prospective wind resources may be evaluated

  3. Hospital admission planning to optimize major resources utilization under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Dellaert, N.P.; Jeunet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Admission policies for elective inpatient services mainly result in the management of a single resource: the operating theatre as it is commonly considered as the most critical and expensive resource in a hospital. However, other bottleneck resources may lead to surgery cancellations, such as bed capacity and nursing staff in Intensive Care (IC) units and bed occupancy in wards or medium care (MC) services. Our incentive is therefore to determine a master schedule of a given number of patient...

  4. A Technical Mode for Sharing and Utilizing Open Educational Resources in Chinese Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources just supply potentials to help equalize the access to worldwide knowledge and education, but themselves alone do not cause effective learning or education. How to make effective use of the resources is still a big challenge. In this study, a technical mode is proposed to collect the open educational resources from different sources on the Internet into a campus-network-based resource management system. The system facilitates free and easy access to the resources for instructors and students in universities and integrates the resources into learning and teaching. The technical issues regarding the design the resource management system are examined, including the structure and functions of the system, metadata standard compatibility and scalability, metadata file format, and resource utilization assessment. Furthermore, the resource collecting, storage and utilization modes are also discussed so as to lay a technical basis for extensive and efficient sharing and utilization of the OER in Chinese universities.

  5. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  6. Monitoring Resource Utilization in a Health Care Coordination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popejoy, Lori L; Jaddoo, Julie; Sherman, Jan; Howk, Christopher; Nguyen, Raymond; Parker, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    This initial article describes the development of a health care coordination intervention and documentation system designed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Care Coordination Atlas framework for Centers for Medicare & Medicaid-funded innovation project, Leveraging Information Technology to Guide High-Tech, High-Touch Care (LIGHT). The study occurred at an academic medical center that serves 114 counties. Twenty-five registered nurse care managers (NCMs) were hired to work with 137 providers in 10 family community and internal medicine clinics. Patients were allocated into one of the four tiers on the basis of their chronic medical conditions and health care utilization. Using a documentation system on the basis of the AHRQ domains developed for this study, time and touch data were calculated for 8,593 Medicare, Medicaid, or dual-eligible patients. We discovered through the touch and time analysis that the majority of health care coordination activity occurred in the AHRQ domains of communication, assess needs and goals, and facilitate transitions, accounting for 79% of the NCM time and 61% of the touches. As expected, increasing tier levels resulted in increased use of NCM resources. Tier 3 accounted for roughly 16% of the patients and received 159 minutes/member (33% of total minutes), and Tier 4 accounted for 4% of patients and received 316 minutes/member (17% of all minutes). In contrast Tier 2, which did not require routine touches per protocol, had 5,507 patients (64%), and those patients received 5,246 hours of health care coordination, or 57 minutes/member, and took 48% of NCM time. 1. The AHRQ Care Coordination Atlas offered a systematic way to build a documentation system that allowed for the extraction of data that was used to calculate the amount of time and the number of touches that NCMs delivered per member. 2. Using a framework to systematically guide the work of health care coordination helped NCMs to think strategically

  7. Efficient Resource Utilization in Shared-Everything Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); J.K. Obermaier

    1998-01-01

    textabstractEfficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present floating probe, a

  8. Efficient resource utilization in shared-everything environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); J.K. Obermaier

    1997-01-01

    textabstractEfficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present emph{floating probe, a

  9. Accessing And Utilizing Hinagoa Resources On The Internet By The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents simple descriptive steps required in accessing full -text articles from the HINAGOA resources on the Internet. The primary aim is to enable NIFOR scientists search and obtain desired information from the HINAGOA resources much more precis ely and efficiently. The three portals that make up HINAGOA, ...

  10. Multiple Intimate Partner Violence Experiences: Knowledge, Access, Utilization and Barriers to Utilization of Resources by Women of the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A; St Vil, Noelle M; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women.

  11. Gender Division and Utilization of Natural Resources: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It farther focuses on gendered decision-making and negotiation over the ... Roles of men and women in natural resources use, management and ... Special attention should be paid on treating male and female on rational and equal basis.

  12. Using Forecasting to Predict Long-Term Resource Utilization for Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoas, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have spent years understanding resource utilization to improve scheduling, load balancing, and system management through short-term prediction of resource utilization. Early research focused primarily on single operating systems; later, interest shifted to distributed systems and, finally, into web services. In each case researchers…

  13. On utilization bounds for a periodic resource under rate monotonic scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renssen, van A.M.; Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Poncin, W.; Bril, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper revisits utilization bounds for a periodic resource under the rate monotonic (RM) scheduling algorithm. We show that the existing utilization bound, as presented in [8, 9], is optimistic. We subsequently show that by viewing the unavailability of the periodic resource as a deferrable

  14. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  15. Resource Guide to Effective Utility Management and Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastewater utilities are critical to the environmental, economic, and social well being of our nation’s communities, as they work to ensure that the public continues to enjoy the benefits of clean and safe water.

  16. Utilization of Web-Based Information Resources for Researchers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the postgraduate students and lectures of three universities in the state who are registered library users formed the population of the study. Two research ... The implication of the findings implies that university libraries that provide such resources effectively will help to promote academic scholarship and research.

  17. Improvisation and utilization of resources in the teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the importance of improvisation in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in the senior secondary schools in Cross River State of N Nigeria. Human and material resources are inevitable in enhancing the teaching and learning of science and mathematics generally and practically at this ...

  18. June, 2015 Utilization of Reference Resources and Services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Library and Information Science, MAUTECH, Yola ... reference resources and services mostly for their course work and research works. ... business settings; reference services provided ..... Table 5: Strategies to be adopted to overcome the problems of provision and .... American Library Association, p.782.

  19. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  20. Factors Influencing Post-Adoptive Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations expend a great deal of time, effort and money on the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. They are considered the price of entry for large organizations to do business. Yet the success rate of ERP systems is poor. IS literature suggests that one possible reason for this is the underutilization of these…

  1. Achieving resource sustainability and enhancing economic development through biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    As the problems associated with sustaining and enhancing the world's forest and agricultural resources compete with the needs of a rapidly increasing and affluent population, the management of our land becomes a much more complex and important issue. One of the most important environmental features of wood and other woody-like fibers is that they are renewable and...

  2. Utilization of vast Nigeria's bamboo resources for economic growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo is recognized as an industrial raw material globally and has tremendous potentials for the economic development of the nations. This paper reviewed the potentials of the abundant Nigeria's bamboo resources used for house construction, household items, biofuel, charcoal, pulp and paper, irrigation and drainage ...

  3. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  4. Critical Uses of College Resources. Part I: Personnel Utilization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Mantha

    A Personnel Utilization System has been designed at Broward Community College, which combines payroll, personnel, course, and function information in order to determine the actual duties performed by personnel for the amount of remuneration received. Objectives of the system are (1) to define the tasks being performed by faculty, staff, and…

  5. Utilizing Distributed Resources in Smart Grids - A Coordination Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    as well as its limitations. Enforcing coordination through temporal shifts of consumption and production requires the problems we consider to be solved across some predefined time-horizon. Utilizing flexibility of consumers through coordination, is known as demand management, and considers how consumers...

  6. Dynamic Coupling Analysis of Urbanization and Water Resource Utilization Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While urbanization brings economic and social benefits, it also causes water pollution and other environmental ecological problems. This paper provides a theoretical framework to quantitatively analyze the dynamic relationship between water resource utilization and the process of urbanization. Using data from Jiangsu province, we first construct indices to evaluate urbanization and water resource utilization. We then adopt an entropy model to examine the correlation between urbanization and water resource utilization. In addition, we introduce a dynamic coupling model to analyze and predict the coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization. Our analyses show that pairing with rising urbanization during 2002–2014, the overall index of water resource utilization in Jiangsu province has experienced a “decline -rise-decline” trend. Specifically, after the index of water resource utilization reached its lowest point in 2004, it gradually began to rise. Water resource utilization reached its highest value in 2010. The coupling degree between urbanization and water resource utilization was relatively low in 2002 and 2003 varying between −90° and 0°. It has been rising since then. Out-of-sample forecasts indicate that the coupling degree will reach its highest value of 74.799° in 2016, then will start to gradually decline. Jiangsu province was chosen as our studied area because it is one of the selected pilot provinces for China’s economic reform and social development. The analysis of the relationship between provincial water resource utilization and urbanization is essential to the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these two systems. It also serves as an important input for developing national policies for sustainable urbanization and water resource management.

  7. Benefits and performance of ATLAS approaches to utilizing opportunistic resources

    CERN Document Server

    Filip\\v{c}i\\v{c}, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has been extensively exploring possibilities of using computing resources extending beyond conventional grid sites in the WLCG fabric to deliver as many computing cycles as possible and thereby enhance the significance of the Monte-Carlo samples to deliver better physics results. The difficulties of using such opportunistic resources come from architectural differences such as unavailability of grid services, the absence of network connectivity on worker nodes or inability to use standard authorization protocols. Nevertheless, ATLAS has been extremely successful in running production payloads on a variety of sites, thanks largely to the job execution workflow design in which the job assignment, input data provisioning and execution steps are clearly separated and can be offloaded to custom services. To transparently include the opportunistic sites in the ATLAS central production system, several models with supporting services have been developed to mimic the functionality of a full WLCG site. Some are e...

  8. Management and utilization of forest resources in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B.L. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    Papua New Guinea, with an area of about 46.7 million ha and population of 3.7 million, is blessed with a large natural forest resource. Over 80 percent of the land is covered with forests of various types, ranging from swamp and lowland rain forests in coastal plains to alpine vegetation and moss forests in the highlands, most of which are owned by the people. About 15...

  9. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  10. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  11. Examining the Possibility of an E-Resource Collection Maximal Mass: Looking beyond the Critical Mass of E-Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the possibility that e-journal collections can reach a maximum size that satisfies long-term patron needs without further significant expansion. The study included collection and usage data taken from 2000 to 2013. In terms of the e-journal collection, the occurrence of a maximal mass appears to be very real. The…

  12. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  14. How integrated resource planning for US electric utilities affects shareholder interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) seeks to identify the mix of resources that can best meet the future energy-service needs of customers. These resources include new sources, types, and owners of power plants plus demand-side management (DSM) programs. However, little explicit attention is given to utility shareholders in the typical resource-planning proceeding. Because of the complexity of state regulatory practices and tax policies, it seems unlikely that different resources that provide comparable services to customers will yield comparable returns to shareholders. This study examines a typical US investor-owned utility's financial operations and performance using a spreadsheet model we developed for this project. The model simulates an electric utility's financial operations, and produces an annual income statement, balance sheet, and cash-flow statement. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility's operating environment. Given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we examined shareholder returns for these resources in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price. (author)

  15. Stable tooth contacts in intercuspal occlusion makes for utilities of the jaw elevators during maximal voluntary clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-R; Zhang, Y; Xing, N; Xu, Y-F; Wang, M-Q

    2013-05-01

    Data are inconsistent concerning whether the level of the surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of jaw-closing muscles increases when biting forces elevated during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). In this study, T-Scan III system and BioEMG III system were used to record bite force, occlusal contacts and SEMG activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and of the masseter muscles (MM) simultaneously. Recordings were obtained from 16 healthy young adult males during different conditions: (i) a fast MVC from resting position to intercuspal position (ICP); (ii) mandibular movements from ICP to protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions with teeth in contact with biting; (iii) a fast MVC in protrusive and lateral edge-to-edge positions. A higher level of SEMG activity was associated with a higher bite force during occluding movements (P < 0.05). However, during fast MVC from rest to ICP, the largest number of occlusal contacts was achieved and distributed more symmetrically, the highest level of biting force was obtained, but the SEMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles was reduced compared with its maximum level (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was not observed during the fast MVC in protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions. The present results that a lower SEMG activity was associated with the largest number of occlusal contacts and the highest level of bite force during centric MVC demonstrated a complex integration of jaw-closing muscles when a stable occlusion is present. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Waste resources utilization program. Interim report, June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    This is an interim report on the effects of the combined use of heat and ionizing radiation (thermoradiation) as a treatment for ridding sewage sludge of pathogenic organisms as well as its effect on the physical-chemical properties. This activity couples two major environmental problems, disposition of human and of nuclear waste, in an attempt to provide a framework in which both will become useful resources. This combined treatment might be chosen to inactivate both heat labile (but possibly radiation resistant) and radiation labile (but possibly heat resistant) organisms. The cost-effective analyses of such a treatment are being examined. Sludge treated with thermoradiation offers considerable potential for use as a fertilizer in agriculture or a soil conditioner for land reclamation free of the potential health hazards associated with conventional methods of land disposal. Treated sludge may also provide a low-cost substitute for high-nutritional components in ruminant diets

  17. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, David; Vukotic, Ilija; Schaffer, RD; Dimitrov, Gancho; Aidel, Osman; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  18. Outline of multipurpose utilization of geothermal resources in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.Y.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, J.; Huang, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    China is rich in geothermal resources. The lower temperature limit of geothermal waters in China is defined as 25/sup 0/C. The thermal waters are categorized into three groups: low (25/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C), medium (60/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C) and high (> 100/sup 0/C) temperature thermal water. Xizang (Tibet), Taiwan and Yunnan are the most promising regions for the development of high temperature geothermal energy. Medium-low temperature water is more efficient for direct use. Since 1977, six experimental geothermal power stations have been set up throughout the country. In Beijing (Peking), Tianjin and other places thermal water has been used for space heating, industrial processing, agriculture, horticulture, and therapeutic sanatoriums, etc.

  19. Utilization of market research in managing hospital pharmacy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L; McNamara, E J

    1984-10-01

    A market research survey of staff physicians and nurses was completed to obtain information on customer preference to be used in making planning and development decisions about the allocation of the pharmacy department's resources. Survey questionnaires were mailed to representative samples of each professional group and included the optimum mix of open-ended and closed-ended questions that would result in the highest response rate. The survey responses identified differences in wants and needs between the nurses and physicians that demonstrate the value of market research. Data obtained from the survey are being used by a staff advisory committee and management to develop departmental goals and objectives that will reduce costs and increase profit margins under the ever-increasing restrictions of prospective reimbursement.

  20. Maximizing the Impact of Systematic Reviews in Health Care Decision Making: A Systematic Scoping Review of Knowledge-Translation Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul M; Thompson, Carl A; Hanbury, Andria; Farley, Katherine; Light, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Context: Barriers to the use of systematic reviews by policymakers may be overcome by resources that adapt and present the findings in formats more directly tailored to their needs. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify such knowledge-translation resources and evaluations of them. Methods: Resources were eligible for inclusion in this study if they were based exclusively or primarily on systematic reviews and were aimed at health care policymakers at the national or local level. Resources were identified by screening the websites of health technology assessment agencies and systematic review producers, supplemented by an email survey. Electronic databases and proceedings of the Cochrane Colloquium and HTA International were searched as well for published and unpublished evaluations of knowledge-translation resources. Resources were classified as summaries, overviews, or policy briefs using a previously published classification. Findings: Twenty knowledge-translation resources were identified, of which eleven were classified as summaries, six as overviews, and three as policy briefs. Resources added value to systematic reviews by, for example, evaluating their methodological quality or assessing the reliability of their conclusions or their generalizability to particular settings. The literature search found four published evaluation studies of knowledge-translation resources, and the screening of abstracts and contact with authors found three more unpublished studies. The majority of studies reported on the perceived usefulness of the service, although there were some examples of review-based resources being used to assist actual decision making. Conclusions: Systematic review producers provide a variety of resources to help policymakers, of which focused summaries are the most common. More evaluations of these resources are required to ensure users’ needs are being met, to demonstrate their impact, and to justify their funding. PMID:21418315

  1. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy. - Highlights: ► The global industrial sector and its industries are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. ► Global industrial sector efficiencies are evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. ► Exergy analysis shows global industrial energy to be less efficient than does energy analysis. ► A misleadingly low margin for efficiency improvement is indicated by energy analysis. ► A significant and rational margin for efficiency improvement exists from an exergy perspective

  2. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  3. Surgical resource utilization in urban terrorist bombing: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A; Stein, M; Walden, R

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the utilization of surgical staff and facilities during an urban terrorist bombing incident. A discrete-event computer model of the emergency room and related hospital facilities was constructed and implemented, based on cumulated data from 12 urban terrorist bombing incidents in Israel. The simulation predicts that the admitting capacity of the hospital depends primarily on the number of available surgeons and defines an optimal staff profile for surgeons, residents, and trauma nurses. The major bottlenecks in the flow of critical casualties are the shock rooms and the computed tomographic scanner but not the operating rooms. The simulation also defines the number of reinforcement staff needed to treat noncritical casualties and shows that radiology is the major obstacle to the flow of these patients. Computer simulation is an important new tool for the optimization of surgical service elements for a multiple-casualty situation.

  4. Daily Migraine Prevention and Its Influence on Resource Utilization in the Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Connection Between Prevention and Resource Use .....................17 Synthesis of Literature Review...Utilization ..................................26 Treatment Evaluation with Observational Designs .........................31 Synthesis of Conceptual...amitriptyline atenolol cyproheptadine methysergide carbamazepine divalproex fluoxetine bupropion clomipramine propranolol gabapentin diltiazem

  5. Miniature Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for In-Situ Resource Utilization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from...

  6. Geographic information system in marine biology: Way for sustainable utilization of living resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    Sustainable utilization of aquatic living resources needs accurate assessment. This stress the need for use of Geographic Information System (GIS). In the recent past interest has been generated for use of GIS in various areas of biological...

  7. The Impact of Relaxation and Hypnosis on Medical Resources Utilization in Pediatric Asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barber, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    .... The estimated economic impact of asthma in the United States exceeds $6.2 billion. Behavioral interventions have been shown to improve the management of pediatric asthma, as well as reduce the utilization of medical resources...

  8. An Efficient Heat Exchanger for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from...

  9. Utilizing the Total Design Method in medicine: maximizing response rates in long, non-incentivized, personal questionnaire postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Haggie, Rebecca; Forouhi, Parto; Kazzazi, Nazar; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Maximizing response rates in questionnaires can improve their validity and quality by reducing non-response bias. A comprehensive analysis is essential for producing reasonable conclusions in patient-reported outcome research particularly for topics of a sensitive nature. This often makes long (≥7 pages) questionnaires necessary but these have been shown to reduce response rates in mail surveys. Our work adapted the "Total Design Method," initially produced for commercial markets, to raise response rates in a long (total: 11 pages, 116 questions), non-incentivized, very personal postal survey sent to almost 350 women. A total of 346 women who had undergone mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 2008-2014 (inclusive) at Addenbrooke's University Hospital were sent our study pack (Breast-Q satisfaction questionnaire and support documents) using our modified "Total Design Method." Participants were sent packs and reminders according to our designed schedule. Of the 346 participants, we received 258 responses, an overall response rate of 74.5% with a useable response rate of 72.3%. One hundred and six responses were received before the week 1 reminder (30.6%), 120 before week 3 (34.6%), 225 before the week 7 reminder (64.6%) and the remainder within 3 weeks of the final pack being sent. The median age of patients that the survey was sent to, and the median age of the respondents, was 54 years. In this study, we have demonstrated the successful implementation of a novel approach to postal surveys. Despite the length of the questionnaire (nine pages, 116 questions) and limitations of expenses to mail a survey to ~350 women, we were able to attain a response rate of 74.6%.

  10. Modeling Resource Utilization of a Large Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Vandelli, Wainer; Froening, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS 'Phase-II' upgrade, scheduled to start in 2024, will significantly change the requirements under which the data-acquisition system operates. The input data rate, currently fixed around 150 GB/s, is anticipated to reach 5 TB/s. In order to deal with the challenging conditions, and exploit the capabilities of newer technologies, a number of architectural changes are under consideration. Of particular interest is a new component, known as the Storage Handler, which will provide a large buffer area decoupling real-time data taking from event filtering. Dynamic operational models of the upgraded system can be used to identify the required resources and to select optimal techniques. In order to achieve a robust and dependable model, the current data-acquisition architecture has been used as a test case. This makes it possible to verify and calibrate the model against real operation data. Such a model can then be evolved toward the future ATLAS Phase-II architecture. In this paper we introduce the current ...

  11. Modelling Resource Utilization of a Large Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS 'Phase-II' upgrade, scheduled to start in 2024, will significantly change the requirements under which the data-acquisition system operates. The input data rate, currently fixed around 150 GB/s, is anticipated to reach 5 TB/s. In order to deal with the challenging conditions, and exploit the capabilities of newer technologies, a number of architectural changes are under consideration. Of particular interest is a new component, known as the Storage Handler, which will provide a large buffer area decoupling real-time data taking from event filtering. Dynamic operational models of the upgraded system can be used to identify the required resources and to select optimal techniques. In order to achieve a robust and dependable model, the current data-acquisition architecture has been used as a test case. This makes it possible to verify and calibrate the model against real operation data. Such a model can then be evolved toward the future ATLAS Phase-II architecture. In this paper we introduce the current ...

  12. Geothermal energy resources of the USSR and their utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, W

    1961-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the areas with the highest geothermal gradient are found in the region of Kamchatka, in the Kuriles, and in western Turkmenia. Test drilling in Kamchatka has produced hot water at a temperature of 200/sup 0/C from a depth of 100-300 m. If a pressure of 300-400 kPa is maintained, the wells can bring the fluids to the surface as a two-phase mixture of steam and hot water. In 1961, plans were being made for the construction of a 12 MW power plant and several greenhouses. Other heat sources were being developed to heat the city of Petropavlovsk. In the northern Cauacasus, hot water is encountered only at depths greater than about 2.5 km, but the quantity available is sufficient to provide the heating needs of several major cities. In the Republic of Daghestan, test drilling has revealed hot water sources which are pressurized to 1.6 MPa, and which produce at a rate of 100 m/sup 3//h. Enormous geothermal energy resources are located in artesian reservoirs beneath western Siberia, over an extent of 3 million km/sup 2/.

  13. A strategy for investment in space resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    During the first quarter of the next Century, space transportation systems will be capable of routine flights of humans and cargo to the Moon. The general acceptance of permanent human presence in space, as exemplified by at least two manned stations in LEO at that time, will lead to one or more staffed outposts on the Moon. Whether such outposts evolve into sustained, growing settlements will depend, in part, on whether the economic context attracts substantial private investment. A planetary surface provides a material and gravitational environment distinct from that of an orbiting space station and thus provides a setting familiar to non-aerospace sectors of terrestrial industry. Examination of current trends in terms of historical processes which operate on new frontiers suggests that the limited markets and unfamiliar technologies associated with space commercialization today may change dramatically in 20 years when lunar resources are accessible. However, the uncertainty and vagueness of such projections discourages investment at a useful scale unless a strategy for technology development can be implemented which provides tangible and marketable benefits in the intermediate term. At the present time technologies can be identified (a) that will be required (and therefore valuable) at the time of lunar settlement and (b) whose development can be planned to yield marketable intermediate products on Earth. Formation of pre-competitive, collaborative research consortia in the industrial sector could reduce technical and economic risk in the early stages and could promote a favorable political environment for the future growth of space activities.

  14. Discussing Landscape Compositional Scenarios Generated with Maximization of Non-Expected Utility Decision Models Based on Weighted Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pinto Casquilho

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for hypothetical optimal solutions of landscape composition is a major issue in landscape planning and it can be outlined in a two-dimensional decision space involving economic value and landscape diversity, the latter being considered as a potential safeguard to the provision of services and externalities not accounted in the economic value. In this paper, we use decision models with different utility valuations combined with weighted entropies respectively incorporating rarity factors associated to Gini-Simpson and Shannon measures. A small example of this framework is provided and discussed for landscape compositional scenarios in the region of Nisa, Portugal. The optimal solutions relative to the different cases considered are assessed in the two-dimensional decision space using a benchmark indicator. The results indicate that the likely best combination is achieved by the solution using Shannon weighted entropy and a square root utility function, corresponding to a risk-averse behavior associated to the precautionary principle linked to safeguarding landscape diversity, anchoring for ecosystem services provision and other externalities. Further developments are suggested, mainly those relative to the hypothesis that the decision models here outlined could be used to revisit the stability-complexity debate in the field of ecological studies.

  15. A widely adaptable habitat construction system utilizing space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Harry B.

    1993-01-01

    This study suggests that the cost of providing accommodations for various manned activities in space may be reduced by the extensive use of resources that are commonly found throughout the solar system. Several concepts are proposed for converting these resources into simple products with many uses. Concrete is already being considered as a possible moonbase material. Manufacturing equipment should be as small and simple as possible, which leads to the idea of molding it into miniature modules that can be produced and assembled in large numbers to create any conceivable shape. Automated equipment could build up complex structures by laying down layer after layer in a process resembling stereolithography. These tiny concrete blocks handle compression loads and provide a barrier to harmful radiation. They are joined by a web of tension members that could be made of wire or fiber-reinforced plastic. The finished structure becomes air-tight with the addition of a flexible liner. Wire can be made from the iron modules found in lunar soil. In addition to its structural role, a relatively simple apparatus can bend and weld it into countless products like chairs and shelving that would otherwise need to be supplied from Earth. Wire woven into a loose blanket could be an effective micrometeoroid shield, tiny wire compression beams could be assembled into larger beams which in turn form larger beams to create very large space-frame structures. A technology developed with lunar materials could be applied to the moons of Mars or the asteroids. To illustrate its usefulness several designs for free-flying habitats are presented. They begin with a minimal self-contained living unit called the Cubicle. It may be multiplied into clusters called Condos. These are shown in a rotating tether configuration that provides a substitute for gravity. The miniature block proposal is compared with an alternate design based on larger triangular components and a tetrahedral geometry. The

  16. Information resources: How they are utilized by Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S. [Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Baton Rouge (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Louisiana, now in a developmental stage of policy and planning, has completed a project aimed at reducing hazardous releases of air toxics in thee state. The state is also conducting a Comparative Risk Project and is using risk assessment practices to develop its waste quality standards. In developing an air toxic list, Louisiana incorporated four major criteria into the ranking: emission levels, human health effects, potential population exposure, and persistence or accumulation in the environment. For the human health effects criterion, data for each substance was gathered from numerous sources, although the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was used as a primary source for toxicological information. Following guidelines established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Office of Water Resources, Water Pollution Control Division, has developed numerical criteria for human health protection based on risk assessment procedures in the 1989 Water Quality Standards Revision. Currently over 30 toxic substances have risk-based criteria for th protection of human health in the standards. Numerical criteria were calculated for carcinogenic substances having an EPA Classification of A, B1, B2, or C. Cancer class designations along with cancer potency slopes and reference doses were extracted from the IRIS database, with the exception of those chemicals that had not been assessed in IRIS as of December 1, 1988. The parameters necessary for calculating human health criteria for the missing chemicals were taken from 1980, 1984, and 1985 ambient water quality criteria documents: data on bioconcentration factors were included. Currently, Louisiana is working on a Comparative Risk Project, a ranking of the environmental issues in the state relative to potential risk to the public, which is the basis for a widespread 1991 public outreach effort.

  17. A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the utilization of serial resources in selected tertiary institutions in Ogun State. ... Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science ... Serial resources are publications either in printed form or electronic format issued in successive parts usually having numerical or chronological designations and intended to be ...

  18. Ethnic Resources Utilization of Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Chicago Minority Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Chung; Hurh, Won Moo

    1985-01-01

    Korean entrepreneurs rely heavily on their ethnic resources for both business formation and operation. While such resource utilization facilitates immigrants' business entry and gives them competitive advantage in the general marketplace, the same mechanism poses the problems of entra-ethnic business competition and precarious position as a…

  19. Method of configuring a cell of a wireless communication system for improved resource utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    At least one base station of a wireless network adjusts its access area so as to drive at least one measure of utilization of a resource or resources of that cell toward, but not to exceed, a specified maximum level. The adjustment is dynamic in that it responds in real time to traffic fluctuations.

  20. MO-FG-207-03: Maximizing the Utility of Integrated PET/MRI in Clinical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, S. [University of California (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  1. MO-FG-207-03: Maximizing the Utility of Integrated PET/MRI in Clinical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee

  2. Aortic anatomic severity grade correlates with resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Khurram; Cullen, John P; Seaman, Matthew J; Messing, Susan; Ellis, Jennifer L; Glocker, Roan J; Doyle, Adam J; Stoner, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    total cost and need for adjunctive procedures during EVAR. Preoperative assessment with ASG scores can delineate patients at greater risk for increased resource use. Patient comorbid factors are associated with anatomic complexity defined according to ASG. A critical examination of the relationship between anatomic complexity and finances is required within the context of aggressive endovascular treatment strategies and shifts toward value-based reimbursement. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation on equality and efficiency of health resources allocation and health services utilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Luo, Hongye

    2017-07-14

    China is faced with a daunting challenge to equality and efficiency in health resources allocation and health services utilization in the context of rapid economic growth. This study sought to evaluate the equality and efficiency of health resources allocation and health services utilization in China. Demographic, economic, and geographic area data was sourced from China Statistical Yearbook 2012-2016. Data related to health resources and health services was obtained from China Health Statistics Yearbook 2012-2016. Furthermore, we evaluated the equality of health resources allocation based on Gini coefficient. Concentration index was used to measure the equality in utilization of health services. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was employed to assess the efficiency of health resources allocation. From 2011 to 2015, the Gini coefficients for health resources by population ranged between 0.0644 and 0.1879, while the Gini coefficients for the resources by geographic area ranged from 0.6136 to 0.6568. Meanwhile, the concentration index values for health services utilization ranged from -0.0392 to 0.2110. Moreover, in 2015, 10 provinces (32.26%) were relatively efficient in terms of health resources allocation, while 7 provinces (22.58%) and 14 provinces (45.16%) were weakly efficient and inefficient, respectively. There exist distinct regional disparities in the distribution of health resources in China, which are mainly reflected in the geographic distribution of health resources. Furthermore, the people living in the eastern developed areas are more likely to use outpatient care, while the people living in western underdeveloped areas are more likely to use inpatient care. Moreover, the efficiency of health resources allocation in 21 provinces (67.74%) of China was low and needs to be improved. Thus, the government should pay more attention to the equality based on geographic area, guide patients to choose medical treatment rationally, and optimize the resource

  4. Adaptive Resource Utilization Prediction System for Infrastructure as a Service Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Zia Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS cloud provides resources as a service from a pool of compute, network, and storage resources. Cloud providers can manage their resource usage by knowing future usage demand from the current and past usage patterns of resources. Resource usage prediction is of great importance for dynamic scaling of cloud resources to achieve efficiency in terms of cost and energy consumption while keeping quality of service. The purpose of this paper is to present a real-time resource usage prediction system. The system takes real-time utilization of resources and feeds utilization values into several buffers based on the type of resources and time span size. Buffers are read by R language based statistical system. These buffers’ data are checked to determine whether their data follows Gaussian distribution or not. In case of following Gaussian distribution, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA is applied; otherwise Autoregressive Neural Network (AR-NN is applied. In ARIMA process, a model is selected based on minimum Akaike Information Criterion (AIC values. Similarly, in AR-NN process, a network with the lowest Network Information Criterion (NIC value is selected. We have evaluated our system with real traces of CPU utilization of an IaaS cloud of one hundred and twenty servers.

  5. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  6. A Delphi study assessing the utility of quality improvement tools and resources in Australian primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upham, Susan J; Janamian, Tina; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-04-18

    To determine the relevance and utility of online tools and resources to support organisational performance development in primary care and to complement the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool (PC-PIT). A purposively recruited Expert Advisory Panel of 12 end users used a modified Delphi technique to evaluate 53 tools and resources identified through a previously conducted systematic review. The panel comprised six practice managers and six general practitioners who had participated in the PC-PIT pilot study in 2013-2014. Tools and resources were reviewed in three rounds using a standard pre-tested assessment form. Recommendations, scores and reasons for recommending or rejecting each tool or resource were analysed to determine the final suite of tools and resources. The evaluation was conducted from November 2014 to August 2015. Recommended tools and resources scored highly (mean score, 16/20) in Rounds 1 and 2 of review (n = 25). These tools and resources were perceived to be easily used, useful to the practice and supportive of the PC-PIT. Rejected resources scored considerably lower (mean score, 5/20) and were noted to have limitations such as having no value to the practice and poor utility (n = 6). A final review (Round 3) of 28 resources resulted in a suite of 21 to support the elements of the PC-PIT. This suite of tools and resources offers one approach to supporting the quality improvement initiatives currently in development in primary care reform.

