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Sample records for maximizing electricity production

  1. A study of the optimum draft of multiple resonance power buoys for maximizing electric power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To maximize electric power production using wave energy extractions from resonance power buoys, the maximum motion displacement spectra of the buoys can primarily be obtained under a given wave condition. In this study, wave spectra observed in shoaling water were formulated. Target resonance frequencies were established from the arithmetic means of modal frequency bands and the peak frequencies. The motion characteristics of the circular cylindrical power buoys with corresponding drafts were then calculated using numerical models without considering PTO damping force. Results showed that the heave motions of the power buoys in shoaling waters with insufficient drafts produced greater amplification effects than those in deep seas with sufficient drafts.

  2. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  3. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to electricity technology in a few limited areas, one being a geothermal flash plant at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake. But, there are few...portable generators to reduce fuel needs. d) Bottom cycling on a geothermal flash plant like the one at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake...generation c) Increasing the efficiency of portable generators to reduce fuel needs. d) Bottom cycling on a geothermal flash plant like the one at Naval

  4. Maximizing electrical power supply using FACTS devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Karsten; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Modern society critically depends on the services electric power provides. Power systems rely on a network of power lines and transformers to deliver power from sources of power (generators) to the consumers (loads). However, when power lines fail (for example, through lightning or natural disasters) or when the system is heavily used, the network is often unable to fulfill all of the demand for power. While systems are vulnerable to these failures, increasingly, sophisticated control devices...

  5. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  6. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    included all components. An equally important figure is the forecast for the sales price of the ORCA when production is on a higher volume commercial...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding

  7. Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.

  8. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  9. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  10. Maximizing remanufacturing profit using product acquisition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D.R. Guide Jr (Daniel); R.H. Teunter (Ruud); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe profitability of remanufacturing depends on the quantity and quality of product returns and on the demand for remanufactured products. The quantity and quality of product returns can be influenced by varying quality dependent acquisition prices, i.e., by using product acquisition

  11. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  12. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  13. Maximizing your ability to compete as a municipal electrical utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacOdrum, B.

    1996-01-01

    The implications of the MacDonald Committee's recommendations on introducing competition to Ontario's electricity industry were reviewed from the point of view of Toronto Hydro, the largest municipal utility and Ontario Hydro's largest customer. Issues examined included (1) the consequences of unbundling Ontario Hydro's generating, transmission and distribution functions, (2) the structural change option of phasing-in competition among Ontario Hydro and municipal and other private generators, (3) enhancing the efficiency of the distribution sector, and (4) the relative benefits and consequences of private equity as a means of enhancing competition through the sale of Ontario Hydro's generating assets, or the sale of non-essential business operations. Recommendations to the Committee included the need for the transmission grid to remain under public control, for electricity pricing to take into account the variable environmental impact of different generating types, and the need for transferring regulatory authority over municipal electric utilities from Ontario Hydro to the Ontario Energy Board

  14. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Hu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  16. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  17. Optimized design of micromachined electric field mills to maximize electrostatic field sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yu; Shafai, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design optimization of a micromachined electric field mill, in relation to maximizing its output signal. The cases studied are for a perforated electrically grounded shutter vibrating laterally over sensing electrodes. It is shown that when modeling the output signal of the sensor, the differential charge on the sense electrodes when exposed to vs. visibly shielded from the incident electric field must be considered. Parametric studies of device dimensions show that t...

  18. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  19. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  20. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  1. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  2. Optimized design of micromachined electric field mills to maximize electrostatic field sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design optimization of a micromachined electric field mill, in relation to maximizing its output signal. The cases studied are for a perforated electrically grounded shutter vibrating laterally over sensing electrodes. It is shown that when modeling the output signal of the sensor, the differential charge on the sense electrodes when exposed to vs. visibly shielded from the incident electric field must be considered. Parametric studies of device dimensions show that the shutter thickness and its spacing from the underlying electrodes should be minimized as these parameters very strongly affect the MEFM signal. Exploration of the shutter perforation size and sense electrode width indicate that the best MEFM design is one where shutter perforation widths are a few times larger than the sense electrode widths. Keywords: MEFM, Finite element method, Electric field measurement, MEMS, Micromachining

  3. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  4. Centralized or decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, H.A. de.

    1975-01-01

    Because of low overall efficiency in electric power generation, it is argued that energy provision based on gas, combined with locally decentralized electricity production, saves for the Netherlands slightly more fossile fuel than nuclear technologies and makes the country independent of uranium resources. The reason the Netherlands persues this approach is that a big part of the energy is finally used for heating in the normal or moderate temperatures

  5. Profit maximization with customer satisfaction control for electric vehicle charging in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the market of electric vehicles is gaining popularity, large-scale commercialized or privately-operated charging stations are expected to play a key role as a technology enabler. In this paper, we study the problem of charging electric vehicles at stations with limited charging machines and power resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel profit maximization framework for station operation in both offline and online charging scenarios, under certain customer satisfaction constraints. The main goal is to maximize the profit obtained by the station owner and provide a satisfactory charging service to the customers. The framework includes not only the vehicle scheduling and charging power control, but also the managing of user satisfaction factors, which are defined as the percentages of finished charging targets. The profit maximization problem is proved to be NPcomplete in both scenarios (NP refers to “nondeterministic polynomial time”, for which two-stage charging strategies are proposed to obtain efficient suboptimal solutions. Competitive analysis is also provided to analyze the performance of the proposed online two-stage charging algorithm against the offline counterpart under non-congested and congested charging scenarios. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed two-stage charging strategies achieve performance close to that with exhaustive search. Also, the proposed algorithms provide remarkable performance gains compared to the other conventional charging strategies with respect to not only the unified profit, but also other practical interests, such as the computational time, the user satisfaction factor, the power consumption, and the competitive ratio.

  6. Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.

  7. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  8. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  9. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  10. Maximizing productivity of horizontal drilling and completion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    There are currently 160 active drilling rigs in the Barnett shale play, and small early developments have now become large-scale operations. This presentation outlined methods currently used to improve the productivity of directional drilling and completion techniques in gas shale plays. Horizontal completions are used to control height growth and increase contact areas. A typical horizontal well casing program was described along with details of cement liner treatment programs. Charts of optimum and non-optimum azimuth wells were included. Increased reservoir contact has been achieved by using limited-entry designs and acid stages with ball-sealers and abrasive jet-cutters. Pump rates have been increased during various stages, and larger fluid and sand volumes were used. A mineralogy comparison was provided, as well as details of the general design criteria for vertical wells in the region. It was concluded that drilling in the Barnett shale play has been successful as a result of using 3-dimensional seismic mapping as well as by initiating multiple, simultaneous fracs. The presentation also included charts of the Arkoma-Woodford play, the Arkoma-Fayetteville play, and the Delaware Basin. tabs., figs.

  11. Real-time control strategy to maximize hybrid electric vehicle powertrain efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Wassif; Evangelou, Simos A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An off-line local control is proposed for real-time HEV energy management. • Powertrain efficiencies are studied to produce a unified objective function. • Penalty function is designed to ensure charge sustaining operation. • Implementation by storing optimal power share in a two-dimensional control map. • Proposed control improved fuel economy by up to 20% compared to conventional control. - Abstract: The proposed supervisory control system (SCS) uses a control map to maximize the powertrain efficiency of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) in real-time. The paper presents the methodology and structure of the control, including a novel, comprehensive and unified expression for the overall powertrain efficiency that considers the engine-generator set and the battery in depth as well as the power electronics. A control map is then produced with instructions for the optimal power share between the engine branch and battery branch of the vehicle such that the powertrain efficiency is maximized. This map is computed off-line and can thereafter be operated in real-time at very low computational cost. A charge sustaining factor is also developed and introduced to ensure the SCS operates the vehicle within desired SOC bounds. This SCS is then tested and benchmarked against two conventional control strategies in a high-fidelity vehicle model, representing a series HEV. Extensive simulation results are presented for repeated cycles of a diverse range of standard driving cycles, showing significant improvements in fuel economy (up to 20%) and less aggressive use of the battery

  12. Size matters: Installed maximal unit size predicts market life cycles of electricity generation technologies and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.

    2008-01-01

    The electricity generation technologies and systems are complex and change in very dynamic fashions, with a multitude of energy sources and prime movers. Since an important concept in generator design is the 'economies of scale', we discover that the installed maximal unit size (capacity) of the generators is a key 'envelope-pushing' characteristic with logistical behaviors. The logistical wavelet analysis of the max unit sizes for different fuels and prime movers, and the cumulative capacities, reveals universal quantitative features in the aggregate evolution of the power industry. We extract the transition times of the max sizes (spanning 10-90% of the saturation limits) for different technologies and systems, and discover that the max size saturation in the 90-99% range precedes the saturation of cumulative capacities of the corresponding systems in the US. While these universal laws are still empirical, they give us a simple yet elegant framework to examine the evolution of the power industry and markets in predictive, not just descriptive, terms. Such laws give us a quantitative tool to spot trends and predict future development, invaluable in planning and resource allocation based on intrinsic technology and system market life cycles

  13. Manufacturing Decisions and Government Subsidies for Electric Vehicles in China: A Maximal Social Welfare Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to address challenges in the sustainable development of transportation, economy, and environment, governments of China and conventional automobile manufacturers are extremely concerned about the development of the electric vehicle (EV manufacturing industry and market. However, owing to the limitations of EVs and the government economic policies on decreasing subsidies in China, many manufacturers are worried about entering the EV market. Given the low consumer preference for EVs, using a leader-follower Stackelberg game model, we investigate the impact of government a subsidy on the optimal production and pricing decisions of an auto manufacturer who could produce both EVs and conventional vehicles. We characterize whether/under what conditions the manufacturer’s decision to offer EV products under government subsidy, whilst increasing its profits (a win-win situation. On the policy side, we delineate how government a subsidy can be set to realize the inherent economic, environmental, and social benefits of EV production (the triple win of EV production. We further investigate the impact of EV manufacturing- and society-related factors on the balance among manufacturer profits, environmental impact and social welfare. This study also finds that the adoption of EVs is not bound to be beneficial for the environment.

  14. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  15. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizioli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  16. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  17. The ''reference costs'' of the electrical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This study objective is to give an aid for the investments choice in the field of electricity production and for national choices in the field of long-dated production. Important evolutions appeared since the last exercise ''reference costs'' of 1993. Electricity production costs, presented in this study, are actualized economic costs. They consider the following production facilities: nuclear, pulverized coal with fumes processing, circulating fluidized bed, combustion turbines, cogeneration and wind turbines. (A.L.B.)

  18. MAXIMIZING HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION FROM RESERVOIRS:THE CASE STUDY OF MARKABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is a form of renewable energy that is clean and cheap. Under uncertain climatic conditions, maximization of hydropower production becomes a challenging task.Stochastic Dynamic programming (SDP) is a promising optimization algorithm that is usedfor complex non-linear reservoir operational policies and strategies.In this research, a combined simulation-SDPoptimization model isdeveloped andverified for maximizing large-scale hydropower production in a monthly time step. The model isdeveloped to generate optimal operational policies for the Qarawn reservoir in Lebanon and test these policies in real time conditions. The model isused to derive operational regimes for the Qarawn reservoirunder varying flows using transitional probability matrices. Simulating the derived rules and the generated operational policies proved effective in maximizingthe hydropower production from the Markaba power plant. The model could be successfully applied to other hydropower dams in the region. (author)

  19. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  20. Differences and implications in biogeochemistry from maximizing entropy production locally versus globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vallino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we investigate the use of the maximum entropy production (MEP principle for modeling biogeochemical processes that are catalyzed by living systems. Because of novelties introduced by the MEP approach, many questions need to be answered and techniques developed in the application of MEP to describe biological systems that are responsible for energy and mass transformations on a planetary scale. In previous work we introduce the importance of integrating entropy production over time to distinguish abiotic from biotic processes under transient conditions. Here we investigate the ramifications of modeling biological systems involving one or more spatial dimensions. When modeling systems over space, entropy production can be maximized either locally at each point in space asynchronously or globally over the system domain synchronously. We use a simple two-box model inspired by two-layer ocean models to illustrate the differences in local versus global entropy maximization. Synthesis and oxidation of biological structure is modeled using two autocatalytic reactions that account for changes in community kinetics using a single parameter each. Our results show that entropy production can be increased if maximized over the system domain rather than locally, which has important implications regarding how biological systems organize and supports the hypothesis for multiple levels of selection and cooperation in biology for the dissipation of free energy.

  1. New technologies and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview about the new electrical energy generation technologies, under development, in some cases with the spanish electrical utilities cooperation. The content has a brief introductory description about the highly changing scenario for the utilities, the most promising generation technologies from the point of view of efficiency, cost investment, and minimum environmental impact, and the main actions included in the Spanish Energetic Research Plan (PEN-91-2000). After a short presentation for the advanced clean coal technologies, as PFC,IGCC, fuel cells and MHD, as well as some ongoing research projects, it has been included a group of nuclear and renewable energy generation technologies and the main environmental control technologies, all of them with great interest for the near term electric utilities power generation. (Author)

  2. Double-sided auction mechanism design in electricity based on maximizing social welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electricity double-sided auction mechanism should control market power and enhance the social welfare of the electricity market. Based on this goal, the paper designs a new double-sided auction mechanism. In the new mechanism, the social welfare contribution of each participant plays a pivotal role, because this contribution is the critical factor in market clearing, payment settling, and transaction matching rules. In particular, each winner of the auction can gain transfer payments according to his contribution to social welfare in the electricity market, and this gives the mechanism the ability to control the market power of some participants. At the same time, this mechanism ensures that the market organizer balances his budget. We then conduct a theoretical and empirical analysis based on the Spanish electricity market. Both of the results show that compared to the uniform-pricing mechanism, the new mechanism can reduce market power of participants and enhance the social welfare of the electricity market.

  3. Decision analysis for conservation breeding: Maximizing production for reintroduction of whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Des H.V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Gibson, Keith; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Maguire, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Captive breeding is key to management of severely endangered species, but maximizing captive production can be challenging because of poor knowledge of species breeding biology and the complexity of evaluating different management options. In the face of uncertainty and complexity, decision-analytic approaches can be used to identify optimal management options for maximizing captive production. Building decision-analytic models requires iterations of model conception, data analysis, model building and evaluation, identification of remaining uncertainty, further research and monitoring to reduce uncertainty, and integration of new data into the model. We initiated such a process to maximize captive production of the whooping crane (Grus americana), the world's most endangered crane, which is managed through captive breeding and reintroduction. We collected 15 years of captive breeding data from 3 institutions and used Bayesian analysis and model selection to identify predictors of whooping crane hatching success. The strongest predictor, and that with clear management relevance, was incubation environment. The incubation period of whooping crane eggs is split across two environments: crane nests and artificial incubators. Although artificial incubators are useful for allowing breeding pairs to produce multiple clutches, our results indicate that crane incubation is most effective at promoting hatching success. Hatching probability increased the longer an egg spent in a crane nest, from 40% hatching probability for eggs receiving 1 day of crane incubation to 95% for those receiving 30 days (time incubated in each environment varied independently of total incubation period). Because birds will lay fewer eggs when they are incubating longer, a tradeoff exists between the number of clutches produced and egg hatching probability. We developed a decision-analytic model that estimated 16 to be the optimal number of days of crane incubation needed to maximize the number of

  4. Decentralized electricity production. v. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first part of the symposium is concerned with market analysis, case studies and prospectives for the decentralized production of electricity in France: cogeneration, heat networks, municipal waste incineration, etc. Financing systems and microeconomical analysis are presented. The second part is devoted to macroeconomical outlooks (France and Europe mainly) on decentralized electricity production (cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectric power plants), to other countries experience (PV systems connected to the grid, cogeneration, etc.) and to price contracts and regulations

  5. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Macroeconomic aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of decentralized electricity production should be viewed first and foremost as a means of adapting production resources to meet the needs of the users between 1995 and 1997. Consumer production and cogeneration are not, however, simply stopgap solutions operating on the fringe of electricity production. These methods serve to highlight a problem that has already been raised in the past: the real advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems managed by companies that exercise a virtual monopoly in either the public or private sector

  7. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  8. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's BC power conference : maximizing opportunities in the evolving electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for reviewing recent events and activities in British Columbia's electric power industry. Issues regarding energy supply, reliability, power generation, power distribution and power transmission were discussed along with the opportunities and challenges of developing renewable energy sources. Participants at the conference gained insight into strategies for determining the usefulness of an energy plan; assessing the prospects for new generation capacity; examining future whole sale markets; analyzing congestion problems; identifying import and export opportunities; planning for rate design and exploring the future supply on Vancouver Island. The possibilities for meeting the growing demand for electricity through an integrated electrical transmission system throughout the west coast, British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest and Alberta were examined along with financing structures and strategies of renewable energy projects. The role of regulators and their influence on electricity prices were also discussed. Resource planning guidelines were examined as well as other topics such as demand side management, energy conservation, the role of liquefied natural gas in power generation, and land use challenges for power generation. The conference featured 21 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs, figs

  9. Maximizing Efficiency in Two-step Solar-thermochemical Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Widespread solar fuel production depends on its economic viability, largely driven by the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. In this paper, the material and energy requirements in two-step solar-thermochemical cycles are considered.The need for advanced redox active materials is demonstrated, by considering the oxide mass flow requirements at a large scale. Two approaches are also identified for maximizing the efficiency: optimizing reaction temperatures, and minimizing the pressure in the thermal reduction step by staged thermal reduction. The results show that each approach individually, and especially the two in conjunction, result in significant efficiency gains.