  7. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  8. Impact of solifenacin on resource utilization, work productivity and health utility in overactive bladder patients switching from tolterodine ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Norman; Noe, Les; Rasouliyan, Lawrence; Marshall, Thomas; Seifeldin, Raafat

    2008-06-01

    Assess changes in resource utilization, work and activity impairment, and health utility among OAB patients continuing to have urgency symptoms with tolterodine ER 4 mg and willing to try solifenacin 5/10 mg. This was an open-label, non-comparative, flexible-dosing, multicenter, 12-week study assessing the efficacy and safety of solifenacin 5/10 mg/day. Patients receiving tolterodine ER 4 mg/day for >/=4 weeks but continuing to experience residual urgency symptoms (>/=3 urgency episodes/24 h) were enrolled into the study. After a 14-day washout, patients began treatment with solifenacin 5 mg/day with dosing adjustments allowed at Weeks 4 and 8. Outcomes were assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire - Specific Health Problem (WPAI-SHP), Health Utilities Index (HUI), and a resource utilization questionnaire administered at Pre-Washout and Week 12. Patients (n=440) reported significantly fewer physician office visits (pwork time missed (p=0.0017), less impairment while working (pwork impairment (pwork productivity, activity participation, and reduced medical care use in OAB patients who continued to have urgency symptoms with tolterodine ER 4 mg/day and wished to switch to solifenacin 5/10 mg. This was an open-label, non-comparative study; therefore, further research is needed to confirm these results.

  9. Recovery and Resource Allocation Strategies to Maximize Mobile Network Survivability by Using Game Theories and Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With more and more mobile device users, an increasingly important and critical issue is how to efficiently evaluate mobile network survivability. In this paper, a novel metric called Average Degree of Disconnectivity (Average DOD is proposed, in which the concept of probability is calculated by the contest success function. The DOD metric is used to evaluate the damage degree of the network, where the larger the value of the Average DOD, the more the damage degree of the network. A multiround network attack-defense scenario as a mathematical model is used to support network operators to predict all the strategies both cyber attacker and network defender would likely take. In addition, the Average DOD would be used to evaluate the damage degree of the network. In each round, the attacker could use the attack resources to launch attacks on the nodes of the target network. Meanwhile, the network defender could reallocate its existing resources to recover compromised nodes and allocate defense resources to protect the survival nodes of the network. In the approach to solving this problem, the “gradient method” and “game theory” are adopted to find the optimal resource allocation strategies for both the cyber attacker and mobile network defender.

  10. A LINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD TO ENHANCE RESOURCE UTILIZATION CASE OF ETHIOPIAN APPAREL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ethiopian industrial development strategy is characterized by export-led and labor intensive industrialization. The country is emerging as the most important investment destination in its apparel sector. Thought this sector is expected to generate more income from the export market, its export earnings remain trivial mainly due to the inefficient organizational resource utilization. One of the competent techniques that help companies to efficiently improve the use of their resources to increase their profit is linear programming. In apparel manufacturing firms, efficient use of materials such as fabrics and sewing threads and processing time at different stages of production as well as minimization of labor and materials cost are necessary to enhance their profitability. Cutting, sewing, and finishing operations deserve more attention for apparel process optimization. However, the issue of proper resource allocation remains an unsolved problem within the Ethiopian apparel industry. The aim of this research is to devise efficient resource utilization mechanism for Ethiopian apparel sector to improve their resource utilization and profitability, taking one of the garment factories engaged in the export market as a case study. Five types of products the company is currently producing, the amount of resources employed to produce each unit of the products, and the value of profit per unit from the sale of each products have been collected from the case company. The monthly availability of resources utilized and the monthly production volume of the five products have also been collected from the company. The data gathered was mathematically modeled using a linear programming technique, and solved using MS-Excel solver. The findings of the study depicts that all of the organizational resources are severely underutilized. This research proved that the resource utilization of the case company can be improved from 46.41% of the current resource

  11. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  12. Analysis of Utilization of Fecal Resources in Large-scale Livestock and Poultry Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUAN Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic investigation for the serious problems of livestock and poultry breeding in China and the technical demand of promoting the utilization of manure. Based on the status quo of large-scale livestock and poultry farming in typical areas in China, the work had been done beared on statistics and analysis of the modes and proportions of utilization of manure resources. Such a statistical method had been applied to the country -identified large -scale farm, which the total amount of pollutants reduction was in accordance with the "12th Five-Year Plan" standards. The results showed that there were some differences in the modes of resource utilization due to livestock and poultry manure at different scales and types:(1 Hogs, dairy cattle and beef cattle in total accounted for more than 75% of the agricultural manure storage;(2 Laying hens and broiler chickens accounted for about 65% of the total production of the organic manure produced by fecal production. It is demonstrated that the major modes of resource utilization of dung and urine were related to the natural characteristics, agricultural production methods, farming scale and economic development level in the area. It was concluded that the unreasonable planning, lacking of cleansing during breeding, false selection of manure utilizing modes were the major problems in China忆s large-scale livestock and poultry fecal resources utilization.

  13. Resource allocation on computational grids using a utility model and the knapsack problem

    CERN Document Server

    Van der ster, Daniel C; Parra-Hernandez, Rafael; Sobie, Randall J

    2009-01-01

    This work introduces a utility model (UM) for resource allocation on computational grids and formulates the allocation problem as a variant of the 0–1 multichoice multidimensional knapsack problem. The notion of task-option utility is introduced, and it is used to effect allocation policies. We present a variety of allocation policies, which are expressed as functions of metrics that are both intrinsic and external to the task and resources. An external user-defined credit-value metric is shown to allow users to intervene in the allocation of urgent or low priority tasks. The strategies are evaluated in simulation against random workloads as well as those drawn from real systems. We measure the sensitivity of the UM-derived schedules to variations in the allocation policies and their corresponding utility functions. The UM allocation strategy is shown to optimally allocate resources congruent with the chosen policies.

  14. Preface: Terrestrial Fieldwork to Support in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Robotic Resource Prospecting for Future Activities in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-05-01

    Finding, extracting, and using resources at the site of robotic and human exploration activities holds the promise of enabling sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids, and eventually allow humans to expand their economy and habitation beyond the surface of the Earth. Commonly referred to as in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), mineral and volatile resources found in space can be converted into oxygen, water, metals, fuels, and manufacturing and construction materials (such as plastics and concrete) for transportation, power, life support, habitation construction, and part/logistics manufacturing applications. For every kilogram of payload landed on the surface of the Moon or Mars, 7.5-11 kg of payload (mostly propellant) needs to be launched into low Earth orbit. Therefore, besides promising long-term self-sufficiency and infrastructure growth, ISRU can provide significant reductions in launch costs and the number of launches required. Key to being able to use space resources is knowing where they are located, how much is there, and how the resources are distributed. While ISRU holds great promise, it has also never been demonstrated in an actual space mission. Therefore, operations and hardware associated with each ISRU prospecting, excavation, transportation, and processing step must be examined, tested, and finally integrated to enable the end goal of using space resources in future human space missions.

  15. Measures for increased nutrition and utilization of non-conventional food resources during disasters in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, I M

    1999-01-01

    The basic causes of the poor performance of the food and agricultural sector in the different parts of Africa are external, internal, and natural. The general recession in the Continent limits the capacity of the respective countries to import food to supplement inadequate domestic production and supplies. There are a number of nutritious food resources, both cultivated and gathered in the different ecological zones of Africa, whose production and consumption can be increased to ensure adequate food security and a nutritious diet, especially during disasters. These food resources could include: cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, fish, and insects. These food resources already are available over wide geographical areas in Africa and are utilized or utilized to a limited extent. Therefore, strategies to increase food supply, eradicate hunger and malnutrition, and keep people alive in times of disasters should have as a priority, the cultivation and consumption of non-conventional food resources in the respective communities and countries.

  16. Why environmental and resource economists should care about non-expected utility models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, W. Douglass; Woodward, Richard T. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A and M University (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Experimental and theoretical analysis has shown that the conventional expected utility (EU) and subjective expected utility (SEU) models, which are linear in probabilities, have serious limitations in certain situations. We argue here that these limitations are often highly relevant to the work that environmental and natural resource economists do. We discuss some of the experimental evidence and alternatives to the SEU. We consider the theory used, the problems studied, and the methods employed by resource economists. Finally, we highlight some recent work that has begun to use some of the alternatives to the EU and SEU frameworks and discuss areas where much future work is needed. (author)

  17. [Home health resource utilization measures using a case-mix adjustor model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sun-Ju; Chang, Hyun-Sook

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure home health resource utilization using a Case-Mix Adjustor Model developed in the U.S. The subjects of this study were 484 patients who had received home health care more than 4 visits during a 60-day episode at 31 home health care institutions. Data on the 484 patients had to be merged onto a 60-day payment segment. Based on the results, the researcher classified home health resource groups (HHRG). The subjects were classified into 34 HHRGs in Korea. Home health resource utilization according to clinical severity was in order of Minimum (C0) service utilization moderate), and the lowest 97,000 won in group C2F3S1, so the former was 5.82 times higher than the latter. Resource utilization in home health care has become an issue of concern due to rising costs for home health care. The results suggest the need for more analytical attention on the utilization and expenditures for home care using a Case-Mix Adjustor Model.

  18. The utilization of natural resources under the conditions of intersectoral intergration

    OpenAIRE

    Dankevych, Ye.; Данкевич, Є. М.

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies and analyses the present-day state of the utilization of natural resources by agricultural commodity producers. Some changes of the natural components under the conditions of the increased anthropological load on landscape have been revealed. The author investigates the basic production factors which essentially influence the agrolandscape. It has been established that the increase in the technical level stipulates the human interference with natural complexes, land resource...

  19. Human resources management in the water utilities of Hermosillo and Mexicali

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Loera Burnes; Alejandro Salazar Adams

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies how the Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS) influence the performance of water utilities in Mexico. The differentiated performance of the water utilities of the cities of Hermosillo and Mexicali were compared to their HRMS characteristics through the analysis of four categories: 1) Hiring policies, 2) Development and training, 3) Salaries, benefits and incentives, and 4) Sanct...

  20. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  1. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  2. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  3. Human resources management in the water utilities of Hermosillo and Mexicali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Loera Burnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper studies how the Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS influence the performance of water utilities in Mexico. The differentiated performance of the water utilities of the cities of Hermosillo and Mexicali were compared to their HRMS characteristics through the analysis of four categories: 1 Hiring policies, 2 Development and training, 3 Salaries, benefits and incentives, and 4 Sanctions systems. The main differences between these utilities are on categories 2 and 3, where Mexicali shows greater levels. The study provides a vision of water utilities from the point of view of HRMG, which has not been taken into account in previous research. Although Mexicali provides its workers with better training and incentives, it is observed that the influence of local governments and the excessive power of unions have led to weak HRMS that affect the performance of water utilities.

  4. Decision making for multiple utilization of water resources in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Pyar Ali

    1989-09-01

    The Clutha is the largest river in New Zealand. The last two decades have witnessed major conflicts centered on the utilization of the water resources of the upper Clutha river. These conflicts have by no means been finally resolved. The focus of this article is on institutional arrangements for water resource management on the Clutha, with particular reference to the decision-making processes that have culminated in the building of the high dam. It critically evaluates recent experiences and comments on future prospects for resolving resource use conflicts rationally through planning for multiple utilization in a climate of market led policies of the present government. The study demonstrates the inevitable conflicts that can arise within a public bureaucracy that combines dual responsibilities for policy making and operational functions. Hitherto, central government has been able to manipulate the water resource allocation process to its advantage because of a lack of clear separation between its two roles as a policy maker and developer. The conflicts that have manifested themselves during the last two decades over the Clutha should be seen as part of a wider public debate during the last two decades concerning resource utilization in New Zealand. The Clutha controversy was preceded by comparable concerns over the rising of the level of Lake Manapouri during the 1960s and has been followed by the debate over the “think big” resource development projects during the 1980s. The election of the fourth Labour government in 1983 has heralded a political and economic policy shift in New Zealand towards minimizing the role of public intervention in resource allocation and major structural reforms in the relative roles of central and regional government in resource management. The significance of these changes pose important implications for the future management of the Clutha.

  5. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  6. A Multicase Study: Exploring Human Resource Information System Implementation and Utilization in Multinational Corporations in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzyoka Yongo, Cyd W.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation and utilization of human resource information system (HRIS) though a very desirable prospect for many organizations, still remains a daunting task for many. This has been daunting because of prohibitive costs, security risks, top management resistance, employee attitudes, and so forth. Trends globally show that, organizations that…

  7. Resource utilization implications of treatment were able to be assessed from appropriately reported clinical trial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole-Wilson, Philip A.; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Voko, Zoltan; de Brouwer, Sophie; Dunselman, Peter H. J. M.; van Dalen, Frederik J.; Lubsen, Jacobus

    Background and Objective: Published clinical trial data rarely allow assessment of the health care resource utilization implications of treatment. We give an example of how these can be assessed given appropriate tabulation of data. Methods: Data from a trial comparing long-acting nifedipine

  8. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371572037; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, David; Manzella, Adelle; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123556856; Cloetingh, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; van Wees, J.-D.

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  9. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers: A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Boxem, T.; Pluymaekers, M.; Bruhn, D.; Manzella, A.; Calcagno, P.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  10. Geothermal energy in deep aquifers : A global assessment of the resource base for direct heat utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, Jon; Boxem, Thijs; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Bruhn, D.F.; Manzella, Adele; Calcagno, Philippe; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; van Wees, Jan Diederik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present results of a global resource assessment for geothermal energy within deep aquifers for direct heat utilization. Greenhouse heating, spatial heating, and spatial cooling are considered in this assessment. We derive subsurface temperatures from geophysical data and apply a

  11. The Resource Utilization of Women Who Use Violence in Intimate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have found high rates of help seeking among domestic violence victims. However, little research has investigated the help-seeking patterns of women who use violence (many of whom are also abused). Understanding the resources utilized by women who are violent toward their partners may aid in designing interventions that will reduce the…

  12. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  13. Resource Utilization Associated with Extracardiac Co-morbid Conditions Following Congenital Heart Surgery in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomela, Krista E; Gordon, John B; Cassidy, Laura D; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Ghanayem, Nancy S

    2017-06-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with chronic extracardiac co-morbid conditions (ECC). The presence of ECC has been associated with greater resource utilization during the operative period; however, the impact beyond hospital discharge has not been described. This study sought to understand the scope of chronic ECC in infants with CHD as well as to describe the impact of ECC on resource utilization after discharge from the index cardiac procedure. IRB approved this retrospective study of infants Whitney Rank Sum Test with p < 0.05 considered significant. ECC occurred in 55% (481/876) of infants. Median STAT score was higher in the group with ECC (3 vs. 2, p < 0.001). Resource utilization after discharge from the index procedure as defined by median hospital charges (78 vs. 10 K, p < 0.001 and unplanned hospital days 4 vs. 0, p < 0.001) was higher in those with ECC, and increased with the greater number of ECC, even after accounting for surgical complexity. STAT score and the presence of multiple ECC were associated with higher resource utilization following the index cardiac surgical procedure. These data may be helpful in deciding which children might benefit from a cardiac complex care program that partners families and providers to improve health and decrease healthcare costs.

  14. Use of Hawaii Analog Sites for Lunar Science and In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Larson, W. E.; Picard, M.; Hamilton, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and lunar science share similar objectives with respect to analyzing and characterizing the physical, mineral, and volatile materials and resources at sites of robotic and human exploration. To help mature and stress instruments, technologies, and hardware and to evaluate operations and procedures, space agencies have utilized demonstrations at analog sites on Earth before use in future missions. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the German Space Agency (DLR) have utilized an analog site on the slope of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to test ISRU and lunar science hardware and operations in two previously held analog field tests. NASA and CSA are currently planning on a 3rd analog field test to be held in June, 2012 in Hawaii that will expand upon the successes from the previous two field tests.

  15. Microvascular reconstruction and tracheotomy are significant determinants of resource utilization in head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Stock, M; Chan, B; Meininger, M; Wax, M; Andersen, P; Everts, E

    2000-08-01

    Successful "critical pathway" design and implementation are dependent on appropriate patient stratification according to those factors that are primary determinants of resource utilization. To test the validity of our previously reported critical pathway design and to determine whether tracheotomy and microvascular reconstruction (MR) are primary determinants of resource utilization. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Tertiary referral academic institution. Retrospective analysis of data from 133 head and neck surgery cases in which the treatment regimen was based on critical pathways over a 26-month period. Length of stay and total patient charges were used as indices of resource utilization. One-way analysis of variance and t tests were used for statistical analysis of significance. Ninety patients (67.7%) underwent MR; 43 (32. 3%) did not. Seventy-five patients (56.4%) underwent tracheotomy; 58 (43.6%) did not. Four patient groups were constructed in decreasing order of complexity as follows: group 1, patients who underwent both tracheotomy and MR (n = 58); group 2, patients who underwent MR alone (n = 32); group 3, patients who underwent tracheotomy alone (n = 17); and group 4, patients who did not undergo either procedure (n = 26). Both tracheotomy and MR were found to be independent determinants of resource utilization and were additive when both were present. The length of stay varied from 8.4 days (in patients who underwent both procedures) to 6.7 days (in patients who did not undergo either procedure), with intermediate values in cases in which only 1 procedure was performed. The total charges varied in a similar manner from a high of $33,371 to a low of $19,994. Subanalysis with respect to intensive care unit, ward, and operating room charges showed a similar stratification. Tracheotomy and MR are both significant determinants of charges and length of stay in head and neck surgery cases and must be considered in the design of strategies to promote efficient

  16. Evaluating healthcare resource utilization and outcomes for surgical hip dislocation and hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Darren; Horner, Nolan S; MacDonald, Austin; Simunovic, Nicole; Slobogean, Gerard; Philippon, Marc J; Belzile, Etienne L; Karlsson, Jon; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-12-01

    Surgical hip dislocation (SHD) and hip arthroscopy are surgical methods used to correct deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Though both of these approaches appear to benefit patients, no studies exist comparing healthcare resource utilization of the two surgical approaches. This systematic review examines the literature and the records of two surgeons to evaluate the resource utilization associated with treating symptomatic FAI via these two methods. EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for relevant articles. The articles were systematically screened, and data was abstracted in duplicate. To further supplement resource utilization data, a retrospective chart review of two surgeon's patient data (one using SHD and another using an arthroscopic approach) was completed. Experts in pharmacy, physiotherapy, radiology, anaesthesia, physiatry and the local hospital finance department were also consulted. There were 52 studies included with a total of 460 patients (535 hips) and 3886 patients (4147 hips) who underwent SHD and arthroscopic surgery for FAI, respectively. Regardless of approach, most patients treated for symptomatic FAI improved across various outcomes measures with low complication rates. Surgical time across all approaches was similar, averaging 118 ± 2 min. On a per patient basis, hip arthroscopy ($10,976) uses approximately 41 % of the resources of SHD ($24,379). There were no significant differences in outcomes for FAI treated with SHD or arthroscopy. However, with regard to healthcare resource utilization based on the OHIP healthcare system, hip arthroscopy uses substantially less resources than SHD within the first post-operative year. Systematic Review of Level IV Studies, Level IV.

  17. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  18. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  19. Promoting Early Brain and Child Development: Perceived Barriers and the Utilization of Resources to Address Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Szilagyi, Moira; Stein, Ruth E K; Green, Cori M; Kerker, Bonnie D; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    Efforts to promote early brain and child development (EBCD) include initiatives to support healthy parent-child relationships, tools to identify family social-emotional risk factors, and referrals to community programs to address family risk factors. We sought to examine if pediatricians perceive barriers to implementing these activities, and if they utilize resources to address those barriers. Data were analyzed from 304 nontrainee pediatricians who practice general pediatrics and completed a 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey. Sample weights were used to decrease nonresponse bias. Bivariate comparisons and multivariable regression analyses were conducted. At least half of the pediatricians agreed that barriers to promoting EBCD include: a lack of tools to promote healthy parent-child relationships, a lack of tools to assess the family environment for social-emotional risk factors, and a lack of local resources to address family risks. Endorsing a lack of tools to assess the family environment as a barrier was associated with using fewer screening tools and community resources. Endorsing a lack of local resources as a barrier was associated with using fewer community resources and fewer initiatives to promote parent-child relationships. Interest in pediatric mental health was associated with using more initiatives to promote healthy parent-child relationships, screening tools, and community resources. Although the majority of pediatricians perceive barriers to promoting EBCD, few are routinely using available resources to address these barriers. Addressing pediatricians' perceived barriers and encouraging interest in pediatric mental health may increase resource utilization and enhance efforts to promote EBCD. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resource utilization after introduction of a standardized clinical assessment and management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kevin G; Rathod, Rahul H; Farias, Michael; Graham, Dionne; Powell, Andrew J; Fulton, David R; Newburger, Jane W; Colan, Steven D; Jenkins, Kathy J; Lock, James E

    2010-01-01

    A Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) is a novel quality improvement initiative that standardizes the assessment and management of all patients who carry a predefined diagnosis. Based on periodic review of systemically collected data the SCAMP is designed to be modified to improve its own algorithm. One of the objectives of a SCAMP is to identify and reduce resource utilization and patient care costs. We retrospectively reviewed resource utilization in the first 93 arterial switch operation (ASO) SCAMP patients and 186 age-matched control ASO patients. We compared diagnostic and laboratory testing obtained at the initial SCAMP clinic visit and control patient visits. To evaluate the effect of the SCAMP over time, the number of clinic visits per patient year and echocardiograms per patient year in historical control ASO patients were compared to the projected rates for ASO SCAMP participants. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), stress echocardiogram, and lipid profile utilization were higher in the initial SCAMP clinic visit group than in age-matched control patients. Total echocardiogram and lung scan usage were similar. Chest X-ray and exercise stress testing were obtained less in SCAMP patients. ASO SCAMP patients are projected to have 0.5 clinic visits and 0.5 echocardiograms per year. Historical control patients had more clinic visits (1.2 vs. 0.5 visits/patient year, P<.01) and a higher echocardiogram rate (0.92 vs. 0.5 echocardiograms/patient year, P<.01) Implementation of a SCAMP may initially lead to increased resource utilization, but over time resource utilization is projected to decrease.

  1. Lunar Polar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) as a Stepping Stone for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    A major emphasis of NASA is to extend and expand human exploration across the solar system. While specific destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative that NASA create new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) are the development of technologies and approaches for advanced robotics, power, propulsion, habitats, life support, and especially, space resource utilization systems. Space resources and how to use them, often called In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have a tremendous beneficial impact on robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and Near Earth Objects (NEOs), while at the same time helping to solve terrestrial challenges and enabling commercial space activities. The search for lunar resources, demonstration of extraterrestrial mining, and the utilization of resource-derived products, especially from polar volatiles, can be a stepping stone for subsequent human exploration missions to other destinations of interest due to the proximity of the Moon, complimentary environments and resources, and the demonstration of critical technologies, processes, and operations. ISRU and the Moon: There are four main areas of development interest with respect to finding, obtaining, extracting, and using space resources: Prospecting for resources, Production of mission critical consumables like propellants and life support gases, Civil engineering and construction, and Energy production, storage, and transfer. The search for potential resources and the production of mission critical consumables are the primary focus of current NASA technology and system development activities since they provide the greatest initial reduction in mission mass, cost, and risk. Because of the proximity of the Moon, understanding lunar resources and developing, demonstrating, and implementing lunar ISRU

  2. A Practical and Robust Execution Time-Frame Procedure for the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Minimal and Maximal Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hsiang-Ling Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and optimizing organizational processes, such as the one represented by the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP, improve outcomes. Based on assumptions and simplification, this model tackles the allocation of resources so that organizations can continue to generate profits and reinvest in future growth. Nonetheless, despite all of the research dedicated to solving the RCPSP and its multi-mode variations, there is no standardized procedure that can guide project management practitioners in their scheduling tasks. This is mainly because many of the proposed approaches are either based on unrealistic/oversimplified scenarios or they propose solution procedures not easily applicable or even feasible in real-life situations. In this study, we solve a more true-to-life and complex model, Multimode RCPSP with minimal and maximal time lags (MRCPSP/max. The complexity of the model solved is presented, and the practicality of the proposed approach is justified depending on only information that is available for every project regardless of its industrial context. The results confirm that it is possible to determine a robust makespan and to calculate an execution time-frame with gaps lower than 11% between their lower and upper bounds. In addition, in many instances, the solved lower bound obtained was equal to the best-known optimum.

  3. Quantitative appraisal and potential analysis for primary biomass resources for energy utilization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanli, Yang; Peidong, Zhang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wenlong, Zhang; Yongsheng, Tian [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    As the largest agricultural country, China has abundant biomass resources, but the distribution is scattered and difficult to collect. It is essential to estimate the biomass resource and its potential for bioenergy utilization in China. In this study, the amount of main biomass resources for possible energy use and their energy utilization potential in China are analyzed based on statistical data. The results showed that the biomass resource for possible energy use amounted to 8.87 x 10{sup 8} tce in 2007 of which the crops straw is 1.42 x 10{sup 8} tce, the forest biomass is 2.85 x 10{sup 8} tce, the poultry and livestock manure is 4.40 x 10{sup 7} tce, the municipal solid waste is 1.35 x 10{sup 6} tce, and the organic waste water is 6.46 x 10{sup 6} tce. Through the information by thematic map, it is indicated that, except arctic-alpine areas and deserts, the biomass resource for possible energy use was presented a relatively average distribution in China, but large gap was existed in different regions in the concentration of biomass resources, with the characteristics of East dense and West sparse. It is indicated that the energy transformation efficiency of biomass compressing and shaping, biomass anaerobic fermentation and biomass gasification for heating have higher conversion efficiency. If all of the biomass resources for possible energy use are utilized by these three forms respectively, 7.66 x 10{sup 12} t of biomass briquettes fuel, 1.98 x 10{sup 12} m{sup 3} of low calorific value gas and 3.84 x 10{sup 11} m{sup 3} of biogas could be produced, 3.65 x 10{sup 8} t to 4.90 x 10{sup 8} t of coal consumption could be substituted, and 6.12 x 10{sup 8} t to 7.53 x 10{sup 8} t of CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced. With the enormous energy utilization potential of biomass resources and the prominent benefit of energy saving and emission reduction, it proves an effective way to adjust the energy consumption structure, to alleviate the energy crisis, to ensure

  4. In search for instructional techniques to maximize the use of germane cognitive resources: A case of teaching complex tasks in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Yekaterina

    The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was

  5. Resource utilization in surgery after the revision of surgical fee schedule in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yuichi; Otake, Hiroshi; Oiso, Giichiro; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the current surgical reimbursement system in Japan reflects resource utilization after the revision of fee schedule in 2014. The authors collected data from all the surgical procedures performed at Teikyo University Hospital from April 1 through September 30, 2014. The authors defined the decision-making unit as a surgeon with the highest academic rank in the surgery. Inputs were defined as the number of medical doctors who assisted surgery, and the time of operation from skin incision to closure. An output was defined as the surgical fee. The authors calculated surgeons' efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis. The efficiency scores of each surgical specialty were significantly different (p=0.000). This result demonstrates that the Japanese surgical reimbursement scales still fail to reflect resource utilization despite the revision of surgical fee schedule.

  6. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  7. Music Genre as a Predictor of Resource Utilization at Outdoor Music Concerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrol, Michael S; Koneru, Susmith; McIntyre, Norah; Caruso, Andrew T; Arshad, Faizan H; Merlin, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the various modern music genres and their effect on the utilization of medical resources with analysis and adjustment for potential confounders. A retrospective review of patient logs from an open-air, contemporary amphitheater over a period of 10 years was performed. Variables recorded by the medical personnel for each concert included the attendance, description of the weather, and a patient log in which nature and outcome were recorded. The primary outcomes were associations of genres with the medical usage rate (MUR). Secondary outcomes investigated were the association of confounders and the influences on the level of care provided, the transport rate, and the nature of medical complaint. A total of 2,399,864 concert attendees, of which 4,546 patients presented to venue Emergency Medical Services (EMS) during 403 concerts with an average of 11.4 patients (annual range 7.1-17.4) each concert. Of potential confounders, only the heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C) and whether the event was a festival were significant (P=.027 and .001, respectively). After adjustment, the genres with significantly increased MUR in decreasing order were: alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music (Pmusic (P=.033). Alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music concerts had higher levels of medical resource utilization. High heat indices and music festivals also increase the MUR. This information can assist event planners with preparation and resource utilization. Future research should focus on prospective validation of the regression equation. Westrol MS , Koneru S , McIntyre N , Caruso AT , Arshad FH , Merlin MA . Music genre as a predictor of resource utilization at outdoor music concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):289-296.

  8. An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: →Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. →Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. →Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. →Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

  9. DIAMOND: A model of incremental decision making for resource acquisition by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.; Hirst, E.; Yourstone, E.

    1991-02-01

    Uncertainty is a major issue facing electric utilities in planning and decision making. Substantial uncertainties exist concerning future load growth; the lifetimes and performances of existing power plants; the construction times, costs, and performances of new resources being brought online; and the regulatory and economic environment in which utilities operate. This report describes a utility planning model that focuses on frequent and incremental decisions. The key features of this model are its explicit treatment of uncertainty, frequent user interaction with the model, and the ability to change prior decisions. The primary strength of this model is its representation of the planning and decision-making environment that utility planners and executives face. Users interact with the model after every year or two of simulation, which provides an opportunity to modify past decisions as well as to make new decisions. For example, construction of a power plant can be started one year, and if circumstances change, the plant can be accelerated, mothballed, canceled, or continued as originally planned. Similarly, the marketing and financial incentives for demand-side management programs can be changed from year to year, reflecting the short lead time and small unit size of these resources. This frequent user interaction with the model, an operational game, should build greater understanding and insights among utility planners about the risks associated with different types of resources. The model is called DIAMOND, Decision Impact Assessment Model. In consists of four submodels: FUTURES, FORECAST, SIMULATION, and DECISION. It runs on any IBM-compatible PC and requires no special software or hardware. 19 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Resource utilization in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and associated seizures: a retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennert, Barb; Farrelly, Eileen; Sacco, Patricia; Pira, Geraldine; Frost, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Seizures are a hallmark manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex, yet data characterizing resource utilization are lacking. This retrospective chart review was performed to assess the economic burden of tuberous sclerosis complex with neurologic manifestations. Demographic and resource utilization data were collected for 95 patients for up to 5 years after tuberous sclerosis complex diagnosis. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.1 years, with complex partial and infantile spasms as the most common seizure types. In the first 5 years post-diagnosis, 83.2% required hospitalization, 30.5% underwent surgery, and the majority of patients (90.5%) underwent ≥3 testing procedures. In 79 patients with a full 5 years of data, hospitalizations, intensive care unit stays, diagnostic testing, and rehabilitation services decreased over the 5-year period. Resource utilization is cost-intensive in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and associated seizures during the first few years following diagnosis. Improving seizure control and reducing health care costs in this population remain unmet needs.

  11. Human resource development for nuclear generation - from the perspective of a utility company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Mostafa, Nor Azlan; Salim, Mohd Faiz

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is currently in the planning phase of its nuclear power program, with the first unit targeted to be operational in 2030. Training of nuclear power plant (NPP) staffs are usually long and rigorous due to the complexity and safety aspects of nuclear power. As the sole electricity utility in the country, it is therefore essential that Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) prepares early in developing its human resource and nuclear expertise as a potential NPP owner-operator. A utility also has to be prudent in managing its work force efficiently and effectively, while ensuring that adequate preparations are being made to acquire the necessary nuclear knowledge with sufficient training lead time. There are several approaches to training that can be taken by a utility company with no experience in nuclear power. These include conducting feasibility studies and benchmarking exercises, preparing long term human resource development, increasing the exposure on nuclear power technology to both the top management and general staff, and employing the assistance of relevant agencies locally and abroad. This paper discusses the activities done and steps taken by TNB in its human resource development for Malaysia's nuclear power program.

  12. CMS resource utilization and limitations on the grid after the first two years of LHC collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, Giuseppe [Pisa U.; Bloom, Kenneth [Nebraska U.; Bonacorsi, Daniele [Bologna U.; Brew, Chris [Rutherford; Fisk, Ian [Fermilab; Flix, Jose [Madrid, CIEMAT; Kreuzer, Peter [Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Sciaba, Andrea [CERN

    2012-01-01

    After years of development, the CMS distributed computing system is now in full operation. The LHC continues to set records for operational performance, and CMS records data at more than 300 Hz. Because of the intensity of the beams, there are multiple proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, leading to ever-larger event sizes and processing times. The CMS computing system has responded admirably to these challenges, but some reoptimization of the computing model has been required to maximize the efficient delivery of data analysis results by the collaboration in the face of increasingly constrained computing resources. We present the current status of the system, describe the recent performance, and discuss the challenges ahead and how CMS intends to meet them.

  13. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  14. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.

  15. Waste resources utilization program. Progress report, period ending 30 June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    Initial progress on the Waste Resources Utilization Program, a joint effort sponsored by ERDA and EPA under the terms of Interagency Agreement E(29-2)-3536/EPA-IAG-D5-0675 is reported. This program has as its objective the use of 134 Cs/ 137 Cs (a potential nuclear reactor ''waste resource'') as a gamma radiation source, coupled with modest heating, to treat sewage sludge (another ''waste resource'') to rid it of pathogenic organisms so that it may be safely used as a fertilizer or a feed supplement for ruminant animals. The potential exists for using at least 50 percent of the by-product cesium from future reactor fuel-rod reprocessing in this one application alone. Activities dealing with research on many aspects of the problem such as pathogen reduction, physical and chemical effects, cost benefit analysis, safety and security, and systems engineering are reported. (U.S.)

  16. Evaluation model of wind energy resources and utilization efficiency of wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Due to the large amount of abandoned winds in wind farms, the establishment of a wind farm evaluation model is particularly important for the future development of wind farms In this essay, consider the wind farm's wind energy situation, Wind Energy Resource Model (WERM) and Wind Energy Utilization Efficiency Model(WEUEM) are established to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the wind farm. Wind Energy Resource Model (WERM) contains average wind speed, average wind power density and turbulence intensity, which assessed wind energy resources together. Based on our model, combined with the actual measurement data of a wind farm, calculate the indicators using the model, and the results are in line with the actual situation. We can plan the future development of the wind farm based on this result. Thus, the proposed establishment approach of wind farm assessment model has application value.

  17. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. A brief statement is presented regarding sectors of the economy and major manufacturing processes which can readily utilize direct geothermal energy. Previous studies on plant location determinants are summarized and appropriate empirical data provided on plant locations. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented. Appendix A presents factors which impact on industry location decisions. Appendix B presents industry executives interviewed during the course of this study. (MHR)

  18. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Mercury and Saturn Propulsion Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed. In-situ resource utilization was found to be critical in making Mercury missions more amenable for human visits. At Saturn, refueling using local atmospheric mining was found to be difficult to impractical, while refueling the Saturn missions from Uranus was more practical and less complex.

  19. Mortality-related resource utilization in the inpatient care of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, David A; Karels, Quentin; Kulkarni, Aparna; Hussain, Aysha; Xiao, Yunbin; Kutty, Shelby

    2015-10-22

    Quantifying resource utilization in the inpatient care of congenital heart diease is clinically relevant. Our purpose is to measure the investment of inpatient care resources to achieve survival in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), and to determine how much of that investment occurs in hospitalizations that have a fatal outcome, the mortality-related resource utilization fraction (MRRUF). A collaborative administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) containing data for 43 children's hospitals, was queried by primary diagnosis for HLHS admissions of patients ≤21 years old during 2004-2013. Institution, patient age, inpatient deaths, billed charges (BC) and length of stay (LOS) were recorded. In all, 11,122 HLHS admissions were identified which account for total LOS of 277,027 inpatient-days and $3,928,794,660 in BC. There were 1145 inpatient deaths (10.3%). LOS was greater among inpatient deaths than among patients discharged alive (median 17 vs. 12, p providers and consumers that current practices often result in major resource expenditure for inpatient care of HLHS that does not result in survival to hospital dismissal. They highlight the need for data-driven critical review of standard practices to identify patterns of care associated with success, and to modify approaches objectively.

  20. Environmental impact of coal utilization (from raw material to waste resources): Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, K.C.

    1991-10-01

    The proceedings contains 27 papers presented at the conference on environmental impact of coal utilization from raw material to waste resources which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, during 14-15 January 1991. The conference was held as a follow-up of the research project to study the impact of coal utilization. The project was undertaken jointly by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and the University of Western Ontario, Canada. The project was funded by the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). The principle themes of the conference were : occurrence of trace elements in coal, fate of trace elements during combustion of coal, characterisation of fly ash and its properties and utilization, and environmental impact of ash disposal. (M.G.B.)

  1. The utilization of oncology web-based resources in Spanish-speaking Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Hampshire, Margaret K; Vachani, Carolyn; Metz, James M

    2012-12-01

    There currently are few web-based resources written in Spanish providing oncology-specific information. This study examines utilization of Spanish-language oncology web-based resources and evaluates oncology-related Internet browsing practices of Spanish-speaking patients. OncoLink (http://www.oncolink.org) is the oldest and among the largest Internet-based cancer information resources. In September 2005, OncoLink pioneered OncoLink en español (OEE) (http://es.oncolink.org), a Spanish translation of OncoLink. Internet utilization data on these sites for 2006 to 2007 were compared. Visits to OncoLink rose from 4,440,843 in 2006 to 5,125,952 in 2007. OEE had 204,578 unique visitors and 240,442 visits in 2006, and 351,228 visitors and 412,153 visits in 2007. Although there was no time predilection for viewing OncoLink, less relative browsing on OEE was conducted during weekends and early morning hours. Although OncoLink readers searched for information on the most common cancers in the United States, OEE readers most often search for gastric, vaginal, osteosarcoma, leukemia, penile, cervical, and testicular malignancies. Average visit duration on OEE was shorter, and fewer readers surveyed OEE more than 15 minutes (4.5% vs. 14.9%, P users of web-based oncology resources are increasingly using the Internet to supplement their cancer knowledge. Limited available resources written in Spanish contribute to disparities in information access and disease outcomes. Spanish-speaking oncology readers differ from English-speaking readers in day and time of Internet browsing, visit duration, Internet search patterns, and types of cancers searched. By acknowledging these differences, content of web-based oncology resources can be developed to best target the needs of Spanish-speaking viewers.

  2. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  3. Pain, health related quality of life and healthcare resource utilization in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Paul; Pérez Hernández, Concepción; Margarit Ferri, César; Ruiz Hidalgo, Domingo; Lubián López, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between the experience of pain, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and healthcare resource utilization in Spain. The analysis contrasts the contribution of pain severity and frequency of pain reported against respondents reporting no pain in the previous month. Data are from the 2010 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) for Spain. Single equation generalized linear regression models are used to evaluate the association of pain with the physical and mental component scores of the SF-12 questionnaire as well as health utilities generated from the SF-6D. In addition, the role of pain is assessed in its association with self-reported healthcare provider visits, emergency room visits and hospitalizations in the previous 6 months. The results indicate that the experience of pain, notably severe and frequent pain, is substantial and is significantly associated with the SF-12 physical component scores, health utilities and all aspects of healthcare resource utilization, which far outweighs the role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, health risk factors (in particular body mass index) and the presence of comorbidities. In the case of severe daily pain, the marginal contribution of the SF-12 physical component score is a deficit of -17.86 compared to those reporting no pain (population average score 46.49), while persons who are morbidly obese report a deficit of only -6.63 compared to those who are normal weight. The corresponding association with health utilities is equally dramatic with a severe daily pain deficit of -0.186 compared to those reporting no pain (average population utility 0.71). The impact of pain on healthcare resource utilization is marked. Severe daily pain increases traditional provider visits by 208.8%, emergency room visits by 373.0% and hospitalizations by 348.5%. As an internet-based survey there is the possibility of bias towards those with internet access, although telephone

  4. Associations between hours worked, symptoms and health resource utilization among full-time male Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Yamazaki, Shin; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Takegami, Misa; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Shimbo, Takuro; Hinohara, Shigeaki; Fukui, Tsuguya; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between hours worked, symptoms experienced, and health resource utilization. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of households in Japan. We studied full-time male workers aged 18-65 yr who worked 100 h or more per month. First, we examined the association between hours worked and symptoms experienced. Second, we examined the association between hours worked and the type of health resource utilized, such as physician visits, over-the-counter (OTC) medication use, dietary supplement use, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provider visits. We used a multivariable negative binominal model in each analysis. Of the 762 male workers, 598 reported experiencing symptoms at least once a month. We categorized participants based on the number of hours worked per month (h/mo): 100-200 h/mo, 201-250 h/mo, and over 250 h/mo. Compared with those working 201-250 h/mo, those working 100-200 h/mo had more frequent physician visits (rate ratio:1.67, 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.38) and those working over 250 h/mo had significantly lower rates of CAM provider visits and tended to use dietary supplements for symptoms. Participants who worked 201-250 h/mo used OTC medication most frequently. No significant association was observed between the number of hours worked and number of symptoms experienced. The more hours worked by full-time male workers, the more likely they were to use health resources that had a lower time requirement. Greater attention should be paid to patterns of health resource utilization among workers and their consequent influence on long-term health status.

  5. The Contribution of Wildlife to Sustainable Natural Resource Utilization in Namibia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. van Schalkwyk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Namibia is the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, but well known for its richness in species and sustainable natural resource utilization. The Namibian farming sector consists mainly of extensive farming systems. Cattle production contributes 54% of the livestock sector’s production output, followed by sheep and goats (25%, hides and skins (9%, and other forms of agricultural production (12%. Namibia’s freehold farmers have obtained ownership rights over land and livestock since the early 1900s; commercial rights over wildlife and plants were given to freehold farmers in 1967 and to communal farmers in 1996. Natural resource-based production systems then overtook agricultural production systems and exceeded it by a factor of at least two. The shift from practicing conservation to sustainable utilization of natural resources contributed to the rapid growth of wildlife utilization. The wildlife industry in Namibia is currently the only animal production system that is expanding. There are in total at least two million head of different wildlife species. The broader impact of the utilization of wildlife on the economy is estimated to be around N$ 1.3 billion. Tourism, live sales and trophy hunting, cannot sustain further growth. Wildlife farming could offer better opportunities for ensuring long-term sustainability. As the game meat trade in Namibia is not formalized, harvesting wildlife to satisfy the demand for game meat in export markets is still in its infancy. Sustainable harvesting of wildlife for meat production, however, has the potential to increase earnings to the beneficiaries in the wildlife sector.

  6. Resource utilization in home health care: results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolini, M G; Thomas, C P; Cashman, S B; Payne, S M

    1994-01-01

    Resource utilization in home health care has become an issue of concern due to rising costs and recent initiatives to develop prospective payment systems for home health care. A number of issues remain unresolved for the development of prospective reimbursement in this sector, including the types of variables to be included as payment variables and appropriate measures of resource use. This study supplements previous work on home health case-mix by analyzing the factors affecting one aspect of resource use for skilled nursing visits--visit length--and explores the usefulness of several specially collected variables which are not routinely available in administrative records. A data collection instrument was developed with a focus group of skilled nurses, identifying a range of variables hypothesized to affect visit length. Five categories of variables were studied using multiple regression analysis: provider-related; patient's socio-economic status; patient's clinical status; patient's support services; and visit-specific. The final regression model identifies 9 variables which significantly affect visit time. Five of the 9 are visit-specific variables, a significant finding since these are not routinely collected. Case-mix systems which include visit time as a measure of resource use will need to investigate visit-specific variables, as this study indicates they could have the largest influence on visit time. Two other types of resources used in home health care, supplies and security drivers, were also investigated in less detail.

  7. Frontier In-Situ Resource Utilization for Enabling Sustained Human Presence on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The currently known resources on Mars are massive, including extensive quantities of water and carbon dioxide and therefore carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for life support, fuels and plastics and much else. The regolith is replete with all manner of minerals. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applicable frontier technologies include robotics, machine intelligence, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, 3-D printing/additive manufacturing and autonomy. These technologies combined with the vast natural resources should enable serious, pre- and post-human arrival ISRU to greatly increase reliability and safety and reduce cost for human colonization of Mars. Various system-level transportation concepts employing Mars produced fuel would enable Mars resources to evolve into a primary center of trade for the inner solar system for eventually nearly everything required for space faring and colonization. Mars resources and their exploitation via extensive ISRU are the key to a viable, safe and affordable, human presence beyond Earth. The purpose of this paper is four-fold: 1) to highlight the latest discoveries of water, minerals, and other materials on Mars that reshape our thinking about the value and capabilities of Mars ISRU; 2) to summarize the previous literature on Mars ISRU processes, equipment, and approaches; 3) to point to frontier ISRU technologies and approaches that can lead to safe and affordable human missions to Mars; and 4) to suggest an implementation strategy whereby the ISRU elements are phased into the mission campaign over time to enable a sustainable and increasing human presence on Mars.

  8. Resource planning for gas utilities: Using a model to analyze pivotal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, J.F.; Comnes, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of wellhead price decontrols that began in the late 1970s and the development of open access pipelines in the 1980s and 90s, gas local distribution companies (LDCs) now have increased responsibility for their gas supplies and face an increasingly complex array of supply and capacity choices. Heretofore this responsibility had been share with the interstate pipelines that provide bundled firm gas supplies. Moreover, gas supply an deliverability (capacity) options have multiplied as the pipeline network becomes increasing interconnected and as new storage projects are developed. There is now a fully-functioning financial market for commodity price hedging instruments and, on interstate Pipelines, secondary market (called capacity release) now exists. As a result of these changes in the natural gas industry, interest in resource planning and computer modeling tools for LDCs is increasing. Although in some ways the planning time horizon has become shorter for the gas LDC, the responsibility conferred to the LDC and complexity of the planning problem has increased. We examine current gas resource planning issues in the wake of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 636. Our goal is twofold: (1) to illustrate the types of resource planning methods and models used in the industry and (2) to illustrate some of the key tradeoffs among types of resources, reliability, and system costs. To assist us, we utilize a commercially-available dispatch and resource planning model and examine four types of resource planning problems: the evaluation of new storage resources, the evaluation of buyback contracts, the computation of avoided costs, and the optimal tradeoff between reliability and system costs. To make the illustration of methods meaningful yet tractable, we developed a prototype LDC and used it for the majority of our analysis.

  9. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  10. Estimation of resource savings due to fly ash utilization in road construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Subodh; Patil, C.B. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2006-08-15

    A methodology for estimation of natural resource savings due to fly ash utilization in road construction in India is presented. Analytical expressions for the savings of various resources namely soil, stone aggregate, stone chips, sand and cement in the embankment, granular sub-base (GSB), water bound macadam (WBM) and pavement quality concrete (PQC) layers of fly ash based road formation with flexible and rigid pavements of a given geometry have been developed. The quantity of fly ash utilized in these layers of different pavements has also been quantified. In the present study, the maximum amount of resource savings is found in GSB followed by WBM and other layers of pavement. The soil quantity saved increases asymptotically with the rise in the embankment height. The results of financial analysis based on Indian fly ash based road construction cost data indicate that the savings in construction cost decrease with the lead and the investment on this alternative is found to be financially attractive only for a lead less than 60 and 90km for flexible and rigid pavements, respectively. (author)

  11. Expanding Geothermal Resource Utilization through Directed Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Wendy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE or the Center) was established at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in May 2000 to promote research and utilization of geothermal resources. The Center received funding through this grant to promote increased geothermal development in the Great Basin, with most of the funding used for peerreviewed research. Funding to the Center and work under the contract were initiated in March 2002, with supplemental funding in subsequent years. The Center monitored the research projects that were competitively awarded in a series of proposal calls between 2002 and 2007. Peer-reviewed research promoted identification and utilization of geothermal resources in Nevada. Projects used geology, geochemistry, geophysics, remote sensing, and the synthesis of multi-disciplinary information to produce new models of geothermal systems in the Western U.S. and worldwide. Funds were also used to support graduate student research and training. Part of the grant was used to support public outreach activities, including webpages, online maps and data resources, and informational workshops for stakeholders.

  12. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Regolith: Applications in In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Weis, Kyle; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Upon returning to the moon, or further a field such as Mars, presents enormous challenges in sustaining life for extended periods of time far beyond the few days the astronauts experienced on the moon during the Apollo missions. A stay on Mars is envisioned to last several months, and it would be cost prohibitive to take all the requirements for such a stay from earth. Therefore, future exploration missions will be required to be self-sufficient and utilize the resources available at the mission site to sustain human occupation. Such an exercise is currently the focus of intense research at NASA under the In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. As well as oxygen and water necessary for human life, resources for providing building materials for habitats, radiation protection, and landing/launch pads are required. All these materials can be provided by the regolith present on the surface as it contains sufficient minerals and metals oxides to meet the requirements. However, before processing, it would be cost effective if the regolith could be enriched in the mineral(s) of interest. This can be achieved by electrostatic beneficiation in which tribocharged mineral particles are separated out and the feedstock enriched or depleted as required. The results of electrostatic beneficiation of lunar simulants and actual Apollo regolith, in lunar high vacuum are reported in which various degrees of efficient particle separation and mineral enrichment up to a few hundred percent were achieved.

  13. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  14. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

    1996-04-01

    A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

  15. Covariates of depression and high utilizers of healthcare: Impact on resource use and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca L; Grabner, Michael; Palli, Swetha Rao; Faries, Douglas; Stephenson, Judith J

    2016-06-01

    To characterize healthcare costs, resource use, and treatment patterns of survey respondents with a history of depression who are high utilizers (HUds) of healthcare and to identify factors associated with high utilization. Adults with two or more depression diagnoses identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database were invited to participate in the CODE study, which links survey data with 12-month retrospective claims data. Patient surveys provided data on demographics, general health, and symptoms and/or comorbidities associated with depression. Similar clinical conditions also were identified from the medical claims. Factors associated with high utilization were identified using logistic regression models. Of 3132 survey respondents, 1921 were included, 193 of whom were HUds (defined as those who incurred the top 10% of total all-cause costs in the preceding 12months). Mean total annual healthcare costs were eightfold greater for HUds than for non-HUds ($US56,145 vs. $US6,954; pcosts/resource use. HUds were prescribed twice as many medications (total mean: 16.86 vs. 8.32; psychotropic mean: 4.11 vs. 2.61; both pcosts in patients with depression. Copyright © 2016 Eli Lilly and Company. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Workplace productivity, employment issues, and resource utilization in patients with bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Barbara J; Downs, Kristen E; Panish, Jessica M; Dirani, Riad

    2010-03-01

    To collect workplace productivity and healthcare utilization data from subjects with bipolar I disorder and compare the results with those from normative subjects. A cross sectional survey was administered to patients and recruiting physicians. Data collected included employment status, Endicott Workplace Productivity Scale (EWPS) results, healthcare resource utilization, and quality-of-life. In comparison with normative subjects, bipolar I subjects reported lower levels of work productivity (measured by the EWPS). Bipolar I subjects also reported more frequent outpatient visits and more prescribed pharmaceuticals. Bipolar I subjects were more likely to miss work, have worked reduced hours due to medical or mental health issues, receive disability payments, been involved in a crime, be uninsured or covered by Medicare, or have been fired or laid off. The study groups were age- and gender-matched to reduce the impact of selection bias associated with a non-randomized study design. Other potential limitations affecting the results of the study include recall bias and possibly an impact of different data collection methods (e.g. Internet versus telephone). Bipolar I disorder is associated with a negative effect on work productivity and resource utilization and is an appropriate disease management target for employers and healthcare decision makers.

  17. Estimating the Value of Improved Distributed Photovoltaic Adoption Forecasts for Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Misforecasting the adoption of customer-owned distributed photovoltaics (DPV) can have operational and financial implications for utilities; forecasting capabilities can be improved, but generally at a cost. This paper informs this decision-space by using a suite of models to explore the capacity expansion and operation of the Western Interconnection over a 15-year period across a wide range of DPV growth rates and misforecast severities. The system costs under a misforecast are compared against the costs under a perfect forecast, to quantify the costs of misforecasting. Using a simplified probabilistic method applied to these modeling results, an analyst can make a first-order estimate of the financial benefit of improving a utility’s forecasting capabilities, and thus be better informed about whether to make such an investment. For example, under our base assumptions, a utility with 10 TWh per year of retail electric sales who initially estimates that DPV growth could range from 2% to 7.5% of total generation over the next 15 years could expect total present-value savings of approximately $4 million if they could reduce the severity of misforecasting to within ±25%. Utility resource planners can compare those savings against the costs needed to achieve that level of precision, to guide their decision on whether to make an investment in tools or resources.

  18. Blood transfusion is associated with infection and increased resource utilization in combat casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James R; Riddle, Mark S; Danko, Janine; Hayden, Rich; Petersen, Kyle

    2006-07-01

    Combat casualty care has made significant advances in recent years, including administration of blood products in far-forward locations. However, recent studies have shown blood transfusion to be a significant risk factor for infection and increased resource utilization in critically injured patients. We therefore sought to investigate the incidence of blood transfusion and its association with infection and resource utilization in combat casualties. Prospective data were collected and retrospectively reviewed on 210 critically injured patients admitted to the USNS Comfort over a 7-week period during the 2003 assault phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Patients were stratified by age, gender, and injury severity score (ISS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess blood transfusion and hematocrit (HCT) as independent risk factors for infection and intensive care unit (ICU) admission controlling for age, gender, and ISS. The study cohort had a mean age of 30 +/- 2 years, a mean ISS of 14 +/- 3, 84 per cent were male, and 88 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Blood transfusion was required in 44 per cent (n = 93) of the study cohort. Transfused patients had a higher ISS (18 +/- 4 vs. 10 +/- 3, P transfused. Patients receiving blood transfusion had an increased infection rate (69% vs. 18%, P transfused and nontransfused patients. Multivariate binomial regression analysis identified blood transfusion and HCT as independent risk factors for infection (P blood transfusion as an independent risk factor for ICU admission (P blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is an independent risk factor for infection and increased resource utilization. Therefore, consideration should be given to the use of alternative blood substitutes and recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment and management of combat casualties.

  19. Resource utilization and costs associated with the diagnostic evaluation of nonrefluxing primary hydronephrosis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ardavan; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Garrison, Louis P; Merguerian, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term evaluation of postnatal nonrefluxing primary hydronephrosis presents a dilemma for urologists since most cases resolve without surgery. We report longitudinal resource utilization and costs associated with diagnostic evaluation of infants with isolated primary nonrefluxing hydronephrosis to determine the costs associated with diagnosing a surgical case, and we assess the implications using a cost-consequences analysis. A retrospective chart review was used to capture resource utilization for all patients younger than 6 months with hydronephrosis evaluated at our institution during a 5-year period. Infants with confounding urological diagnoses were excluded. Payer and societal perspectives were used. Costs were estimated from resource utilization, including radiographic imaging and clinical encounter types. Data were collected from first clinic visit until surgery or resolution or 3 years, whichever was shortest. Of 165 included patients surgical rates for hydronephrosis were 0% for grade I, 5% for grade II, 21% for grade III and 74% for grade IV. Median respective costs of identifying a single surgical case per increasing hydronephrosis grade 0 to IV were infinite, $37,600, $11,741 and $2,124 (p hydronephrosis is significantly more productive in terms of identifying patients requiring surgery vs evaluation of patients with lower grade disease. In patients with grades I and II hydronephrosis a more abbreviated diagnostic strategy than the current standard of care may be warranted. For the population in this analysis we project that a less intensive approach could save about 24% of costs. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1982-01-01

    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  1. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  2. Progress report Waste Resources Utilization Program period ending March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report describes the work on the Waste Resources Utilization Program for the quarter ending March 31, 1976. The purpose of this program is to develop technologies to utilize a 137 Cs γ source to modify sewage sludge for safe application as a fertilizer or an animal feed supplement. Results are reported from studies in microbiology, virology, and physical-chemical studies. Determinations were made of inactivation rates for Salmonella species, coliforms, and fecal strep in sewage sludge when radiation and thermoradiation were applied while bubbling oxygen through the sludge. Virology studies were continued investigating virucidal characteristics of anaerobically digested sludge. Another area of study was the dewatering of sewage sludge to reduce the drying time of the sewage sludge in the drying beds. A centrifuge was also installed to dewater treated sludge to approximately 30 percent solids

  3. Results from utility wind resource assessment programs in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapeau, C.L. [Global Energy Concepts, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.

  4. The In-Situ Resource Utilization Project Under the New Exploration Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, William E.; Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The In Situ Resource Utilization Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program has been investing in technologies to produce Oxygen from the regolith of the moon for the last few years. Much of this work was demonstrated in a lunar analog field demonstration in February of 2010. This paper will provide an overview of the key technologies demonstrated at the field demonstration will be discussed a long with the changes expected in the ISRU project as a result of the new vision for Space Exploration proposed by the President and enacted by the Congress in the NASA Authorization Act of2010.

  5. Assessing the Utility of Temporally Dynamic Terrain Indices in Alaskan Moose Resource Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennewein, J. S.; Hebblewhite, M.; Meddens, A. J.; Gilbert, S.; Vierling, L. A.; Boelman, N.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated warming in arctic and boreal regions impacts ecosystem structure and plant species distribution, which have secondary effects on wildlife. In summer months, moose (Alces alces) are especially vulnerable to changes in the availability and quality of forage and foliage cover due to their thermoregulatory needs and high energetic demands post calving. Resource selection functions (RSFs) have been used with great success to model such tradeoffs in habitat selection. Recently, RSFs have expanded to include more dynamic representations of habitat selection through the use of time-varying covariates such as dynamic habitat indices. However, to date few studies have investigated dynamic terrain indices, which incorporate long-term, highly-dynamic meteorological data (e.g., albedo, air temperature) and their utility in modeling habitat selection. The purpose of this study is to compare two dynamic terrain indices (i.e., solar insolation and topographic wetness) to their static counterparts in Alaskan moose resource selection over a ten-year period (2008-2017). Additionally, the utility of a dynamic wind-shelter index is assessed. Three moose datasets (n=130 total), spanning a north-to-south gradient in Alaska, are analyzed independently to assess location-specific resource selection. The newly-released, high-resolution Arctic Digital Elevation Model (5m2) is used as the terrain input into both dynamic and static indices. Dynamic indices are programmed with meteorological data from the North American Regional Analysis (NARR) and NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) databases. Static wetness and solar insolation indices are estimated using only topographic parameters (e.g., slope, aspect). Preliminary results from pilot analyses suggest that dynamic terrain indices may provide novel insights into resource selection of moose that could not be gained when using static counterparts. Future applications of such dynamic

  6. Application of Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) instrument in a global setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimo, Anders; Gustavsson, Anders; Jönsson, Linus; Winblad, Bengt; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Gannon, Brenda

    2013-07-01

    The Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) questionnaire is the most widely used instrument for resource use data collection in dementia, enabling comparison of costs of care across countries with differing health care provisions. Recent feedback from payers questioned its face validity given that health care provisions have changed since the initial development of the RUD in 1998. The aim of this study was to update the RUD to improve its face validity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical research and its utility for health care resource allocation. An extensive PubMed review was conducted of current relevant resource items in AD in 15 countries. The findings were complemented by interviews with local care providers and experts in dementia care and health economics. Their proposed revisions were discussed with five leading dementia experts in North and South America, northern and southern Europe, and Asia. A new version of the RUD was developed based on their recommendations. RUD users identified a need for more information relevant to coverage decisions. Proposed revisions included changes to existing questions (e.g., to capture more accurately the number and type of health care visits) and the addition of new questions (e.g., on informal caregiver hours and the primary caregiver's hours of sleep). Several minor changes were made to the RUD instrument to improve the accuracy and precision of the data while maintaining comparability with the original version and reflecting current medical practice. The RUD Complete Version 4.0 is now available for use in future AD clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study benefit value of utilization water resources for energy and sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniah, Restu; Sastradinata, Marwan

    2017-11-01

    Referring to the concept of sustainable development, the environment is said to be sustainable if the fulfillment of three pillars of development that is economic, social and ecological or the environment itself. The environment can sustained in the principle of ecology or basic principles of environmental science, when the three environmental components, namely the natural environment, the artificial environment (the built environment) and the social environment can be aligned for sustainability. The natural environment in this study is the water resources, the artificial environment is micro hydroelectric power generation (MHPG), and the social environment is the community living around the MHPG. The existence of MHPG is intended for the sustainability of special electrical energy for areas not yet reached by electricity derived from the state electricity company (SEC). The utilization of MHPG Singalaga in South Ogan Komering Ulu (OKUS) district is not only intended for economic, ecological, and social sustainability in Southern OKU district especially those who live in Singalaga Village, Kisam Tinggi District. This paper discusses the economic, ecological and social benefits of water resources utilization in Southern OKU District for MHPG Singalaga. The direct economic benefits that arise for people living around MHPG Singalaga is the cost incurred by the community for the use of electricity is less than if the community uses electricity coming from outside the MHPG. The cost to society in the form of dues amounting to IDR 15,000 a month / household. Social benefits with the absorption of manpower to manage the MHPG is chairman, secretary and 3 members, while the ecological benefits of water resources and sustainable energy as well as the community while maintaining the natural vegetation that is located around the MHPG for the continuity of water resources.

  8. Multi-purpose utilization of hydrothermal resources within the City of El Centro. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Province, S.G.; Yamasaki, R.N.; Newman, K.L.

    1979-04-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber KGRA for space heating/cooling and water heating for domestic and industrial process applications within the City of El Centro was investigated. The analysis proceeds through an engineering survey of present conventional energy utilization within the City to identify and evaluate those end uses which could potentially utilize geothermal heat as a substitute for fossil fuel or electrically produced heating and cooling. A general engineering and economic evaluation of heat and cold delivery alternatives followed including evaluations of geothermal fluid transmission options, alternative refrigeration techniques, heat and cold transmission media options, probable systems interfaces, materials evaluations, projected conventional energy costs, life cycle costs for existing conventional systems, projected pricing requirements for privately and municipally developed geothermal resources, the relative distribution costs of heat delivery options, and estimated residential and commercial retrofit costs. A cost-effective plan for large-scale utilization of geothermal energy in El Centro for district heating/cooling and industrial applications was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn. Institutional barriers and environmental impacts associated with geothermal development in the City were also evaluated. Potentially adverse impacts were identified along with mitigating measures that should either completely eliminate or reduce these adverse effects to levels of insignificance.

  9. Externalities in utility resource selection: A means to formally recognize the envionmental benefits of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, S.

    1992-01-01

    Wind can only make its full contribution to the minimization of the total cost of energy services if it is valued for all the costs that it avoids, including avoided environmental costs. Means of incorporating environmental costs, or externalities, into utility planning decisions are described. Externalities are defined as uncompensated costs or benefits of an action borne by a party other than the one causing the costs. A simple example of the use of externalities in utility resource selection is presented, comparing costs of a coal-fired power plant and a wind farm. Externalities of wind farms are analyzed and found to be very low. An examination of some aspects of legislation in the USA and Canada shows a trend for utility commissions and other regulatory bodies to determine that including externalitites lies within their mandate. By formally recognizing and accounting for the environmental benefits of wind farms, it is seen that externalities can have a significant effect on utility demand for wind energy. A review of USA state actions regarding externalities is appended. 10 refs

  10. Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlesworth B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study was conducted to garner expert opinion on clinical sequelae and resource use associated with dressing-related trauma in a UK setting.Methods: This was an exploratory study with two phases: qualitative pilot interviews with six wound care specialists to explore dressing-related trauma concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization; and online quantitative research with 30 wound care specialists to validate and quantify the concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization explored in the first phase of the study. Data were collected on mean health care professional time, material costs, pharmaceutical costs, and inpatient management per sequela occurrence until resolution. Data were analyzed to give total costs per sequela and concept occurrence.Results: The results demonstrate that dressing-related trauma is a clinically relevant concept. The main types of dressing-related trauma concepts included skin reactions, adherence to the wound, skin stripping, maceration, drying, and plugging of the wound. These were the foundation for a number of clinical sequelae, including wound enlargement, increased exudate, bleeding, infection, pain, itching/excoriation, edema, dermatitis, inflammation, and anxiety. Mean total costs range from £56 to £175 for the complete onward management of each occurrence of the six main concepts.Conclusion: These results provide insight into the hidden costs of dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. This research successfully conceptualized

  11. Implementation of the program for conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources in Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Program for conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources has been defined for 2016-2025 period and it is a base for concrete activities in this field. This Program could be divided into several parts that deal with: the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources; status of forest genetic resources in Serbia; previous activities on the conservation of forest genetic resources; and objectives, priorities and measures of conservation. The Program should have an impact on the development of the forestry sector through the following activities: conservation and sustainable utilization of the available gene pool; improving forest management in accordance with conservation principles; improving the production of reproductive material of forest trees; make the public awareness of the need for conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources; fulfillment of international obligations related to this field and the possibility of joining FAO activities related to forest genetic resources - development of the national report as a part of the publication The State of the World's Forest Genetic Resources. Implementation of the Program will depend upon raising the awareness on the importance, conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources, as a precondition for the forests survival; it will depend of funds that will be allocated for this purpose and enthusiasm of people who deal with these issues.