  10. Maximizing the science return of interplanetary missions using nuclear electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The multi-kilowatt power sources on the spaecraft also enables active sensing, including radar, which could be used to do topographic and subsurface studies of clouded bodies such as Titan, ground pentrating sounding of Pluto, the major planet's moons, and planetoids, and topside sounding of the electrically conductive atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune to produce profiles of fluid density, conductivity, and horizontal and vertical velocity as a function of depth and global location. Radio science investigations of planetary atmospheres and ring systems would be greatly enhanced by increased transmitter power. The scientific benefits of utilizing such techniques are discussed, and a comparison is made with the quantity and quality of science that a low-powered spacecraft employing RTGs could return. It is concluded that the non-propulsive benefits of nuclear power for spacecraft exploring the outer solar system are enormous, and taken together with the well documented mission enhancements enabled by electric propulsion fully justify the expanditures needed to bring a space qualified nuclear electric power source into being. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Maximization of beta-galactosidase production: a simultaneous investigation of agitation and aeration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernanda Germano; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; de Medeiros Burkert, Janaína Fernandes; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the agitation and aeration effects in the maximization of the beta-galactosidase production from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 were investigated simultaneously, in relation to the volumetric enzyme activity and the productivity, as well as the analysis of the lactose consumption and production of glucose, and galactose of this process. Agitation and aeration effects were studied in a 2 L batch stirred reactor. A central composite design (2(2) trials plus three central points) was carried out. Agitation speed varied from 200 to 500 rpm and aeration rate from 0.5 to 1.5 vvm. It has been shown in this study that the volumetric enzyme production was strongly influenced by mixing conditions, while aeration was shown to be less significant. Linear models for activity and productivity due to agitation and aeration were obtained. The favorable condition was 500 rpm and 1.5 vvm, which lead to the best production of 17 U mL(-1) for enzymatic activity, 1.2 U mL(-1) h(-1) for productivity in 14 h of process, a cellular concentration of 11 mg mL(-1), and a 167.2 h(-1) volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient.

  12. Productivity incentives in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.

    2000-01-01

    July 19, 1999, the Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service ('Dienst uitvoering en toezicht elektriciteitswet Dte) issued the consultation document 'Price-cap regulation in the electric power sector'. The document is strongly based on a modern, UK inspired method of regulation. The methods, as proposed in the document, will have an impact on the final electricity tariffs, and thus of great importance for the consumers and the businesses involved. In this article the most striking element in the consultation document is discussed: how to determine the X (i.e. the expected growth of the productivity) in the price-cap regulation

  13. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  14. Integration of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomekova, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project SustelNet also deals with the possibilities of future development of DG sources. Within the project frame a quite general concept of the so-called 'equal field' for centralized and decentralized production was chosen for the better integration of DG. Its aim was to the achieve demanded level on the market in the future term (by 2020). Looking at the problem in the wider context means, that both forms of the production should be admitted on the market on the same conditions. The result of this project is a regulatory map, which actually serves as a definite regulatory strategy for more effective employment of DG sources. On the basis of the national regulatory strategies a proposition of regulatory map for EU will be launched, including some recommendations for European Commission. A few expert papers (scenario of proceeding, benchmarking, economical tools and criteria) are also output of this project. Five member states of the EU and four entering countries have been involved in this project. The final results of this procedure will be presented from April 2004 on international and national conferences, seminaries, or by means of other ways of publicity

  15. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  16. Utah ITS/CVO business plan : using technology to maximize highway safety and improve government and industry productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This plan was produced to maximize highway safety and increase government and industry productivity through the application of Intelligent Transportation System/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS/CVO) technologies to support regulatory and enforcemen...

  17. Productivity in Swedish electricity retail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, L.; Veiderpass, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines productivity growth in electricity retail distribution in Sweden in a multiple output-multiple input framework. The approach used is nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Productivity is measured by means of the Malmquist index. Productivity comparisons are made between different types of ownership and between different service areas. The study indicates a high rate of productivity growth, due to economics of density, when measured over a period of 17 years. The results show no significant differences in productivity growth between different types of ownership or economic organization. (20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  18. Fiscal planning of private electricity production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, R.

    2002-01-01

    Various fiscal considerations frequently encountered in the context of the planning of private electricity production projects were described. Two major themes were discussed: 1) the different jurisdictional vehicles that can be used during the planning of private electricity production projects and the associated fiscal considerations, and 2) the two main fiscal incentives of the Income Tax Act (Canada) which could impact on the financing and operation costs of such a project, namely the accelerated amortization and the possibility of deducting the costs associated to renewable energies and energy savings in Canada. This was a general presentation that did not go into specific details and did not represent a legal opinion. refs

  19. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  20. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  1. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Gao

    Full Text Available The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w, forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml, digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min, digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of

  2. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengqin; Yang, Fuyu; Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  3. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  4. A cyclotron isotope production facility designed to maximize production and minimize radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, W.J.; Stevenson, N.R.; Szlavik, F.F.

    1993-01-01

    Continuing increases in requirements from the nuclear medicine industry for cyclotron isotopes is increasing the demands being put on an aging stock of machines. In addition, with the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP publication in place, strict dose limits will be required and this will have an effect on the way these machines are being operated. Recent advances in cyclotron design combined with lessons learned from two decades of commercial production mean that new facilities can result in a substantial charge on target, low personnel dose, and minimal residual activation. An optimal facility would utilize a well engineered variable energy/high current H - cyclotron design, multiple beam extraction, and individual target caves. Materials would be selected to minimize activation and absorb neutrons. Equipment would be designed to minimize maintenance activities performed in high radiation fields. (orig.)

  5. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  6. Theoretical modeling for optimizing horizontal production well placement in thermal recovery environments to maximize recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Determination of optimum values for maximizing the profit in bread production: Daily bakery Sdn Bhd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Sim, Raymond

    2015-02-01

    An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers. In many settings the term refers to integer linear programming (ILP), in which the objective function and the constraints (other than the integer constraints) are linear. An ILP has many applications in industrial production, including job-shop modelling. A possible objective is to maximize the total production, without exceeding the available resources. In some cases, this can be expressed in terms of a linear program, but variables must be constrained to be integer. It concerned with the optimization of a linear function while satisfying a set of linear equality and inequality constraints and restrictions. It has been used to solve optimization problem in many industries area such as banking, nutrition, agriculture, and bakery and so on. The main purpose of this study is to formulate the best combination of all ingredients in producing different type of bread in Daily Bakery in order to gain maximum profit. This study also focuses on the sensitivity analysis due to changing of the profit and the cost of each ingredient. The optimum result obtained from QM software is RM 65,377.29 per day. This study will be benefited for Daily Bakery and also other similar industries. By formulating a combination of all ingredients make up, they can easily know their total profit in producing bread everyday.

  8. Safety policy in the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1982-01-01

    When safety is properly understood, defined and quantified, it can be seen that the development of our present industrial civilization has resulted in a progressive improvement in human safety. Increased safety has come with increased wealth in such close association that a high degree of cause-and-effect relationship must be considered. The quantitative relationship between wealth production and safety improvement is derived from different sources of evidence. When this is applied to the wealth production from electricity generation in a standard module of population in an advanced society, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the assessed direct risk associated with the electricity generation by orders of magnitude. It appears that a goal or policy intended to confer the greatest safety benefit to the population would result in attitudes and actions diametrically opposite to those which are conventional at the moment

  9. Safety policy in the production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1983-01-01

    When safety is properly understood, defined and quantified, it can be seen that the development of our present industrial civilization has resulted in a progressive and great improvement in human safety which is still continuing. Increased safety has come with increased wealth in such close association that a high degree of cause-and-effect relationship must be considered. The quantitative relationship between wealth production and safety improvement is derived from different sources of evidence. When this is applied to the wealth production from electricity generation in a standard module of population in an advanced society, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the assessed direct risk associated with the electricity generation by orders of magnitude. It appears that a goal or policy intended to confer the greatest safety benefit to the population would result in attitudes and actions diametrically opposite to those which are conventional at the moment

  10. Nuclear desalination and electricity production for islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is an established and commercially proven technology that is now available and has the potential of further improvement. The technology of a small-sized reactor for desalination and electricity production will be an economically viable option and will also be suitable for islands with geographic, climatic, ecological and hydrological specifics. The operating experiences and achieved safety should benefit the early stage of a national nuclear power programme in developing countries. (author)

  11. Maximization of bremsstrahlung and K-series production efficiencies in flash x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, x-ray output of flash x-ray tubes was maximized empirically by changing the electrode geometry and varying the capacitance of the pulse generator. With the advent of high-voltage, low-impedance transmission lines, short-duration, high-current pulses could be generated with ease. An appropriate line scaling should assure that dose maximization is not reached at the expense of pulse prolongation which would reduce stop motion capability, but rather that dose rate should be maximized. Additionally, anode evaporation in the arc phase should be minimized to enhance tube life

  12. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  13. Adopting small-scale production of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengvard, Maria; Palm, Jenny (Linkoeping Univ., Dept. of Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping (Sweden)). e-mail: maria.tengvard@liu.se

    2009-07-01

    In Sweden in 2008, a 'new' concept for small-scale electricity production attracted massive media attention. This was mainly due to the efforts of Swedish company Egen El, which is marketing small-scale photovoltaics (PVs) and wind turbines to households, both homeowners and tenants. Their main selling point is simplicity: their products are so easy to install that everyone can do it. Autumn 2008 also saw IKEA announce that within three years it would market solar panels. How, then, do households perceive these products? Why would households choose to buy them? How do households think about producing their own electricity? Analysis of material based on in-depth interviews with members of 20 households reveals that environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle and such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. For some, this investment is symbolic: a way of displaying environmental consciousness or setting an example to others. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. These microgeneration installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine.

  14. Commercial green electricity products; Zakelijke groenestroomproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielders, L.M.L.; Afman, M.R.

    2012-12-15

    The Dutch 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT campaign initiated by Hivos targets data centres, appealing to these companies to consider the environmental footprint of the electricity they use. Hivos is keen for a debate on greener alternatives and wanted a review of the sustainability of the various options available for buying 'green power' on the commercial market in the Netherlands, with a reasoned discussion of each. That review, laid down in this report, examines and discusses the various 'green power products' for the commercial market, providing a springboard for data centres to switch to a 'greener' product. To that end 'green power products' were categorized to highlight the differences between them. The highest score was given to renewable energy produced without any operating subsidy (the so-called SDE+ scheme), or with the higher price being paid for entirely by customers. Supply in these two categories is still fairly negligible, as this essentially represents an energy market in which renewables are cost-competitive with 'grey' electricity, or one in which customers are willing to pay (far) more for their electricity. The lowest scores were assigned to renewable power sourced in other countries and to 'grey' electricity [Dutch] De Hivos-bedrijvencampagne 100% Sustainable Energy: Green ICT richt zich op de datacenterbedrijven. De datacenterbedrijven worden aangesproken op de duurzaamheid van hun keuze voor de ingekochte elektriciteit. Hivos wil het gesprek aangaan over meer duurzame alternatieven. Hiervoor heeft Hivos behoefte aan een overzicht van de duurzaamheid van de verschillende opties voor de afname van duurzame elektriciteit (groene stroom) zoals die op de zakelijke markt in Nederland worden aangeboden, inclusief een onderbouwing. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht en inzicht in de verschillende groenestroomproducten voor de zakelijke markt zodat de datacenters kunnen overstappen op een

  15. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a method to maximize the beneficial effects of muscle stem cells transplanted into dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Distefano

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy is a potential approach to improve the regenerative capacity of damaged or diseased skeletal muscle. However, its clinical use has often been limited by impaired donor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation following transplantation. Additionally, functional improvements after transplantation are all-too-often negligible. Because the host microenvironment plays an important role in the fate of transplanted cells, methods to modulate the microenvironment and guide donor cell behavior are warranted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES for 1 or 4 weeks following muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle can modulate the fate of donor cells and enhance their contribution to muscle regeneration and functional improvements. Animals submitted to 4 weeks of NMES after transplantation demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the number of dystrophin+ myofibers as compared to control transplanted muscles. These findings were concomitant with an increased vascularity in the MDSC+NMES group when compared to non-stimulated counterparts. Additionally, animals subjected to NMES (with or without MDSC transplantation presented an increased maximal specific tetanic force when compared to controls. Although cell transplantation and/or the use of NMES resulted in no changes in fatigue resistance, the combination of both MDSC transplantation and NMES resulted in a faster recovery from fatigue, when compared to non-injected and non-stimulated counterparts. We conclude that NMES is a viable method to improve MDSC engraftment, enhance dystrophic muscle strength, and, in combination with MDSC transplantation, improve recovery from fatigue. These findings suggest that NMES may be a clinically-relevant adjunct approach for cell transplantation into skeletal muscle.

  16. Productive Agglomerations of Suppliers in the Automotive Industry: A Way to Maximize Competitiveness in Supply Chain Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guarnieri

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify how the automotive industries maximize the competitiveness in supply chain management through the constitution of entrepreneurial productive agglomerations of suppliers. For this purpose, an applied research was carried out, and the technical procedure utilized was bibliographic review based in some researches about Brazilian industrial condominiums. Thus, through the constitution of entrepreneurial agglomerations of suppliers in automotive industry it is possible to obtain logistic advantages in the transporting, stocking and warehousing activities. Besides, it is possible to maximize the supply chain management competitiveness through the establishment of trust and lasting relationships between the components of the whole chain.

  17. Identification of the State of Maximal Hyperemia in the Assessment of Coronary Fractional Flow Reserve Using Non-Invasive Electrical Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Takahide; Takahashi, Masao; Myojo, Masahiro; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Oguri, Atsushi; Ando, Jiro; Komuro, Issei

    2017-05-31

    Previous research revealed that, in patients with coronary pressure-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) in the 'grey zone' (0.75-0.85), repeated FFR assessments sometimes yield conflicting results. One of the causes of the fluctuations in FFR values around the grey zone may be imprecise identification of the point where maximal hyperemia is achieved. Identification of the state of maximal hyperemia during assessment of FFR can be challenging. This study aimed to determine whether non-invasive electrical velocimetry (EV) can be used to identify the state of maximal hyperemia.Stroke volume (SV), SV variation (SVV), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were determined by EV in 15 patients who underwent FFR assessment. Time intervals from initiation of adenosine infusion to achieving maximal hyperemia (time mFRR ), as well as to achieving maximal cardiac output (CO), SV, SVV, and SVRI (time mCO , time mSV , time mSVV , and time mSVRI , respectively), were determined. Time mCO and time mSVV were closer to time mFRR than other values (time mSVV /time mFRR versus time mSVRI /time mFRR = 1.03 ± 0.2 versus 1.36 ± 0.4, P state of maximal hyperemia.