  12. Outcomes and Resource Utilization of Endoscopic Mass-Closure Technique for Laryngeal Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Cheng, Esther; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Sidell, Douglas R; Hart, Catherine K; Rutter, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    To compare resource utilization and clinical outcomes between endoscopic mass-closure and open techniques for laryngeal cleft repair. Case series with chart review. Tertiary academic children's hospital. Pediatric patients undergoing repair for Benjamin-Inglis type 1-3 laryngeal clefts over a 15-year period. All 20 patients undergoing endoscopic repair were included. Eight control patients undergoing open repair were selected using matching by age and cleft type. Demographic, clinical, and resource utilization data were collected. Twenty-eight patients were included (20 endoscopic, 8 open). Mean age, rates of tracheostomy and vocal fold immobility, and distribution of cleft types were not different between the 2 groups (all P > .2). Mean operative time (P = .004) and duration of hospital stay (P group. All repairs were intact in both groups at final postoperative endoscopy. Rates of persistent laryngeal penetration or aspiration on swallow study were not different between groups (P = 1.000), although results were available for only 11 patients. Endoscopic laryngeal cleft repair using a mass-closure technique provides a durable result while requiring significantly shorter operative times and hospital stays than open repair and avoiding the potential morbidity of laryngofissure. However, open repair may allow the simultaneous performance of other airway reconstructive procedures and may be a useful salvage technique when endoscopic repair fails. Postoperative swallowing results require further study. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. A composite efficiency metrics for evaluation of resource and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Siyu; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Polygeneration systems are commonly found in chemical and energy industry. These systems often involve chemical conversions and energy conversions. Studies of these systems are interdisciplinary, mainly involving fields of chemical engineering, energy engineering, environmental science, and economics. Each of these fields has developed an isolated index system different from the others. Analyses of polygeneration systems are therefore very likely to provide bias results with only the indexes from one field. This paper is motivated from this problem to develop a new composite efficiency metrics for polygeneration systems. This new metrics is based on the second law of thermodynamics, exergy theory. We introduce exergy cost for waste treatment as the energy penalty into conventional exergy efficiency. Using this new metrics could avoid the situation of spending too much energy for increasing production or paying production capacity for saving energy consumption. The composite metrics is studied on a simplified co-production process, syngas to methanol and electricity. The advantage of the new efficiency metrics is manifested by comparison with carbon element efficiency, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency. Results show that the new metrics could give more rational analysis than the other indexes. - Highlights: • The composite efficiency metric gives the balanced evaluation of resource utilization and energy utilization. • This efficiency uses the exergy for waste treatment as the energy penalty. • This efficiency is applied on a simplified co-production process. • Results show that the composite metrics is better than energy efficiencies and resource efficiencies

  14. Early severe morbidity and resource utilization in South African adults on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meintjes Graeme A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of mortality and morbidity have been described in sub-Saharan African patients within the first few months of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. There is limited data on the causes of early morbidity on HAART and the associated resource utilization. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of medical admissions at a secondary-level hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Patients on HAART were identified from a register and HIV-infected patients not on HAART were matched by gender, month of admission, and age group to correspond with the first admission of each case. Primary reasons for admission were determined by chart review. Direct health care costs were determined from the provider's perspective. Results There were 53 in the HAART group with 70 admissions and 53 in the no-HAART group with 60 admissions. The median duration of HAART was 1 month (interquartile range 1-3 months. Median baseline CD4 count in the HAART group was 57 × 106 cells/L (IQR 15-115. The primary reasons for admission in the HAART group were more likely to be due to adverse drug reactions and less likely to be due to AIDS events than the no-HAART group (34% versus 7%; p Conclusions Causes of early morbidity are different and more complex in HIV-infected patients on HAART. This results in greater resource utilization of diagnostic and therapeutic services.

  15. Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD – available resources and utilization in Swedish primary and secondary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundh J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Josefin Sundh,1 Helena Lindgren,2 Mikael Hasselgren,2 Scott Montgomery,3–5 Christer Janson,6 Björn Ställberg,7 Karin Lisspers7 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, 2Medical Programme, School of Medical Sciences, 3Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 6Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, 7Department of Public Health and Caring Science, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction: Pulmonary rehabilitation is effective in all stages of COPD. The availability and utilization of pulmonary rehabilitation resources, and the characteristics of COPD patients receiving rehabilitation, were investigated in primary and secondary care in central Sweden. Materials and methods: Data on available pulmonary rehabilitation resources were collected using questionnaires, to 14 hospitals and 54 primary health care centers, and information on utilization of different rehabilitation professionals was obtained from questionnaires completed by 1,329 COPD patients from the same centers. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with having received rehabilitation in the previous year. Results: In primary care, nurse-based asthma/COPD clinics were common (87%, with additional separate access to other rehabilitation professionals. In secondary care, rehabilitation was more often offered as part of a multidisciplinary teamwork (71%. In total, 36% of the patients met an asthma/COPD nurse in the previous year. Utilization was lower in primary than in secondary care for physiotherapists (7% vs 16%, occupational therapists (3% vs 10%, nutritionists (5% vs 13%, and counselors (1% vs 4%. A higher COPD Assessment Test score

  16. Interactions to the fifth trophic level: secondary and tertiary parasitoid wasps show extraordinary efficiency in utilizing host resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Wagenaar, R.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Parasitoid wasps are highly efficient organisms at utilizing and assimilating limited resources from their hosts. This study explores interactions over three trophic levels, from the third (primary parasitoid) to the fourth (secondary parasitoid) and terminating in the fifth (tertiary

  17. Abstracts of the Seminar on Modern State of Water Resources of Tajikistan - Problems and Perspectives of Rational Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains the abstracts of papers presented at the Seminar on Modern State of Water Resources of Tajikistan - Problems and Perspectives of Rational Utilization, held in Dushanbe in 2003

  18. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  19. Impact of ranolazine on clinical outcomes and healthcare resource utilization in patients with refractory angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hua; Packard, Kathleen A; Burns, Tammy L; Hilleman, Daniel E

    2013-12-01

    Ranolazine is a novel antianginal medication approved for the treatment of chronic angina. There are only limited data concerning the efficacy of ranolazine in reducing healthcare resource utilization in patients with refractory angina pectoris. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ranolazine in refractory angina pectoris. In addition, the impact of ranolazine on healthcare resource utilization was assessed. Consecutive patients with refractory angina pectoris treated with ranolazine at two cardiology practices in the state of Nebraska were included in this analysis. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) angina class and frequency and type of healthcare resource consumption were determined during the 12 months prior to and the 12 months after initiation of ranolazine. A total of 150 pts (64 % men) with a mean age of 66 ± 12 years were included in this analysis. All patients had previously undergone coronary revascularization. Nitrates, β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers), and calcium antagonists (calcium channel blockers) were being used in 83, 97, and 75 % of patients, respectively. During ranolazine treatment, a significant improvement in CCS angina class was observed, with 23 patients improving by one class and no patient experiencing a deterioration in functional class (p = 0.025). A total of 53 side effects occurred in 28 (19 %) patients receiving ranolazine. Of those patients with side effects, four required dose reduction and seven required drug discontinuation. The frequency of clinic visits and emergency room visits was lower during ranolazine treatment, but the differences in frequency were not significant. The number of patients hospitalized and the number of hospitalizations were significantly lower during ranolazine therapy than in the pre-ranolazine study period (p = 0.002). Ranolazine improved the CCS angina class and reduced hospitalizations over a 12-month follow-up period in a group

  20. Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. L.; Rygalov, V. Ye.; Johnson, S. B.

    2009-04-01

    All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth, depending in part on environmental conditions, design approach, assembly technologies, and the materials used. This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems. All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence: [Function]˜[ERU]∗[RUIS]∗[ISR]/[DR];where [ERU]efficiency (rate) of environmental resource utilization[RUIS]resource utilization infrastructure[ISR]in situ resources[DR]degradation rateThe limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability (maximum possible, approaching 100%) for system functioning and operation, and must minimize the rate of any system degradation. To date, only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations. This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems, as repair of data and spare parts, and the humans, as exercise and psychological support. Such maintenance now requires huge infrastructures, including research and development complexes and management agencies, which currently cannot move beyond the Earth. When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars, what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space? In all of the known system factors of a mission to Mars that reduce the mass load, increase the reliability, and reduce the mission’s overall risk, the current common denominator is the use of undeveloped or untested technologies. None of the technologies required to significantly reduce the risk for critical systems are currently available at acceptable readiness levels. Long term interplanetary missions require that space programs produce a craft

  1. Space Resource Utilization and Extending Human Presence Across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Presidents Vision for Exploration is not a single mission, but an open ended journey that seeks to answer "How can we live on other worlds?" Using space resources is the only known approach for affordable, sustained, flexible, and self sufficient, human occupation beyond Earth orbit. Earth is a large planet. A simple analysis using the rocket equation shows that if Earth were a bit larger, chemical propulsion as a mechanism to access space would become impractical. Thus, even with the most efficient chemical rocket launch capability, the cost of lifting massive payloads into space will remain very steep (currently about $l00k/lb to the Moon and greater than $500k/lb to Mars). Space resource utilization should begin with an aggressive broad based demonstration program as afforded by the precursor missions implementation of the President's Vision of Exploration. Ion engine upper stages, for example, were studied for over 30 years, but only implemented in design after the Deep Space 1 in space demonstration. These demonstrations should include: extraction of elements from lunar regolith, and Martian soil and atmosphere, demonstration of power break even and growth from lunar or Mars moons derived photovoltaics, oxygen extraction for life support and propellant, and metals and alloys for in space repair and the production of habits and radiation shielding. Space resource utilization yields operational dividends through the subsequent programs including: propellant from lunar oxygen which could cut transportation costs from Earth in half, mega watts per year of power grown from lunar photovoltaics at decreasing cost per kW, decreased cost for human Mars missions by a factor of 10 by using propellant derived from Mars atmosphere for return, and in space manufacturing and food production with space resources yielding safe sustained and eventually self sufficient human presence in space. After the demonstration and implementation, the space resource utilization

  2. In-Situ Resource Utilization for further exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, B.; Pohajsky, S.

    In-Situ Resource Utilization ISRU is the concept of living off the land Initially proposed in the mid 20th Century many experts have suggested that ISRU is an important enabler for the expansion of humanity beyond the confines of limited resources on Earth However even today ISRU remains a relatively underdeveloped and under--demonstrated in current exploration roadmaps This paper summarizes the proposals of an interdisciplinary study carried out by 27 students from 17 different countries at the International Space University The study reviewed the past and present ISRU techniques and related robotic technologies in the context of complementing the Moon and Mars exploration scenarios of the major space faring countries The economic viability and benefits of ISRU are examined together with the regulatory ethical and cultural aspects of space resource utilisation The renewed opportunities for moon exploration have rekindled interest in ISRU as an enabling technology It is important to assess both the tangible and intangible benefits of this technology in order to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of adopting it in support of human exploration of the Moon Mars and beyond

  3. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-deWys, J. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  4. Utilities must leverage existing resources and upgrade technology to avoid future blackouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, R.

    2004-01-01

    The blackout of August 14, 2003 is used as the incentive to examine transmission grid reliability, expose its deficiencies in terms of technology, standards and processes used to manage reliability, and to make recommendations for leveraging existing resources and upgrading both the technology and procedures to avoid similar breakdowns in the future. It is recommended that in the area of monitoring transmission grid reliability utilities should borrow a page from the Enterprise Risk Management Practices of the financial industry by adopting a system which looks beyond the first 'credible' contingency (the current system) and examine many more 'incredible' contingencies, and underlying events that can trigger multiple contingencies, and plan for them in their operations. Utility companies are also urged to upgrade their energy management systems (EMS) technology to be able to deal with the kinds of severely depressed voltages and overloaded circuits that many grids experience today. Investment in new capabilities in control rooms, more and better communications will be essential. EMS algorithms and models must be upgraded to operate under a broader spectrum of grid conditions and to simulate the once-in-a-lifetime outage scenarios that most operators believe could never strike their utility. Expert opinion strongly suggests that as part of this process of upgrading, contingency analysis should shift from the 'N-1' model of the present to a stochastic model that considers a wider range of possible events in a probabilistic framework

  5. Utilities must leverage existing resources and upgrade technology to avoid future blackouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, R. [KEMA Inc. Burlington, MA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The blackout of August 14, 2003 is used as the incentive to examine transmission grid reliability, expose its deficiencies in terms of technology, standards and processes used to manage reliability, and to make recommendations for leveraging existing resources and upgrading both the technology and procedures to avoid similar breakdowns in the future. It is recommended that in the area of monitoring transmission grid reliability utilities should borrow a page from the Enterprise Risk Management Practices of the financial industry by adopting a system which looks beyond the first 'credible' contingency (the current system) and examine many more 'incredible' contingencies, and underlying events that can trigger multiple contingencies, and plan for them in their operations. Utility companies are also urged to upgrade their energy management systems (EMS) technology to be able to deal with the kinds of severely depressed voltages and overloaded circuits that many grids experience today. Investment in new capabilities in control rooms, more and better communications will be essential. EMS algorithms and models must be upgraded to operate under a broader spectrum of grid conditions and to simulate the once-in-a-lifetime outage scenarios that most operators believe could never strike their utility. Expert opinion strongly suggests that as part of this process of upgrading, contingency analysis should shift from the 'N-1' model of the present to a stochastic model that considers a wider range of possible events in a probabilistic framework.

  6. Changes of glucose utilization by erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the serum and blood cells, and haematocrit value during one hour rest after maximal effort in individuals differing in physical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, M

    1982-01-01

    Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the blood and erythrocytes, and haematocrit value were determined before exercise and during one hour rest following maximal exercise in 97 individuals of either sex differing in physical efficiency. In the investigations reported by the author individuals with strikingly high physical fitness performed maximal work one-third greater than that performed by individuals with medium fitness. The serum concentration of lactic acid was in all individuals above the resting value still after 60 minutes of rest. On the other hand, this concentration returned to the normal level in the erythrocytes but only in individuals with strikingly high efficiency. Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes during the restitution period was highest immediately after the exercise in all studied individuals and showed a tendency for more rapid return to resting values again in individuals with highest efficiency. The investigation of very efficient individuals repeated twice demonstrated greater utilization of glucose by the erythrocytes at the time of greater maximal exercise. This was associated with greater lactic acid concentration in the serum and erythrocytes throughout the whole one-hour rest period. The observed facts suggest an active participation of erythrocytes in the process of adaptation of the organism to exercise.

  7. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  8. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  9. Pedagogical Utilization and Assessment of the Statistic Online Computational Resource in Introductory Probability and Statistics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Sanchez, Juana; Christou, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Technology-based instruction represents a new recent pedagogical paradigm that is rooted in the realization that new generations are much more comfortable with, and excited about, new technologies. The rapid technological advancement over the past decade has fueled an enormous demand for the integration of modern networking, informational and computational tools with classical pedagogical instruments. Consequently, teaching with technology typically involves utilizing a variety of IT and multimedia resources for online learning, course management, electronic course materials, and novel tools of communication, engagement, experimental, critical thinking and assessment.The NSF-funded Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) provides a number of interactive tools for enhancing instruction in various undergraduate and graduate courses in probability and statistics. These resources include online instructional materials, statistical calculators, interactive graphical user interfaces, computational and simulation applets, tools for data analysis and visualization. The tools provided as part of SOCR include conceptual simulations and statistical computing interfaces, which are designed to bridge between the introductory and the more advanced computational and applied probability and statistics courses. In this manuscript, we describe our designs for utilizing SOCR technology in instruction in a recent study. In addition, present the results of the effectiveness of using SOCR tools at two different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. We have used three very different designs for three different undergraduate classes. Each course included a treatment group, using the SOCR resources, and a control group, using classical instruction techniques. Our findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per individual

  10. Review of problems associated with the utilization of available thorium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, F.A.; Gray, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Portions of the U. S. Thorium Stockpile are in danger of literally ''going to waste.'' These raw materials, with their high concentrations of thorium, are valuable resources which can be utilized to fuel thermal converter reactors. A portion of this stockpile was transferred to Mound Laboratory in the early 1950's. In 1972, the material was determined to be excess to all present and foreseeable future national requirements. Disposal by burial was recommended by the AEC. Following a detailed study of the potential usefulness of the material and the costs associated with land burial, the AEC agreed to offer the material on surplus sale. Risks and benefits associated with retention of the thorium stockpile are described. Nuclear Materials Managers are uniquely situated to exercise influence and direct the future course of remaining thorium reserves

  11. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  12. Associations of health literacy with dialysis adherence and health resource utilization in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jamie A; Mor, Maria K; Shields, Anne Marie; Sevick, Mary Ann; Arnold, Robert M; Palevsky, Paul M; Fine, Michael J; Weisbord, Steven D

    2013-07-01

    Although limited health literacy is common in hemodialysis patients, its effects on clinical outcomes are not well understood. Observational study. 260 maintenance hemodialysis patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of symptom management strategies from January 2009 through April 2011. Limited health literacy. Dialysis adherence (missed and abbreviated treatments) and health resource utilization (emergency department visits and end-stage renal disease [ESRD]-related hospitalizations). We assessed health literacy using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and used negative binomial regression to analyze the independent associations of limited health literacy with dialysis adherence and health resource utilization over 12-24 months. 41 of 260 (16%) patients showed limited health literacy (REALM score, ≤60). There were 1,152 missed treatments, 5,127 abbreviated treatments, 552 emergency department visits, and 463 ESRD-related hospitalizations. Limited health literacy was associated independently with an increased incidence of missed dialysis treatments (missed, 0.6% vs 0.3%; adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.10-4.17), emergency department visits (annual visits, 1.7 vs 1.0; adjusted IRR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.86), and hospitalizations related to ESRD (annual hospitalizations, 0.9 vs 0.5; adjusted IRR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.03-2.34). Generalizability and potential for residual confounding. Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis who have limited health literacy are more likely to miss dialysis treatments, use emergency care, and be hospitalized related to their kidney disease. These findings have important clinical practice and cost implications. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Eric Siaw; Calatayud, Paul-Andre; Van Den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C) in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops).

  14. Influence of Temperature on Intra- and Interspecific Resource Utilization within a Community of Lepidopteran Maize Stemborers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Siaw Ntiri

    Full Text Available Competition or facilitation characterises intra- and interspecific interactions within communities of species that utilize the same resources. Temperature is an important factor influencing those interactions and eventual outcomes. The noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis and the crambid Chilo partellus attack maize in sub-Saharan Africa. They often occur as a community of interacting species in the same field and plant at all elevations. The influence of temperature on the intra- and interspecific interactions among larvae of these species, was studied using potted maize plants exposed to varying temperatures in a greenhouse and artificial stems kept at different constant temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C in an incubator. The experiments involved single- and multi-species infestation treatments. Survival and relative growth rates of each species were assessed. Both intra- and interspecific competitions were observed among all three species. Interspecific competition was stronger between the noctuids and the crambid than between the two noctuids. Temperature affected both survival and relative growth rates of the three species. Particularly at high temperatures, C. partellus was superior in interspecific interactions shown by higher larval survival and relative growth rates. In contrast, low temperatures favoured survival of B. fusca and S. calamistis but affected the relative growth rates of all three species. Survival and relative growth rates of B. fusca and S. calamistis in interspecific interactions did not differ significantly across temperatures. Temperature increase caused by future climate change is likely to confer an advantage on C. partellus over the noctuids in the utilization of resources (crops.

  15. Biotechnology for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Joshi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity is the basis of human life and food security. Nepal with 577 cultivated species possesses huge diversity at varietal as well as landrace levels. In most agricultural crops the rapid genetic erosion due to several reasons is a common phenomenon. Thus, considering the importance of agricultural biodiversity declared by Convention on Biological Diversity for sustainable food production, National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC has been established for conservation and sustainable utilization of agricultural biodiversity. This paper thus delineates the application of biotechnological tools adopted by NAGRC for effective and efficient conservation and use of agricultural plant genetic resources (APGRs. Among the adopted technologies, tissue bank using shoot tip culture of vegetatively propagating and recalcitrant crops eg potato, sugarcane, banana, sweet potato, etc are in function. Under the molecular marker technology, currently random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been used for developing DNA profiles, identifying duplicates in the collections, assessing genetic diversity and screening accessions against economic traits. DNA bank has also been created for storing DNA of indigenous crops and these DNA can be accessed for research and study. Genotypic database has been developed for chayote, finger millet, wheat and maize for identification and selection of the accessions.

  16. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  17. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  18. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  19. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  20. Understanding the economic burden of heart failure in China: impact on disease management and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yin, Hongjun; Zhang, Milun; Ni, Qian; Xuan, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    This study has two objectives: (1) to examine healthcare resource utilization in heart failure (HF) patients; and (2) to examine the treatment costs associated with HF in China. The data used in this study was from the 2014 national insurance database sponsored by the China Health Insurance Research Association (CHIRA), that covers national urban employees and residents. ICD-10 codes and keywords indicating heart failure diagnoses were used to identify patients with heart failure. Drug utilization, hospital visits, re-admission, and treatment costs in different service categories were examined. A total of 7,847 patients were included in this analysis, of which 1,157 patients had a 1-year complete follow-up period. In total, 48.16% of patients received the combination treatment of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) and beta-blockers (BB); and 22.87% of patients received the combination treatment of ACEI/ARB, beta-blockers and Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). The annual treatment cost per patient with HF diagnosis was RMB 28,974, of which 66% was for inpatient care. The cost on HF medications accounted for 8.2% of annual cost. Treatment cost was much higher in provincial-level municipalities than that of prefecture-level and other cities. Hospitalization is a major driver of HF treatment cost. Compared to the requirements in international treatment guidelines, HF standard of care medication treatment was under-utilized among HF patients in China. The high re-admission rate among Chinese patients indicates that the management of HF needs to be improved. The percentage of GDP spent on treating HF patients was much lower than that in the developed countries.

  1. Predictors of high healthcare resource utilization and liver disease progression among patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMori, Joyce; Tandon, Neeta; Laliberté, François; Germain, Guillaume; Pilon, Dominic; Lefebvre, Patrick; Prabhakar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Since hepatitis C virus therapy is typically prioritized for patients with more advanced disease, predicting which patients will progress could help direct scarce resources to those likely to benefit most. This study aims to identify demographics and clinical characteristics associated with high healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and liver disease progression among CHC patients. Using health insurance claims (January 2001-March 2013), adult patients with ≥2 CHC claims (ICD-9-CM: 070.44 or 070.54), and ≥6 months of continuous insurance coverage before and ≥36 months after the first CHC diagnosis were included. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus were excluded. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of being in the 20% of patients with the highest HRU. Factors predicting liver disease progression were also identified. In the study population (n = 4898), liver disease severity and both CHC- and non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions were strong predictors of high healthcare costs, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for ≥2 CHC-related and ≥2 non-CHC-related comorbidities/conditions of 2.78 (2.48-3.12) and 2.19 (1.76-2.72), respectively. CHC- and non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions were also strong predictors of liver disease progression with ORs (95% CI) for ≥2 CHC-related and ≥2 non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions of 2.18 (1.83-2.60) and 1.50 (1.14-1.97), respectively. Potential inaccuracies in claims data, information or classification bias, and findings based on a privately insured population. This study suggests that CHC patients with high healthcare resource utilization have a high level of comorbidity at baseline and also that non-CHC comorbidities and conditions are strong predictors of high HRU. Non-cirrhotic CHC patients with one or more comorbidities are at high risk of progressing to cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease.

  2. Predictors of outpatient resource utilization following ventral and incisional hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alex; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Johnson, Sara E; Madabhushi, Vashisht V; Mastoroudis, Erica; Tancula, Charlie; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the predictors of increased ambulatory costs following open ventral and incisional hernia repair (VIHR); however, postoperative complications would be expected to be associated with an increased burden on outpatient resources. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of perioperative factors on outpatient resource utilization following VIHR. With IRB approval, the surgery scheduling system was queried to identify all cases of VIHR done at our institution over 3 years. Cases with other procedures done at time of VIHR were excluded. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program clinical data, physician billing data which included market and payor across cases, and medical record review data were combined and evaluated in order to quantify care and predictors of usage during the 6 months postoperatively. Data were analyzed for 308 patients. Median patient age was 52 years (SD = 13.3), and over half were female. The number of outpatient visits to the surgical office varied from 0 to 18 [median = 2; interquartile range (IQR) = 1-3]. CDC Wound Class >1 was associated with increase of mean 1.4 visits (IQR: 0.5-2.3); p = 0.003. Component separation, longer duration of operation, and increased mesh size were also predictive of increased number of office visits (p < 0.01). Postoperative infected seroma/seroma requiring drainage added a mean 2.3 visits (IQR: 1.3-3.3), (p < 0.001); and deep wound infection added a mean 3.9 visits (IQR: 1.9-5.9) (p < 0.001). Postoperative complications confer a significant burden for patients and to the outpatient surgical office. In an era in which improved quality and cost-efficiency has become imperative, measures to decrease risk of postoperative complications particularly for more complex VIHR would be expected to decrease resource utilization and increase value of care.

  3. The burden of selected cancers in the US: health behaviors and health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadeluca L

    2017-11-01

    .Conclusion: Understanding the resource utilization implications, health, and well-being of cancer survivors can inform approaches to interventions for improving long-term care. Keywords: cancer survivor, epidemiology, survivorship, function, health care resource utilization, costs

  4. Costs and health care resource utilization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with newly acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Junji Lin,1 Yunfeng Li,2 Haijun Tian,2 Michael J Goodman,1 Susan Gabriel,2 Tara Nazareth,2 Stuart J Turner,2,3 Stephen Arcona,2 Kristijan H Kahler21Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at increased risk for lung infections and other pathologies (eg, pneumonia; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of pneumonia on health care resource utilization and costs in this population. The purpose of this study was to estimate health care resource utilization and costs among COPD patients with newly acquired pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective claims analysis using Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare databases was conducted. COPD patients with and without newly acquired pneumonia diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and September 30, 2011 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a 1:1 matched cohort. Patient demographics, comorbidities (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, and medication use were evaluated before and after matching. Health care resource utilization (ie, hospitalizations, emergency room [ER] and outpatient visits, and associated health care costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and ER visits, and gamma regression models and two-part models compared health care costs between groups after matching. Results: In the baseline cohort (N=467,578, patients with newly acquired pneumonia were older (mean age: 70 versus [vs] 63 years and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.3 vs 2.6 than patients without pneumonia. After propensity score matching, the pneumonia cohort was nine times more likely

  5. Service guidelines based on Resource Utilization Groups Version III for Home Care provide decision-making support for case managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, Barbara; Stein, Glenda; Katz, Deborah; DeBruyn, Joan; Andrusiw, Linda; Cloutier, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Increasing costs and budget reductions combined with increasing demand from our growing, aging population support the need to ensure that the scarce resources allocated to home care clients match client needs. This article details how Integrated Home Care for the Calgary Zone of Alberta Health Services considered ethical and economic principles and used data from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) and case mix indices from the Resource Utilization Groups Version III for Home Care (RUG-III/HC) to formulate service guidelines. These explicit service guidelines formalize and support individual resource allocation decisions made by case managers and provide a consistent and transparent method of allocating limited resources.

  6. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  7. Health care resource utilization before and after natalizumab initiation among patients with multiple sclerosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystal Watson,1 Christine Prosser,2 Sebastian Braun,2 Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg,3 Erika Gleissner,4 Sarah Naoshy1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Global Market Access, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Real World Evidence, Xcenda GmbH, Hanover, Germany; 3Applied Data Analytics, Xcenda LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, USA; 4Market Access, Biogen, Ismaning, Germany Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, greatly impacts the quality of life and economic status of people affected by this disease. In Germany, the total annual cost of MS is estimated at €40,000 per person with MS. Natalizumab has shown to slow MS disease progression, reduce relapses, and improve the quality of life of people with MS.Objective: To evaluate MS-related and all-cause health care resource utilization and costs among German MS patients during the 12 months before and after initiation of natalizumab in a real-world setting.Methods: The current analysis was conducted using the Health Risk Institute research database. Identified patients were aged ≥18 years with ≥1 diagnosis of MS and had initiated natalizumab therapy (index, with 12-month pre– and post–index-period data. Patients were stratified by prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT usage or no DMT usage in the pre-index period. Outcome measures included corticosteroid use and number of sick/disability days, inpatient stays, and outpatient visits. Health care costs were calculated separately for pre- and post-index periods on a per-patient basis and adjusted for inflation.Results: In a final sample of 193 natalizumab-treated patients, per-patient MS-related corticosteroid use was reduced by 62.3%, MS-related sick days by 27.6%, and inpatient costs by 78.3% from the pre- to post-index period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with MS-related hospitalizations decreased from 49.7% to 14.0% (P<0.001; this reduction was seen for patients with and without prior DMT use

  8. Evaluation of Resource Utilization and Treatment Patterns in Patients with Actinic Keratosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asche, Carl V; Zografos, Panagiotis; Norlin, Jenny M; Urbanek, Bill; Mamay, Carl; Makin, Charles; Erntoft, Sandra; Chen, Chi-Chang; Hines, Dionne M; Mark Siegel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To compare health care resource utilization and treatment patterns between patients with actinic keratosis (AK) treated with ingenol mebutate gel (IngMeb) and those treated with other field-directed AK therapies. A retrospective, propensity-score-matched, cohort study compared refill/repeat and adding-on/switching patterns and outpatient visits and prescriptions (health care resource utilization) over 6 months in patients receiving IngMeb versus those receiving imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac sodium, and methyl aminolevulinate or aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (MAL/ALA-PDT). The final sample analyzed included four matched treatment cohort pairs (IngMeb and comparator; n = 790-971 per treatment arm). Refill rates were similar except for imiquimod (15% vs. 9% for imiquimod and IngMeb, respectively; P < 0.05). MAL/ALA-PDT treatment repetition rates were higher than IngMeb refill rates (20% vs. 10%; P < 0.05). Topical agent add-on/switch rates were comparable. PDT had higher switch rates than did IngMeb (5% vs. 2%; P < 0.05). The IngMeb cohort had a significantly lower proportion of patients with at least one AK-related outpatient visit during the 6-month follow-up than did any other cohort: versus imiquimod (50% vs. 66%; P < 0.0001), versus 5-fluorouracil (50% vs. 69%; P < 0.0001), versus diclofenac sodium (51% vs. 56%; P = 0.034), and versus MAL/ALA-PDT (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.0001). There were significantly fewer AK-related prescriptions among patients receiving IngMeb than among patients in other cohorts. Results based on the first 6 months after treatment initiation suggested that most field-directed AK therapies had clinically comparable treatment patterns except imiquimod, which was associated with higher refill rates, and PDT, which was associated with significantly more frequent treatment sessions and higher switching rates. IngMeb was also associated with significantly fewer outpatient visits than were other field-directed therapies. Copyright

  9. Clinical characteristics, healthcare costs, and resource utilization in hepatitis C vary by genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby Hunter, Alyssa; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Patel, Chad; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Anduze-Faris, Beatrice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, approximately 3 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genotypes of HCV variably affect disease progression and treatment response. However, the relationships between HCV genotypes and liver disease progression, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare costs have not been fully explored. In this retrospective study of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), healthcare claims from a large US health plan were used to collect data on patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Main outcome measures include healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and healthcare costs. Linked laboratory data provided genotype and select measures to determine liver disease severity. The sample (mean age 50.6 years, 63.5% male) included 10,331 patients, of whom 79.1% had genotype (GT)1, 12.8% had GT2, and 8.1% had GT3. Descriptive analyses demonstrated variation by HCV genotype in liver and non-liver related comorbidities, liver disease severity, and healthcare costs. The highest percentage of patients with liver-related comorbidities and advanced liver disease was found among those with GT3. Meanwhile, patients with GT2 had lower HCRU and the lowest costs, and patients with GT1 had the highest total all-cause costs. These differences may reflect differing rates of non-liver-related comorbidities and all-cause care. Multivariable analyses showed that genotype was a significant predictor of costs and liver disease severity: compared with patients having GT1, those with GT3 were significantly more likely to have advanced liver disease. Patients with GT2 were significantly less likely to have advanced disease and more likely to have lower all-cause costs. Results may not be generalizable to patients outside the represented commercial insurance plans, and analysis of a prevalent population may underestimate HCRU and costs relative to a sample of treated patients. These results suggest that liver disease progression varies by genotype and

  10. Society of Thoracic Surgeons Risk Score Predicts Hospital Charges and Resource Utilization After Aortic Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George J.; George, Timothy J.; Alejo, Diane E.; Merlo, Christian A.; Baumgartner, William A.; Cameron, Duke E.; Shah, Ashish S.

    2011-01-01

    Context The impact of Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) predicted mortality risk score on resource utilization after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has not been previously studied. Objective We hypothesize that increasing STS risk scores in patients having AVR are associated with greater hospital charges. Design, Setting, and Patients Clinical and financial data for patients undergoing AVR at a tertiary care, university hospital over a ten-year period (1/2000–12/2009) were retrospectively reviewed. The current STS formula (v2.61) for in-hospital mortality was used for all patients. After stratification into risk quartiles (Q), index admission hospital charges were compared across risk strata with Rank-Sum tests. Linear regression and Spearman’s coefficient assessed correlation and goodness of fit. Multivariable analysis assessed relative contributions of individual variables on overall charges. Main Outcome Measures Inflation-adjusted index hospitalization total charges Results 553 patients had AVR during the study period. Average predicted mortality was 2.9% (±3.4) and actual mortality was 3.4% for AVR. Median charges were greater in the upper Q of AVR patients [Q1–3,$39,949 (IQR32,708–51,323) vs Q4,$62,301 (IQR45,952–97,103), p=<0.01]. On univariate linear regression, there was a positive correlation between STS risk score and log-transformed charges (coefficient: 0.06, 95%CI 0.05–0.07, p<0.01). Spearman’s correlation R-value was 0.51. This positive correlation persisted in risk-adjusted multivariable linear regression. Each 1% increase in STS risk score was associated with an added $3,000 in hospital charges. Conclusions This study showed increasing STS risk score predicts greater charges after AVR. As competing therapies such as percutaneous valve replacement emerge to treat high risk patients, these results serve as a benchmark to compare resource utilization. PMID:21497834

  11. Probing Language Teacher Accountability in Utilizing Self-developed Language Teaching Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vosoughi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at recognizing constraints on the way of some Iranian language teachers' utilization of self-developed, localized, English language teaching resources. To this aim, three sets of teacher variables on pedagogical and personal accounts were examined including Language teachers' experience (novice/experienced, their educational level (BA/MA/PhD and their gender. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, through stratified sampling, some eighty-three volunteering, English language teachers (Male and Female, who were indulged in the Iranian Ministry of Education (MoE, university settings (public and private and language institutes were randomly selected.  Teachers’ responses to a validated researcher-made questionnaire on language teacher curriculum autonomy revealed an overall significant Multiple R with F (3, 80 =.88, (0.04 but each individual above-cited predictors could not significantly predict teacher curriculum autonomy score. In the second phase for triangulation aims, three above-cited teacher variables were mapped over the insights gained through written interview sessions with some fourteen English language teachers.  Language teachers' self-reported 'challenges' and 'opportunities' for using self-developed language teaching resources for class use were content analyzed. It became evident that teaching experience was mystified in some respects in terms of its influence over interviewed teachers since diverse intentions on the part of the language teachers in this research might have deterred them not to use their full potential over using their own materials in class. Possible reasons for this situation have been fully discussed in the end.

  12. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  13. Association of obesity with healthcare resource utilization and costs in a commercial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Pravin S; Hayden, Jennifer; Collins, Jenna; Harvey, Raymond A; Suehs, Brandon; Renda, Andrew; Hammer, Mette; Huang, Joanna; Bouchard, Jonathan

    2018-05-10

    To examine the association of obesity with healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among commercially insured individuals. This retrospective observational cohort study used administrative claims from 1 January 2007 to 1 December 2013. The ICD-9-CM status codes (V85 hierarchy) from 2008 to 2012 classified body mass index (BMI) into the World Health Organizations' BMI categories. The date of first observed BMI code was defined as the index date and continuous eligibility for one year pre- and post- index date was ensured. Post-index claims determined individuals' HRU and costs. Sampling weights developed using the entropy balance method and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data ensured representation of the US adult commercially insured population. Baseline characteristics were described across BMI classes and associations between BMI categories, and outcomes were examined using multivariable regression. The cohort included 9651 individuals with BMI V85 codes. After weighting, the BMI distribution was: normal (31.1%), overweight (33.4%), obese class I (22.0%), obese class II (8.1%) and obese class III (5.4%). Increasing BMI was associated with greater prevalence of cardiometabolic conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The use of antihypertensives, antihyperlipidemics, antidiabetics, analgesics and antidepressants rose with increasing BMI. Greater BMI level was associated with increased inpatient, emergency department and outpatient utilization, and higher total healthcare, medical and pharmacy costs. Increasing BMI was associated with higher prevalence of cardiometabolic conditions and higher HRU and costs. There is an urgent need to address the epidemic of obesity and its clinical and economic impacts.

  14. The impact of age and gender on resource utilization and profitability in ED patients seen and released.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Philip L; Nathanson, Brian H; Ribeiro, Kara; Balasubramanian, Hari

    2014-10-01

    To determine how age and gender impact resource utilization and profitability in patients seen and released from an Emergency Department (ED). Billing data for patients seen and released from an Emergency Department (ED) with >100,000 annual visits between 2003 and 2009 were collected. Resource utilization was measured by length of stay (placement in ED bed to leaving the bed) and direct clinical costs (e.g., ED nursing salary and benefits, pharmacy and supply costs, etc.) estimated using relative value unit cost accounting. The primary outcome of profitability was defined as contribution margin per hour. A patient's contribution margin by insurance type (excluding self-pay) was determined by subtracting direct clinical costs from facility contractual revenue. Results are expressed as medians and US dollars. In 523 882 outpatient ED encounters, as patients' aged, length of stay and direct clinical cost increased while the contribution margin and contribution margin by hour decreased. Women of childbearing age (15-44) had higher median length of stay (2.1 hours), direct clinical cost ($149), and contribution margin per hour ($103/hour) than men of same age (1.7, $131, $85/hour, respectively). Resource utilization and profitability by gender were similar in children and adults over 45. Resource utilization increased and profitability decreased with increasing age in patients seen and released from an ED. The care of women of childbearing age resulted in higher resource utilization and higher profitability than men of the same age. No differences in resource utilization or profitability by gender were observed in children and adults over 45. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NASA In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technology and Development Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Lason, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Mclemore, Carole; Johnson, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was released in 2004, NASA, in conjunction with international space agencies, industry, and academia, has continued to define and refine plans for sustained and affordable robotic and human exploration of the Moon and beyond. With the goal of establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere, a change in how space exploration is performed is required. One area that opens up the possibility for the first time of breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables and learn to live off the land is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, which involves the extraction and processing of space resources into useful products, can have a substantial impact on mission and architecture concepts. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. However, ISRU is an unproven capability for human lunar exploration and can not be put in the critical path of lunar Outpost success until it has been proven. Therefore, ISRU development and deployment needs to take incremental steps toward the desired end state. To ensure ISRU capabilities are available for pre-Outpost and Outpost deployment by 2020, and mission and architecture planners are confident that ISRU can meet initial and long term mission requirements, the ISRU Project is developing technologies and systems in three critical areas: (1) Regolith Excavation, Handling and Material Transportation; (2) Oxygen Extraction from Regolith; and (3) Volatile Extraction and Resource Prospecting, and in four development stages: (I) Demonstrate feasibility; (II) Evolve system w/ improved technologies; (III) Develop one or more systems to TRL 6 before start of flight development; and (IV) Flight development for

  16. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  17. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  19. Can Tracheostomy Improve Outcome and Lower Resource Utilization for Patients with Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ciou-Rong; Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Tang, Gau-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is not clear whether the benefits of tracheostomy remain the same in the population. This study aimed to better examine the effect of tracheostomy on clinical outcome among prolonged ventilator patients. Methods: Data were from the medical claims data in Taiwan. A total of 3880 patients with ventilator use for more than 14 days between 2005 and 2009 were identified. Among them, 645 patients with tracheostomy conducted within 30 days of ventilator use were compared to 2715 patients without tracheostomy on death during hospitalization and study period, and successful weaning and medical utilization during hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models were used to examine the associations between tracheostomy and the main outcomes. Results: The tracheostomy rate was 30%, and 55% of tracheostomies were performed within 30 days of mechanical ventilation. After adjustments, patients with tracheostomy were at a lower risk of death during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] =0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.43–0.61) and 5-year observation (HR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.66–0.81), and a lower probability of successful weaning (HR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.79–0.99). Higher medical use was also observed in patients with tracheostomy. Conclusions: The beneficial effect for tracheostomy observed in our data was the reduction of death. However, patients with tracheostomy were less likely to wean and more likely to consume medical resources. PMID:26415799

  20. Hardware Implementation of LMS-Based Adaptive Noise Cancellation Core with Low Resource Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi Tehrani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A hardware implementation of adaptive noise cancellation (ANC core is proposed. Adaptive filters are widely used in different applications such as adaptive noise cancellation, prediction, equalization, inverse modeling and system identification. FIR adaptive filters are mostly used because of their low computation costs and their linear phase. Least mean squared algorithm (LMS is used to train FIR adaptive filter weights. Advances in semiconductor technology especially in digital signal processors (DSP and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA with hundreds of mega hertz in speed, will allow digital designers to embed essential digital signal processing units in small chips. But designing a synthesizable core on an FPGA is not always as simple as DSP chips due to complexity and limitations of FPGAs. In this paper we design anLMS-based FIR adaptive filter for adaptive noise cancellation based on VHDL97 hardware description language (HDL and Xilinx SPARTAN3E (XC3S500E which utilizes low resources and is high performance and FPGA-brand independent so can be implemented on different FPGA brands (Xilinx, ALTERA, ACTEL. Simulations are done in MODELSIM and MATLAB and implementation is done with Xilinx ISE. Finally, result are compared with other papers for better judgment.

  1. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (invasive endogeic Pontoscolex corethrurus, native anecic Estherella sp, and native endogeic Onychochaeta borincana and their effects on soil C and N dynamics in Puerto Rican soils in a 22-day laboratory experiment. Changes of 13C/C and 15N/N in soils, earthworms, and microbial populations were analyzed to evaluate resource utilization by earthworms and their influences on C and N dynamics. Estherella spp. utilized the 13C-labeled litter; however, its utilization on the 13C-labeled litter reduced when cultivated with P. corethrurus and O. borincana. Both P. corethrurus and O. borincana utilized the 13C-labeled litter and 15C-labeled grass roots and root exudates. Pontoscolex corethrurus facilitated soil respiration by stimulating 13C-labeled microbial activity; however, this effect was suppressed possibly due to the changes in the microbial activities or community when coexisting with O. borincana. Increased soil N mineralization by individual Estherella spp. and O. borincana was reduced in the mixed-species treatments. The rapid population growth of P. corethrurus may increase competition pressure on food resources on the local earthworm community. The relevance of resource availability to the population growth of P. corethrurus and its significance as an invasive species is a topic in need of future research.

  2. Physician resource utilization in radiation oncology: a model based on management of carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobeissi, Beverly J.; Gupta, Mahendra; Perez, Carlos A.; Dopuch, Nicholas; Michalski, Jeff M.; Antwerp, George van; Gerber, Russell; Wasserman, Todd H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a methodology to estimate the comparative cost of physician time in treating patients with localized prostate cancer, using as an example two-dimensional (2D) vs. three-dimensional (3D) conformal irradiation techniques, and to illustrate how current cost-accounting techniques can be used to quantify the cost of physician time and effort of any treatment. Methods and Materials: Activity-based costing, a recent innovation in accounting, widely recommended for estimating and managing the costs of specific activities, was used to derive physician resource utilization costs (actual cost of the physician services and related support services consumed). Results: Patients treated with 3D conformal irradiation consume about 50% more physician time than patients receiving 2D conventional radiation therapy. The average professional reimbursement for the 3D conformal irradiation is only about 26% more than for the 2D treatment. Substantial variations in cost are found depending on the total available physician working hours. In an academic institution, a physician working 40 hours a week would have to spend an average of about 60% of available time on clinical services to break even on a 2D treatment process and over 74% of available time on clinical work to break even on a 3D treatment process. The same physician working 50 hours a week would have to spend an average of about 48% of available time on 2D clinical services and about 60% of available time on 3D clinical work to break even. Current Medicare reimbursement for 3D treatment falls short of actual costs, even if physicians work 100% of a 50-hour week. Medicare reimbursement for 2D barely allows the department to break even for 2D treatments. Conclusions: Costs based on estimates of resource use can be substantially under- or overestimated. A consistent language (method) is needed to obtain and describe the costs of radiation therapy. The methodology described here can help practitioners and

  3. From Oxygen Generation to Metals Production: In Situ Resource Utilization by Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetpal, Deepak; Ducret, Andrew C.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    situ resource utilization on the Moon and Mars. In parallel, there may be commercial applications here on earth, such as new green technologies for metals extraction and for treatment of hazardous waste, e.g., fixing heavy metals.

  4. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  5. The Availability and Utilization of School Library Resources in Some Selected Secondary Schools (High School) in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…

  6. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  7. Simulation of emergency response operations for a static chemical spill within a building using an opportunistic resource utilization network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilien, L.T.; Elbes, M.W.; Ben Othmane, L.; Salih, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate supporting emergency response operations with opportunistic resource utilization networks ("oppnets"), based on a network paradigm for inviting and integrating diverse devices and systems available in the environment. We simulate chemical spill on a single floor of a building and

  8. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  9. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a layman's guide. Geothermal Resources Council special report No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: nature and distribution of geothermal energy; exploration, confirmation, and evaluation of the resource; reservoir development and management; utilization; economics of direct-use development; financing direct-use projects; and legal, institutional, and environmental aspects. (MHR)

  10. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  11. The exploration of medical resources utilization among inguinal hernia repair in Taiwan diagnosis-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Kung, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yi

    2017-11-09

    This study centered on differences in medical costs, using the Taiwan diagnosis-related groups (Tw-DRGs) on medical resource utilization in inguinal hernia repair (IHR) in hospitals with different ownership to provide suitable reference information for hospital administrators. The 2010-2011 data for three hospitals under different ownership were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. A retrospective method was applied to analyze the age, sex, length of stay, diagnosis and surgical procedure code, and the change in financial risk of medical costs in IHR cases after introduction of Tw-DRGs. The study calculated the cost using Tw-DRG payment principles, and compared it with estimated inpatient medical costs calculated using the fee-for-service policy. There were 723 IHR cases satisfying the Tw-DRGs criteria. Cost control in the medical care corporation hospital (US$764.2/case) was more efficient than that in the public hospital (US$902.7/case) or nonprofit proprietary hospital (US$817.1/case) surveyed in this study. For IHR, anesthesiologists in the public hospital preferred to use general anesthesia (86%), while those in the two other hospitals tended to administer spinal anesthesia. We also discovered the difference in anesthesia cost was high, at US$80.2/case on average. Because the Tw-DRG-based reimbursement system produces varying hospital costs, hospital administrators should establish a financial risk assessment system as early as possible to improve healthcare quality and financial management efficiency. This would then benefit the hospital, patient, and Bureau of National Health Insurance.

  12. Community household income and resource utilization for common inpatient pediatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaniletti, Isabella; Hall, Matthew; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Gottlieb, Laura; Macy, Michelle L; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Morse, Rustin B; Hain, Paul D; Sills, Marion R; Frank, Gary; Shah, Samir S

    2013-12-01

    Child health is influenced by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children. Our objective was to analyze inpatient costs for children hospitalized with common conditions in relation to zip code-based median annual household income (HHI). Retrospective national cohort from 32 freestanding children's hospitals for asthma, diabetes, bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia, and kidney and urinary tract infections. Standardized cost of care for individual hospitalizations and across hospitalizations for the same patient and condition were modeled by using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for severity of illness, age, gender, and race. Main exposure was median annual HHI. Posthoc tests compared adjusted standardized costs for patients from the lowest and highest income groups. From 116,636 hospitalizations, 4 of 5 conditions had differences at the hospitalization and at the patient level, with lowest-income groups having higher costs. The individual hospitalization level cost differences ranged from $187 (4.1%) to $404 (6.4%). Patient-level cost differences ranged from $310 to $1087 or 6.5% to 15% higher for the lowest-income patients. Higher costs were typically not for laboratory, imaging, or pharmacy costs. In total, patients from lowest income zip codes had $8.4 million more in hospitalization-level costs and $13.6 million more in patient-level costs. Lower community-level HHI is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for 4 of 5 common pediatric conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design, delivery, and reimbursement calculations.

  13. The exploration of medical resources utilization among inguinal hernia repair in Taiwan diagnosis-related groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study centered on differences in medical costs, using the Taiwan diagnosis-related groups (Tw-DRGs on medical resource utilization in inguinal hernia repair (IHR in hospitals with different ownership to provide suitable reference information for hospital administrators. Methods The 2010–2011 data for three hospitals under different ownership were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database. A retrospective method was applied to analyze the age, sex, length of stay, diagnosis and surgical procedure code, and the change in financial risk of medical costs in IHR cases after introduction of Tw-DRGs. The study calculated the cost using Tw-DRG payment principles, and compared it with estimated inpatient medical costs calculated using the fee-for-service policy. Results There were 723 IHR cases satisfying the Tw-DRGs criteria. Cost control in the medical care corporation hospital (US$764.2/case was more efficient than that in the public hospital (US$902.7/case or nonprofit proprietary hospital (US$817.1/case surveyed in this study. For IHR, anesthesiologists in the public hospital preferred to use general anesthesia (86%, while those in the two other hospitals tended to administer spinal anesthesia. We also discovered the difference in anesthesia cost was high, at US$80.2/case on average. Conclusions Because the Tw-DRG-based reimbursement system produces varying hospital costs, hospital administrators should establish a financial risk assessment system as early as possible to improve healthcare quality and financial management efficiency. This would then benefit the hospital, patient, and Bureau of National Health Insurance.

  14. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiyong, C.; Haixia, X.U.; Feng, C.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  15. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

    2003-04-30

    In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

  17. Comparison of direct and indirect methods of estimating health state utilities for resource allocation: review and empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, David; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew; Lilford, Richard

    2009-07-22

    Utilities (values representing preferences) for healthcare priority setting are typically obtained indirectly by asking patients to fill in a quality of life questionnaire and then converting the results to a utility using population values. We compared such utilities with those obtained directly from patients or the public. Review of studies providing both a direct and indirect utility estimate. Papers reporting comparisons of utilities obtained directly (standard gamble or time tradeoff) or indirectly (European quality of life 5D [EQ-5D], short form 6D [SF-6D], or health utilities index [HUI]) from the same patient. PubMed and Tufts database of utilities. Sign test for paired comparisons between direct and indirect utilities; least squares regression to describe average relations between the different methods. Mean utility scores (or median if means unavailable) for each method, and differences in mean (median) scores between direct and indirect methods. We found 32 studies yielding 83 instances where direct and indirect methods could be compared for health states experienced by adults. The direct methods used were standard gamble in 57 cases and time trade off in 60(34 used both); the indirect methods were EQ-5D (67 cases), SF-6D (13), HUI-2 (5), and HUI-3 (37). Mean utility values were 0.81 (standard gamble) and 0.77 (time tradeoff) for the direct methods; for the indirect methods: 0.59(EQ-5D), 0.63 (SF-6D), 0.75 (HUI-2) and 0.68 (HUI-3). Direct methods of estimating utilities tend to result in higher health ratings than the more widely used indirect methods, and the difference can be substantial.Use of indirect methods could have important implications for decisions about resource allocation: for example, non-lifesaving treatments are relatively more favoured in comparison with lifesaving interventions than when using direct methods.

  18. Research on the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, D., VI; Xu, J.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancang-Mekong River is an important international river, cascaded hydropower stations development in which attracts the attention of downstream countries. In this paper, we proposed a coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation to relieve the conflict of upstream and downstream countries. Firstly, analyze the benefits and risks caused by the cascaded hydropower stations development and the evolution process of water resources use conflict between upstream and downstream countries. Secondly, evaluate the benefits and risks of flood control, water supply, navigation and power generation based on the energy theory of cascaded hydropower stations development in Lancang-Mekong River. Thirdly, multi-agent cooperation motivation and cooperation conditions between upstream and downstream countries in Lancang-Mekong River is given. Finally, the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River is presented. This coordination framework for water resources utilization can increase comprehensive benefits in Lancang-Mekong River.

  19. Direct and Indirect Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Among Migraine Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon; Sapra, Sandhya; Shah, Neel; Tepper, Stewart; Cappell, Katherine; Desai, Pooja

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this analysis was to provide a contemporary estimate of the burden of migraine, incorporating both direct and indirect costs, by comparing the costs of migraine patients to a matched group of patients without migraine in a large, nationally representative sample of commercially insured patients in the United States. Previous studies have shown that the economic burden of migraine in the United States is substantial for payers, patients, and employers. Despite the availability of multiple acute and preventive pharmacological treatment options and a relatively stable migraine prevalence in the United States, there has been a documented increase in migraine-related healthcare resource and pharmacy use. Given the frequently disabling nature of migraine and its high prevalence, especially during peak productive years, and the lack of recent estimates of the burden of migraine, there is a need to update the existing literature with more current data. This retrospective, observational cohort study identified migraine patients in the Truven Health Market Scan Research Databases between January 2008 and June 2013. Adult patients had 12 months of continuous enrollment before (baseline period) and after (follow-up period) the day they received migraine diagnoses and/or medications (index) and no diagnosis of HIV or malignancy during the study period. The patients with migraine were matched 1:1 to a group of patients without migraine on demographic variables and index date. Direct healthcare utilization and costs and indirect (absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability) costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up period and differences between patients with vs without migraine were assessed. Two additional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. First, an analysis was conducted comparing the odds of having a short-term disability claim between patients with and without migraine after controlling for patient demographic and

  20. New Technologies for Reliable, Low-Cost In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1998-01-01

    New technologies can dramatically alter overall mission feasibility, architecture, window-of-opportunity, and science return. In the specific context of planetary exploration/development, several new technologies have been recently developed. It is significant that every one of these new technologies won a NASA NTR award in 1997-1998. In the area of low-cost space access and planetary transportation, hybrids are discussed. Whether we carry all of the fuel and oxidizer from Earth, or we make some or all of it in situ, mass advantages are shown through calculations. The hybrisol concept, where a solid fuel is cast over a state-of-the-art solid propellant, is introduced as a further advance in these ideas,. Thus, the motor operates as a controllable, high Isp rocket initially, and transitions to a high-thrust rocket after ascent, at which time the empty oxidizer tank is jettisoned. Again, calculations show significant advantages. In the area of efficient energy use for various mechanical actuations and robotic movements, muscle wires are introduced. Not only do we present detailed systems-level schemes, but we also present results from a hardware mechanism that has seen more than 18,000 cycles of operation. Recognizing that power is the real issue in planetary exploration/ development, the concept of LORPEX is introduced as a means of converting low-level energy accumulation into sudden bursts of power that can give factors of millions (in power magnification) in the process; this robot employs a low-power In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) unit to accumulate ISRU-generated fuel and oxidizer to be consumed at a rapid rate, chemically in an engine. Drilling, hopping, jumping, and ascent, or even return to Earth, are possible. Again, the hardware has been built and initial systems checkout demonstrated. Long-duration exploration and long-distance travel are made possible through aerobots, as is well known for planets with an atmosphere. However, power has again been a

  1. Early tracheostomy in intensive care trauma patients improves resource utilization: a cohort study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    prolonged ICU stay (>14 days). Conclusion Early tracheostomy in trauma ICU patients is associated with shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU LOS, without affecting ICU or hospital outcome. Adopting a standardized strategy of early tracheostomy in appropriately selected patients may help in reducing unnecessary resource utilization. PMID:15469579

  2. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-01-01

    experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

  3. Evaluation of health resource utilization efficiency in community health centers of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinglong; Zhou, Lulin; Antwi, Henry Asante; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-20

    While the demand for health services keep escalating at the grass roots or rural areas of China, a substantial portion of healthcare resources remain stagnant in the more developed cities and this has entrenched health inequity in many parts of China. At its conception, China's Deepen Medical Reform started in 2012 was intended to flush out possible disparities and promote a more equitable and efficient distribution of healthcare resources. Nearly half a decade of this reform, there are uncertainties as to whether the attainment of the objectives of the reform is in sight. Using a hybrid of panel data analysis and an augmented data envelopment analysis (DEA), we model human resources, material, finance to determine their technical and scale efficiency to comprehensively evaluate the transverse and longitudinal allocation efficiency of community health resources in Jiangsu Province. We observed that the Deepen Medical Reform in China has led to an increase concern to ensure efficient allocation of community health resources by health policy makers in the province. This has led to greater efficiency in health resource allocation in Jiangsu in general but serious regional or municipal disparities still exist. Using the DEA model, we note that the output from the Community Health Centers does not commensurate with the substantial resources (human resources, materials, and financial) invested in them. We further observe that the case is worst in less-developed Northern parts of Jiangsu Province. The government of Jiangsu Province could improve the efficiency of health resource allocation by improving the community health service system, rationalizing the allocation of health personnel, optimizing the allocation of material resources, and enhancing the level of health of financial resource allocation.

  4. Direct utilization of geothermal resources field experiments at Monroe, Utah. Final report, July 14, 1978-July 13, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B. (eds.)

    1982-12-01

    The City of Monroe, Utah undertook a project to demonstrate the economic and technical viability of utilizing a low temperature geothermal resource to provide space and hot water heating to commercial, municipal, and domestic users within the community. During the course of the project, resource development and assessment, including drilling of a production well, was successfully completed. Upon completion of the field development and assessment phase of the program and of a preliminary design of the district heating system, it was determined that the project as proposed was not economically viable. This was due to: (1) a significant increase in estimated capital equipment costs resulting from the general inflation in construction costs, the large area/low population density in Monroe, and a more remote fluid disposal well site than planned, could not balance increased construction costs, (2) a lower temperature resource than predicted, and (3) due to predicted higher pumping and operating costs. After a thorough investigation of alternatives for utilizing the resource, further project activities were cancelled because the project was no longer economical and an alternative application for the resource could not be found within the constraints of the project. The City of Monroe, Utah is still seeking a beneficial use for the 600 gpm, 164/sup 0/F geothermal well. A summary of project activities included.

  5. Food Web Structure and Basal Resource Utilization along a Tropical Island Stream Continuum, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. March; Catherine M. Pringle

    2003-01-01

    Tropical stream food webs are thought to be based primarily on terrestrial resources (leaf litter) in small forested headwater streams and algal resources in larger, wider streams. In tropical island streams, the dominant consumers are often omnivorous freshwater shrimps that consume algae, leaf litter, insects, and other shrimps. We used stable isotope analysis...

  6. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Cyanobacteria to Link Closed Ecological Systems and In-Situ Resources Utilization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Igor

    Introduction: A major goal for the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar sys-tem. With current technology, however, all required consumables for these missions (propellant, air, food, water) as well as habitable volume and shielding to support human explorers will need to be brought from Earth. In-situ pro-duction of consumables (In-Situ Resource Utilization-ISRU) will significantly facilitate current plans for human ex-ploration and colonization of the solar system, especially by reducing the logistical overhead such as recurring launch mass. The production of oxygen from lunar materials is generally recognized as the highest priority process for lunar ISRU, for both human metabolic and fuel oxidation needs. The most challenging technology developments for future lunar settlements may lie in the extraction of elements (O, Fe, Mn, Ti, Si, etc) from local rocks and soils for life support, industrial feedstock and the production of propellants. With few exceptions (e.g., Johannson, 1992), nearly all technology development to date has employed an ap-proach based on inorganic chemistry (e.g. Allen et al., 1996). None of these technologies include concepts for inte-grating the ISRU system with a bioregenerative life support system and a food production systems. Bioregenerative life support efforts have recently been added to the Constellation ISRU development program (Sanders et al, 2007). Methods and Concerns: The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ad-vanced concept for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). However the MELiSSA system is a net consumer of ISRU products without a net return to in-situ technologies, e.g.. to extract elements as a result of complete closure of MELiSSA. On the other hand, the physical-chemical processes for ISRU are typically massive (relative to the rate of oxygen

  8. Allocating Resources to Enhance Resilience, with Application to Superstorm Sandy and an Electric Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Cameron A; Zobel, Christopher W

    2016-04-01

    This article constructs a framework to help a decisionmaker allocate resources to increase his or her organization's resilience to a system disruption, where resilience is measured as a function of the average loss per unit time and the time needed to recover full functionality. Enhancing resilience prior to a disruption involves allocating resources from a fixed budget to reduce the value of one or both of these characteristics. We first look at characterizing the optimal resource allocations associated with several standard allocation functions. Because the resources are being allocated before the disruption, however, the initial loss and recovery time may not be known with certainty. We thus also apply the optimal resource allocation model for resilience to three models of uncertain disruptions: (1) independent probabilities, (2) dependent probabilities, and (3) unknown probabilities. The optimization model is applied to an example of increasing the resilience of an electric power network following Superstorm Sandy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Multi-state time-varying reliability evaluation of smart grid with flexible demand resources utilizing Lz transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Heping; Jin, Wende; Ding, Yi; Song, Yonghua; Yu, Dezhao

    2017-01-01

    With the expanding proportion of renewable energy generation and development of smart grid technologies, flexible demand resources (FDRs) have been utilized as an approach to accommodating renewable energies. However, multiple uncertainties of FDRs may influence reliable and secure operation of smart grid. Multi-state reliability models for a single FDR and aggregating FDRs have been proposed in this paper with regard to responsive abilities for FDRs and random failures for both FDR devices and information system. The proposed reliability evaluation technique is based on Lz transform method which can formulate time-varying reliability indices. A modified IEEE-RTS has been utilized as an illustration of the proposed technique.

  10. High Resource Utilization Does Not Affect Mortality in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients Managed With Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley D; Stwalley, Dustin; Lambert, Dennis; Edler, Joshua; Morris, Peter E; Medvedev, Sofia; Hohmann, Samuel F; Kymes, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tracheostomy practice in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) varies greatly among institutions. This variability has the potential to be reflected in the resources expended providing care. In various healthcare environments, increased resource expenditure has been associated with a favorable effect on outcome. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between institutional resource expenditure and mortality in ARF patients managed with tracheostomy. METHODS We developed analytic models employing the University Health Systems Consortium (Oakbrook, Illinois) database. Administrative coding data were used to identify patients with the principal diagnosis of ARF, procedures, complications, post-discharge destination, and survival. Mean resource intensity of participating academic medical centers was determined using risk-adjusted estimates of costs. Mortality risk was determined using a multivariable approach that incorporated patient-level demographic and clinical variables and institution-level resource intensity. RESULTS We analyzed data from 44,124 ARF subjects, 4,776 (10.8%) of whom underwent tracheostomy. Compared to low-resource-intensity settings, treatment in high-resource-intensity academic medical centers was associated with increased risk of mortality (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.76), including those managed with tracheostomy (odds ratio high-resource-intensity academic medical center with tracheostomy 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 –1.17). We examined the relationship between complication development and outcome. While neither the profile nor number of complications accumulated differed comparing treatment environments (P > .05 for both), mortality for tracheostomy patients experiencing complications was greater in high-resource-intensity (95/313, 30.3%) versus low-resource-intensity (552/2,587, 21.3%) academic medical centers (P tracheostomy. PMID:23650434

  11. Natural resources utilization by the Aweer in Boni-lungi and Dodori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to record the utilization of Boni-Lungi and Dodori National Reserves by the Aweer community. Results indicate the procuring of a wide gamut of provisional, regulatory, cultural and supportive services from these reserves by the community ranging from wood forest products utilized in construction to ...

  12. Natural resources assessment and their utilization: analyses from a Himalayan state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, Rakesh D

    2012-08-01

    The present paper quantifies and reviews the natural resource use in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). Twenty-five percent of the geographical area of HP is under forests and harbour ca. 3,400 plant species. The available bioresources not only support the livelihood of nearly 6 million people but also fulfill the forage requirement of 5.2 million livestock. Thus, dependence on bioresources is manifold. Based on field surveys to different localities of HP and analyses of published information, two types of resource use patterns have been identified. One, the direct use of forest resources which is represented by extraction of timber, fuelwood and fodder; and the second represents indirect resource use from the forest that is represented by activities related to agriculture, tourism and industry. Amongst the direct resource use, annual timber requirement of the local people works out to be 310,063 m(3). On the other hand, annual fuelwood and fodder requirement of local people is to the tune of 3,646,348.8 and 10,294,116.5 tons, respectively. Extraction of fodder therefore appears to be one of the main reasons for forest degradation in HP as opposed to timber and fuelwood extraction. However, compared to direct resource use, indirect resource use and pressures have far more pronounced effect on the forests. Of the indirect pressures, shifts in agriculture patterns and increased tourism seem to be the most prominent.