  18. Maximizing the productivity of the microalgae Scenedesmus AMDD cultivated in a continuous photobioreactor using an online flow rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; MacQuarrie, Scott P; Choi, Jerome; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2017-01-01

    In this study, production of the microalga Scenedesmus AMDD in a 300 L continuous flow photobioreactor was maximized using an online flow (dilution rate) control algorithm. To enable online control, biomass concentration was estimated in real time by measuring chlorophyll-related culture fluorescence. A simple microalgae growth model was developed and used to solve the optimization problem aimed at maximizing the photobioreactor productivity. When optimally controlled, Scenedesmus AMDD culture demonstrated an average volumetric biomass productivity of 0.11 g L -1  d -1 over a 25 day cultivation period, equivalent to a 70 % performance improvement compared to the same photobioreactor operated as a turbidostat. The proposed approach for optimizing photobioreactor flow can be adapted to a broad range of microalgae cultivation systems.

  19. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  20. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  1. External costs of electricity production under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Melchert, A.

    1993-01-01

    After a short introduction into the problems and questions surrounding the issue of external costs Chapter 2 presents the most important results of the studies under review and analysis in this work. Occasionally, minor discrepancies were found between the results given in the summary of a study and the data reported in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3 identifies and discusses differences in perspective between the studies under consideration. Chapter 4 analyses the most important premises and parameters adopted in the studies for the calculation of overall costs and net benefits of the different modes of electricity production. This serves to probe the reliability of the data, plausibility of the premises, and nature of the presupposed relationships. Chapter 5 examines the relationships of time assumed in the studies and gives a first comment on the more advanced Prognos study. Chapter 6, finally, offers a summarizing evaluation. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Automatic optimization of core loading patterns to maximize cycle energy production within operational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to automatically determine the core loading pattern which minimizes fuel cycle costs for a pressurized water reactor. Equating fuel cycle cost minimization with core reactivity maximization, the objective is to determine the loading pattern which maximizes core reactivity at end-of-cycle while satisfying the power peaking constraint throughout the cycle and region average discharge burnup limit. The method utilizes a two-dimensional, coarse mesh, finite difference scheme to evaluate core reactivity and fluxes for an initial reference loading pattern as a function of cycle burnup. First order perturbation theory is applied to determine the effects of assembly shuffling on reactivity, power distribution, and end-of-cycle burnup

  3. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  4. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  5. Electricity derivative markets: Investment valuation, production planning and hedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesaekkaelae, E.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)

  6. Electricity derivative markets: Investment valuation, production planning and hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naesaekkaelae, E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)

  7. A monopoly pricing model for diffusion maximization based on heterogeneous nodes and negative network externalities (Case study: A novel product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghdas Badiee

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can provide sellers across the world with invaluable information about the structure of possible influences among different members of a network, whether positive or negative, and can be used to maximize diffusion in the network. Here, a novel mathematical monopoly product pricing model is introduced for maximization of market share in noncompetitive environment. In the proposed model, a customer’s decision to buy a product is not only based on the price, quality and need time for the product but also on the positive and negative influences of his/her neighbors. Therefore, customers are considered heterogeneous and a referral bonus is granted to every customer whose neighbors also buy the product. Here, the degree of influence is directly related to the intensity of the customers’ relationships. Finally, using the proposed model for a real case study, the optimal policy for product sales that is the ratio of product sale price in comparison with its cost and also the optimal amounts of referral bonus per customer is achieved.

  8. DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICAL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROL THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a distributed electrical power production system wherein two or more electrical power units comprise respective sets of power supply attributes. Each set of power supply attributes is associated with a dynamic operating state of a particular electrical power unit....

  9. The production of wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    After some key data on installed wind power and its evolution in the World (notably in China and in the USA), in European countries and in France, an overview of the sector economic evolution in France in terms of jobs in different fields (fabrication, electricity production, studies and installations), this publication comments the various benefits of wind energy and its necessary framework for a sane development. Strengths are discussed: a local and clean energy source, a predictable and manageable energy source, an increasing competitiveness. Issues to be considered are also discussed: control of acoustic and landscape impacts, protection of biodiversity, management of interactions with military, meteorological and civil aviation radars, a necessary more steady and coherent regulation. After a discussion of the possibilities offered by small wind energy installations (between 1 and 36 kW), actions undertaken by the ADEME are overviewed. A conclusion outlines the role of wind energy on the supply-demand balance in the French power system, its contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the positive environmental impact, the importance of societal appropriation, and the importance of developing this sector while keeping on reducing consumptions

  10. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  11. Maximized integration of photovoltaics into distribution grids using smart charging strategies for electric vehicles; Maximierte PV-Integration in Niederspannungsnetzen durch intelligente Nutzung von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeschel, Martin; Scherfke, Stefan; Schuette, Steffen; Appelrath, H Juergen; Sonnenschein, Michael [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany). Bereich Energie

    2011-07-01

    An ICT-based integration of electric vehicles (EV) offers a promising potential on the distribution grid level, especially regarding synergies with renewable and distributed energy systems. Of special interest are (a) the charging of EV with electric power from renewable energy sources and (b) a preferentially local usage of feed-in from distributed energy systems. Regarding a systemic analysis of electromobility, a stable and reliable operation of the electric power grid is a major constraint for the integration of EV and maximized usage of renewable energy. In the model project GridSurfer, we conducted simulation-based analyses on the integration of EV. In this contribution, we present results from an analysis of future Smart-Grid-scenarios with special regard to rural areas and distribution grids in north-western Germany. (orig.)

  12. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We study changes in the aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity at the global and country levels. The ACI is defined as the energy-related CO_2 emissions in electricity production divided by the electricity produced. It is a performance indicator since a decrease in its value is a desirable outcome from the environmental and climate change viewpoints. From 1990 to 2013, the ACI computed at the global level decreased only marginally. However, fairly substantial decreases were observed in many countries. This apparent anomaly arises from a geographical shift in global electricity production with countries having a high ACI increasingly taking up a larger electricity production share. It is found that globally and in most major electricity producing countries, reduction in their ACI was due mainly to improvements in the thermal efficiency of electricity generation rather than to fuel switching. Estimates of the above-mentioned effects are made using LMDI decomposition analysis. Our study reveals several challenges in reducing global CO_2 emissions from the electricity production sector although technically the reduction potential for the sector is known to be great. - Highlights: •Variations of aggregate carbon intensity (ACI) for electricity of world countries are analysed. •Main drivers of changes in ACI of major electricity producing countries are studied using index decomposition analysis. •Geographical shift in electricity production had a significant impact on global ACI. •Improvements in the thermal efficiency of generation were the main driver of reduction in ACI.

  13. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  14. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  15. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  16. Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Peter; Jørgensen, Betina; Lange, L.

    2007-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary for photo......Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary...

  17. Transition countries in the light of electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, I.

    2000-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 could be closely considered as the beginning of transition in many countries. during this period, lasting for about ten years, unavoidable fluctuations and stoppages caused degradation of electricity production and economic decline as well. This can be mathematically evaluated by means of equation for electricity production, valid before the fall of the Berlin Wall. However, electricity decrease has not been the same in all the countries. Therefore, in order to investigate and evaluate the transition process in the light of electricity production, eight transition states, including croatia, are analysed and mutually compared. (author)

  18. Maximal conservation and minimal usage of blood products in open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, P E; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; McMillan, J; Smith, B F; Stirling, G R

    1980-05-01

    Open heart surgery has previously been associated with the use of large volumes of blood products. This paper describes methods of blood conservation and a simple method of intraoperative autotransfusion that together have resulted in minimal blood product usage in elective open heart surgery cases. This has reduced our dependence on blood bank supplies for the performance of elective open heart surgery.

  19. Genome-Based Studies of Marine Microorganisms to Maximize the Diversity of Natural Products Discovery for Medical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qing Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are rich source for natural products which play important roles in pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, genome-based studies of marine microorganisms have unveiled the tremendous diversity of the producers of natural products and also contributed to the efficiency of harness the strain diversity and chemical diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of marine microorganisms for the rapid discovery and generation of new natural products. In the meantime, genomic information retrieved from marine symbiotic microorganisms can also be employed for the discovery of new medical molecules from yet-unculturable microorganisms. In this paper, the recent progress in the genomic research of marine microorganisms is reviewed; new tools of genome mining as well as the advance in the activation of orphan pathways and metagenomic studies are summarized. Genome-based research of marine microorganisms will maximize the biodiscovery process and solve the problems of supply and sustainability of drug molecules for medical treatments.

  20. Long-term agricultural management maximizing hay production can significantly reduce belowground C storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sochorová, L.; Jansa, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Hejcman, M.; Schellberg, J.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Liming and fertilization of grasslands have been used for centuries to sustain hay production. Besides improving hay yields, these practices induce compositional shifts in plant and soil microbial communities, including symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, in spite of increasing

  1. Maximizing port and transportation system productivity by exploring alternative port operation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Seaports are a critical transportation component that supports the nations economy. Many U.S. : ports are now experiencing significant truck congestion at the gate, which decreases the productivity of : ports and truck fleets (e.g. truck wait time...

  2. Maximizing Product Innovation through Adaptive Application of User-Centered Methods for Defining Customer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje Overvik Olsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing deep understanding of customers is a prerequisite to improve success rates of innovations under today’s transient business conditions. This paper summarizes methods and tools to increase customer understanding in new product development. A case study of developing an office chair was conducted, utilizing four such methods (web based survey, interview, observation and workshops to provide directions for later application. Results indicate that methods revealing emotionally-related customer information (workshops and observation are resource-intensive and provide less amount of information directly applicable to the product development team. The opposite is the case for methods providing more functionally-related information (web based survey and interview. The overall conclusion is that the latter methods are more suitable for product improvements, while the former may provide valuable information for creating more differentiated products.

  3. Maximizing the use of EO products: how to leverage the potential of open geospatial service architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usländer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The demand for the rapid provision of EO products with well-defined characteristics in terms of temporal, spatial, image-specific and thematic criteria is increasing. Examples are products to support near real-time damage assessment after a natural disaster event, e.g. an earthquake. However, beyond the organizational and economic questions, there are technological and systemic barriers to enable a comfortable search, order, delivery or even combination of EO products. Most portals of space agencies and EO product providers require sophisticated satellite and product knowledge and, even worse, are all different and not interoperable. This paper gives an overview about the use cases and the architectural solutions that aim at an open and flexible EO mission infrastructure with application-oriented user interfaces and well-defined service interfaces based upon open standards. It presents corresponding international initiatives such as INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and HMA (Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility) and their associated infrastructure approaches. The paper presents a corresponding analysis and design methodology and two examples how such architectures are already successfully used in early warning systems for geo-hazards and toolsets for environmentallyinduced health risks. Finally, the paper concludes with an outlook how these ideas relate to the vision of the Future Internet.

  4. Hybrid systems to address seasonal mismatches between electricity production and demand in nuclear renewable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to enable zero-carbon variable electricity production with full utilization of renewable and nuclear energy sources has been developed. Wind and solar systems send electricity to the grid. Nuclear plants operate at full capacity with variable steam to turbines to match electricity demand with production (renewables and nuclear). Excess steam at times of low electricity prices and electricity demand go to hybrid fuel production and storage systems. The characteristic of these hybrid technologies is that the economic penalties for variable nuclear steam inputs are small. Three hybrid systems were identified that could be deployed at the required scale. The first option is the gigawatt-year hourly-to-seasonal heat storage system where excess steam from the nuclear plant is used to heat rock a kilometer underground to create an artificial geothermal heat source. The heat source produces electricity on demand using geothermal technology. The second option uses steam from the nuclear plant and electricity from the grid with high-temperature electrolysis (HTR) cells to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is primarily for industrial applications; however, the HTE can be operated in reverse using hydrogen for peak electricity production. The third option uses variable steam and electricity for shale oil production. -- Highlights: •A system is proposed to meet variable hourly to seasonal electricity demand. •Variable solar and wind electricity sent to the grid. •Base-load nuclear plants send variable steam for electricity and hybrid systems. •Hybrid energy systems can economically absorb gigawatts of variable steam. •Hybrid systems include geothermal heat storage, hydrogen, and shale-oil production

  5. Applying the energy productivity index that considers maximized energy reduction on SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Under the trend of global energy prices continuously going up, this paper considers the concept of maximized energy reduction to model the energy productivity index by decomposing it into energy technical change and energy efficiency change. The paper takes the eight SADC (Southern Africa Development Community ) members as an example to estimate their energy efficiency, energy productivity change, energy technical change, energy efficiency change, and rebound effect on energy use, as well as to test the Jevons Paradox. The time period of the data spans 2005 to 2009. The empirical result shows large energy performance differences among the eight SADC members. Not one country among the eight members is an energy technology innovator. After calculating the rebound effect and testing the Jevons Paradox, the result shows that there seems to be no obvious Jevons Paradox in this economic region. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the concept of maximized energy reduction. • The method is applied towards the Southern Africa Development Community members. • This paper also investigates the rebound effect of energy use. • We offer suggestions on energy use and CO 2 emission reductions.

  6. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's Power On conference : the latest strategies to maximize opportunities in Ontario's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for reviewing strategies for Ontario's electricity sector with particular reference to electricity sector reform strategies and coal phase-out commitments. A supply adequacy outlook in terms of projected demand growth and generation mix and capacity was presented by the Independent Market Operator (IMO) along with issues concerning rising energy costs in various jurisdictions. Consumer adaptation to new pricing structures was discussed as well as generation investment needs to the year 2020. Government policies and commitments in the electricity sector were reviewed, as well as issues related to emissions and the impacts of air pollution. Renewable energy portfolios were also discussed along with issues concerning infrastructure adequacy. Imports of power and the expansion of transmission capabilities between Ontario and surrounding jurisdictions were reviewed and various opportunities from Manitoba were explored. Other topics of discussion included issues concerning pricing mechanisms; cost recovery; the development of effective buying strategies; and electricity purchasing for large energy consumers. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  7. Evaluation of electrical energy production patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, F.; Graziani, G.; Zanantoni, C.

    1975-06-01

    The main features and typical applications of the code TOTEM, developed by the CCR under request of DG XVII are described. The code is used to evaluate the physical and economical consequences of electrical power station installation policies. The input data are: the time-dependent electrical energy demand and its load duration curve, the physical and economical characteristics of the power stations, and the splitting of the energy between the various types of stations, apart from the energy produced by a plutonium burner and plutonium producer, which is calculated by the code. The output includes; costs, fuel consumption, separative work requirements

  8. Application of metabolic controls for the maximization of lipid production in semicontinuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyang; Liu, Nian; Qiao, Kangjian; Vogg, Sebastian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-03

    Acetic acid can be generated through syngas fermentation, lignocellulosic biomass degradation, and organic waste anaerobic digestion. Microbial conversion of acetate into triacylglycerols for biofuel production has many advantages, including low-cost or even negative-cost feedstock and environmental benefits. The main issue stems from the dilute nature of acetate produced in such systems, which is costly to be processed on an industrial scale. To tackle this problem, we established an efficient bioprocess for converting dilute acetate into lipids, using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in a semicontinuous system. The implemented design used low-strength acetic acid in both salt and acid forms as carbon substrate and a cross-filtration module for cell recycling. Feed controls for acetic acid and nitrogen based on metabolic models and online measurement of the respiratory quotient were used. The optimized process was able to sustain high-density cell culture using acetic acid of only 3% and achieved a lipid titer, yield, and productivity of 115 g/L, 0.16 g/g, and 0.8 g⋅L -1 ⋅h -1 , respectively. No carbon substrate was detected in the effluent stream, indicating complete utilization of acetate. These results represent a more than twofold increase in lipid production metrics compared with the current best-performing results using concentrated acetic acid as carbon feed.