  13. Enhanced recovery pathways optimize health outcomes and resource utilization: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamina, Michel; Kehlet, Henrik; Tomlinson, George A

    2011-01-01

    in costs that threatens the stability of health care systems. Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) have been proposed as a means to reduce morbidity and improve effectiveness of care. We have reviewed the evidence supporting the implementation of ERP in clinical practice. Methods Medline, Embase...... of health care processes. Thus, while accelerating recovery and safely reducing hospital stay, ERPs optimize utilization of health care resources. ERPs can and should be routinely used in care after colorectal and other major gastrointestinal procedures....

  14. Conversion of Blue Water into Green Water for Improving Utilization Ratio of Water Resources in Degraded Karst Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation deterioration and soil loss are the main causes of more precipitation leakages and surface water shortages in degraded karst areas. In order to improve the utilization of water resources in such regions, water storage engineering has been considered; however, site selection and cost associated with the special karstic geological structure have made this difficult. According to the principle of the Soil Plant Atmosphere Continuum, increasing both vegetation cover and soil thickness would change water cycle process, resulting in a transformation from leaked blue water (liquid form into green water (gas or saturated water form for terrestrial plant ecosystems, thereby improving the utilization of water resources. Using the Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer model and the geographical distributed approach, this study simulated the conversion from leaked blue water (leakage into green water in the environs of Guiyang, a typical degraded karst area. The primary results were as follows: (1 Green water in the area accounted for <50% of precipitation, well below the world average of 65%; (2 Vegetation growth played an important role in converting leakage into green water; however, once it increased to 56%, its contribution to reducing leakage decreased sharply; (3 Increasing soil thickness by 20 cm converted the leakage considerably. The order of leakage reduction under different precipitation scenarios was dry year > normal year > rainy year. Thus, increased soil thickness was shown effective in improving the utilization ratio of water resources and in raising the amount of plant ecological water use; (4 The transformation of blue water into green water, which avoids constructions of hydraulic engineering, could provide an alternative solution for the improvement of the utilization of water resources in degraded karst area. Although there are inevitable uncertainties in simulation process, it has important significance for overcoming similar

  15. Can Tracheostomy Improve Outcome and Lower Resource Utilization for Patients with Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciou-Rong Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The beneficial effect for tracheostomy observed in our data was the reduction of death. However, patients with tracheostomy were less likely to wean and more likely to consume medical resources.

  16. Mars in-situ resource utilization to produce methane propellant using a ceramic microchannel reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Technology Area 7 identifies one of the challenges of exploration and human activities in space is the scarcity of readily usable resources. This scarcity is...

  17. Effectiveness of trauma team on medical resource utilization and quality of care for patients with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Jung; Yen, Shu-Ting; Huang, Shih-Fang; Hsu, Su-Chen; Ying, Jeremy C; Shan, Yan-Shen

    2017-07-24

    Trauma is one of the leading causes of death in Taiwan, and its medical expenditure escalated drastically. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of trauma team, which was established in September 2010, on medical resource utilization and quality of care among major trauma patients. This was a retrospective study, using trauma registry data bank and inpatient medical service charge databases. Study subjects were major trauma patients admitted to a medical center in Tainan during 2009 and 2013, and was divided into case group (from January, 2011 to August, 2013) and comparison group (from January, 2009 to August, 2010). Significant reductions in several items of medical resource utilization were identified after the establishment of trauma team. In the sub-group of patients who survived to discharge, examination, radiology and operation charges declined significantly. The radiation and examination charges reduced significantly in the subcategories of ISS = 16 ~ 24 and ISS > 24 respectively. However, no significant effectiveness on quality of care was identified. The establishment of trauma team is effective in containing medical resource utilization. In order to verify the effectiveness on quality of care, extended time frame and extra study subjects are needed.

  18. Closing the Loop - Utilization of Secondary Resources by Low Temperature Thermal Gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Holm, Jens Kai

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses certain issues related to unsustainable management of secondary resources like organic waste, sewage sludge and residues from agriculture and industry with a focus on losses of nonfossil energy potential and valuable elements. In this context it is investigated how suitable application of low temperature thermal gasification could be applied to reduce the environmental impact of such management systems and increase the value and positive awareness of the resources in ques...

  19. Implementation of Provider Perspectives Resulted in Proper Health Care Resource Utilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mclean, Hugh

    2001-01-01

    .... One such system is Provider Perspectives. This study shows that Provider Perspectives significantly decreased Emergency Room utilization and subsequently increased the usage of primary care clinics at Martin Army Community Hospital and Winn...

  20. Space Storable Hybrid Rockets for Orbit Insertion or In Situ Resource Utilization Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort will pave the way towards a Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign and potentially, future human exploration of Mars. Hybrid rockets utilize a solid...

  1. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources. (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Osama M.

    2014-12-01

    The question of "equity." is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint. The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

  2. POST-SOVIET PERIOD CHANGES IN RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON POPULATION DYNAMICS IN CHUKOTKA AUTONOMOUS OKRUG (RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Litvinenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines changes that have occurred in the resource utilization sector and the impact of these changes on population dynamics in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russia during the post-Soviet period. This paper discuss topics of population-dynamics-related differences that have emerged in the region and impacts of these differences on the use of natural resources and the ethnic composition of the population. Through this study, it was shown that changes have tended to be small in local areas where indigenous peoples who have engaged in traditional natural resource use for a large proportion of the population, while changes have been relatively large in areas where the proportion of non-indigenous people is high and the mining industry has developed.

  3. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, planetary spacecraft, and astronomy, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions are presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Saturn moon exploration with chemical propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion options are discussed. Issues with using in-situ resource utilization on Mercury missions are discussed. At Saturn, the best locations for exploration and the use of the moons Titan and Enceladus as central locations for Saturn moon exploration is assessed.

  4. Relaxation Response and Resiliency Training and Its Effect on Healthcare Resource Utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Stahl

    Full Text Available Poor psychological and physical resilience in response to stress drives a great deal of health care utilization. Mind-body interventions can reduce stress and build resiliency. The rationale for this study is therefore to estimate the effect of mind-body interventions on healthcare utilization.Estimate the effect of mind body training, specifically, the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP on healthcare utilization.Retrospective controlled cohort observational study.Major US Academic Health Network.All patients receiving 3RP at the MGH Benson-Henry Institute from 1/12/2006 to 7/1/2014 (n = 4452, controls (n = 13149 followed for a median of 4.2 years (.85-8.4 yrs.Utilization as measured by billable encounters/year (be/yr stratified by encounter type: clinical, imaging, laboratory and procedural, by class of chief complaint: e.g., Cardiovascular, and by site of care delivery, e.g., Emergency Department. Subgroup analysis by propensity score matched pre-intervention utilization rate.At one year, total utilization for the intervention group decreased by 43% [53.5 to 30.5 be/yr] (p <0.0001. Clinical encounters decreased by 41.9% [40 to 23.2 be/yr], imaging by 50.3% [11.5 to 5.7 be/yr], lab encounters by 43.5% [9.8 to 5.6], and procedures by 21.4% [2.2 to 1.7 be/yr], all p < 0.01. The intervention group's Emergency department (ED visits decreased from 3.6 to 1.7/year (p<0.0001 and Hospital and Urgent care visits converged with the controls. Subgroup analysis (identically matched initial utilization rates-Intervention group: high utilizing controls showed the intervention group significantly reduced utilization relative to the control group by: 18.3% across all functional categories, 24.7% across all site categories and 25.3% across all clinical categories.Mind body interventions such as 3RP have the potential to substantially reduce healthcare utilization at relatively low cost and thus can serve as key components in any population health and

  5. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  6. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  7. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  8. Pediatric traumatic amputations and hospital resource utilization in the United States, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kristen A; McKenzie, Lara B; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    Despite the severity of consequences associated with traumatic amputation, little is known about the epidemiology or healthcare resource burden of amputation injuries, and even less is known about these injuries in the pediatric population. An analysis of patients aged lawn mower, motorized vehicle or explosives/fireworks, and children's hospital type were associated with longer LOS. Pediatric traumatic amputations contribute substantially to the health resource burden in the United States, resulting in 21 million dollars in inpatient charges annually. More effective interventions to prevent these costly injuries among children must be implemented.

  9. Resource utilization of symbiotic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; Brogli, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The cumulative uranium requirements of different symbiotic combinations of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) prebreeders have been calculated assuming an open-end nuclear economy. The results obtained indicate that the combination of prebreeders and near-breeders does not save resources over a self-generated recycle case of comparable conversion ratio, and that it may take between 40 and 50 yr before the symbiotic system containing breeders starts saving resources over an HTGR with self-generated recycle and a conversion ratio of 0.83

  10. Incremental healthcare resource utilization and costs in US patients with Cushing's disease compared with diabetes mellitus and population controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Michael S; Neary, Maureen P; Chang, Eunice; Ludlam, William H

    2015-12-01

    Resource utilization and costs in Cushing's disease (CD) patients have not been studied extensively. We compared CD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and population-based controls to characterize differences in utilization and costs. Using 2008-2012 MarketScan® database, we identified three patient groups: (1) CD patients; (2) DM patients; and (3) population-based control patients without CD. DM and control patients were matched to CD patients by age, gender, region, and review year in a 2:1 ratio. Outcomes included annual healthcare resource utilization and costs. There were 1852 CD patients, 3704 DM patients and 3704 controls. Mean age was 42.9 years; 78.2 % were female. CD patients were hospitalized more frequently (19.3 %) than DM patients (11.0 %, p < .001) or controls (5.6 %, p < .001). CD patients visited the ED more frequently (25.4 %) than DM patients (21.1 %, p < .001) or controls (14.3 %, p < .001). CD patients had more office visits than DM patients (19.1 vs. 10.7, p < .001) or controls (7.1, p < .001). CD patients on average filled more prescriptions than DM patients (51.7 vs. 42.7, p < .001) or controls (20.5, p < .001). Mean total healthcare costs for CD patients were $26,269 versus $12,282 for DM patients (p < .001) and $5869 for controls (p < .001). CD patients had significantly higher annual rates of healthcare resource utilization compared to matched DM patients and population controls without CD. CD patient costs were double DM costs and quadruple control costs. This study puts into context the additional burdens of CD over DM, a common, chronic endocrine condition affecting multiple organ systems, and population controls.

  11. Distribution, utilization structure and potential of biomass resources in rural China: With special references of crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, G M [Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China); Zhuang, H Y [National Bio-Energy CO., LTD, No. 26B, Financial Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100032 (China); Shandong Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Keyuan Road, Ji' nan 250014, Shandong Province (China); Wang, K J [Agronomy Department, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an 271018, Shandong Province (China)

    2008-06-15

    As the largest developing country in the world, China is urgently in short of energy and natural resources. However, biological resources such as crop residues are burnt in the field, which cause serious environmental pollution. Still it is not clear how much storage and potential of these huge crop residues are in China. This paper firstly reported the distribution, utilization structure and potential of crop biomass and provided the tangible information of crop residues in rural China through careful collecting and recalculating data. From 1995 to 2005, China produces some 630 million tons of crop residues per year, 50% of which comes from east and central south of China. The amount of crop residues is 1.3 times of the total yield of crops, 2 times of the total fodder of grassland, which covers 41% of China's territory. Crop residues of corn, wheat and rice amounted to 239, 137 and 116 million tons, respectively, accounting for nearly 80% of the total crop residues. Unfortunately, the utilizing structure is seriously improper for such abundant biomass resources. Although 23% of the crop residues are used for forage, 4% for industry materials and 0.5% for biogas, the large parts are used with lower efficiency or wasted, with 37% being directly combusted by farmers, 15% lost during collection and the rest 20.5% discarded or directly burnt in the field. Reasonable adjustment of the utilizing pattern and popularization of the recycling agriculture are essential out-ways for residues, with the development of the forage industry being the breakthrough point. We suggested that utilizing the abandoned 20.5% of the total residues for forage and combining agriculture and stock raising can greatly improve the farm system and cut down fertilizer pollution. Through the development of forage industries, the use efficiency of crop residues could be largely enhanced. Commercializing and popularizing technologies of biomass gasification and liquefaction might be substitute

  12. Optimal allocation of resources over health care programmes: dealing with decreasing marginal utility and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Maiwenn J; Feenstra, Talitha L; Hout, Ben A van

    2005-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of how to value health care programmes with different ratios of costs to effects, specifically when taking into account that these costs and effects are uncertain. First, the traditional framework of maximising health effects with a given health care budget is extended to a flexible budget using a value function over money and health effects. Second, uncertainty surrounding costs and effects is included in the model using expected utility. Other approaches to uncertainty that do not specify a utility function are discussed and it is argued that these also include implicit notions about risk attitude.

  13. Some Methods for Calculating Competition Coefficients from Resource-Utilization Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Thomas W

    When relative frequencies of resource kinds in the diet are known, the competition coefficient giving the effect of competitor j on i may be computed as \\documentclass{aastex} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{bm} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pifont} \\usepackage{stmaryrd} \\usepackage{textcomp} \\usepackage{portland,xspace} \\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\pagestyle{empty} \\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document}$$\\alpha_{ij}=\\left(\\frac{T_{j}}{T_{i}}\\right)\\left[\\frac{{\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{m}}(d_{ik}/f_{k})\\:(d_{jk}/f_{k})\\:b_{ik}}{\\sum\\limits_{k=1}^{m}(d_{ik}/f_{k})^{2}\\:b_{ik}}\\right],$$\\end{document} where T j /T i = the ratio of the number of items consumed by an individual of competitor j to that consumed by an individual of competitor i, measured over an interval of time that includes all regular fluctuations in consumption for both species; d ik = the frequency of resource k in the diet of competitor i (and similarly for d jk ); f k = the standing frequency of resource k in the environment; b ik = the net calories gained by an individual of competitor i from an item of resource k, or more approximately the calories contained in an item of resource k, or still more approximately the weight or volume of an item of resource k; and the summations are taken over all resources eaten by at least one of the competing species. The coefficient follows from MacArthur's (1968) consumer-resource system when the ratio of the carrying capacity to intrinsic rate of increase is constant for all resources. When relative frequencies of time spent foraging in habitat kinds are known, the competition coefficient may be computed as \\documentclass{aastex} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{bm} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pifont} \\usepackage{stmaryrd} \\usepackage{textcomp} \\usepackage{portland,xspace} \\usepackage

  14. Real-time resource model updating in continuous mining environment utilizing online sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yüksel, C.

    2017-01-01

    In mining, modelling of the deposit geology is the basis for many actions to be taken in the future, such as predictions of quality attributes, mineral resources and ore reserves, as well as mine design and long-term production planning. The essential knowledge about the raw materialproduct is based

  15. Utilization of the Eastern Hardwood Resource by the Hardwood Sawmilling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; John Baumgras; John Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource contains numerous species that differ in grain, color, texture, and workability. Because the value of hardwoods is derived from appearance, these variations in physical attributes can cause the price for identical grades of hardwood lumber to vary by as much as 600% between species. As a result, there is incentive for primary processors to...

  16. A Survey of K-12 Teachers' Utilization of Social Networks as a Professional Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Leah J.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers are increasingly using social networks, including social media and other Internet applications, to look for educational resources. This study shares results from a survey examining patterns of social network application use among K-12 teachers in the United States. A sample of 154 teachers (18 males, 136 females) in the United States…

  17. Discussion on the trend of information resource utilization in nuclear power enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lihong

    2010-01-01

    Content of abstract The use for information resources of nuclear power enterprises will play increasingly vital role in network environment and market competition. Based on the digitization library and archives management conception, Nuclear power enterprise intelligence information service should achieve its function as 'the reference centre of the of administration and decision-making', 'the implement centre of work', 'the museum that witnesses the development and assimilates experience', 'the resource centre for employee's training' for the enterprise combining with the archives center resource by using the technology of digitization and network to deepen the professional edit and research and searches service, which establishes incorporate information management environment for the enterprise. In the process of digitization and informationization management for scientific and technical information construction, enterprise should perform according to its state by stages, ensuring a field carrying out a job according to reality. With the transformation of intelligence information service pattern, an enterprise should pay attention to the ability improvement and the role transformation of the intelligence agent, also to the intellectual property rights during the process and use of information resources. (authors)

  18. First Impressions Matter: Navigating Graphic Novels Utilizing Linguistic, Visual, and Spatial Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Laura M.; Meyer, Carla K.

    2016-01-01

    Graphic novels in the K-12 classroom are most often used to motivate marginalized readers because of the lower text load and assumption of easy reading. This assumption has thus far been unexplored by reading research. This qualitative multiple-case study utilized think-aloud protocols in a new attention-mapping activity to better understand how…

  19. Health Resource Utilization in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the preferred treatment regimen for advanced lung cancer patients. This study investigated the health resources utilized by and medical expenses of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as the influence of various chemotherapy regimens on the final medical costs in China. The aim of this study was to provide physicians with a reference to use as the basis for their choice of treatment. Data were collected from the Shanghai Chest Hospital's medical charts and billing database. The collected patient information included the baseline characteristics, medical history, chemotherapy regimens, and medical costs, which were used to estimate the health resources utilized by patients and the cost of treatment. This study included 328 patients, and the average total medical cost was $US14,165. This cost included drugs, which accounted for as much as 78.91% of the total cost, and chemotherapy drugs, which accounted for 51.58% of total drug expenses. The most frequently utilized chemotherapy drug was carboplatin, and the most expensive chemotherapy drug was erlotinib. In drug combinations, gemcitabine was utilized most frequently, the combination of gemcitabine and paclitaxel was the most expensive, and cisplatin was the least expensive drug. Epidermal growth factor receptor-positive patients were treated with targeted drug therapy (icotinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib). The use of recombinant human endostatin was often combined with a vinorelbine plus cisplatin regimen. Traditional Chinese medicines were the most frequently utilized non-chemotherapy drugs, and these drugs were also the most expensive. The final cost significantly depended on the specific chemotherapy regimen; thus, the rationale and cost of the chemotherapy regimen and adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered in patients with advanced NSCLC.

  20. Trend analysis of hospital resource utilization for prolonged mechanical ventilation patients in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tien-Chiung; Lai, Yung-Fa; Tseng, Ching-Wan; Hong, Yong-Han; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2013-04-01

    The aging Taiwan population is expected to require vast medical resources, including prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). This study determined the trends in hospital resource utilization and associated factors in PMV patients in Taiwan. All patients who had received mechanical ventilation for > 21 days (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 518.81-518.89) during 2004-2007 were recruited to the study. Administrative claims data obtained from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan were analyzed. The study analyzed 65,181 patients who had received PMV during 2004-2007. The number of PMVs per 100,000 persons was 94.30 in 2004, and it gradually decreased to 89.38 in 2007, which was a change rate of -5.22%. During the study period, stay significantly decreased, from 35.12 days to 31.61 days, whereas hospital treatment costs significantly increased, from $7,933.17 to $8,257.52 (P providers and patients should recognize that attributes of both the patient and the hospital may affect hospital resource utilization. Additionally, these analytical results should be applicable to similar populations in other countries.

  1. CO2 Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-12-08

    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  2. Inventory and surveillance of natural resources as a contribution to land utilization planning in the Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, K F

    1980-09-01

    The destructive land-use practices observed in large parts of the Sahel of West-Africa as a consequence of increasing population pressure must be replaced by sustained-yield management, e.g., by agro-sylvo-pastoral land-use systems. Information and planning aids required can only be obtained through the inventory and subsequent monitoring of the natural, renewable resources, i.e. water, range- and wood lands. Because of the extent and inaccessibility of the Sahel, an inventory design combining clustered fieldplots and large-scale aerial photography is being considered as most efficient in statistical and economical terms. Evidently, an inventory cannot solve the serious problems in the Sahel, but its results can contribute essentially towards defining better land-use policies and towards more effective management of the natural resource base.

  3. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  4. Biotechnology for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bal Krishna Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is the basis of human life and food security. Nepal with 577 cultivated species possesses huge diversity at varietal as well as landrace levels. In most agricultural crops the rapid genetic erosion due to several reasons is a common phenomenon. Thus, considering the importance of agricultural biodiversity declared by Convention on Biological Diversity for sustainable food production, National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC) has been established for conse...

  5. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  6. Guide to Cybersecurity, Resilience, and Reliability for Small and Under-Resourced Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Small electricity utilities -- those with less than 100 employees or 50,000 meters -- provide essential services to large parts of the United States while facing a number of challenges unique to their mission. For instance, they often serve areas that are sparsely populated, meaning that their per-customer cost to provide service is higher. At the same time, they often serve customers that have moderate or fixed incomes, meaning that they are under strong pressure to keep costs down. This pressure puts them on a strict budget and creates a need for innovative solutions to common problems. Further, their service areas may include extreme climates, making severe weather events more frequent and their aftermaths more expensive to address. This guide considers challenges that small utilities face while ensuring the reliability, resilience, and cybersecurity of their electric service; approaches to address those challenges using existing guidance documents; ways that the federal government could provide support in these areas.

  7. Allocating provider resources to diagnose and treat restless legs syndrome: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Phelps, Charles E; Moran, Dane; Earley, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that is frequently misdiagnosed, resulting in delays in proper treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of training primary care providers (PCP) in early and accurate diagnosis of RLS. We used a Markov model to compare two strategies: one where PCPs received training to diagnose RLS (informed care) and one where PCPs did not receive training (standard care). This analysis was conducted from the US societal and health sector perspectives over one-year, five-year, and lifetime (50-year) horizons. Costs were adjusted to 2016 USD, utilities measured as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and both measures were discounted annually at 3%. Cost, utilities, and probabilities for the model were obtained through a comprehensive review of literature. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated to interpret our findings at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test model uncertainty, in addition to calculating the expected value of perfect information. Providing training to PCPs to correctly diagnose RLS was cost-effective since it cost $2021 more and gained 0.44 QALYs per patient over the course of a lifetime, resulting in an ICER of $4593/QALY. The model was sensitive to the utility for treated and untreated RLS. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that at $100,000/QALY, informed care had a 65.5% probability of being cost-effective. A program to train PCPs to better diagnose RLS appears to be a cost-effective strategy for improving outcomes for RLS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mobile Konami Codes: Analysis of Android Malware Services Utilizing Sensor and Resource-Based State Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and Content Providers all offer unique functionality that malware developers have learned to repurpose for malicious means. This section provides a...application, or some blend of both. Most service frameworks were likely setup on QEMU hypervisors based on our findings of various services utilizing...Android 5.0, which moved from the Dalvik virtual machine to ART. Through CopperDroid, K. Tam et al. claim to demonstrate that all behaviors manifest

  9. Public and Public Utility Enterprises Restructuring: Statistical and Quantitative Aid for Ensuring Human Resource Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Čudanov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a quantitative approach to restructuring public and public utility enterprises, particularly during downsizing requests. The large number of employees in the public sector can be one of the causes for economic instability at country level. That is particularly visible in the context of the euro zone crisis and economic/political instability in countries like Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy. Our approach is based on the statistical analysis of productivity oscillation and setting of performance standards in public and public utility enterprises based on the aforementioned productivity. Data background is given through job descriptions, organizational charts, salary reports and monthly performance reports, in most cases part of organizational information systems. It is recommended for quantitative data to be analyzed on a monthly basis, during a period of 30 or more months. Our method increases procedural fairness and accuracy, because quantitative, statistical, impartial and objective approach is applied for estimating parameters which could be related to downsizing. However, the application of this method is not limited to downsizing, as during its application in more than 20 public and public utility enterprises it was sometimes applied to increase output or reduce costs not necessarily connected to labour. Although it finally refers to downsizing, this method can provide fairer and more impartial approach than the subjective estimate of employee surplus, and its arbitral distribution within the enterprise.

  10. Treatment patterns, health state, and health care resource utilization of patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Flores, Natalia M; Pelletier, Corey L; Forsythe, Anna; Wolfe, Gregory R; Taylor, Matthew H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often respond well to treatment but some become refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment, and treatment options are limited. Despite the humanistic and economic burden RAI refractory disease imposes on patients, published research concerning treatment patterns and health care resource utilization is sparse. Data were collected from an online retrospective chart review study in the US and five European Union (EU) countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) with physicians recruited from an online panel. Physicians (N=211) provided demographics, disease history, treatment information, and health care resource utilization for one to four of their patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). The majority of the patients with RR-DTC (N=623) were female (56%), and their mean age was 58.2 years. In this sample, 63.2% had papillary thyroid cancer and 57.0% were in Stage IV when deemed RAI refractory. Patients with RR-DTC experienced regional recurrence in the thyroid bed/central neck area (25.3%) and had distant metastatic disease (53.6%). At the time data were collected, 50.7% were receiving systemic treatment. Of those, 78.5% were on first-line treatment and 62.7% were receiving multikinase inhibitors. Regional differences for prescribed treatments were observed; the US was more likely to have patients receiving multikinase inhibitors (79.2%) compared with UK (41.2%) and Italy (17.1%). Additional details regarding treatment patterns and resource utilization are discussed. The current study aimed to obtain a greater understanding of RR-DTC treatment globally. These results can assist in the development and implementation of treatment guidelines and ultimately enhance the care of patients with RR-DTC

  11. Variables Associated With Inpatient and Outpatient Resource Utilization Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease With or Without Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayiner, Mehmet; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Cable, Rebecca; Younossi, Issah; Afendy, Mariam; Golabi, Pegah; Henry, Linda; Younossi, Zobair M

    2017-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide with tremendous clinical burden. The economic burden of NAFLD is not well studied. To assess the economic burden of NAFLD. Medicare beneficiaries (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010) with NAFLD diagnosis by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in the absence of other liver diseases were selected. Inpatient and outpatient resource utilization parameters were total charges and total provider payments. NAFLD patients with compensated cirrhosis (CC) were compared with decompensated cirrhosis (DC). A total of 976 inpatients and 4742 outpatients with NAFLD were included-87% were white, 36% male, 30% had cardiovascular disease (CVD) or metabolic syndrome conditions, and 12% had cirrhosis. For inpatients, median total hospital charge was $36,289. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($61,151 vs. $33,863 and $18,804 vs. $10,146, P<0.001). Compared with CC, NAFLD patients with DC had higher charges and payments (P<0.02). For outpatients, median total charge was $9,011. NAFLD patients with cirrhosis had higher charges and payments than noncirrhotic NAFLD patients ($12,049 vs. $8,830 and $2,586 vs. $1,734, P<0.001). Compared with CC, DC patients had higher total charges ($15,187 vs. $10,379, P=0.04). In multivariate analysis, variables associated with increased inpatient resource utilization were inpatient mortality, DC, and CVD; for outpatients, having CVD, obesity, and hypertension (all P<0.001). NAFLD is associated with significant economic burden to Medicare. Presence of cirrhosis and CVD are associated with increased resource utilization.

  12. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning: Scenario Case Studies Using the Resource Planning Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dyson, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations — particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling — to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  13. Costing for long-term care: the development of Scottish health service resource utilization groups as a casemix instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, J; Kennie, D C; Murdoch, P S; Smith, R G; Lennox, I

    1999-03-01

    to create a casemix measure with a limited number of categories which discriminate in terms of resource use and will assist in the development of a currency for contracting for the provision of health care. nursing staff completed a questionnaire providing clinical data and also gave estimates of relative patient resource use; ward-based costs were collected from appropriate unit managers. National Health Service continuing-care wards in 50 Scottish hospitals. 2783 long-stay patients aged 65 years and over. inter-rater reliability was assessed using 1402 patients; percentage agreement between raters for individual variables varied from 68% for feeding to 97% for clinically complex treatments. Nursing costs gave 62% agreement given categories of high, medium and low. The Scottish health service resource utilization groups (SHRUG) measure was developed using 606 cases, and 67% consistency was achieved for the five categories. The relative weights for the SHRUG categories ranged from 0.56 to 1.41. The five categories explain 35% of variance in costs. the five SHRUG casemix categories show good discrimination in terms of costs. The SHRUG measure compares favourably with diagnosis-related groups in the acute sector and with other casemix instruments for long-term care previously piloted in the UK. SHRUG is a useful measurement instrument in assessing the resource needs of elderly people in long-term care.

  14. Surveillance and analysis of nuclear R and D manpower for efficient utilization of KAERI's nuclear R and D resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Yang, M. H.; Song, K. D.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Won, B. C.; Yoon, H. M.

    1999-11-01

    This study aimed at securing row data on KAERI's manpower resources, which be useful to establish the short and long term R and D policy of KAERI. To coincide with the objectives, this study covered following scopes; (1) identification of status and issues of manpower in science and technology fields, (2) identification of status and issues of KAERI's manpower management policy, (3) gathering row data on KAERI's manpower through surveillance and analysis, and analyzing staff's perception on KAERI's manpower utilization policy, (4) suggestion of short and long term policy direction of manpower management of KAERI. (author)

  15. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  16. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Lstibůrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1 existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2 landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

  17. Agricultural management legacy affects microbial energetics, resource utilization and active bacterial community membership during 13C-glucose consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, B. L.; Levy-Booth, D.; Arcand, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the long-term, differences in soil management can result in fundamental changes in biogeochemical cycling. The Alternative Cropping Systems (ACS) Study at Scott, SK, Canada (est. 1994) compares organic (ORG) vs. conventionally (CON) managed crop rotations in a loamy Typic Borall. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiency in the ORG systems have limited crop growth and thus plant carbon (C) inputs for over two decades, ultimately resulting in a C deficiency which has further altered biogeochemical cycling. We conducted a short-term microcosm experiment using 13C-glucose stable isotope probing (SIP) of DNA to test whether ORG soils have greater microbial C use efficiency due to long term resource limitation. Glucose-utilizing populations were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, with differing species-level identities and physiological capacities between CON and ORG systems. Of the 13C-utilizing taxa, relative abundance of Proteobacteria was greater in CON while Actinobacteria (and notably Firmicutes) were more dominant in ORG soils. Using isothermal calorimetry, we measured a thermodynamic efficiency (ηeff) of 0.68, which was not significantly different between soils indicating that the metabolic cost of glucose utilization was similar in CON and ORG soils. In spite of this, differential abundance analysis of 13C-labelled OTUs revealed that ORG soils had distinct active bacterial populations that were positively correlated with ηeff, ηsoil (glucose energy retained in soil) and primed soil organic matter (pSOM). In contrast, differentially abundant OTUs in the CON soils were negatively correlated with measures of thermodynamic efficiency but positively correlated with glucose-derived heat and CO2 production as well as NO3- and PO4- availability. ORG bacterial communities may co-metabolize other resources (N and P) from SOM to meet their metabolic requirements during glucose utilization, while the active bacteria in the CON soils could access these

  18. Utilizing a Flexibility Interface for Distributed Energy Resources Through a Cloud-Based Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orda, Lasse Dreisig; Bach, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2013-01-01

    With governments around the world pushing for an ever increasing shift towards renewable energy production, large numbers of controllable distributed energy resources are starting to appear. Already a multitude of proposed control solutions have seen the light of day, but most are focused solely...... that are currently being researched by iPower, that is mapped to the well tested standard of IEC 61850 as additional sub-nodes. By mapping to existing standards, no major changes would be needed to adapt existing systems....

  19. Incorporation of environmental costs in electric utility planning and resource selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Generation of electricity is pervasively regulated for economic, environmental and other governmental objectives at both the state and federal levels. A panoply of legislative and regulatory devices implicitly or explicitly influence the acquisition of generation and fuel resources seeking to achieve environmentally sound selections. Effective implementation or enforcement of these laws and policies may be impeded by the regional or global character of the environmental impacts; jurisdictional conflicts and limitations; and the division of regulatory authority between economic regulatory agencies and their environmental or energy policy counterparts. This chapter reviews the state and federal statutory and regulatory treatment of environmental externalities and discusses alternatives for their consideration

  20. Improving the Performance and Resource Utilization of the CASPER FFT and Polyphase Filterbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    The effectiveness of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) solutions for radio-astronomy is limited by the efficiency of the implemented algorithms. Novel implementations of several popular DSP algorithms are presented. Their optimization strategies are discussed and their efficiency is compared to that of the standard Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) library solutions. Compared to CASPER, the PFB-FIR and FFT modules require 73% and 45% of the DSP48E1 resources, with performance dominated by ADC quantization noise for typical radio-astronomy inputs.

  1. Impact of Home Health Care on Health Care Resource Utilization Following Hospital Discharge: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Roy; Miller, Jacob A; Zafirau, William J; Gorodeski, Eiran Z; Young, James B

    2018-04-01

    As healthcare costs rise, home health care represents an opportunity to reduce preventable adverse events and costs following hospital discharge. No studies have investigated the utility of home health care within the context of a large and diverse patient population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 1/1/2013 and 6/30/2015 at a single tertiary care institution to assess healthcare utilization after discharge with home health care. Control patients discharged with "self-care" were matched by propensity score to home health care patients. The primary outcome was total healthcare costs in the 365-day post-discharge period. Secondary outcomes included follow-up readmission and death. Multivariable linear and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to adjust for covariates. Among 64,541 total patients, 11,266 controls were matched to 6,363 home health care patients across 11 disease-based Institutes. During the 365-day post-discharge period, home health care was associated with a mean unadjusted savings of $15,233 per patient, or $6,433 after adjusting for covariates (p Home health care independently decreased the hazard of follow-up readmission (HR 0.82, p home health care most benefited patients discharged from the Digestive Disease (death HR 0.72, p home health care was associated with significant reduction in healthcare utilization and decreased hazard of readmission and death. These data inform development of value-based care plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring New Models for Utility Distributed Energy Resource Planning and Integration: SMUD and Con Edison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-23

    As a result of the rapid growth of renewable energy in the United States, the U.S. electric grid is undergoing a monumental shift away from its historical status quo. These changes are occurring at both the centralized and local levels and have been driven by a number of different factors, including large declines in renewable energy costs, federal and state incentives and mandates, and advances in the underlying technology. Higher levels of variable-generation renewable energy, however, may require new and increasingly complex methods for utilities to operate and maintain the grid while also attempting to limit the costly build-out of supporting grid infrastructure.

  3. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  4. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  5. Potential lignocellulose resources and their utilization by ruminants in tropical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoucy, R.; Mahadevan, P.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and estimated quantities of potential lignocellulose resources in tropical regions are described. The most abundant sources of these materials are the natural grasslands, crop residues and by-products, e.g. sugar cane, cereals and fruits, and, to a limited extent, cultivated grasses, e.g. guinea and elephant grass. The availability of these resources to livestock is limited by a variety of environmental and logistic factors, e.g. seasonality of production and problems of collection and transport. Additionally, the nutritive value of pastures and fodders in the tropics is relatively lower than in temperate regions owing to their higher fibre and lower N and P content, with consequent lowering of intake and digestibility. Crop residues also have low N and high lignin contents and are generally deficient in fermentable energy, fermentable N, protein and micronutrients. The possibilities for improving the nutritive value of tropical feeds are discussed; these include supplementation with urea, molasses and minerals, good quality forage, and/or ''by-pass'' nutrients, e.g. oil cakes, and treatment by various physical, chemical or biological methods. (author)

  6. Vision for utilization of livestock residue as bioenergy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Junichi; Morita, Akihiro; Matsuoka, Yasunari; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of livestock residue is important not only for energy recovery and material recycling but also for preventing environmental pollution. This paper focuses on the following options from the viewpoint of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta and the Kyoto protocol: energy use from livestock residue, reductions in CO 2 emissions resulting from substitution of fossil fuels, and reduction of other greenhouse gas emissions through appropriate treatment of livestock residue. Bioenergy potential of livestock residue in Japan was estimated to be 167 PJ in the year 2000. This is equivalent to about 0.7% of total primary energy supply. Biogas production with methane fermentation and burning poultry residue at power plants can produce 4.1 TWh of electricity and 46 PJ of heat. The amount of CO 2 substitution for fossil fuels is 6.9 Mt-CO 2 . This corresponds to about 0.6% of total CO 2 emissions in 1990. This also has an additional effect of reducing other greenhouse gas (CH 4 and N 2 O) emissions from conventional treatment of livestock residue. Development of biogas plants, promotion of biogas utilization, and effective use of fertilizer components extracted from livestock residue are expected to gain importance in the future

  7. Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U 3 O 8 consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout

  8. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Resource Capturing, Storage, and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate for hydrogen helium 4 and helium 3, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues.

  9. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, A. C.; Hintze, P. E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Bayliss, J. A.; Karr, L. J.; Paley, M. S.; Marone, M. J.; Gibson, T. L.; Surma, J. M.; Mansell, J. M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASA's Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100% of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon is under construction.

  10. Optimization concept. Utilization of the geothermal resources in D. Podlog - Kochani, R. Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevska-Popovska, Sanja; Popovski, Kiril

    1999-01-01

    The geothermal system 'Geoterma', near the town Kocani, located in the North-Eastern part of Macedonia, uses heat energy from the geothermal field of the Kocani Valley, which is one of the most important in the Europe. The exploitation of the geothermal resources started 1985/86 by KJP-Vodovod Geoterma. After the production of a cumulative quantity of more than 20 million m 3 thermal water for the purpose of direct heating (greenhouses, district heating), technical problems concerning the re-injection of used water occurred. In 1998 the technical co-operation between the Federal Chancellery of the Republic of Austria and Ministry of Economy of Republic of Macedonia was established to support the project, which will help to improve the technical and environmental situation. (Author)

  11. DrugSig: A resource for computational drug repositioning utilizing gene expression signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    Full Text Available Computational drug repositioning has been proved as an effective approach to develop new drug uses. However, currently existing strategies strongly rely on drug response gene signatures which scattered in separated or individual experimental data, and resulted in low efficient outputs. So, a fully drug response gene signatures database will be very helpful to these methods. We collected drug response microarray data and annotated related drug and targets information from public databases and scientific literature. By selecting top 500 up-regulated and down-regulated genes as drug signatures, we manually established the DrugSig database. Currently DrugSig contains more than 1300 drugs, 7000 microarray and 800 targets. Moreover, we developed the signature based and target based functions to aid drug repositioning. The constructed database can serve as a resource to quicken computational drug repositioning. Database URL: http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/drugsig/.

  12. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  13. Mars Atmospheric In Situ Resource Utilization Projects at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Bayliss, Jon; Karr, Laurel; Paley, Steve; Marone, Matt; Gibson, Tracy; Surma, Jan; Mansell, Matt; hide

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars, which is 96 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), is a rich resource for the human exploration of the red planet, primarily by the production of rocket propellants and oxygen for life support. Three recent projects led by NASAs Kennedy Space Center have been investigating the processing of CO2. The first project successfully demonstrated the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (APM), which freezes CO2 with cryocoolers and combines sublimated CO2 with hydrogen to make methane and water. The second project absorbs CO2 with Ionic Liquids and electrolyzes it with water to make methane and oxygen, but with limited success so far. A third project plans to recover up to 100 of the oxygen in spacecraft respiratory CO2. A combination of the Reverse Water Gas Shift reaction and the Boudouard reaction eventually fill the reactor up with carbon, stopping the process. A system to continuously remove and collect carbon has been tested with encouraging results.

  14. Utilization of water resources in Pelagonija region to meet the needs of REK 'Bitola'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madzharoski, Atanas; Cvetkovska, Bisera

    2001-01-01

    In this report a complex use of the water resources for water supplying of one the biggest industrial objects in Republic of Macedonia - the thermal power plants at REK-Bitola is shown. Water, beside the coal represents a basic raw material in the technological process for electric power production at the TPP. Three systems are built for water supplying with raw water, that are composed in one part and there is a possibility for them to be enlarged. The way of use and distribution of waters from the systems in accordance with the needs of the company is shown, taking care for rational and economical use of the water. An enlargement is performed on the systems with what safety in water supply is greater the functionality of the systems is better, and with that a rationality and economical effects are obtained. (Original)

  15. The real world cost and health resource utilization associated to manic episodes: The MANACOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Undurraga, Juan; Reinares, María; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Sáez, Cristina; Mur, María; Nieto, Evaristo; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a relapsing-remitting condition affecting approximately 1-2% of the population. Even when the treatments available are effective, relapses are still very frequent. Therefore, the burden and cost associated to every new episode of the disorder have relevant implications in public health. The main objective of this study was to estimate the associated health resource consumption and direct costs of manic episodes in a real world clinical setting, taking into consideration clinical variables. Bipolar I disorder patients who recently presented an acute manic episode based on DSM-IV criteria were consecutively included. Sociodemographic variables were retrospectively collected and during the 6 following months clinical variables were prospectively assessed (YMRS,HDRS-17,FAST and CGI-BP-M). The health resource consumption and associate cost were estimated based on hospitalization days, pharmacological treatment, emergency department and outpatient consultations. One hundred sixty-nine patients patients from 4 different university hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) were included. The mean direct cost of the manic episodes was €4,771. The 77% (€3,651) was attributable to hospitalization costs while 14% (€684) was related to pharmacological treatment, 8% (€386) to outpatient visits and only 1% (€50) to emergency room visits. The hospitalization days were the main cost driver. An initial FAST score>41 significantly predicted a higher direct cost. Our results show the high cost and burden associated with BD and the need to design more cost-efficient strategies in the prevention and management of manic relapses in order to avoid hospital admissions. Poor baseline functioning predicted high costs, indicating the importance of functional assessment in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    World wind energy resources are substantial, and in many areas, such as the US and northern Europe, could in theory supply all of the electricity demand. However, the remote or challenging location (i.e. offshore) and especially the intermittent character of the wind resources present formidable barriers to utilization on the scale required by a modern industrial economy. All of these technical challenges can be overcome. Long distance transmission is well understood, while offshore wind technology is being developed rapidly. Intermittent wind power can be transformed to a controllable power source with hybrid wind/compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The cost of electricity from such hybrid systems (including transmission) is affordable, and comparable to what users in some modern industrial economies already pay for electricity. This approach to intermittent energy integration has many advantages compared to the current strategy of forcing utilities to cope with supply uncertainty and transmission costs. Above all, it places intermittent wind on an equal technical footing with every other generation technology, including nuclear power, its most important long-term competitor

  17. Electrostatic Precipitation of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Implications for the Utilization of Resources During Future Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Clements, Judson S.; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Hogue, Michael D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.

    2011-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require the utilization of local resources for oxygen, fuel. and water. The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project is an active research endeavor at NASA to develop technologies that can enable cost effective ways to live off the land. The extraction of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. composed primarily of carbon dioxide, is one of the most important goals of the Mars ISRU project. The main obstacle is the relatively large amount of dust present in the Martian atmosphere. This dust must be efficiently removed from atmospheric gas intakes for ISRU processing chambers. A common technique to achieve this removal on earth is by electrostatic precipitation, where large electrostatic fields are established in a localized region to precipitate and collect previously charged dust particles. This technique is difficult to adapt to the Martian environment, with an atmospheric pressure of about one-hundredth of the terrestrial atmosphere. At these low pressures. the corona discharges required to implant an electrostatic charge to the particles to be collected is extremely difficult to sustain and the corona easily becomes biopolar. which is unsuitable for particle charging. In this paper, we report on our successful efforts to establish a stable corona under Martian simulated conditions. We also present results on dust collecting efficiencies with an electrostatic precipitator prototype that could be effectively used on a future mission to the red planet

  18. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  19. THE UTILIZATION OF THE WATER RESOURCES OF NISTRU RIVER WITHIN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MOCREAC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the studies regarding the water funds, the regimes and characteristics of the flow of river Nistru, those internal larger and smaller ones, taking into consideration what basins exist and the ones with perspective can demonstrate the hydroenergetic potential values of the Republic of Moldova currently and for an extended period of time.The basic variant of the scheme of arrangement on Nistru r. on the basis of the requirements of today’s impact on the environment, the ecological flows, hydroenergetic equipments chosen for the parameters of sufficient operation, and the hydrotechnical unit must have an appearance of a complex utilization. The assurances of the flows and head of the hydro-electric plants with operation in cascade on rivers is caused by the strength of given data and the hydrologic calculations after interstate normatives applied now.

  20. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  1. A survey on resource and service utilization pattern for patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Azadshahr district; 2013-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zarei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that the utilization pattern of resources and services in patients with tuberculosis was approximately consistent with protocols developed by World Health Organization (WHO and Ministry of Health of Iran often.

  2. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  3. Resource utilization and costs during the initial years of lung cancer screening with computed tomography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Sonya; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C; Evans, William K; Leighl, Natasha B; Regier, Dean A; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R; Mayo, John R; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J; Goss, Glenwood D; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-10-01

    It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer's perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400-$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553-$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254-$52,200; p = 0.061). In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure.

  4. Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile Is Associated With Lower Healthcare Costs and Resource Utilization: The 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Aneni, Ehimen C; Malik, Rehan; Spatz, Erica S; Rana, Jamal S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-03-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Goals emphasize the value of optimizing risk factor status to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to quantify the overall and marginal impact of favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditure and resource utilization in the United States among those with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study population was derived from the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Direct and indirect costs were calculated for all-cause healthcare resource utilization. Variables of interest included CVD diagnoses (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, dysrhythmias, or heart failure), ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes, and CRF profile (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and obesity). Two-part econometric models were used to study expenditure data. The final study sample consisted of 15 651 MEPS participants (58.5±12 years, 54% female). Overall, 5921 (37.8%) had optimal, 7002 (44.7%) had average, and 2728 (17.4%) had poor CRF profile, translating to 54.2, 64.1, and 24.9 million adults in United States, respectively. Significantly lower health expenditures were noted with favorable CRF profile across CVD status. Among study participants with established CVD, overall healthcare expenditures with optimal and average CRF profile were $5946 and $3731 less compared with those with poor CRF profile. The respective differences were $4031 and $2560 in those without CVD. Favorable CRF profile is associated with significantly lower medical expenditure and healthcare utilization among individuals with and without established CVD. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Utilization of the residual water resource from the Kozloduy NPP's hot channel for building a small hydropower plant (TK1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolev, T.

    2004-01-01

    A hydropower plant built on the hot channel of the NPP should be capable to utilise the whole changing water flow from the NPP cooling system. Tree factors - level of the hot channel, level of the Danube river and the water flow - determine the power potential of the HPP. The water level in the hot channel varies between 31.20 and 32.50 m with an optimum at 31.50 m. The Danube river level varies in a wide range. The head at 85% of the river level and at a level of the channel 31.50 m is 7.2 m. The water flow depends on the NPP operation and it is between 45 m 3 /s and 140 m 3 /s. Thus the nominal power of the HPP is 5 740 kW. The construction of the HPP is justified in case of at least 30 years of operation. The calculations are made for the operation of units 5 and 6 which are expected to work during this period. A significant role for the maximal utilisation of the resource of the hot channel plays the choice of the hydro-turbines. The horizontal PIT-Kaplan turbines are considered as the most appropriate. The integrating of the plant into the electric network and possible impact on the environment are also considered

  6. Animation company "Fast Forwards" production with HP Utility Data Center; film built using Adaptive Enterprise framework enabled by shared, virtual resource

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett Packard have produced a commercial-quality animated film using an experimental rendering service from HP Labs and running on an HP Utility Data Center (UDC). The project demonstrates how computing resources can be managed virtually and illustrates the value of utility computing, in which an end-user taps into a large pool of virtual resources, but pays only for what is used (1 page).

  7. Implementing a Universal Well-Being Assessment to Mitigate Barriers to Resident Utilization of Mental Health Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofka, Sarah; Grey, Carl; Lerfald, Nathan; Davisson, Laura; Howsare, Janie

    2018-02-01

    Physician utilization of well-being resources remains low despite efforts to promote use of these resources. We implemented a well-being assessment for internal medicine residents to improve access and use of mental health services. We scheduled all postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) and PGY-2 residents at West Virginia University for the assessment at our faculty and staff assistance program (FSAP). While the assessment was intended to be universal (all residents), we allowed residents to "opt out." The assessment visit consisted of an evaluation by a licensed therapist, who assisted residents with a wellness plan. Anonymous surveys were distributed to all residents, and means were compared by Student's t test. Thirty-eight of 41 PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents (93%) attended the scheduled appointments. Forty-two of 58 residents (72%, including PGY-3s) completed the survey. Of 42 respondents, 28 (67%) attended the assessment sessions, and 14 (33%) did not. Residents who attended the sessions gave mean ratings of 7.8 for convenience (1, not convenient, to 9, very convenient), and 7.9 for feeling embarrassed if colleagues knew they attended (1, very embarrassed, to 9, not embarrassed). Residents who attended the assessment sessions reported they were more likely to use FSAP services in the future, compared with those who did not attend ( P  barriers to using counseling resources. The majority of residents who participated had a positive view of the program and indicated they would return to FSAP if they felt they needed counseling.

  8. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  9. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  10. A college course for nurses on the utilization of library resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, K P; Kruse, K W

    1977-04-01

    Library user instruction has been a no-man's-land between librarian and educator. Each assumes that the other has offered the student some necessary preparation before his assignments requiring library consultation. Too often, this is not the case. Reference librarians at the Duke University Medical Center Library are currently offering a ten-week, 1 1/2-hour credit library instruction course for nursing baccalaureate candidates. "Introduction to Library Resources in the Nursing Field" is designed not so much to orient students to a specific library facility, but rather, to provide them with background material on library organization and services and to familiarize them with basic bibliographic tools relevant to the nursing profession. Lectures are supplemented through the use of homework questions, bibliographies, handouts, in-class exercises, and on-line demonstrations. Very positive feedback from both students and faculty has attested to the value of such a course in the nursing curriculum and has resulted in its being offered four times to date. The library staff is exploring methods for offering additional library instruction not only to nursing students but to other user groups in Duke's medical complex.

  11. Mars Colony in situ resource utilization: An integrated architecture and economics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Fradet, René; Do, Sydney; Saydam, Serkan; Tapia-Cortez, Carlos; Dempster, Andrew G.; Coulton, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on our effort to develop an ensemble of specialized models to explore the commercial potential of mining water/ice on Mars in support of a Mars Colony. This ensemble starts with a formal systems architecting framework to describe a Mars Colony and capture its artifacts' parameters and technical attributes. The resulting database is then linked to a variety of ;downstream; analytic models. In particular, we integrated an extraction process (i.e., ;mining;) model, a simulation of the colony's environmental control and life support infrastructure known as HabNet, and a risk-based economics model. The mining model focuses on the technologies associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage and handling, and delivery. This model computes the production rate as a function of the systems' technical parameters and the local Mars environment. HabNet simulates the fundamental sustainability relationships associated with establishing and maintaining the colony's population. The economics model brings together market information, investment and operating costs, along with measures of market uncertainty and Monte Carlo techniques, with the objective of determining the profitability of commercial water/ice in situ mining operations. All told, over 50 market and technical parameters can be varied in order to address ;what-if; questions, including colony location.

  12. The Motivation Impact of Open Educational Resources Utilization on Physics Learning Using Quipper School App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi SULISWORO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the education quality in Indonesia is relatively uneven. This affects the quality of secondary school graduates. On the other hand, the national growth of Information Communication Technology usage in Indonesia is very high, including the use of mobile technology. This is an opportunity for the application of OER (Open Educational Resources in learning. This study aims to look at the impact of the application of the concept of blended learning OER to motivate students, especially in learning physics. The LMS used is Quipper School. This research is the quasy experiment using post test only for control group design. ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction models used in this study to observe the attention factor, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. The analysis technique used is the analysis of variance (ANOVA. From this research, it is known that the application of the concept of OER in learning, will increase the motivation on the aspects of attention, relevance, and the confidence of the students. Meanwhile, the aspect of satisfaction on learning tends to be the same between applying the concept of OER when compared to the conventional learning face-to-face in the classroom. These findings indicate a positive impact of the application of the concept of OER in learning to student motivation.

  13. Delirium after lung transplantation: Association with recipient characteristics, hospital resource utilization, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Yelizaveta; Mooney, Joshua; Dhillon, Gundeep; Lee, Roy; Maldonado, José R

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The factors associated with post-lung transplant delirium and its impact on outcomes are under characterized. The medical records of 163 consecutive adult lung transplant recipients were reviewed for delirium within 5 days (early-onset) and 30 hospital days (ever-onset) post-transplantation. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed factors associated with delirium. Multivariable negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association of delirium with ventilator duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and one-year mortality. Thirty-six percent of patients developed early-onset, and 44% developed ever-onset delirium. Obesity (OR 6.35, 95% CI 1.61-24.98) and bolused benzodiazepines within the first postoperative day (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.89) were associated with early-onset delirium. Early-onset delirium was associated with longer adjusted mechanical ventilation duration (P=.001), ICU LOS (Pdelirium was associated with longer ICU (Pdelirium was not significantly associated with one-year mortality (early-onset HR 1.65, 95% CI 0.67-4.03; ever-onset HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.63-4.55). Delirium is common after lung transplant surgery and associated with increased hospital resources. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  15. On the Utilization of Pozzolanic Wastes as an Alternative Resource of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as a supplement of cement, the utilization of pozzolanic materials in cement and concrete manufacturing has increased significantly. This study investigates the scope to use pozzolanic wastes (slag, palm oil fuel ash and rice husk ash as an alkali activated binder (AAB that can be used as an alternative to cement. To activate these materials, sodium hydroxide solution was used at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 molar concentration added into the mortar, separately. The required solution was used to maintain the flow of mortar at 110% ± 5%. The consistency and setting time of the AAB-paste were determined. Mortar was tested for its flow, compressive strength, porosity, water absorption and thermal resistance (heating at 700 °C and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that AAB-mortar exhibits less flow than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Surprisingly, AAB-mortars (with 2.5 molar solution achieved a compressive strength of 34.3 MPa at 28 days, while OPC shows that of 43.9 MPa under the same conditions. Although water absorption and porosity of the AAB-mortar are slightly high, it shows excellent thermal resistance compared to OPC. Therefore, based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the presence of a chemical activator, the aforementioned pozzolans can be used as an alternative material for cement.

  16. Coverage maximization under resource constraints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-07

    Feb 7, 2015 ... works such as peer-to-peer networks [1,2], delay tolerant networks [3], mobile social ... nature of many such networks, the process needs to travel through the ..... the effect of this modification by computer simulation of the ...

  17. Creating a bridge between data collection and program planning: a technical assistance model to maximize the use of HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data for planning purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer A; Beatty, Maile; Woliver, Renee; Rubinstein, Eric P; Averbach, Abigail R

    2005-12-01

    Over time, improvements in HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data have increased their usefulness for planning programs, targeting resources, and otherwise informing HIV/AIDS policy. However, community planning groups, service providers, and health department staff often have difficulty in interpreting and applying the wide array of data now available. We describe the development of the Bridging Model, a technical assistance model for overcoming barriers to the use of data for program planning. Through the use of an iterative feedback loop in the model, HIV/AIDS data products constantly are evolving to better inform the decision-making tasks of their multiple users. Implementation of this model has led to improved data quality and data products and to a greater willingness and ability among stakeholders to use the data for planning purposes.

  18. Earlier surgical intervention in congenital heart disease results in better outcome and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panni, Roheena Z; Ashfaq, Awais; Amanullah, Muhammad M

    2011-12-29

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively; among patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan. A prevalence based cost of illness study design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children ≤ 5 years of age from June 2006 to June 2009. A total of 120 patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and the data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery in group A (1-12 mo age) was 6.08 ± 2.80 months and in group B (1-5 yrs) was 37.10 ± 19.94 months. The cost of surgical admission was found to be significantly higher in the older group, p = 0.001. The total number and cost of post-operative outpatient visits was also higher in group B, p = 0.003. Pre and post operative hospital admissions were not found to be significantly different among the two groups, p = 0.166 and 0.627, respectively. The number of complications were found to be different between the two groups (p = 0.019). Majority of these were contributed by hemorrhage and post-operative seizures. This study concluded that significant expenditure is incurred by people with CHD; with the implication that resources could be saved by earlier detection and awareness campaigns.

  19. Trends in resource utilization and prescription of anticonvulsants for patients with active epilepsy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Haag, Anja; Reese, Jens P; Nickolay, Tanja; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Dodel, Richard; Knake, Susanne; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated trends in the resource use of patients with active epilepsy over a 5-year period at an outpatient clinic of a German epilepsy center. Two cross-sectional cohorts of consecutive adults with active epilepsy were evaluated over a 3-month period in 2003 and 2008. Data on socioeconomic status, course of epilepsy, as well as direct and indirect costs were recorded using validated patient questionnaires. We enrolled 101 patients in 2003 and 151 patients in 2008. In both cohorts, 76% of the patients suffered from focal epilepsy, and the majority was on antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy (mean AED number: 1.7 (2003), 1.8 (2008)). We calculated epilepsy-specific costs of € 2955 in 2003 and € 3532 in 2008 per 3 months per patient. Direct medical costs were mainly due to anticonvulsants in 2003 (59.4% of total direct costs, 34.0% in 2008) and to hospitalization in 2008 (46.9% of total direct costs, 27.7% in 2003). The proportion of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants and 'old' AEDs decreased between 2003 and 2008. Indirect costs of € 1689 and € 1847 were mainly due to early retirement (48.4%; 46.0% of total indirect costs in 2003; 2008), unemployment (26.1%; 24.2%), and days off due to seizures (25.5%; 29.8%). This study showed a shift in distribution of direct cost components with increased hospital costs as well as a cost-neutral increase in the prescription of 'newer' AEDs. The amount and distribution of indirect cost components remained unchanged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The hospital resource utilization associated with osteoporotic hip fractures in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb, Morteza; Beyranvand, Mandana; Basiri, Zahra; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Hip fracture is the most serious complication of osteoporosis and imposes a significant financial burden on countries' economy. This study aimed to assess the hospitalization costs and length of stay associated with osteoporosis hip fractures and identify the major cost components in a referral hospital in Kermanshah city, Iran. In a prospective study, from May 21 2007 to May 21 2008, all patients with osteoporotic hip fracture admitted to a referral hospital for operation were recruited as the study sample. For each patient, information such as age, gender, length of stay (LOS) in hospital and intensive care unit (ICU), medical and diagnostic procedures and cost of surgery and implant were collected both through interview with the patient or a family member and the patients' hospital records. A total of 103 patients (56 men and 47 women) were studied. The average hospital length of stay (LOS) for the patients was 9.7 days, ranging from 5 to 38 days. The average total hospitalization costs was 7,208,588 IRR (US$774). The main components of the costs were ward stay (16.3%), operative (54.6%), implant (26%) and medical and diagnostic procedures (3.1%). The results of this study demonstrate that the hospital resource burden associated with osteoporotic hip fractures in Iran is substantial and expected to rise with the projected increase of life expectancy and the number of elderly in Iran. Estimating the economic burden of osteoporotic hip fractures provide information that can be of importance in the planning and design of preventive strategies. © 2014 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  1. The hospital resource utilization associated with osteoporotic hip fractures in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Hip fracture is the most serious complication of osteoporosis and imposes a significant financial burden on countries' economy. This study aimed to assess the hospitalization costs and length of stay associated with osteoporosis hip fractures and identify the major cost components in a referral hospital in Kermanshah city, Iran. Methods: In a prospective study, from May 21 2007 to May 21 2008, all patients with osteoporotic hip fracture admitted to a referral hospital for operation were recruited as the study sample. For each patient, information such as age, gender, length of stay (LOS in hospital and intensive care unit (ICU, medical and diagnostic procedures and cost of surgery and implant were collected both through interview with the patient or a family member and the patients’ hospital records. Results: A total of 103 patients (56 men and 47 women were studied. The average hospital length of stay (LOS for the patients was 9.7 days, ranging from 5 to 38 days. The average total hospitalization costs was 7,208,588 IRR (US$774. The main components of the costs were ward stay (16.3%, operative (54.6%, implant (26% and medical and diagnostic procedures (3.1%. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that the hospital resource burden associated with osteoporotic hip fractures in Iran is substantial and expected to rise with the projected increase of life expectancy and the number of elderly in Iran. Estimating the economic burden of osteoporotic hip fractures provide information that can be of importance in the planning and design of preventive strategies.

  2. Health care resource utilization and cost of care for haemophilia A and B patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibnaseri, Zahra; Davari, Majid; Cheraghali, Abdolmajid; Eshghi, Peyman; Ravanbod, Roya; Espandar, Ramin; Hantooshzadeh, Razieh

    2016-02-01

    Despite the fact that the total therapeutic expenditure of haemophilia is paid by the national health system in Iran, a limited number of research has been performed to evaluate the economic burden of haemophilia. It is even more important when considering the fact that "prophylaxis" has never been used as the main treatment protocol in haemophiliacs in the country, causing high arthropathy rates. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost drivers in the treatment of haemophilia A and B patients in Iran. The national registry database of Ministry of Health (MoH) was queried to identify total number of individuals characteristics diagnosed with Factor VIII and IX deficiency. The service package defined by the department for special diseases was used as the reference for the type and frequency of health care utilization in haemophiliacs in Iran. The direct medical costs including prescription, medical intervention, inpatient, outpatient and diagnostics services and arthroplasty were considered. The prices were extracted from Iranian medical tariff book 2014-15. Medication cost was obtained from the Iranian Food and Drug Organization. Among 8,337 patients registered with bleeding disorders, 3,948 and 848 were identified with haemophilia A and B respectively, of whom 856 (18%) patients had inhibitor at any time in the past. In the two groups, 2,328 (59%) and 452 (53%) patients suffered from severe, 686 (17%) and 186 (22%) from moderate and 902 (23%) and 185 (22%) from mild type of haemophilia. The average annual health care cost for every patient was USD 15,130, mostly allocated to medication USD 10,180 (67%), followed by therapeutic services USD 4,775 (32%) while diagnostic services stood third USD 177 (1%). There is an urgent need for developing clinical practice guidelines for treatment protocols, procedures and supportive care in haemophilia management in Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Health care resource utilization before and after perampanel initiation among patients with epilepsy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Edward; Laliberté, François; Wang, Zhixiao; Barghout, Victoria; Haider, Batool; Lejeune, Dominique; Germain, Guillaume; Choi, Jiyoon; Wagh, Aneesha; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health care resource utilization following the initiation of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy in the United States. Health care claims from Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse database between December 2012 and November 2015 were analyzed. Patients newly initiated on perampanel, having ≥1 epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 345.xx, ICD-10-CM code G40.xxx) or nonfebrile convulsion (ICD-9-CM code 780.39, ICD-10-CM code R56.9) diagnosis, and having ≥6 months of baseline and observation periods were included. Patients <12 years old at perampanel initiation were excluded. Of the 2,508 perampanel patients included in the study, the mean [median] (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 35.8 [34] (±16.0) years and 56.2% were female. The mean [median] (±SD) observation duration was 459.8 [462] (±146.3) days in the postperampanel period. The postperampanel period was associated with significantly lower rates of all health care resource utilization outcomes than the pre-period. For the post- versus pre-period, perampanel users had 42.3 versus 53.8 overall hospitalizations per 100 person-years (rate ratio [RR] = 0.80, p < 0.001) and 1,240.2 versus 1,343.8 outpatient visits per 100 person-years (RR = 0.91, p < 0.001). Epilepsy-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits were 25.2 versus 33.6 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.76, p < 0.001) and 327.0 versus 389.0 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.84, p < 0.001), respectively. Additionally, a significantly lower rate of status epilepticus in the post-period (1.8 events per 100 person-years) was observed compared to the pre-period (4.4 events per 100 person-years; RR = 0.43, p < 0.001). The monthly time trend of hospitalizations showed an increasing trend leading up to the initiation of perampanel, after which the hospitalizations decreased steadily. Use of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy was

  4. Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Increased Postoperative Morbidity and Hospital Resource Utilization in Patients Undergoing Elective Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, May C; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Nagorney, David M; Kendrick, Michael L; Sarr, Michael G; Truty, Mark J; Que, Florencia G; Reid-Lombardo, Kmarie; Smoot, Rory L; Farnell, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing elective partial pancreatectomy, our aim was to evaluate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on postoperative mortality, morbidity, and utilization of hospital resources. Our hypothesis was that MS is associated with worse surgical outcomes after pancreatectomy. Fifteen thousand eight hundred thirty-one patients undergoing elective pancreatectomy from 2005 to 2012 were identified in the Participant User File of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed examining the association of MS (defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2), hypertension requiring medications, and diabetes requiring medications and/or insulin) and risk of 30-day mortality, morbidity, and utilization of hospital resources (risk of blood transfusion in the first 72 h after pancreatectomy and prolonged hospital stay, defined as ≥13 days, which was the 75th percentile of this cohort). Multivariable logistic regression models controlled for age, sex, race, pancreatectomy type (distal versus proximal), smoking status, alcohol consumption, functional status, dyspnea, cardiovascular disease, hematocrit, INR, serum albumin, bilirubin, and creatinine. Stratified analyses were conducted by type of pancreatectomy and indication for pancreatectomy (benign versus malignant). On univariate analysis, 1070 (6.8%) patients had MS. MS was associated with increased postoperative morbidity, major morbidity, surgical site infection, septic shock, cardiac event, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, blood transfusion, and prolonged duration of hospital stay (P pancreatectomy (P = 0.465). When stratified by distal versus proximal pancreatectomy and benign versus malignant disease, the effect of MS on outcomes appears to be modified by type of pancreatectomy and indication with poorer outcomes observed for distal pancreatectomies and benign indications for resection. MS is an under

  5. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  6. Treatment patterns and health care resource utilization associated with dalfampridine extended release in multiple sclerosis: a retrospective claims database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy Guo,1 Michael Grabner,2 Swetha Rao Palli,2 Jessica Elder,1 Matthew Sidovar,1 Peter Aupperle,1 Stephen Krieger3 1Acorda Therapeutics Inc., Ardsley, New York, NY, USA; 2HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, USA; 3Corinne Goldsmith Dickinson Center for MS, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: Although previous studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dalfampridine extended release (D-ER tablets in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, there are limited real-world data on D-ER utilization and associated outcomes in patients with MS. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment patterns, budget impact, and health care resource utilization (HRU associated with D-ER use in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective claims database analysis was conducted using the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM. Adherence (measured by medication possession ratio, or [MPR] and persistence (measured by days between initial D-ER claim and discontinuation or end of follow-up were evaluated over 1-year follow-up. Budget impact was calculated as cost per member per month (PMPM over the available follow-up period. D-ER and control cohorts were propensity-score matched on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and MS-related resource utilization to compare walking-impairment-related HRU over follow-up. Results: Of the 2,138 MS patients identified, 1,200 were not treated with D-ER (control and 938 were treated with D-ER. Patients were aged 51 years on average and 74% female. Approximately 82.6% of D-ER patients were adherent (MPR >80%. The estimated budget impact range of D-ER was $0.014–$0.026 PMPM. Propensity-score-matched D-ER and controls yielded 479 patients in each cohort. Postmatching comparison showed that the D-ER cohort was associated with fewer physician (21.5% vs 62.4%, P<0.0001 and other outpatient visits (22.8% vs 51.4%, P<0.0001 over the 12-month follow-up. Changes in HRU from follow

  7. Preliminary assessments of the occurrence and effects of utilization of sand and aggregate resources of the Louisiana inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, J.R.; Mossa, J.; Penland, S.