  9. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  10. Maximization of Intracellular Lipase Production in a Lipase-Overproducing Mutant Derivative of Rhizopus oligosporus DGM 31: A Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation and maximization of lipase production in a mutant derivative of R. oligosporus has been investigated using different substrates, inoculum sizes, pH of the medium, temperature, and nitrogen sources in shake flask experiments and batch fermentation in a fermentor. The production of intracellular lipase was improved 3 times following medium optimization involving one-at-a-time approach and aeration in the fermentor. Interestingly, intracellular lipase was poorly induced by oils, instead its production was induced by sugars, mainly starch, lactose, sucrose, xylose, glucose and glycerol. Dependent variables studied were cell mass, lipase activity, lipase yield, lipase specific and volumetric rate of formation. It was confirmed that lipase production in the derepressed mutant is sufficiently uncoupled from catabolite repression. The results of average specific productivities at various temperatures worked out according to the Arrhenius equation revealed that mutation decreased the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy demand in the inactivation equilibrium during product formation, suggesting that mutation made the metabolic network of the organism thermally more stable. The highest magnitudes of volumetric productivity (QP=490 IU/(L·h and other product attributes of lipase formation occurring on optimized medium in the fermentor are greater than the values reported by other workers. The purified enzyme is monomeric in nature and exhibits stability up to 80 °C and pH=6.0–8.0. Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of catalysis at 50 °C, and magnitudes of Gibbs free energy for substrate binding, transition state stabilization and melting point indicated that this lipase is highly thermostable.

  11. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  12. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  13. Application of response surface methodology to maximize the productivity of scalable automated human embryonic stem cell manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Hourd, Paul; Guijarro-Leach, Juan; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Commercial regenerative medicine will require large quantities of clinical-specification human cells. The cost and quality of manufacture is notoriously difficult to control due to highly complex processes with poorly defined tolerances. As a step to overcome this, we aimed to demonstrate the use of 'quality-by-design' tools to define the operating space for economic passage of a scalable human embryonic stem cell production method with minimal cell loss. Design of experiments response surface methodology was applied to generate empirical models to predict optimal operating conditions for a unit of manufacture of a previously developed automatable and scalable human embryonic stem cell production method. Two models were defined to predict cell yield and cell recovery rate postpassage, in terms of the predictor variables of media volume, cell seeding density, media exchange and length of passage. Predicted operating conditions for maximized productivity were successfully validated. Such 'quality-by-design' type approaches to process design and optimization will be essential to reduce the risk of product failure and patient harm, and to build regulatory confidence in cell therapy manufacturing processes.

  14. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  15. A Market-oriented Approach To Maximizing Product Benefits: Cases in U.S. Forest Products Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay S. Reddy; Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik

    1996-01-01

    Conjoint analysis, a decompositional customer preference modelling technique, has seen little application to forest products. However, the technique provides useful information for marketing decisions by quantifying consumer preference functions for multiattribute product alternatives. The results of a conjoint analysis include the contribution of each attribute and...

  16. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  17. Design concept for maximized use of recycled scrap in the production of storage packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounin, D.; Kleinkroeger, W.; Schreiber, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the decommissioning of nuclear plants large quantities of radioactively contaminated waste metal have to be disposed of. An economic alternative to final storage is the recycling of the scrap metal in the production of transport and storage containers for low and medium active waste made of nodular graphite ductile cast iron. In the particular case of the CARLA plant operated by Siempelkamp, scrap metal with an activity of up to 200 Bq/g is accepted for processing. This covers the vast majority of the metals of a plant to be decommissioned. The composition of the waste metals varies greatly, depending on the different origins like structural or stainless steels After solidification of the high-carbon, high-silicon cast iron melt, the carbon has formed nodular graphite particles embedded in the metal matrix. Nodular cast iron has high strength and elongation. A further advantage of this material are its good radiation shielding properties. Fracture toughness is an important material property in the design of containers for final storage. In the particular case of containers that have to meet the specifications for final storage these must withstand accident loadings from a height of up 5 m at temperatures of -20 C without crack initiation. Containers for final storage do not have the benefit of impact limiters. The fracture toughness of cast iron depends primarily on the microstructure of the metal matrix. A ferritic microstructure has a higher fracture toughness than a pearlitic microstructure. Carbides in the matrix lead to further embrittlement. The metals to be recycled in the decommissioning of a nuclear installation have marked contents of elements like manganese (Mn) in structural steels, chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo) in stainless steels and copper (Cu) in special steels. These elements lead to a pearlitic microstructure and to carbides, even at low contents in the melt. With a rising content of pearlite and carbides, the tensile and yield

  18. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  19. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125 I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images

  20. Maximizing the short circuit current of organic solar cells by partial decoupling of electrical and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarony, Wayesh; Hossain, Mohammad I.; Jovanov, Vladislav; Knipp, Dietmar; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2018-03-01

    The partial decoupling of electronic and optical properties of organic solar cells allows for realizing solar cells with increased short circuit current and energy conversion efficiency. The proposed device consists of an organic solar cell conformally prepared on the surface of an array of single and double textured pyramids. The device geometry allows for increasing the optical thickness of the organic solar cell, while the electrical thickness is equal to the nominal thickness of the solar cell. By increasing the optical thickness of the solar cell, the short circuit current is distinctly increased. The quantum efficiency and short circuit current are determined using finite-difference time-domain simulations of the 3D solar cell structure. The influence of different solar cell designs on the quantum efficiency and short circuit current is discussed and optimal device dimensions are proposed.

  1. 76 FR 21947 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  2. 75 FR 16576 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small irrigation power, municipal solid waste, qualified hydropower production, marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy have not been determined for... electricity produced from closed-loop biomass, open-loop biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, small...

  3. 77 FR 25538 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Credit for Renewable Electricity Production... Reference Prices for Calendar Year 2012; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a publication of inflation adjustment factors and reference prices for calendar year 2012 as...

  4. The production of photovoltaic electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The author presents, comments and discusses various data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: evolution of installed power until 2013, installed power, production, hours per year and load factor for different countries (France, Spain, Germany and Italy) and for the different French regions. He highlights and comments the intermittency of photovoltaic production in France. This intermittency is related to the difference between day and night, to the difference between seasons, and to weather conditions. He discusses the possible solutions to this intermittency. In this respect, he outlines that the expansion of the photovoltaic production and the use of interconnection do not solve the problem, and discusses the possibility of massive storage and the possible interest of local consumption

  5. AN APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICAL PRODUCTION WITH SOLAR TOWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşat SELBAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of electric energy rises with increasing of the population and faster improvement demands. Energy necessity generally is provided by using fossil based fuel sources. In order to supply energy requirements, today, using alternative sources became necessary because of the problems such as decreasing of available fossil fuel sources and environment pollution from this fuel. The solar energy which has a wide range of application potential is the most hopeful and unlimited energy source without environment pollution in electric energy production. In this paper, the electric production methods from solar energy are studied and the most suitable method for solar energy plant is tried to find out. The selected method, known as Solar Tower in literature is an electric production method. In this study, technical and cost analysis of an application using this method are carried out.

  6. Model-based intensification of a fed-batch microbial process for the maximization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penloglou, Giannis; Vasileiadou, Athina; Chatzidoukas, Christos; Kiparissides, Costas

    2017-08-01

    An integrated metabolic-polymerization-macroscopic model, describing the microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Azohydromonas lata bacteria, was developed and validated using a comprehensive series of experimental measurements. The model accounted for biomass growth, biopolymer accumulation, carbon and nitrogen sources utilization, oxygen mass transfer and uptake rates and average molecular weights of the accumulated PHB, produced under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions. Model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The validated model was subsequently utilized to calculate optimal operating conditions and feeding policies for maximizing PHB productivity for desired PHB molecular properties. More specifically, two optimal fed-batch strategies were calculated and experimentally tested: (1) a nitrogen-limited fed-batch policy and (2) a nitrogen sufficient one. The calculated optimal operating policies resulted in a maximum PHB content (94% g/g) in the cultivated bacteria and a biopolymer productivity of 4.2 g/(l h), respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated that different PHB grades with weight average molecular weights of up to 1513 kg/mol could be produced via the optimal selection of bioprocess operating conditions.

  7. Maximization of cell growth and lipid production of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris by enrichment technique for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y K; Ho, Y H; Ho, K C; Leung, H M; Yung, K K L

    2017-04-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated under limitation and starvation and under controlled conditions using different concentrations of nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and phosphate (K 2 HPO 4 and KH 2 PO 4 ) chemicals in modified Bold basal medium (BBM). The biomass and lipid production responses to different media were examined in terms of optical density, cell density, dry biomass, and lipid productivity. In the 12-day batch culture period, the highest biomass productivity obtained was 72.083 mg L -1  day -1 under BBM - N control P limited condition. The highest lipid content, lipid concentration, and lipid productivity obtained were 53.202 %, 287.291 mg/L, and 23.449 mg L -1  day -1 under BBM - N Control P Deprivation condition, respectively. Nitrogen had a major effect in the biomass concentration of C. vulgaris, while no significant effect was found for phosphorus. Nitrogen and phosphorus starvation was found to be the strategy affecting the lipid accumulation and affected the lipid composition of C. vulgaris cultures.

  8. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  9. Nanofibre production in spiders without electric charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Baumgartner, Werner

    2017-06-15

    Technical nanofibre production is linked to high voltage, because nanofibres are typically produced by electrospinning. In contrast, spiders have evolved a way to produce nanofibres without high voltage. These spiders are called cribellate spiders and produce nanofibres within their capture thread production. It is suggested that their nanofibres become frictionally charged when brushed over a continuous area on the calamistrum, a comb-like structure at the metatarsus of the fourth leg. Although there are indications that electrostatic charges are involved in the formation of the thread structure, final proof is missing. We proposed three requirements to validate this hypothesis: (1) the removal of any charge during or after thread production has an influence on the structure of the thread; (2) the characteristic structure of the thread can be regenerated by charging; and (3) the thread is attracted to or repelled from differently charged objects. None of these three requirements were proven true. Furthermore, mathematical calculations reveal that even at low charges, the calculated structural assembly of the thread does not match the observed reality. Electrostatic forces are therefore not involved in the production of cribellate capture threads. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  11. Production function application attempt in electricity generation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamrat, W.; Augusiak, A.

    1996-01-01

    A modified Cobb-Douglas production function is applied to evaluate level of electricity generation for medium and long term prognosis (up to 2010) in an easy and simple way. The test calculations have been done for hard coal fired power plants, based on generation data supplied in Main Statistical Office of Poland publications.The model of electricity generation is defined using data on capital of a typical productivity power plant and its employment for time series 1980-90. The test calculation results based on the parameters of Rosenbroock's optimization procedure of electricity generation model are presented. The method described is distinguished for its high accuracy as compared to classical methods despite the relatively short time series. It is suitable for studies in electricity generation policy . 1 tab

  12. Reference costs of the electric power production; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  13. Free movement of the electricity product in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupiec, M.

    1992-06-01

    In the eyes of the Commission of the European Communities, electricity is an industrial product as an other; it must therefore, as stated in the Rome Treaty, be characterized and must benefit from free movement within the European Community. The purpose of this note is to set out the ideas and objectives of Brussels and authorities as regards the large European electricity market. Consequently, the proposals or objectives presented in this note do not necessarily reflect Electricite de France's position

  14. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  15. Production inefficiency of electricity markets with hydro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon

    2010-01-01

    Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)

  16. Productivity growth and deregulation of Japanese electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Mika; Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Deregulation of Japanese electric power industry began in 1995. After the amendment of Electricity Utility Industry Law in 1995, competition was partially introduced in a generation sector and retail competition started from 2000. Eligibility to choose suppliers was gradually extended from larger to smaller customers. As of 2008, almost all customers except households can choose their electricity suppliers. Based upon both previous implementation result of competition policy and review on their achievement, Japanese government will begin new policy debate in 2013 to assess further retail competition which includes household customers. To prepare for policy suggestion on the future electric power industry, this study examines the cost structure of Japanese electricity distribution. For the purpose, we estimate a multi-product translog cost function of Japanese electricity distribution from 1983 to 2003. Using the estimated cost function, we calculate several economic measures such as productivity growth, technical change and economies of scale and scope. The empirical results of this study indicate the improvement in productivity growth after deregulation.

  17. Dashboard: biogas for electricity production - Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2015-12-01

    This publication describes the situation of biogas-based electricity production in France and its evolution over the first quarters of 2015. A map indicates the level of connected power per district. Graphs illustrate the evolution of the number of new connections per quarter since 2009, the evolution of electricity quarterly production since 2011. Tables indicate the number of installations per power level (less than 0.5 MW, between 0.5 and 1.0 MW, more than 1 MW) and per installation type. Regional data are given in terms of number of installations, installed power in September 2015 and in December 2015, regional share and evolution

  18. Dashboard: biogas for electricity production - Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication describes the situation of biogas-based electricity production in France and its evolution over the first quarters of 2015. A map indicates the level of connected power per district. Graphs illustrate the evolution of the number of new connections per quarter since 2009, the evolution of electricity quarterly production since 2011. Tables indicate the number of installations per power level (less than 0.5 MW, between 0.5 and 1.0 MW, more than 1 MW) and per installation type. Regional data are given in terms of number of installations, installed power in December 2015, regional share and evolution

  19. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Microbial Ecology, Wageningen (Netherlands); Park, Chi Kyu [Hamyang-gun Agricultural Development & Technology Center, Hamyang 676-806 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH{sub 4}), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH{sub 4} production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH{sub 4} production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH{sub 4} dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and K{sub 2}O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt{sup −1} on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH{sub 4} productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH{sub 4} productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH{sub 4} production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH{sub 4} production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well

  20. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH_4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH_4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH_4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH_4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH_4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH_4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P_2O_5, and K_2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt"−"1 on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH_4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH_4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH_4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH_4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and

  1. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P2O5, and K2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt(-1) on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198-205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and decreasing GHG

  2. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, L.J. [ed.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  3. Institutional aspects of decentralized electricity production. Orientations of the CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibal, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the european commission is to remove the legal and administrative obstacles blocking the development of consumer production on the basis of combined production and waste combustion, and to oblige the public service to purchase the surplus electricity generated by consumer production at a price based on the avoided costs. The main difficulty faced by the Commission will be to develop a relatively flexible framework defining exactly how consumer production is to be integrated into the public service, given the diversity of the procedures existing in the different member states (projects THERMIE and SAVE)

  4. Options for electricity production, the actual opportunities and regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphals, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal power and nuclear power represent the traditional methods of generating electricity. This paper presented opportunities for alternative centralized power production methods that include wind energy, biomass and solar energy. It also discussed decentralized alternatives for power generation, such as geothermal energy and cogeneration, including microturbines. The primary focus was on aspects of competitive market design for residential and small commercial applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Law 116 of Quebec's Energy Board was reviewed in terms of energy policy and utility regulation. In particular, the framework agreement between Hydro-Quebec Production (HQP) and Hydro-Quebec Distribution (HQD) was discussed with reference to balancing electricity produced from renewable energy sources and energy security. The presentation also addressed issues regarding the role of competition, regulation and environmental implications of electricity trade. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  6. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  7. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  8. Genetic transformation of the endangered Tibetan medicinal plant Przewalskia tangutica Maxim and alkaloid production profiling revealed by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianxiang; Wang, Huan; Li, Songling; Shen, Jianwei; Chen, Shilong; Cai, Xiaojian; Zhou, Dangwei

    2018-03-01

    To achieve a high yield of tropane alkaloids (TA) and exploit the alpine plant sustainably, an optimized protocol for induction and establishment of hairy roots culture of Prezwalskia tangutica Maxim was developed through selection of appropriate Agrobacterium strain and the explant type. The hypocotyl is more readily facile to induce the HR than the cotyledon is when infected with the three different agrobacterium strains. MUS440 has an efficiency (of up to 20%), whereas the ATCC10060 (A4) can induce HR on both types of explants with the highest frequency (33.33%), root length (21.17 ± 2.84 cm), and root number (10.83 ± 1.43) per explant than the other strains. The highest HR production resulted from using hypocotyl as explants. Independent transformed HR was able to grow vigorously and to propagate on a no-hormone 1/2MS liquid medium. The presence of pRi rol B gene in transformation of HR was confirmed by PCR amplification. In the liquid medium, the HR growth curve appeared to be "S" shaped, and ADB had increased to 4.633 g/l. Moreover, HPLC analysis showed that HR lines have an extraordinary ability to produce atropine (229.88 mg/100 g), anisodine (4.09 mg/100 g), anisodamine (12.85 mg/100 g), and scopolamine (10.69 mg/100 g), which were all more significant than the control roots. In conclusion, our study optimized the culture condition and established a feasible genetics reactor for P. tangutica green exploration and biological study in the alpine region.

  9. Study of solar electric production potential in the Herault district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Anthony; Baldini, Florent; Bruant, Marc; Bouchet, Jean-Alain; Bouzige, Romain

    2010-06-01

    The first part of this report presents various contextual issues: general context (commitments in production with renewable energies, aspects related to the national electric production, electric production and consumption in the Languedoc-Roussillon region), analysis of techniques and sectors of solar electric production (inventory of available or being developed technical and industrial sectors, potential environmental impacts), economic analysis of photovoltaic techniques (purchase tariffs, other financing sources, grid parity, installation costs, application to case study), and regulatory and administrative procedures. The second part reports a regional approach of this study: characterisation of the raw solar resource, territorial sensitivity analysis (influence of various factors: technical, geological, hydro-geological, urban, environmental, related to landscape, heritage and natural environment), definition of a territorial sensitivity grid. The third part reports the definition of the solar production potential: on buildings, in man-made locations (mines, landfills, industrial wastelands), and in ordinary non-built spaces. Appendices propose detailed economic data for case studies, presentations of purchase tariffs in 2010, and presentations of existing installations

  10. Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement model for copper and polymer electrical products. Electrical cable structure (wire, insulation, filling and mantle is in accordance with the technical specifications of individual cable components in terms of the incorporated materials. Materials used in cable manufacture are copper, aluminum, rubber and polyvinyl chloride. One of the key issues in managing the flow of goods pertains to the timing of procurement. The combination of the two concepts can take advantage of individual strengths of fuzzy logic and neural networks in hybrid systems of homogeneous structure. The model has high practical significance, as, with minor modifications, it can be applied in any enterprise responsible for managing the goods flows.

  11. Electrical Integrity Tests during Production of the LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    de Rijk, G; Cornelis, M; Fessia, P; Miles, J; Modena, M; Molinari, G; Rinn, J; Savary, F; Vlogaert, J

    2006-01-01

    For the LHC dipoles, mandatory electrical integrity tests are performed to qualify the cold mass (CM) at four production stages: individual pole, collared coil, CM before end cover welding and final CM. A description of the measurement equipment and its recent development are presented. After passing the demands set out in the specification, the results of the tests are transmitted to CERN where they are further analyzed. The paper presents the most important results of these measurements. We also report a review of the electrical non-conformities encountered e.g. interturn shorts and quench heater failure, their diagnostic and the cures.

  12. Dryland Agrivoltaics: A novel approach to collocating food production and solar renewable energy to maximize food production, water savings, and energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, G.; Escobedo, E. B.; Smith, J.; Raub, H.; Jimenez, J. R.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barnett-Moreno, I.; Blackett, D. T.; Thompson, M. S.; Minor, R. L.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional understanding of land use asserts an inherent "zero-sum-game" of competition between renewable energy and agricultural food production. This discourse is so fundamentally entrenched that it drives most current policy around conservation practices, land and water allotments for agriculture, and permitting for large-scale renewable energy installations. We are investigating a novel approach to solve a problem key to our environment and economy in drylands by creating a hybrid of collocated "green" agriculture and "grey" solar photovoltaic (PV) infrastructure to maximize agricultural production while improving renewable energy production. We are monitoring atmospheric microclimatic conditions, soil moisture, plant ecophysiological function, and biomass production within both this novel "agrivoltaics" ecosystem and in traditional PV installations and agricultural settings (control plot) to quantify tradeoffs associated with this approach. We have found that levels of soil moisture remained higher after each irrigation event within the soils under the agrivoltaics installation than the traditional agricultural setting due to the shading provided by the PV panels overhead. We initiated a drought treatment, which underscored the water-savings under the agrivoltaics installation and increased water use efficiency in this system. We hypothesized that we will see more temperature and drought stresses on photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in the control plants relative to the agrivoltaic installation, and we found that several food crops either experienced significantly more production within the agrivoltaics area, whereas others resulted in nearly equal production but at significant water savings. Combined with localized cooling of the PV panels resulting from the transpiration from the vegetative "understory", we are finding a win-win-win at the food-water-energy nexus. photo credit: Bob Demers/UANews

  13. Towards nuclear energy applications other than electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.

    2007-01-01

    Use of nuclear energy relies on operation of a boiler, involving practically no greenhouse gas emission. Whereas production of electricity is, nowadays, virtually its sole purpose, demand for heat production could equally arise, particularly with the emergence of high-temperature, or even very-high-temperature reactors. With the abilities this involves, as regards the recovery of heavy crude oils from tar sands, seawater desalination, or, most importantly, production of hydrogen by electrolysis, or thermochemistry, this being the energy carrier of tomorrow. (authors)

  14. Product Allocation of Generic Advertising Funds: A Sales Maximization Approach with an Application to Milk and Cheese in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.

    1986-01-01

    With the passage of the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983, dairy farmer investment in product research, advertising and promotion in the United States increases from $60 million to $200 million annually. A key decision faced by the Boards managing these funds is how best to allocate advertising funds among the various dairy products. In this paper an economic model is developed that shows the allocation of funds to fluid milk and cheese that would maximize sales in a given market. the ...

  15. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  16. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  17. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  18. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassos, S [Strategy and Planning Dept., Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece); Vlachou, A [Department of Economics, Athens Univ. of Economics and Business, Athens (Greece)

    1997-09-01

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO{sub 2} and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO{sub 2} removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. The impact of a carbon tax on Greek electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassos, S.; Vlachou, A.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of proposed carbon taxes on the electric power industry, using the Greek power system as a case study, is investigated in this paper. It uses the WASP model for electric generation capacity expansion to explore the optimal expansion path under alternative carbon tax scenarios and to estimate their impact on CO 2 and other types of emissions and on electricity production costs. The findings suggest that low carbon taxes would lead to a considerable reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants counterbalanced predominantly by natural gas fired plants. High carbon taxes (100-200 US dollars per ton of carbon) would lead to a drastic reduction of the use of conventional lignite fired power plants which would be mainly replaced by coal or lignite fired technologies with CO 2 removal capabilities, which are not available today but might become available within the time horizon of the present study. Hydropower and renewable sources would be the second least-cost alternatives to lignite under both low and high tax scenarios. The study provides evidence that carbon taxes also result in significant increases in the cost of producing electricity, implying adverse economic effects on electricity consumers and the Greek economy in general. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  20. Electricity production from microbial fuel cell by using yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorasingha, A.; Souvakon, C.; Boonchom, K.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous search for methods to generate electricity from renewable sources such as water, solar energy, wind, nuclear or chemicals was discussed with particular focus on attaining the full power of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Under ideal environmental conditions, the only byproducts of a biofuel cell would be water and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The production of energy from renewables such as biomass is important for sustainable development and reducing global emissions of CO 2 . Hydrogen can also be an important component of an energy infrastructure that reduces CO 2 emissions if the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources and used in fuel cells. Hydrogen gas can be biologically produced at high concentration from the fermentation of high sugar substrates such as glucose and sucrose. Some of the issues of MFC design were addressed, including the use of cheap substrates to derive microbial electricity. In the MFC, yeast donates electrons to a chemical electron mediator, which in turn transfers the electrons to an electrode, producing electricity. Experimental results showed that glucose yielded the highest peak voltage, but a semi-processed sugar and molasses were similar to glucose in the electricity production pattern. It was noted that this technology is only at the research stages, and more research is needed before household microbial fuel cells can be made available for producing power for prolonged periods of time. Future research efforts will focus on increasing the efficiency, finding alternatives to hazardous electron mediators and finding new microbes. 12 refs., 6 figs

  1. Studi Perbedaan Niat Beli Green Electricity Product Berdasarkan Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tias Andarini Indarwati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers adapt to this situation by considering environmental issue when shopping and  by their purchase behavior. The aims of this paper are examines of differences of environment awareness and purchase intentions between male and female of students of Surabaya State University. Secondly, examines also role linearly of environment awareness on purchase intentions. Examines role linearly of environment awareness on purchase intentions of green electricity product using simple linier regression analysis. The results indicate that there are no differences of environment awareness and purchase intentions at the students of Surabaya State University by gender. And finally, environmental awareness has also positive effect on purchase intentions. The results of this study have implications for marketers in identifying, designing, and managing marketing mix with consider discrepancy of purchase intentions in the green electricity product by gender.

  2. Application of the maximum entropy production principle to electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    For a simple class of electrical systems, the principle of the maximum entropy production rate (MaxEP) is discussed. First, we compare the MaxEP principle and the principle of the minimum entropy production rate and illustrate the superiority of the MaxEP principle for the example of two parallel constant resistors. Secondly, we show that the Steenbeck principle for the electric arc as well as the ohmic contact behaviour of space-charge limited conductors follow from the MaxEP principle. In line with work by Dewar, the investigations seem to suggest that the MaxEP principle can also be applied to systems far from equilibrium, provided appropriate information is available that enters the constraints of the optimization problem. Finally, we apply the MaxEP principle to a mesoscopic system and show that the universal conductance quantum, e 2 /h, of a one-dimensional ballistic conductor can be estimated

  3. What kind of liberalization of electricity production in Italy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.

    1993-01-01

    Critical analysis of the implications of the deregulation of electric power generation and distribution in Italy evidences severe problems regarding the definition of future regional and national regulatory frameworks and constraints regarding future expansion strategies of independent producers. In particular, local administrative bodies will faced with the difficult task of having to develop optimum pricing strategies so as to encourage production and healthy competition amongst private firms while at the same time safeguarding the rights and wishes of consumers

  4. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  5. Resource-based optimization of electric power production (in Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    This paper is about electric power production optimization and chiefly discusses on the types of resources available in Iran. The modeling has been based on the marginal cost of different energy resources and types of technologies used. the computed costs are the basic standards for optimization of the production system of energy. the costs associated with environmental pollution and also pollution control are considered. the present paper also studied gas fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, renewable and co-generation of heat and power. The results are discussed and reported at the last of the paper

  6. Product Quality Improvement Using FMEA for Electric Parking Brake (EPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, C. D.; Gruber, G. C.; Tişcă, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most frequently used methods to improve product quality is complex FMEA. (Failure Modes and Effects Analyses). In the literature various FMEA is known, depending on the mode and depending on the targets; we mention here some of these names: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Process, or analysis Failure Mode and Effects Reported (FMECA). Whatever option is supported by the work team, the goal of the method is the same: optimize product design activities in research, design processes, implementation of manufacturing processes, optimization of mining product to beneficiaries. According to a market survey conducted on parts suppliers to vehicle manufacturers FMEA method is used in 75%. One purpose of the application is that after the research and product development is considered resolved, any errors which may be detected; another purpose of applying the method is initiating appropriate measures to avoid mistakes. Achieving these two goals leads to a high level distribution in applying, to avoid errors already in the design phase of the product, thereby avoiding the emergence and development of additional costs in later stages of product manufacturing. During application of FMEA method using standardized forms; with their help will establish the initial assemblies of product structure, in which all components will be viewed without error. The work is an application of the method FMEA quality components to optimize the structure of the electrical parking brake (Electric Parching Brake - E.P.B). This is a component attached to the roller system which ensures automotive replacement of conventional mechanical parking brake while ensuring its comfort, functionality, durability and saves space in the passenger compartment. The paper describes the levels at which they appealed in applying FMEA, working arrangements in the 4 distinct levels of analysis, and how to determine the number of risk (Risk Priority Number); the analysis of risk factors and established

  7. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO 2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO 2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  8. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  9. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh, E-mail: reza_f_a@yahoo.com [Department of Finance and Economics, College of Industrial Management, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, PO Box 257, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-06-15

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: > Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. > Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. > Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. > Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. > At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  10. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdam, Reza Fathollahzadeh

    2011-01-01

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  11. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  12. Future directions and cycles for electricity production from geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 25% more power may be produced using binary-flashing geothermal cycles. - Highlights: • Power from geothermal power plants is continuously available and “dispatchable.” • The next generation of geothermal will include more binary plants. • Lower temperature geothermal resources will be utilized in the future. • Dry rock resources may produce a high fraction of electricity in several countries. - Abstract: Geothermal power production is economically competitive and capable to produce a high percentage of the electric power demand in several countries. The currently operating geothermal power plants utilize water from an aquifer at relatively higher temperatures and produce power using dry steam, flashing or binary cycles. A glance at the map of the global geothermal resources proves that there is a multitude of sites, where the aquifer temperature is lower. There are also many geothermal resources where a high geothermal gradient exists in the absence of an aquifer. It becomes apparent that the next generation of geothermal power plants will utilize more of the lower-temperature aquifer resources or the dry resources. For such power plants to be economically competitive, modified or new cycles with higher efficiencies must be used. This paper presents two methods to increase the efficiency of the currently used geothermal cycles. The first uses a binary-flashing system to reduce the overall entropy production, thus, producing more electric power from the resource. The second describes a heat extraction system to be used with dry hot-rock resources.

  13. The program of electricity production, an instrument of political economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    The crisis of the western economies is now entering its 7th year. The structural factors of this depression probably prevail over the conjectural but explanations differ about it. In this article dealing with the progamm of electricity production, an instrument of political economy, the author first mentions what constitutes the present economic landscape in the world, the framework in which is necessarily placed the economical policy of the industrialised countries, among which France. The scrutiny of the way of action of the energetic policies in general, electrical and nuclear in particular, as an instrument of economical policy this depression, will then allow us to quantify and to appreciate this action at the national level [fr

  14. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk) [nl

  15. Pulsed electric fields (PEF applications on wine production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel techniques have been searched in the last decades as a result of increasing demand for high quality food products. Non-thermal processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields (PEF have been improved to achieve inhibition of deleterious effects on quality-related compounds. The working principle of PEF is based on the application of pulses of high voltage (typically above 20 kV/cm up to 70 kV/cm to liquid foods placed between two electrodes. Pulsed electric fields technique has also been studied in winemaking process. Certain positive influences of PEF on vinification have been reported as elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, reduction of maceration time, increase in phenolic compounds extraction , acceleration of wine aging and inactivation of oxidative enzymes. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential applications of PEF in winemaking and to express its effects on quality of wine.

  16. Data feature: 1991 World electricity production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear's share of the electricity being generated in the world appears to have reached its peak in 1991 and is likely to undergo a gradual decline in the coming years. Conservative estimates on electricity demand growth rates suggest that nuclear's share could decline to as low as 15.2% by the year 2005 from the current 16.6% level. Only four nuclear power stations with a combined capacity of 3,673 MWe were connected to the electrical grid system in the Western World last year, and new construction was started on a total of two units with an aggregate capacity of 1,944 MWe. Not all projects currently under construction will necessarily be completed to the point of generating electricity. This is particularly true in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Add onto this the potential shutdown of still operating but unsafe Soviet-designed reactors, as well as extended outages in the Western World for periodic safety assessments and steam generator replacement in aging plants. NUKEM believes this global trend will not be counterbalanced even by the ever-improving performance of US nuclear power stations whose load factors have now reached Western European standards. Accordingly, nuclear's share in world power generation is expected to decline gradually from 1992 onwards. This month's data feature focuses on electrical production in Western Europe, North America, and the Far East. The ex-Soviet republics and the neighboring Eastern European countries will be examined in greater detail in upcoming issues of the NUKEM Market Report as more complete data becomes available

  17. Competitive nuclear production on the nordic deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Nordic electricity market has been partly deregulated since 1994. Today only Denmark follows the timetable recommended by the European Union, while Sweden, Norway and Finland are completely deregulated. As in most countries, the production of electricity is deregulated while the distribution is still a monopoly. This deregulation of the electricity market has created a new situation for plant life management. In order to be competitive on the market it is important to cut cost down a level when the nuclear power companies earn money again. All means to cut cost have to be used while still maintaining safety and the possibilities for operation over at least 40+ years. The possibilities to invest in modernization are limited to the absolutely necessary modifications. All investments must be very thoroughly questioned and the money can only be spent where most benefit is gained. This means new prerequisites for the absolute necessary long-strategic planning. New safety requirements from the authorities have to be discussed between the industry and the authority. The requirement cost must be compared to the benefit to safety. The authority is today requested to carry out such analyses and do so in most cases. Since the electricity market is international the requirements of the authorities must be harmonized on the whole market. The political threat against nuclear power is serious in many countries and it is important to continue working with public acceptance and lobbying. Especially in Sweden a lot of effort is spent on trying to change the taxation of nuclear power. In the near future increasing electricity demand will make the prices go up to a level when nuclear power companies earn money again. The very serious worries about climate change will also strengthen the competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)

  18. Representing a Model Using Data Mining Approach for Maximizing Profit with Considering Product Assortment and Space Allocation Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of which products to stock among numerous competing products and how much space to allocate to those products are central decisions for retailers. This study aimed to apply data mining approach so that, we got needed information from large datasets of sale transactions to find the relations between products and to make product assortments. Thus, we represented a model for product assortment and space allocation. Research population was transactional data of a store, the sample included transactional data of one-month period in the time series. Data were collected in October and November, 2015 from Shaghayegh store. 525 transactions with regard to 79 different products were analyzed. Based on the result 10 product assortments formed although some products were allocated to more than 1 product category. By solving profit equation and finding volume increase indices we allocated spaces for each product assortment.