    1989-01-01

    Louisiana is experiencing the most critical coastal erosion and land loss problem in the United States. Shoreline erosion rates exceed 6 m/yr in more than 80% of the Louisiana coastal zone and can be up to 50 m/yr in areas impacted by hurricanes. The barrier islands have decreased in area by some 40% since 1880. Land loss from coastal marshlands and ridgelands from both natural and human-induced processes is estimated to exceed 100 km2/yr. In response, a two-phase plan has been established, calling for barrier-island restoration and beach nourishment, both requiring large amounts of sand. The plan will be cost-effective only if sand can be found offshore in sufficient quantities close to project sites. To locate such deposits, the Louisiana Geological Survey is conducting an inventory of nearshore sand resources on the Louisiana continental shelf. Exploration for offshore sand deposits is conducted in two phases, with high-resolution seismic reflection profiling to locate potential sand bodies followed by vibracoring to confirm seismic intepretations and obtain samples for textural characterization. As part of the initial stages of the program, reconnaissance high-resolution seismic investigations of three areas of the continental shelf representing different stages in the evolutionary sequence of barrier shorelines were carried out. The Timbalier Islands, flanking barriers of the eroding Caminada-Moreau headland, contain potential sand resources associated with buried tidal and distributary channels. The Chandeleur Islands, a barrier-island arc, have potential offshore sands in the form of truncated spit and tidal inlet deposits, submerged beach ridges, and distributary channels. Trinity Shoal, an inner shelf shoal, is an offshore feature containing up to 2 ?? 109 m3 of material, most of which is probably fine sand. These reconnaissance surveys have demonstrated the occurrence of sand resources on the Louisiana continental shelf. Utilization of such deposits for

  8. An audit of imaging test utilization for the management of lymphoma in an oncology hospital: implications for resource planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A; Gospodarowicz, M K; Khalili, K; Pintilie, M; Goddard, S; Keller, A; Tsang, R W

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assist with resource planning by examining the pattern of physician utilization of imaging procedures for lymphoma patients in a dedicated oncology hospital. The proportion of imaging tests ordered for routine follow up with no specific clinical indication was quantified, with specific attention to CT scans. A 3-month audit was performed. The reasons for ordering all imaging procedures (X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound, nuclear scan and MRI) were determined through a retrospective chart review. 411 lymphoma patients had 686 assessments (sets of imaging tests) and 981 procedures (individual imaging tests). Most procedures were CT scans (52%) and chest radiographs (30%). The most common reasons for ordering imaging were assessing response (23%), and investigating new symptoms (19%). Routine follow up constituted 21% of the assessments (142/686), and of these, 82% were chest radiographs (116/142), while 24% (34/142) were CT scans. With analysis restricted to CT scans (296 assessments in 248 patients), the most common reason for ordering CT scans were response evaluation (40%), and suspicion of recurrence and/or new symptom (23%). Follow-up CT scans done with no clinical indication comprised 8% (25/296) of all CT assessments. Staging CT scans were under-represented at 6% of all assessments. Imaging with CT scans for follow up of asymptomatic patients is infrequent. However, scans done for staging new lymphoma patients were unexpectedly low in frequency, due to scans done elsewhere prior to referral. This analysis uncovered utilization patterns, helped resource planning and provided data to reduce unnecessary imaging procedures.

  9. A pilot study of expenditures on, and utilization of resources in, health care in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, P; Siebens, K; De Geest, S; Abraham, I; Budts, W; Gewillig, M

    2001-05-01

    Congenital cardiac disease may be a chronic condition, necessitating life-long follow-up for a substantial proportion of the patients. Such patients, therefore, are often presumed to be high users of resources for health care. Information on utilization of resources in adults with congenital heart disease, however, is scarce. This retrospective pilot study, performed in Belgium, investigated 192 adults with congenital heart disease to measure the annual expenditures and utilization of health care and compared the findings with data from the general population. We also sought to explore demographic and clinical parameters as predictors for the expenditures. Hospitalization was documented in 20.3% of the patients, with a median length of stay of 5 days. The overall payment by health insurance associations in 1997 was 1794.5 ECU per patient, while patients paid on average 189.5 ECU out-of-pocket. For medication, the average reimbursement and out-of-pocket expenses were estimated at 78 ECU and 20 ECU, respectively. Expenditures for patients with congenital heart disease were considerably higher than the age and gender-corrected expenditures for the general population (411.7 ECU), though this difference was accounted for by only one-eighth of the cohort of those with congenital heart disease. In general, higher expenditures were associated with abnormal left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, female gender, functional impairment and higher age, although the explained variance was limited. Our study has provided pilot data on the economic outcomes for patients with congenital heart diseases. We have identified parameters that could predict expenditure, but which will have to be examined in future research. This is needed to develop guidelines for health insurance for those with congenital heart diseases.

  10. Growth patterns reflect response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive infants: potential utility in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D K; Miller, W C; Ryder, R W; Weber, D J; Walter, E; McKinney, R E

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected children is the current standard of care in the United States to guide the appropriate use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although ART is becoming a reality in some developing countries, laboratory monitoring of ART is costly, necessitating creative approaches to monitoring. As an initial step to guide monitoring of HIV progression in low resource settings, we assessed the utility of the physical examination to predict clinical progression of HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected children using data from Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300. We developed a clinical predictive model, and compared the utility of the clinical model to the change in HIV RNA viral load as diagnostic tests of ART failure. The clinical model incorporated treatment regimen, age, and height velocity: a three-level clinical predictive model provided likelihood ratios of 0.3, 3.9, and 14. For decline in RNA the likelihood ratios were 0.2 (> 1 log decline), 1.4, and 3.5 (> log increase). We developed a simple clinical predictive model that was able to predict clinical progression of HIV after initiation of new ART. The clinical model performed similarly to using changes in HIV RNA viral load. These data should be validated internationally and prospectively, because the test subjects were from a resource rich environment and growth patterns in undernourished children may be impacted differently by HIV and its treatment. The model was most pertinent to children 36 months of age or younger, and was conducted in children receiving monotherapy and dual therapy.

  11. Assessment of Outreach by a Regional Burn Center: Could Referral Criteria Revision Help with Utilization of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nicholas H; Leonard, Clint; Rae, Lisa

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to identify trends in preburn center care, assess needs for outreach and education efforts, and evaluate resource utilization with regard to referral criteria. We hypothesized that many transferred patients were discharged home after brief hospitalizations and without need for operation. Retrospective chart review was performed for all adult and pediatric transfers to our regional burn center from July 2012 to July 2014. Details of initial management including TBSA estimation, fluid resuscitation, and intubation status were recorded. Mode of transport, burn center length of stay, need for operation, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. In two years, our burn center received 1004 referrals from other hospitals including 713 inpatient transfers. Within this group, 621 were included in the study. Among transferred patients, 476 (77%) had burns less than 10% TBSA, 69 (11%) had burns between 10-20% TBSA, and 76 (12%) had burns greater than 20% TBSA. Referring providers did not document TBSA for 261 (42%) of patients. Among patients with less than 10% TBSA burns, 196 (41%) received fluid boluses. Among patients with TBSA < 10%, 196 (41%) were sent home from the emergency department or discharged within 24 hours, and an additional 144 (30%) were discharged within 48 hours. Overall, 187 (30%) patients required an operation. In-hospital mortality rates were 1.5% for patients who arrived by ground transport, 14.9% for rotor wing transport, and 18.2% for fixed wing transport. Future education efforts should emphasize the importance of calculating TBSA to guide need for fluid resuscitation and restricting fluid boluses to patients that are hypotensive. Clarifying the American Burn Association burn center referral criteria to distinguish between immediate transfer vs outpatient referral may improve patient care and resource utilization.

  12. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Key Technology Research on the Efficient Exploitation and Comprehensive Utilization of Resources in the Deep Jinchuan Nickel Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the resource features and geology in the deep Jinchuan nickel deposit, difficult geological conditions were systematically analyzed, including high stress, fragmentized ore rock, prevalent deformation, difficult tunnel support, complicated rock mechanics, and low mining recovery. An integrated technology package was built for safe, efficient, and continuous mining in a deep, massive, and complex nickel and cobalt mine. This was done by the invention of a large-area continuous mining method with honeycomb drives; the establishment of ground control theory and a technology package for high-stress and fragmented ore rock; and the development of a new type of backfilling cement material, along with a deep backfilling technology that comprises the pipeline transport of high-density slurry with coarse aggregates. In this way, good solutions to existing problems were found to permit the efficient exploitation and comprehensive utilization of the resources in the deep Jinchuan nickel mine. In addition, a technological demonstration in an underground mine was performed using the cemented undercut-and-fill mining method for stressful, fragmented, and rheological rock.

  14. An approach to link water resource management with landscape art to enhance its aesthetic appeal, ecological utility and social benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita; Sen, Somnath; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Landscape art or land art is the discourse of scientific application of artistic skill to integrate man-made structures with the natural landscape for planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of natural and built environment. It does beautification of the landscape enhancing its utility for habitats. Availability of water with acceptable quality is crucial for economic growth, social peace and equality and of course for environmental sustainability. Development of new and growth of existing urban and suburban units are obvious. It postulates the increase of population density and percent of the impervious area in an urban unit. The demand for water is increasing with progressive concentration of population, the volume and velocity of surface runoff increase and the travel time decreases. At the same time, an increase in the volume of gray water not only contaminate water bodies, it also reduces the quantity of available freshwater transforming a portion of blue and green water to gray one and would intensify the pressure on water resources of the area. Therefore, to meet the incremental pressure of demand for and pollution of water collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater, both sewage and storm water, are on the requirement to improve urban water security. People must be concerned not to stifle urban lives with concrete; rather must provide all basic amenities for achieving a higher standard of life than the previous one with the essence of natural green spaces. The objective of the study is to propose a conceptual design and planning guidelines for developing urban and suburban drainage network and reuse of surface runoff and sewage water utilizing less used natural water bodies, such as paleo-channels or lakes or moribund channels as retention or detention basin. In addition to wastewater management, the proposal serves to promote the aesthetics of environmental engagement, ecological utility and restoration of moribund channels

  15. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson BH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara H Johnson,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Crystal Watson2 1Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA Objectives: The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is approximately $140,048 in the United States, placing stroke among the top 10 most costly conditions among Medicare beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to describe the health-care resource utilization and costs in the year following hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS.Methods: This retrospective claims analysis quantifies utilization and costs following inpatient admission for AIS among the commercially insured and Medicare beneficiaries in the Truven Health databases. Patients who were 18 years or older and continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an AIS event occurring (index between January 2009 and December 2012 were identified. Patients with AIS in the year preindex were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated at admission and in the preindex, respectively. Direct costs, readmissions, and inpatient length of stay (LOS were described in the year postindex.Results: The eligible populations comprised 20,314 commercially insured patients and 31,037 Medicare beneficiaries. Average all-cause costs were $61,354 and $44,929 (commercial and Medicare, respectively in the first year after the AIS. Approximately 50%–55% of total 12-month costs were incurred between day 31 and day 365 following the incident AIS. One quarter (24.6% of commercially insured patients and 38.8% of Medicare beneficiaries were readmitted within 30 days with 16.6% and 71.7% (commercial and Medicare, respectively of those having a principal diagnosis of AIS. The average AIS-related readmission length of stay was nearly three times that of the initial hospitalization for both commercially insured patients (3.8 vs 10.8 days and Medicare beneficiaries (4.0 vs 10.8 days

  16. Networking Micro-Processors for Effective Computer Utilization in Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Mangaroo, Jewellean; Smith, Bob; Glasser, Jay; Littell, Arthur; Saba, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Networking as a social entity has important implications for maximizing computer resources for improved utilization in nursing. This paper describes the one process of networking of complementary resources at three institutions. Prairie View A&M University, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas School of Public Health, which has effected greater utilization of computers at the college. The results achieved in this project should have implications for nurses, users, and consumers in...

  17. The Need for Inclusion of Human Resources Accounting in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Director to place appropriate values on our physical resources so as to maximize utilization of human assets. This paper has attempted to bring the views of different researchers on the concept of human resource accounting into focus and the ...

  18. Medical resource utilization for administration of trastuzumab in a New Zealand oncology outpatient setting: a time and motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    North RT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Richard T North,1 Vernon J Harvey,2 Levonne C Cox,2 Stuart N Ryan3 1Cancer and Haematology Service, Tauranga Hospital, Tauranga, 2Regional Cancer and Blood Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, 3Medical Affairs, Roche Products (New Zealand Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand Background: In New Zealand, trastuzumab is standard therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2-positive early and metastatic breast cancer. Given the requirement for ongoing adjuvant or maintenance treatment and intravenous (IV delivery, such a regimen consumes considerable health care resources. The development of a subcutaneous (SC trastuzumab formulation with a short administration time offers the potential to reduce hospital expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine medical resource utilization associated with administration of trastuzumab SC injection via handheld syringe vs trastuzumab IV infusion in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods: This noninterventional, descriptive study was conducted at the outpatient oncology centers at Auckland City and Tauranga Hospitals. Trained observers recorded times associated with health care professional (HCP tasks and consumables use associated with preparation and administration of trastuzumab IV or SC in women with early or metastatic breast cancer. The cost for each formulation was calculated as the mean cost of HCP time (based on Pharmaceutical Management Agency hourly rates plus the mean cost of consumables used. Results: Use of trastuzumab SC vs IV reduced mean chair time by 36.95 minutes and total nurse time by 6.12 minutes; there was a 20.45-minute reduction in pharmacist time when the SC formulation was used. After adding consumable costs, the overall estimated saving with trastuzumab SC vs IV was $76.94 (New Zealand dollars per patient per cycle. Conclusions: Compared with trastuzumab IV infusion, administration of trastuzumab via SC injection reduced time spent in the

  19. Waste Resources Utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of thermoradiation (simultaneous use of heat and ionizing radiation) as a treatment for ridding sewage sludge of pathogenic organisms is being studied. The feasibiity of treating sewage sludge with thermoradiation to the ultimate benefit of society depends on a number of factors. For any proposed use of the sludge, the degree of thermoradiation treatment needed must be determined. This involves biological studies of major classes of organisms in sewage sludge. The cost of such a treatment versus the value of the benefits from sludge usage must be assessed. To do this realistically optimal treatment facilities must be designed, and actual sludge use assessment must be made. (LK)

  20. Innovative practice model to optimize resource utilization and improve access to care for high-risk and BRCA+ patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Linden; Nessim, Carolyn; Usher Boyd, Kirsty

    2017-02-01

    Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) has demonstrated breast cancer risk reduction in high-risk/ BRCA + patients. However, priority of active cancers coupled with inefficient use of operating room (OR) resources presents challenges in offering BPM in a timely manner. To address these challenges, a rapid access prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction (RAPMIR) program was innovated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate RAPMIR with regards to access to care and efficiency. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all high-risk/ BRCA + patients having had BPM between September 2012 and August 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those managed through the traditional model and those managed through the RAPMIR model. RAPMIR leverages 2 concurrently running ORs with surgical oncology and plastic surgery moving between rooms to complete 3 combined BPMs with immediate reconstruction in addition to 1-2 independent cases each operative day. RAPMIR eligibility criteria included high-risk/ BRCA + status; BPM with immediate, implant-based reconstruction; and day surgery candidacy. Wait times, case volumes and patient throughput were measured and compared. There were 16 traditional patients and 13 RAPMIR patients. Mean wait time (days from referral to surgery) for RAPMIR was significantly shorter than for the traditional model (165.4 v. 309.2 d, p = 0.027). Daily patient throughput (4.3 v. 2.8), plastic surgery case volume (3.7 v. 1.6) and surgical oncology case volume (3.0 v. 2.2) were significantly greater in the RAPMIR model than the traditional model ( p = 0.003, p < 0.001 and p = 0.015, respectively). A multidisciplinary model with optimized scheduling has the potential to improve access to care and optimize resource utilization.

  1. Resource utilization associated with procurement of transplantable organs from donors that do not meet OPTN eligible death criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Derek A; Redden, David T; Bryant, Mary K; Dorn, David P; Fouad, Mona N; Gray, Stephen H; White, Jared A; Locke, Jayme E; Meeks, Christopher B; Taylor, Garry C; Kilgore, Meredith L; Eckhoff, Devin E

    2014-05-27

    The strategy of evaluating every donation opportunity warrants an investigation into the financial feasibility of this practice. The purpose of this investigation is to measure resource utilization required for procurement of transplantable organs in an organ procurement organization (OPO). Donors were stratified into those that met OPTN-defined eligible death criteria (ED donors, n=589) and those that did not (NED donors, n=703). Variable direct costs and time utilization by OPO staff for organ procurement were measured and amortized per organ transplanted using permutation methods and statistical bootstrapping/resampling approaches. More organs per donor were procured (3.66±1.2 vs. 2.34±0.8, Pdonors compared with NED donors. The variable direct costs were significantly lower in the NED donors ($29,879.4±11590.1 vs. $19,019.6±7599.60, Porgan transplanted were significantly higher in the NED donors ($8,414.5±138.29 vs. $9,272.04±344.56, Pdonors where thoracic organ procurement occurred were 67% more expensive than in abdominal-only organ procurement. The total time allocated per donor was significantly shorter in the NED donors (91.2±44.9 hr vs. 86.8±78.6 hr, P=0.01). In contrast, the amortized time per organ transplanted was significantly longer in the NED donors (23.1±0.8 hr vs. 36.9±3.2 hr, Porgan transplanted is significantly higher in donors that do not meet the eligible death criteria.

  2. Treatment patterns and healthcare resource utilization and costs in heavy menstrual bleeding: a Japanese claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Sayako; Tanaka, Erika; Cristeau, Olivier; Onishi, Yoshie; Osuga, Yutaka

    2018-06-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a highly prevalent condition, characterized by excessive menstrual blood loss and cramping, that interferes with activities of daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate treatment patterns in HMB in Japan, and to assess healthcare resource utilization and costs among women newly-diagnosed with the condition. This study retrospectively analyzed health insurance data available in the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database on women aged 18-49 years who were newly-diagnosed with primary or secondary HMB. Treatment patterns were analyzed, and healthcare utilization and costs were evaluated and compared to matched controls. The study included a total of 635 patients, 210 with primary HMB and 425 with secondary HMB. In the primary HMB cohort, 60.0% of patients received one or more pharmacological or surgical treatments, compared with 76.2% in the secondary HMB cohort. The most commonly prescribed medications in all patients were hemostatic agents (28.7%), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (12.1%), and low-dose estrogen progestins (LEPs) (10.1%). After adjustment for patient baseline characteristics, healthcare costs were 1.93-times higher in primary HMB cases (p < .0001) and 4.44-times higher in secondary HMB cases (p < .0001) vs healthy controls. Outpatient care was the main cost driver. The main limitations of this study are related to its retrospective nature, and the fact that only reimbursed medications were captured in the source database. A substantial proportion of HMB patients did not receive the recommended treatments. Healthcare costs were considerably increased in the presence of an HMB diagnosis.

  3. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  4. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  5. Impact of comorbid conditions in COPD patients on health care resource utilization and costs in a predominantly Medicare population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phil Schwab,1 Amol D Dhamane,2 Sari D Hopson,1 Chad Moretz,1 Srinivas Annavarapu,1 Kate Burslem,2 Andrew Renda,3 Shuchita Kaila2 1Comprehensive Health Insights Inc., Louisville, KY, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, 3Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often have multiple underlying comorbidities, which may lead to increased health care resource utilization (HCRU and costs.Objective: To describe the comorbidity profiles of COPD patients and examine the associations between the presence of comorbidities and HCRU or health care costs.Methods: A retrospective cohort study utilizing data from a large US national health plan with a predominantly Medicare population was conducted. COPD patients aged 40–89 years and continuously enrolled for 12 months prior to and 24 months after the first COPD diagnosis during the period of January 01, 2009, through December 31, 2010, were selected. Eleven comorbidities of interest were identified 12 months prior through 12 months after COPD diagnosis. All-cause and COPD-related hospitalizations and costs were assessed 24 months after diagnosis, and the associations with comorbidities were determined using multivariate statistical models.Results: Ninety-two percent of 52,643 COPD patients identified had at least one of the 11 comorbidities. Congestive heart failure (CHF, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease (CVA had the strongest associations with all-cause hospitalizations (mean ratio: 1.56, 1.32, and 1.30, respectively; P<0.0001; other comorbidities examined had moderate associations. CHF, anxiety, and sleep apnea had the strongest associations with COPD-related hospitalizations (mean ratio: 2.01, 1.32, and 1.21, respectively; P<0.0001; other comorbidities examined (except chronic kidney disease [CKD], obesity, and osteoarthritis had moderate associations. All

  6. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-01-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  7. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  8. Cardiovascular events and hospital resource utilization pre- and post-transcatheter mitral valve repair in high-surgical risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Lippmann, Steven J; Krucoff, Mitchell; Hernandez, Adrian F; Curtis, Lesley H; Foster, Elyse; Qasim, Atif; Wang, Andrew; Glower, Donald D; Feldman, Ted; Hammill, Bradley G

    2017-07-01

    MitraClip is an approved therapy for mitral regurgitation (MR); however, health care resource utilization pre- and post-MitraClip remains understudied. Patients with functional and degenerative MR at high surgical risk in the EVEREST II High-Risk Registry and REALISM Continued-Access Study were linked to Medicare data. Pre- and post-MitraClip all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure (HF), and bleeding hospitalizations were identified. Inpatient costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars, were calculated, and event rate ratios and cost ratios were estimated with multivariable modeling. Among 403 linked patients, the mean age was 80 years, 60% were male, mean baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 49.6%, 83.3% were New York Heart Association class III/IV, 78.2% were MR grade 3+/4+, and 63.3% had functional MR. All-cause hospitalization decreased from 1,854 to 1,435/1,000 person-years (Pproviders seeking to reduce HF hospitalizations and associated Medicare costs may consider MitraClip among appropriate patients likely to survive 1 year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  10. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  11. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fewer intensive care unit refusals and a higher capacity utilization by using a cyclic surgical case schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houdenhoven, Mark; van Oostrum, Jeroen M.; Wullink, Gerhard; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Bakker, Jan; Kazemier, Geert

    Purpose: Mounting health care costs force hospital managers to maximize utilization of scarce resources and simultaneously improve access to hospital services. This article assesses the benefits of a cyclic case scheduling approach that exploits a master surgical schedule (MSS). An MSS maximizes

  13. Cognitive status is a determinant of health resource utilization among individuals with a history of falls: a 12-month prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Dian, L; Khan, K M; Bryan, S; Marra, C A; Hsu, C L; Jacova, P; Chiu, B K; Liu-Ambrose, T

    2016-03-01

    Falls are a costly public health problem worldwide. The literature is devoid of prospective data that identifies factors among fallers that significantly drive health care resource utilization. We found that cognitive function--specifically, executive functions--and cognitive status are significant determinants of health resource utilization among older fallers. Although falls are costly, there are no prospective data examining factors among fallers that drive health care resource utilization. We identified key determinants of health resource utilization (HRU) at 6 and 12 months among older adults with a history of falls. Specifically, with the increasing recognition that cognitive impairment is associated with increased falls risk, we investigated cognition as a potential driver of health resource utilization. This 12-month prospective cohort study at the Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic (n = 319) included participants with a history of at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Based on their cognitive status, participants were divided into two groups: (1) no mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (2) MCI. We constructed two linear regression models with HRU at 6 and 12 months as the dependent variables for each model, respectively. Predictors relating to mobility, global cognition, executive functions, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI) were examined. Age, sex, comorbidities, depression status, and activities of daily living were included regardless of statistical significance. Global cognition, comorbidities, working memory, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI ascertained using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) were significant determinants of total HRU at 6 months. The number of medical comorbidities and global cognition were significant determinants of total HRU at 12 months. MCI status was a determinant of HRU at 6 months among older adults with a history of falls. As such, efforts to minimize health care resource use related to falls

  14. Associations of depressive symptoms and pain with dialysis adherence, health resource utilization, and mortality in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Mor, Maria K; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L; Palevsky, Paul M; Arnold, Robert M; Green, Jamie A; Fine, Michael J

    2014-09-05

    Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, yet their effect on dialysis adherence, health resource utilization, and mortality is not fully understood. This study sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with dialysis adherence, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and mortality. As part of a trial comparing symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, this study prospectively assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and pain using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, monthly between 2009 and 2011. This study used negative binomial, Poisson, and proportional hazards regression to analyze the longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5-point increments in symptom scores, with missed and abbreviated hemodialysis treatments, ED visits, hospitalizations, and mortality, respectively. Among 286 patients, moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were identified on 788 of 4452 (18%) assessments and pain was reported on 3537 of 4459 (79%) assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with missed (incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10 to 1.33) and abbreviated (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.14) hemodialysis treatments, ED visits (IRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.37), hospitalizations (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.30), and mortality (IRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.77). Pain was independently associated with abbreviated hemodialysis treatments (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06) and hospitalizations (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.10). Severe pain was independently associated with abbreviated hemodialysis treatments (IRR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), ED visits (IRR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.94), and hospitalizations (IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45), but not mortality (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.96). Depressive symptoms and pain are independently

  15. Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Resources and Job Effectiveness among Library Staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Aniebiet Inyang; Inyang, Comfort Linus

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources and job effectiveness among library staff in the University of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted…

  16. Human Resource Development and New Technology in the Automobile Industry: A Case Study of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant. The Development and Utilization of Human Resources in the Context of Technological Change and Industrial Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; And Others

    This report centers around a plant-level study of the development and utilization of human resources in the context of technological change and industrial restructuring in the crankshaft production area of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant (DEP). The introductory chapter describes how the study was conducted, provides an introduction to…

  17. Attributable Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs for Patients With Primary and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmu; Prabhu, Vimalanand S; Marcella, Stephen W

    2018-04-17

    The economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs attributable to primary CDI and recurrent CDI (rCDI). This is a database (MarketScan) study. Patients without CDI were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI but no recurrences to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI. Patients with primary CDI but no recurrences were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI plus 1 recurrence in order to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to rCDI. Adjusted estimates for incremental cumulative hospitalized days and healthcare costs over a 6-month follow-up period were obtained by generalized linear models with a Poisson or gamma distribution and a log link. Bootstrapping was used to obtain 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 55504 eligible CDI patients were identified. Approximately 25% of these CDI patients had rCDI. The cumulative hospitalized days attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were 5.20 days (95% CI, 5.01-5.39) and 1.95 days (95% CI, 1.48-2.43), respectively. The healthcare costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were $24205 (95% CI, $23436-$25013) and $10580 (95% CI, $8849-$12446), respectively. The HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI are quite substantial. It is necessary to reduce the burden of CDI, especially rCDI.

  18. Risk Factors, Health Care Resource Utilization, and Costs Associated with Nonadherence to Antiretrovirals in Medicaid-Insured Patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Keith; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Jiao, Xiaolong; Romdhani, Hela; Emond, Bruno; Woodruff, Kimberly; Pesa, Jacqueline; Tandon, Neeta; Lefebvre, Patrick

    2018-06-07

    Adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is critical to achieving durable virologic suppression. To investigate risk factors of poor adherence and the effect of suboptimal adherence on health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs in Medicaid patients. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Medicaid data. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 initiating selected ARVs (index date) were identified. Adherence was measured using medication possession ratio (MPR) and proportion of days covered (PDC) at 6 and 12 months post-index. Risk factors of poor adherence (PDC logistic regression. HCRU and costs were compared between suboptimal (80% ≤ PDC costs (mean monthly cost difference = $339; 95% CI = $153-$536; P costs (mean monthly cost difference = $259; 95% CI = $122-$418; P costs. Age, insurance type and coverage, previous ARV treatment, and HIV symptoms were predictors of adherence. Treatment options that enhance adherence and prevent developing virologic failure with drug resistance should be considered for HIV patients. This study was supported by Janssen Scientific Affairs, which was involved in the study design, data collection, data analysis, manuscript preparation, and publication decisions. Emond, Lafeuille, Romdhani, and Lefebvre are employees of Analysis Group, a consulting company that received research grants from Janssen Scientific Affairs to conduct this study. Dunn, Woodruff, Pesa, and Tandon are current employees and stockholders of Johnson & Johnson, owner of Janssen Scientific Affairs. Jiao was an employee of Janssen at the time of the study. Emond has received grants from Novartis, Regeneron, Aegerion, Lundbeck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayer, Millennium, Allergan, AbbVie, and GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this study. Part of the material in this study was presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy 2017 Annual Meeting, March 27-30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado, and at the 9th International AIDS Society

  19. Demographics, Resource Utilization, and Outcomes of Elderly Patients With Chronic Liver Disease Receiving Hospice Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Natsu; Golabi, Pegah; Otgonsuren, Munkhzul; Mishra, Alita; Venkatesan, Chapy; Younossi, Zobair M

    2017-11-01

    Hospice offers non-curative symptomatic management to improve patients' quality of life, satisfaction, and resource utilization. Hospice enrollment among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is not well studied. The aim of tis tudy is to examine the characteristics of Medicare enrollees with CLD, who were discharged to hospice. Medicare patients discharged to hospice between 2010 and 2014 were identified in Medicare Inpatient and Hospice Files. CLDs and other co-morbidities were identified by International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision codes. Generalized linear model was used to estimate regression coefficients with P-values. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 2,179 CLD patients and 34,986 controls without CLD met the inclusion criteria. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were the most frequent cause of CLD. CLD patients were younger (70 vs. 83 years), more likely to be male (57.7 vs. 39.3%), had longer hospital stay (length of stay, LOS) (19.4 vs. 13.0 days), higher annual charges ($175,000 vs. $109,000), higher 30-day re-hospitalization rates (51.6 vs. 34.2%), and shorter hospice LOS (13.7 vs. 17.7 days) than controls (all PCLD have longer and costly hospitalizations before hospice enrollment as compared with patients without CLD. It was highly likely that these patients were enrolled relatively late, which could potentially lead to less benefit from hospice.

  20. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.