  19. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  20. The effects of rate of return and environmental regulations on the productivity performance in the US electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durongkaveroj, P.

    1991-01-01

    Productivity growth in the US electric power industry has been declining since the late 1960's. Rate of return regulation and environmental regulations are hypothesized to adversely affect the productivity performance. Employing a Divisa index of the total factor productivity (TEP) an electric utility's performance is measured based on a profit maximization framework subject to both regulatory constraints. The empirical analysis attempts to analyze the effects of these regulations on the productivity growth employing data from privately-owned, fossil-fueled electric utilities. Results show a consistent decline in productivity growth over time averaging at 2% annually during 1977 and 1982, as well as the existence of regional differences in TFP growth among utilities. It shows positive and significant relationships between TFP growth and the rate of return, regulatory lag, the use of future test year, and deferred tax credit in the rate-making process. In the environmental case, results show that a stringent emission standard, using scrubbers for sulfur reduction and the utilization of aging power plants all contribute to the decline in productivity growth

  1. Phased array UT (Ultrasonic Testing) used in electricity production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Phased Array-Ultrasonic testing techniques widely used for detection and quantitative determination of the lattice defects which have been formed from fatigues or stress corrosion cracking in the materials used in the electricity production plants are presented with particular focus on the accurate determination of the defects depth (sizing) and defects discrimination applicable to weld metals of austenite stainless steels and Ni base alloys. The principle of this non-destructive analysis is briefly explained, followed by point and matrix focus phased array methods developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd are explained rather in detail with illustration and the evaluated results. (S. Ohno)

  2. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-03-28

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhiguo; Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Jiang Weihua

    2010-01-01

    A device for nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires was designed and built. Eight wires housed in the discharge chamber are exploded one by one before opening the chamber for the collection of the produced nano-powder. To increase the rate of energy deposition into a wire, the electrical behavior of the discharge circuit including the exploding wire was simulated. The results showed that both reducing the circuit inductance and reducing the capacitance of the energy-storage capacitor (keeping the storage energy constant) can increase the energy deposition rate. To better understand the physical processes of the nano-powder formation by the wire vapor, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to record the time evolution of the wire vapor as well as the plasma. A thermal expansion lag of the dense vapor core as well as more than one times of the vapor burst was observed for the first time. Finally, nano-powders of titanium nitride, titanium dioxide, copper oxides and zinc oxide were produced by electrical explosion of wires. (authors)

  5. Renewal of nuclear electricity production: an economic trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debontride, B.; Bouteille, F.; Goebel, A.; Czech, J.

    2004-01-01

    2004 price evolution on the market asks on nuclear generation profitability and competitiveness. There were over installed capacities in Europe since several years, but electricity consumption is steadily increasing and over capacities will disappear more or less at the end of the decade. On a world basis, electricity demand grows twice as much as energy demand, so that there is a need to invest in new electricity generation capacities. The recent US black out events shows the need for securing energy supply in capacities as well as in transmission and distribution. Competitiveness of the different possible sources of energy thus needs to be carefully assessed by all the worldwide decision makers in the field of power generation. In France, the economy of the electricity production is regularly assessed by a French Government study called 'Reference costs for Electricity production' which compares the levelized cost for base load power produced by a nuclear unit (latest design available) and other conventional power stations. In the latest release published in 2003 the nuclear option (the EPR) is compared with three fossil-fired units: A twin 400 MW combined-cycle gas plant, a twin 900 MW pulverized coal station and a 400 MW fluidized bed combustion coal plant. In all cases the nuclear option is the cheapest. If external costs, based on the EU studies (ExternE), are taken into account, the advantage of the nuclear option is significantly increased. In Finland a study performed by the Lappeenranta University in 2000 concluded also in the competitiveness of the Nuclear option. This result was important in the decision making process which resulted in the decision in principle of the Finnish Parliament to allow for the construction of the fifth Nuclear power station for which the EPR was selected. In China, the same kind of economical studies recently led the governmental authorities to launch new nuclear projects. These three examples, in three countries where

  6. A Greenhouse Gas Balance of Electricity Production from Co-firing Palm Oil Products from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Junginger, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Netherlands imports significant quantities of biomass for energy production, among which palm oil has been used increasingly for co-firing in existing gas-fired power plants for renewable electricity production. Imported biomass, however, can not simply be considered a sustainable energy source. The production and removal of biomass in other places in the world result in ecological, land-use and socio-economic impacts and in GHG emissions (e.g. for transportation). As a result of the sustainability discussions, the Cramer Commission in the Netherlands has formulated (draft) criteria and indicators for sustainable biomass production. This study develops a detailed methodology for determining the GHG balance of co-firing palm oil products in the Netherlands based on the Cramer Commission methodology. The methodology is applied to a specific bio-electricity chain: the production of palm oil and a palm oil derivative, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), in Northeast Borneo in Malaysia, their transport to the Netherlands and co-firing with natural gas for electricity production at the Essent Claus power plant

  7. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  8. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  9. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  10. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  11. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua; Mao Zhi-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF–4 μF typically charged to 8 kV−30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm−80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy W d is often less than sublimation energy W s due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = W d /W s ) increasing. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  12. Modeling Electric Discharges with Entropy Production Rate Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Christen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP. Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates, provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s.

  13. Intellectual Production Supervision Perform based on RFID Smart Electricity Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    This topic develops the RFID intelligent electricity meter production supervision project management system. The system is designed for energy meter production supervision in the management of the project schedule, quality and cost information management requirements in RFID intelligent power, and provide quantitative information more comprehensive, timely and accurate for supervision engineer and project manager management decisions, and to provide technical information for the product manufacturing stage file. From the angle of scheme analysis, design, implementation and test, the system development of production supervision project management system for RFID smart meter project is discussed. Focus on the development of the system, combined with the main business application and management mode at this stage, focuses on the energy meter to monitor progress information, quality information and cost based information on RFID intelligent power management function. The paper introduces the design scheme of the system, the overall client / server architecture, client oriented graphical user interface universal, complete the supervision of project management and interactive transaction information display, the server system of realizing the main program. The system is programmed with C# language and.NET operating environment, and the client and server platforms use Windows operating system, and the database server software uses Oracle. The overall platform supports mainstream information and standards and has good scalability.

  14. Dispatchable Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt for Electricity Demand Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Rahil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues and concerns about depletion of fossil fuels have driven rapid growth in the generation of renewable energy (RE and its use in electricity grids. Similarly, the need for an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels means that the number of fuel cell vehicles is also expected to increase. The ability of electricity networks to balance supply and demand is greatly affected by the variable, intermittent output of RE generators; however, this could be relieved using energy storage and demand-side response (DSR techniques. One option would be production of hydrogen by electrolysis powered from wind and solar sources. The use of tariff structures would provide an incentive to operate electrolysers as dispatchable loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts in Libya, for both dispatchable and continuous operation, without interruption of fuel supply to vehicles. The coastal city of Derna was chosen as a case study, with the renewable energy being produced via a wind turbine farm. Wind speed was analysed in order to determine a suitable turbine, then the capacity was calculated to estimate how many turbines would be needed to meet demand. Finally, the excess power was calculated, based on the discrepancy between supply and demand. The study looked at a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation, using an optimisation algorithm. The following three scenarios were considered to determine whether the cost of electrolytic hydrogen could be reduced by a lower off-peak electricity price. These scenarios are: Standard Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a standard tariff of 12 p/kWh; Off-peak Only, in which the electrolyser operates only during off-peak periods at the lower price of 5 p/kWh; and 2-Tier Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a low tariff at off-peak times and a high tariff at other

  15. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP.......The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP....

  16. Cost of production. Maximize profitability in the manufacture of solar modules; Maximizar la rentabilidad en la fabricacion de modulos solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G. R.

    2011-07-01

    Plus the cost of photovoltaic energy production, parity with the network also consider the total investment made to generate a certain amount of energy. Some factors to consider include production, labor, initial cost of system components, installation, operation and maintenance. (Author)

  17. External costs of electricity production: case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, Maja; Tomsic, Zeljko; Debrecin, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Because electricity production is one of the major sources of pollution, and at the same time is the most centralised one, environmental issues in power system operation and planning are gaining ever-increasing attention. It is very difficult to compare environmental impacts of various electricity generation technologies and fuel types because they are extremely divergent. The most widely accepted common denominator today is the so-called external cost by which a monetary value is associated with environmental damage. In this paper, damages to human health resulting from Croatian thermal power plants annual operation are presented. Stack emissions have been translated into ambient concentrations by atmospheric dispersion modelling. Existing data on relations between human health degradation and ground concentrations of the analysed pollutants have been used. Geographic information software has been used in order to account for spatially dependent data. Monetary values have been assigned to the estimated human health damage. External costs resulting from impact of Croatian thermal power plants airborne emissions on human health have been calculated. The total Croatian thermal power system external costs, resulting from impacts on human health, are presented and discussed

  18. Status of photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen and electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency for conversion of electromagnetic energy to chemical and electrical energy utilizing semiconductor single crystals as photoanodes in electrochemical cells was investigated. Efficiencies as high as 20 percent were achieved for the conversion of 330 nm radiation to chemical energy in the form of hydrogen by the photoelectrolysis of water in a SrTiO3 based cell. The SrTiO3 photoanodes were shown to be stable in 9.5 M NaOH solutions for periods up to 48 hours. Efficiencies of 9 percent were measured for the conversion of broadband visible radiation to hydrogen using n-type GaAs crystals as photoanodes. Crystals of GaAs coated with 500 nm of gold, silver, or tin for surface passivation show no significant change in efficiency. By suppressing the production of hydrogen in a CdSe-based photogalvanic cell, an efficiency of 9 percent was obtained in conversion of 633 nm light to electrical energy. A CdS-based photogalvanic cell produced a conversion efficiency of 5 percent for 500 nm radiation.

  19. Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Celidonio; Dispenza, Giorgio; Rocca, Vincenzo La; Panno, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all over the World, an appropriate design option could be based on a modular unit having a mean regasification capacity of 2 x 10 9 standard cubic meters/year. This paper deals with the results of feasibility studies, developed by the authors at DREAM in the context of a research program, on ventures based on thermodynamic and economic analysis of improved CHP cycles and related innovative technology which demonstrate the suitability of the proposal

  20. Electricity market clearing with improved dispatch of stochastic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an electricity market that consists of a day-ahead and a balancing settlement, and includes a number of stochastic producers. We first introduce two reference procedures for scheduling and pricing energy in the day-ahead market: on the one hand, a conventional network...... attains higher market efficiency in expectation than the conventional day-ahead auction, it suffers from fundamental drawbacks with a view to its practical implementation. In particular, it requires flexible producers (those that make up for the lack or surplus of stochastic generation) to accept losses...... in some scenarios. Using a bilevel programming framework, we then show that the conventional auction, if combined with a suitable day-ahead dispatch of stochastic producers (generally different from their expected production), can substantially increase market efficiency and emulate the advantageous...

  1. Electricity production perspective regarding resource recovery center (RRC) in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud Aghajani Mir; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Rawshan Ara Begum; Sanaz Saheri

    2010-01-01

    Waste disposal is a global problem contributing to the ongoing climate change because of large emissions of greenhouse gases. So, using waste material as a resource instead of land filling, the greenhouse gas emissions from landfills are reduced. Also, Waste material can be used for waste incineration with energy recovery, thus decreasing the greenhouse gas emission from energy utilization by changing from fossil fuels to a partly renewable fuel. The production of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF) involves the mechanical processing of household waste using screens, shredders and separators to recover recyclable materials and to produce a combustible product Regarding Resource Recovery Center/Waste to Energy (RRC/WtE) Facility in Malaysia that located in Semenyih. This System involves the removal of inert and compost able materials followed by pulverization to produce a feedstock which be incinerated in power stations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and forecasting of the number of these facilities that Kuala Lumpur will need regarding to potential of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation and Refuse Derive Fuel that will be produce from that in future. This plant is able to produce average 7.5 MWh electricity from 700 ton MSW or 200 ton RDF per day that approximately is used 1.8 MWh per day inside the pant and it can sell around 5.7 MWh daily. Kuala Lumpur will generate around 7713 ton MSW per day and it is able to produce 2466 ton RDF per day. Regarding to potential of MSW and RDF generation by 2020 in Kuala Lumpur it will need around 11 plants to treatment of MSW that this number of plants is able to produce around 62.8 MWh electricity per day. (author)

  2. Regulation of the wind power production. Contribution of the electric vehicles and other energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Carlos B. [Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [INETI/LNEG - National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    The increase in penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES) introduced additional difficulties regarding the management of the Portuguese Power System. This is mainly due to the high temporal variability and low controllability, characteristics of these kinds of sources. There is a real need to reduce the impact of non-dispatchable RES sources; maximizing their penetration and minimizing curtailment. This is especially true for wind power and run-of-the-river hydro (ROR); as it appears beneficial to combine their variable production with added capacity of energy storage and demand side management; thereby increasing the flexibility of the power system as a whole. This paper aims to assess the excess wind generation (and other non-dispatchable sources); this for periods of production's excess in a 2020 timeframe, and assuming different weather scenarios. The adjustment of wind power generation (WPG) profile to the load profile is also addressed; the result is computed in the form of the value of the energy temporally deferred, using Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) power plants as well as electric Vehicles (EVs). (orig.)

  3. Multiobjective genetic algorithm strategies for electricity production from generation IV nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Adrien; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31700 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Latge, Christian [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/DIR, Bat. 710, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Haubensack, David [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DER/SESI/LCSI, Bat. 212, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2010-04-15

    Development of a technico-economic optimization strategy of cogeneration systems of electricity/hydrogen, consists in finding an optimal efficiency of the generating cycle and heat delivery system, maximizing the energy production and minimizing the production costs. The first part of the paper is related to the development of a multiobjective optimization library (MULTIGEN) to tackle all types of problems arising from cogeneration. After a literature review for identifying the most efficient methods, the MULTIGEN library is described, and the innovative points are listed. A new stopping criterion, based on the stagnation of the Pareto front, may lead to significant decrease of computational times, particularly in the case of problems involving only integer variables. Two practical examples are presented in the last section. The former is devoted to a bicriteria optimization of both exergy destruction and total cost of the plant, for a generating cycle coupled with a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The second example consists in designing the heat exchanger of the generating turbomachine. Three criteria are optimized: the exchange surface, the exergy destruction and the number of exchange modules. (author)

  4. Multiobjective genetic algorithm strategies for electricity production from generation IV nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Adrien; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge; Latge, Christian; Haubensack, David

    2010-01-01

    Development of a technico-economic optimization strategy of cogeneration systems of electricity/hydrogen, consists in finding an optimal efficiency of the generating cycle and heat delivery system, maximizing the energy production and minimizing the production costs. The first part of the paper is related to the development of a multiobjective optimization library (MULTIGEN) to tackle all types of problems arising from cogeneration. After a literature review for identifying the most efficient methods, the MULTIGEN library is described, and the innovative points are listed. A new stopping criterion, based on the stagnation of the Pareto front, may lead to significant decrease of computational times, particularly in the case of problems involving only integer variables. Two practical examples are presented in the last section. The former is devoted to a bicriteria optimization of both exergy destruction and total cost of the plant, for a generating cycle coupled with a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The second example consists in designing the heat exchanger of the generating turbomachine. Three criteria are optimized: the exchange surface, the exergy destruction and the number of exchange modules.

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  6. Continuous hydrogen and methane production from Agave tequilana bagasse hydrolysate by sequential process to maximize energy recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel Corona, Virginia; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2018-02-01

    Continuous H 2 and CH 4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H 2 /L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse. In the second stage, the effluent from CSTR was used as substrate to feed a UASB reactor for CH 4 production. Volumetric methane production rate (VMPR) of 6.4 L CH 4 /L-d was achieved with a high OLR (20 g COD/L-d) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT, 14 h), producing 225 mL CH 4 /g-bagasse equivalent to 7.88 kJ/g bagasse. The two-stage continuous process significantly increased energy conversion efficiency (56%) compared to one-stage hydrogen production (8.2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  8. Predictive Models for Photovoltaic Electricity Production in Hot Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar H. Yousif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding a correct forecast equation for photovoltaic electricity production from renewable sources is an important matter, since knowing the factors affecting the increase in the proportion of renewable energy production and reducing the cost of the product has economic and scientific benefits. This paper proposes a mathematical model for forecasting energy production in photovoltaic (PV panels based on a self-organizing feature map (SOFM model. The proposed model is compared with other models, including the multi-layer perceptron (MLP and support vector machine (SVM models. Moreover, a mathematical model based on a polynomial function for fitting the desired output is proposed. Different practical measurement methods are used to validate the findings of the proposed neural and mathematical models such as mean square error (MSE, mean absolute error (MAE, correlation (R, and coefficient of determination (R2. The proposed SOFM model achieved a final MSE of 0.0007 in the training phase and 0.0005 in the cross-validation phase. In contrast, the SVM model resulted in a small MSE value equal to 0.0058, while the MLP model achieved a final MSE of 0.026 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989, which indicates a strong relationship between input and output variables. The proposed SOFM model closely fits the desired results based on the R2 value, which is equal to 0.9555. Finally, the comparison results of MAE for the three models show that the SOFM model achieved a best result of 0.36156, whereas the SVM and MLP models yielded 4.53761 and 3.63927, respectively. A small MAE value indicates that the output of the SOFM model closely fits the actual results and predicts the desired output.

  9. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic...... analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...

  10. Maximizing the Production of Biogas in an Instructional Manipulative Designed to Teach Energy Concepts to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shakira Renee

    In an effort to stress the benefits of the application of renewable energy to the next generation of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) professionals, instructional modules on energy and biogas were integrated into a summer camp curriculum that challenged students to apply STEAM concepts in the design and development of chain reaction machines. Each module comprised an interactive presentations and a hands-on component where students operated a manipulative relevant to the content. During summer 2013, this camp was implemented at two high schools in Arizona and one in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessments showed that the overall modules were effective in helping students learn and retain the information presented on energy and biogas production. To improve future implementations of these modules, specifically the module on biogas production, the anaerobic digester was redesigned. In addition, a designed experiment was conducted to determine how to optimize the influent and operational environment that is available in an average high school classroom to generate maximum biogas yield. Eight plug-flow anaerobic digesters made of PVC piping and fixtures were used in a 2x3 factorial design assessing: co-digestion (20mL or 50mL) used cooking oil, temperature (25°C or 40°C), and addition of inoculum (0mL or 200mL). Biogas production was captured at two intervals over a 30-day period, and the experiments were replicated three times. Results showed that temperature at 40°C significantly increased biogas production and should be used over 25°C when using anaerobic digesters. Other factors that may potentially increase biogas production are combination of temperature at 40°C and 50mL of used cooking oil. In the future, the improvements made in the design of the anaerobic digester, and the applications of the finding from the experimental design, are expected to lead to an improved manipulative for teaching students about biogas production.

  11. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    This dissertation provides a new method of measuring efforts by manufacturing industries to reduce their emissions by curtailing electricity consumption. Employing comprehensive firm-level data from the National Manufacture Annual Surveys of South Korea and Thailand, I construct the measure from estimates of revenue functions by industry. The data consists of firms from more than 20 industries in each year from 1982 to 2005 for Korea and from 2001 to 2008 for Thailand. With a total of more than two million observations, I estimate revenue functions for each industry and year. Here, I use three inputs: number of employees(L), fixed asset stock(K), and electricity consumption(E) and two types of functional forms to represent each industry's revenue function. Second, under market competitive condition, I find that profit maximizing firms deviated their level of electricity usage in production from the profit-maximizing level during the time period for both countries, and I develop a theoretical framework to explain this behavior. Then, I tested the theory using my empirical models. Results support the notion of a hidden environmental value expressed by firms in the form of voluntary deviations from profit-maximizing levels of input demand. The measure used is the gap between the marginal revenue product of electricity and its price. This gap should increase with income, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve literature. My current model provides considerable support for this proposition. Estimates indicate, in most industries, a negative relationship between per-capita income and emissions. In the final section of the dissertation, I consider the equitable distribution of emissions reduction burden under an international agreement such as the reduction effort, Kyoto Protocol. Both developed and developing countries have to cut their emissions to a specific reduction percentage target. Domestically, I present two extreme scenarios. In the first scenario

  12. The maximization of the productivity of aquatic plants for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. G.

    Lemna minor (common duckweed) and a Wolffia sp. were grown in submerged growth systems. Submerged growth increased the productivity/unit volume (P/UV) of the organisms and may allow these plants to be used in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS).

  13. Maximizing the peak production rate in off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeltink, S.; Dolman, S.; Ursem, M.; Swart, R.; McLeod, F.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an optimization strategy to obtain the best possible performance in the shortest analysis time—called the peak production rate—for comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography. The demands on column technology (particle size and column length) and LC conditions

  14. Use of low-cost aluminum in electric energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Andrey Z.; Sheindlin, Alexander E.; Kleymenov, Boris V.; Shkolnikov, Eugene I.; Lopatin, Marat Yu.

    Suppression of the parasitic corrosion while maintaining the electrochemical activity of the anode metal is one of the serious problems that affects the energy efficiency of aluminum-air batteries. The need to use high-purity aluminum or special aluminum-based alloys results in a significant increase in the cost of the anode, and thus an increase in the total cost of energy generated by the aluminum-air battery, which narrows the range of possible applications for this type of power source. This study considers the process of parasitic corrosion as a method for hydrogen production. Hydrogen produced in an aluminum-air battery by this way may be further employed in a hydrogen-air fuel cell (Hy-air FC) or in a heat engine, or it may be burnt to generate heat. Therefore, anode materials may be provided by commercially pure aluminum, commercially produced aluminum alloys, and secondary aluminum. These materials are much cheaper and more readily available than special anode alloys of aluminum and high-purity aluminum. The aim of present study is to obtain experimental data for comparison of energy and cost parameters of some commercially produced aluminum alloys, of high-purity aluminum, and of a special Al-ln anode alloy in the context of using these materials as anodes for an Al-air battery and for combined production of electrical power and hydrogen.

  15. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Mao Zhi-Guo; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed.It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF--4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV,a triggered gas switch,and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas.With the EEW device,nanosize powders of titanium oxides,titanium nitrides,copper oxides,and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized.The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm.The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size.The lower the pressure,the smaller the particle size is.For wire material with relatively high resistivity,such as titanium,whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process,the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k =Wd/Ws) increasing.

  16. Photon propagator and pair production in stationary electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlin, A.N.; Olejnik, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    Effects related to pair production by an external field are discussed. It is shown that vacuum instability against pair production leads to an essential difference between the propagator and Feynman Green's function. Analysis of Yang-Feldman equations and of boundary conditions imposed upon the Green's function shows that using Feynman Green's function as a propagator contradicts the causality principle. The physical causality principle is satisfied by Heisenberg Green's function for which usual Schwinger-Dyson equations cannot be formulated. Heisenberg and Feynman Green's functions coincide for the case of stable vacuum state. All calculations are carried out using the technique of the so-called generalized Green's functions in terms of which the propagators are written. The polarization operator in the electric field is calculated in the one-loop approximation. Its' general structure is found. The photon propagator is obtained. Self oscillations of the photon vacuum are determined. It is shown that new modes correspond to collective excitations of the type ''photon+electron-positron pairs''

  17. Electricity production by hydro power plants: possibilities of forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkans, J.; Zicmane, I.

    2004-01-01

    Hydro energy accounts for 17% of global electricity production and is the most important source of renewable energies actively used today, being at the same time the least influential ecologically. Its only disadvantages is that this kind of energy is difficult to forecast, which hinders not only the planning of tariffs, year budgets and investments, but also contractual negotiations in particular month. The paper shows that the forecasting of hydro energy production can be linked to certain natural processes, namely, to the cyclic behaviour observed for water flows of the world's rivers. The authors propose a method according to which the forecasting procedure is performed using the data of observations as signals applied to special digital filters transforming the water flow process into integral and differential forms, which after appropriate treatment are expected again in usual water flow units. For this purpose the water flow integral function is to be divided, by means of spectral analysis, into 'low-frequency' (with a semi-period of 44 years) and 'high-frequency' (4-6 year semi-periods) components, which are of different origin. Each of them should be forecasted separately, with the following summation of the results. In the research it is shown that the cyclic fluctuations of world rivers' water flows are directly associated with variations in the Solar activity. (authors)

  18. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  19. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  20. Light intensity as major factor to maximize biomass and lipid productivity of Ettlia sp. in CO2-controlled photoautotrophic chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Hyun; Ha, Ji-San; Yoo, Chan; Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyun; La, Hyun-Joon; Han, Myung-Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-11-01

    The optimal culture conditions are critical factors for high microalgal biomass and lipid productivity. To optimize the photoautotrophic culture conditions, combination of the pH (regulated by CO 2 supply), dilution rate, and light intensity was systematically investigated for Ettlia sp. YC001 cultivation in a chemostat during 143days. The biomass productivity increased with the increase in dilution rate and light intensity, but decreased with increasing pH. The average lipid content was 19.8% and statistically non-variable among the tested conditions. The highest biomass and lipid productivities were 1.48gL -1 d -1 and 291.4mgL -1 d -1 with a pH of 6.5, dilution rate of 0.78d -1 , and light intensity of 1500μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 . With a sufficient supply of CO 2 and nutrients, the light intensity was the main determinant of the photosynthetic rate. Therefore, the surface-to-volume ratio of a photobioreactor should enable efficient light distribution to enhance microalgal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  2. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, S.; Cotone, P.; Davison, J. [Foster Wheeler Italiana (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study carried out by Foster Wheeler for the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme that focused on different IGCC configurations with CO{sub 2} capture and H{sub 2} production. The three following main cases are compared: production of hydrogen, with minimum amount of electricity for a stand-alone plant production; co-production of the optimum hydrogen/electricity ratio; and co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a flexible plant that varies the hydrogen/electricity ratio. The paper reviews three available gasification technologies and presents the results of a more detailed evaluation of the selected one. The scope of this paper is to underline possible advantages of hydrogen and electricity co-production from coal, that is likely going to replace natural gas and petroleum as a source of hydrogen in the long term. Expected advantage of co-production will be the ability to vary the hydrogen/electricity ratio to meet market demands. A natural gas, diesel and gasoline demand market analysis has been performed for the Netherlands and the USA to determine the expected future hydrogen demand. Plant performance and costs are established and electric power production costs are evaluated. Electricity and hydrogen co-production plants are compared to plants that produce electricity only, with and without CO{sub 2} capture, to evaluate the costs of CO{sub 2} avoidance. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Hiras, Jennifer; Deng, Kai; Bowen, Benjamin; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Singer, Steven W; Northen, Trent R

    2013-01-01

    Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS)-based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45°C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45°C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60°C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45°C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  4. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang eCheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45 °C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45 °C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60 °C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45 °C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  5. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  6. Biohydrogen from thermophilic co-fermentation of swine manure with fruit and vegetable waste: maximizing stable production without pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Perazzolo, F; Adani, F; Oberti, R

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen production by dark fermentation may suffer of inhibition or instability due to pH deviations from optimality. The co-fermentation of promptly degradable feedstock with alkali-rich materials, such as livestock wastes, may represent a feasible and easy to implement approach to avoid external adjustments of pH. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of fruit-vegetable waste with swine manure with the aim of maximizing biohydrogen production while obtaining process stability through the endogenous alkalinity of manure. Fruit-vegetable/swine manure ratio of 35/65 and HRT of 2d resulted to give the highest production rate of 3.27 ± 0.51 L(H2)L(-1)d(-1), with a corresponding hydrogen yield of 126 ± 22 mL(H2)g(-1)(VS-added) and H2 content in the biogas of 42 ± 5%. At these operating conditions the process exhibited also one of the highest measured stability, with daily productions deviating for less than 14% from the average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the sub-maximal yield and photo-electric stimulation of chlorophyll a fluorescence in single turnover excitations in plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Rodrigues, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    A set of expressions is derived which quantifies the chlorophyll fluorescence yield in terms of rate constants of primary light reactions of PSII, the fraction of open and semi-open RCs and of the electric field sensed by the RC in the thylakoid membrane. The decay kinetics of the chlorophyll

  8. Optimal oxygen feeding policy to maximize the production of Maleic anhydride in unsteady state fixed bed catalytic reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different oxygen feeding scenarios in a fixed bed reactor for the production of Maleic anhydride (MA is studied. Two reactor configurations were examined. In the first configuration, a cross flow reactor (CFR with 4 discrete feeding points is considered. Another configuration is the conventional packed-bed reactor (PBR with a single feed. Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (NLMPC was used as optimal controller to operate the CFR in dynamic mode and to optimize the multiple feed dosages in order to enhance the MA yield. The simulation results indicated that different combinations of the four feed ratios can operate the reactor at the best value for the yield provided the first feeding point is kept as low as possible. For the packed bed reactor configuration, a single oxygen feed is considered and is optimized transiently by NLMPC. The simulation outcomes showed that the reactor performance in terms of the produced MA mole fraction can also be enhanced to the same magnitude obtained by CFR configuration. This improvement requires decreasing the oxygen ratio in the reactor single feed by 70%.

  9. Bioactivity of essential oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and its main compounds against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), β-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 μg/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 μg/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 μg/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects.

  10. Initial plasma production by induction electric field on QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2007-01-01

    Induction electric field by center solenoid coil plays a roll to produce initial plasma. According to Townsend avalanche theory, minimum electric field for plasma breakdown depends on neutral gas pressure and connection length. On QUEST spherical tokamak, a connection length is evaluated as 966m on null point neighborhood with coil current ratio I PF26 /I CS =0.1, and induction electric field considering eddy current of vacuum vessel is evaluated as about 0.1 V/m on null point neighborhood. With Townsend avalanche theory, these values manage to produce initial plasma on QUEST. (author)

  11. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares MC Borba, Bruno; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have proposed different tools for analyzing the integration of variable renewable energy into power grids. This study applies an optimization tool to model the expansion of the electric power system in northeastern Brazil, enabling the most efficient dispatch of the variable output of the wind farms that will be built in the region over the next 20 years. The expected combined expansion of wind generation with conventional inflexible generation facilities, such as nuclear plants and run-of-the-river hydropower plants, poses risks of future mismatch between supply and demand in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, this article evaluates the possibility of using a fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to regularize possible energy imbalances. Findings indicate that a dedicated fleet of 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015, and a further 1.5 million in 2030, could be recharged overnight to take advantage of the surplus power generated by wind farms. To avoid the initial costs of smart grids, this article suggests, as a first step, the use of a governmental PHEV fleet that allows fleet managers to control battery charging times. Finally, the study demonstrates the advantages of optimizing simultaneously the power and transport sectors to test the strategy suggested here. -- Highlights: ► We evaluated the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to regularize possible energy imbalances in northeastern Brazil. ► This imbalance might result from the large-scale wind power penetration along with conventional inflexible power plants in the region. ► We adapted the MESSAGE optimization tool to the base conditions of the Brazilian power system. ► 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015 and 1.5 million in 2030 could be recharged taking advantage of wind energy surplus.

  13. Natural Gas Based Electricity Production and Low Carbon Technology Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns regarding air quality, global climate change, and the national energy security impacts of the intensive use of fossil fuels and their environmental impacts in the power generation sector have raised interest in alternative low carbon electricity generation technology and...

  14. Electric system management through hydrogen production - A market driven approach in the French context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Dautremont, S.; Thais, F.; Louyrette, J.; Martin, J.; Albou, S.; Barbieri, G.; Collignon, N.; Bourasseau, C.; Salasc, B.; Valentin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is usually presented as a promising energy carrier that has a major role to play in low carbon transportation, through the use of fuel cells. However, such a development is not expected in the short term. In the meantime, hydrogen may also contribute to reduce carbon emissions in diverse sectors among which methanol production. Methanol can be produced by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen, hence facilitating carbon dioxide emission mitigation while providing a beneficial tool to manage the electric system, if hydrogen is produced by alkaline electrolysis operated in a variable way driven by the spot and balancing electricity markets. Such a concept is promoted by the VItESSE project (Industrial and Energy value of CO 2 through Efficient use of CO 2 -free electricity - Electricity Network System Control and Electricity Storage). Through the proposed market driven approach, hydrogen production offers a possibility to help managing the electric system, together with an opportunity to reduce hydrogen production costs. (authors)

  15. The use of rotating electric arc for spherical particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, I.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents and experimental device designed to obtain spherical particles by mans of a rotating electric arc. A rotation frequency of the electric arc of 750 s''-1, a voltage of 50 V(dc) and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min''-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained. (Author) 8 refs

  16. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, Osinergmin (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  17. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  18. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  19. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  20. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable-energy sources and energy efficiency are important elements in Danish Energy Policy. The implementation of wind power and combined heat- and power-production (CHP) have already led to substantial fuel savings, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Today, approximately 50% of both Danish electricity and heat demand are produced via CHP, and more than 15% of the electricity demands are produced by wind turbines. However, the electricity production from these technologies is linked to fluctuations either in wind or in heat demands rather than fluctuations in demand for electricity. Consequently, the electricity production exceeds the demand during certain periods and creates a problem of ''surplus production''. This paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving this problem. (author)

  1. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammed Israr; Kim, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of

  2. Treatment of wastes from biomass used in electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemes Peira, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find an approach for the treatment of toxic waste condensates obtained during the generation of electricity from biomass that would transform them into wastewater. Two experimental conditions have been performed using a reactor. During the first condition, potentials were applied without following a defined path to electrically calibrate the system by observing responses. In the second experimental condition and based on these previous electrical observations, the potentials were applied. This technical approach has proven suitable for condensate treatment. However, given the aggressiveness of the residue, it is necessary to use a reactor which allows reaching and maintaining the necessary electro-oxidation potential and to combine it with an electrocoagulation reactor. (author)

  3. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  4. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The main goals of this research were to use E. aerogenes ADH-43 for fermentation in order to decide the best carbon sources and ... by converting to electricity using fuel cells in 50 ml vial bottle, 2% total ... evolution compared with other biological hydrogen .... Erlenmeyer containing a solution of Ca (OH) 2.

  5. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  6. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  7. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  8. Electricity production without CO2 emissions. French abstract of the paper of Nature: electricity without carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Bonneville, J.M.; Poitou, J.

    2008-09-01

    Electricity generation provides 18000 TWh of energy a year, around 40 % of humanity's total energy use. In doing so it produces more than 10 giga-tons of carbon dioxide every year, the largest sectoral contribution of humanity's fossil-fuel derived emissions. Yet there is a wide range of technologies, from solar and wind to nuclear and geothermal, that can generate electricity without net carbon emissions from fuel. In its paper of 13 August 2008, Nature's News looks at how much carbon-free energy might ultimately be available and which sources make mots sense. In this paper the author gives his own evaluation under each section. (A.L.B.)

  9. Electrifying integration Electricity production and the South East Europe regional energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Elizabeth; Medvedev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics, we explore the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hydro electric generation. Differences in countries' resource endowment and the possibility of intertemporal substitution between electricity generated from various fuels could stimulate a regional trade in electricity. As an alternative to nationally independent energy policy, regional trade could displace a proportion of the substantial investment in generation facilities required to avert serious supply shortages. Finally, we consider the environmental impact of electricity generation, and identify some of the key trade-offs between different policy objectives. (author)

  10. Material and Energy Flow Analysis (Mefa of the Unconventional Method of Electricity Production Based on Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This is the first approach which contains a whole chain of electricity production from Underground Coal Gasification, including stages of gas cleaning, electricity production and the additional capture of carbon dioxide.

  11. Optimizing the financial structure and maximizing the future value of your generation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulampalam, G.; Letellier, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ways of optimizing the financial structure and maximizing the future value of an electric power generation project. It outlines the project structure, the sponsor objectives, project finance lending criteria, project timeline, risk mitigation, bank and institutional financing, sponsor's role, impact of financing choices on project value, and impact of penalties and derivative products

  12. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of increase of efficiency of production, transmission and distribution of electric energy have been formulated. The relation between the values of electricity losses during transmission via power grids of different countries and the level of the economies of these countries characterized by the value of gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita has been established. In the countries with a gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita less than 20 thousand US dollars electricity losses during its transmission via power grids are 1.5–2.5 times more than the ones transmitted via power grids of the industrialized countries where the specified purchasing power parity is in the range of 30.4–54.5 thousand US dollars. In the countries with more developed economies the technical culture of production, transmission and distribution of electricity is higher; the modern control systems of operation modes of electrical networks are used as well as of monitoring and accounting of electricity; also there are solvent and disciplined consumers in such countries as well as clear regulatory framework and tariff regulation system. However, the process of transmission and distribution of electricity is effective if not only low relative losses take place, but the normal (contractual requirements for carrying capacity, quality and reliability of electricity supply are provided. The possibility of analytical determination of the optimum value of reserve capacity of power plants providing the required level of reliability of the power system has been considered.

  13. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  14. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kilic (Mehtap); R. Huisman (Ronald)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractElectricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in

  15. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  16. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  17. Electric heating of a unit for uranium trioxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faron, R.; Striff, A.

    1985-01-01

    Ammonium diuranate U 2 O 7 (NH 4 ) 2 containing about 50% of water is dried and transformed by calcination in uranium trioxide UO 3 . Drying and calcination was obtained by air heated by two burners using domestic fuel. In 1984 the plant was transformed for utilization of electric heating improving maintenance cost, decreasing heat losses and by energy saving the payback period on investment is of 2.6 years [fr

  18. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  19. Statistical analysis of the electric energy production from photovoltaic conversion using mobile and fixed constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugała, Artur; Bednarek, Karol; Kasprzyk, Leszek; Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the most representative - from the three-year measurement time period - characteristics of daily and monthly electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion using modules installed in a fixed and 2-axis tracking construction. Results are presented for selected summer, autumn, spring and winter days. Analyzed measuring stand is located on the roof of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Poznan University of Technology building. The basic parameters of the statistical analysis like mean value, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, median, range, or coefficient of variation were used. It was found that the asymmetry factor can be useful in the analysis of the daily electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion. In order to determine the repeatability of monthly electricity production, occurring between the summer, and summer and winter months, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used as a statistical solution. In order to analyze the repeatability of daily peak hours, describing the largest value of the hourly electricity production, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied as an extension of the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the analysis of the electric energy distribution from a prepared monitoring system it was found that traditional forecasting methods of the electricity production from a photovoltaic conversion, like multiple regression models, should not be the preferred methods of the analysis.

  20. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France). Observation, Impacts, Energy Center

    2013-07-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  1. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  2. Challenges of electricity production scenarios modelling for life cycle assessment of environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Beloin-Saint-Pierre, Didier

    2013-01-01

    This communication presents a first attempt at making a life cycle assessment of prospective electricity production scenarios which were designed in the EnerGEO project. We start by a basic review of system (in this case, scenario) modelling expectations in today's LCA study. We then review some of the challenges of implementation due to the lack of detailed description of present and future electricity production systems. The importance of a detailed description is then shown with an evaluation of uncertainty of life cycle impact assessment results for three scenarios of German electricity production in 2030. The significant uncertainties we found, prevent us from detecting a relevant trend or making any comparison between the three chosen scenarios. We finally come to the conclusion that the LCA methodology will become relevant for the environmental assessment of electricity production scenarios when many more detailed information are accounted to describe future technologies, structures and sources of energy. (orig.)

  3. Pair production in an electric field in a time-dependent gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Duru, I.H.

    1989-07-01

    A new nonperturbative method of calculation of the pair production in a constant electric field is presented in which the propagator is evaluated entirely by path-integration in a time-dependent potential. This gauge and the path integration correctly define all the normalizations. As a by-product we get also the Unruh formula since the constant electric field provides an accelerated frame. (author). 11 refs

  4. Production-distribution of electric power in France: 1997-98 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document has been realized using the annual inquiry carried out by the French direction of gas, electricity and coal (Digec). It brings together the main statistical data about the production, transport and consumption of electric power in France: 1997 and 1998 balance sheets, foreign exchanges, long-term evolutions, production with respect to the different energy sources, consumption in the different departments and regions.. (J.S.)

  5. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  6. Evaluation Parameter to Determine the Sharing of Electricity Production Mix in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2011-01-01

    As Malaysia have various possible energy sources based on the fossil fuels and renewable energies, the optimization for the usage of the energy sources to produce electricity should be managed as good as possible. It should be managed based on the desired demand for electricity on distributed location and its activities. In Malaysia, the location is divided with the two categories of Off-grid System and On-Grid System. Thus, this paper discuss on the parameters that could be used to determine the sharing of electricity production mix to meet the electricity demand for a location in Malaysia with for both two types the grid system categories. (author)

  7. Slovenske elektrarne has fulfilled the plan of electric power production at 101 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a. s., produced in 2003 year the electric power in capacity 26,047.6 GWh, whereby they fulfilled business plan at 101 %. In compare with the last year it is a reduction in production by 1,397.3 GWh. The biggest share of production - till 68.6 % of overall production of the Slovenske elektrarne, was provided by nuclear sources. Nuclear power plants fulfilled business plan at 104 %, when Jaslovske Bohunice NPP has produced 11,625 GWh and Mochovce NPP 6,238 GWh. The share of other power plants on the electricity production is presented

  8. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  9. The effect of the Fukushima accident on the electricity production and consumption in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Based on statistics of the Japanese electricity production and consumption, the author analyses their evolution from 2008 to 2013 in order to study the influence of the Fukushima accident. If nuclear production fell down from its 25 per cent share, electricity consumption remained almost steady, in spite of Government calls for its reduction. This loss of nuclear production has been balanced by an increased use of fossil fuels (coal, oil products, and natural gas). The author also comments the evolution of CO 2 emissions which therefore increased after the accident, and the impact of these evolutions on the Japanese trade balance

  10. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  11. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO 2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO 2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO 2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: → We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. → We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. → Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

  12. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  13. The use of rotating electric are for spherical particle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bica, Ion

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental device designed to obtain spherical partióles by means of a rotating electric are. A rotation frequency of the electric are of 750 s-1, a voltage of 50 V (dc and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained.

    Este trabajo presenta la instalación experimental destinada a la obtención de partículas esféricas utilizando un arco eléctrico rotatorio. Para ello se utilizó una frecuencia de rotación del arco eléctrico de 750 s-1 a un voltaje del arco de 50 V (cc y una corriente de 100 A. La velocidad de flujo de materia fue de 3 g.min-1 obteniéndose partículas de diámetros comprendidos entre 15 y 20 μm.

  14. Simultaneous electricity production and antibiotics removal by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Guo, Wenying; Wang, Yun; Huang, Xixian; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xian, Jinchan

    2018-04-07

    The removal of antibiotics is crucial for improvement of water quality in animal wastewater treatment. In this paper, the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) in terms of degradation of typical antibiotics was investigated. Electricity was successfully produced by using sludge supernatant mixtures and synthesized animal wastewater as inoculation in MFC. Results demonstrated that the stable voltage, the maximum power density and internal resistance of anaerobic self-electrolysis (ASE) -112 and ASE-116 without antibiotics addition were 0.574 V, 5.78 W m -3 and 28.06 Ω, and 0.565 V, 5.82 W m -3 and 29.38 Ω, respectively. Moreover, when adding aureomycin, sulfadimidine, roxithromycin and norfloxacin into the reactors, the performance of MFC was inhibited (0.51 V-0.41 V), while the output voltage was improved with the decreased concentration of antibiotics. However, the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) were both obviously enhanced. Simultaneously, LC-MS analysis showed that the removal efficiency of aureomycin, roxithromycin and norfloxacin were all 100% and the removal efficiency of sulfadimidine also reached 99.9%. These results indicated that antibiotics displayed significantly inhibitions for electricity performance but improved the quality of water simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  16. New product- Electric bike’s development in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yiding

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The thesis highlights the development of a new product in Finnish market. According to international marketing knowledge, a marketing plan should be made to improve the strategy of the product’s development in four aspects. These are product, price, promotion and place. After a failing business experience in Nordic China Centre, Nordic Interflow wants to do the marketing research for the Chinese market, Finnish customers and Finnish competitors. The purpose of this thesis was...

  17. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  18. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  19. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  20. The limits of the integration of intermittent electricity productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the issue of intermittency of renewable energies and the associated need of an available spare energy, the author states that the installed nuclear power cannot be significantly decreased by a development of photovoltaic and wind energy productions. He shows that the maximum share of renewable energy which can be used in the energy mix is its load factor. In the case of wind energy, he formulates a set of theorems which notably address the possibilities to avoid an overproduction of wind energy, the assessment of the controllable production, the maximum share of wind energy. Based on these theorems, he computes the purchase cost of wind energy and the avoided cost of nuclear production. He addresses the case of photovoltaic energy for which he outlines the perspectives and obstacles related to energy storage

  1. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  2. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarzynska, Karolina, E-mail: ksafarzy@wu.ac.at [Institute for the Environment and Regional Development, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Nordbergstrasse 15 (UZA4, 4B), A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den, E-mail: jeroen.bergh@uab.es [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology and Department of Economics and Economic History, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn-Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and the Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fellow of Tinbergen Institute and NAKE (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: > We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. > Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. > We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. > We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. > We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  3. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: → We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. → Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. → We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. → We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. → We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  4. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  5. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  6. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C; Barnes, Kallie L; Ryan, Michael G; Neff, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass removed from the forest, and the occurrence and intensity of a future wildfire in this stand. In this study we investigate the carbon balance of a forest treatment with varying fates of harvested biomass, including use for bioenergy electricity production, and under varying scenarios of future disturbance and regeneration. Bioenergy is a carbon intensive energy source; in our study we find that carbon emissions from bioenergy electricity production are nearly twice that of coal for the same amount of electricity. However, some emissions from bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit achieved by using harvested biomass for bioenergy electricity production may be increased through avoided pyrogenic emissions if the forest treatment can effectively reduce severity. Forest treatments with the use of harvested biomass for electricity generation can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions due to reduced intensity and severity of a future wildfire in the treated stand. However, changes in future wildfire and regeneration regimes may affect forest carbon balance and these climate-induced changes may influence forest carbon balance as much, or more, than bioenergy production.

  7. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Beatriz; Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco; De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  8. Challenges and prospects of electricity production from renewable energy sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Sucic, Boris; Pusnik, Matevz

    2014-01-01

    Development of the utilisation of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency represents the main policy for sustainable development. The overall target of the European Union Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewables (RES) is to achieve at least a 20% share of energy from renewables in the gross final energy consumption in 2020. The mandatory national target for Slovenia is a 25% share of energy from RES in the gross final consumption. The share of RES in the gross final energy consumption in Slovenia was 18.8% in 2011 and the share of electricity production from RES was 30.8% in the gross electricity consumption. Electricity production from photovoltaics (PV) and biogas plants in agriculture has been growing fast after the adoption of the new supportive decree for electricity from RES in 2009. The very fast growth of PV plants has caused a problem for financing electricity from RES. Similar effects have been also recorded in the biogas sector, which represents a threat to food production. The state of the art, targets and challenges of electricity production from RES in Slovenia are described in the paper. - Highlights: • Slovenia's RES policy, regulatory frameworks and incentives are described. • The most important development challenges of the RES-E sector are discussed. • RES-E policy priorities need to be reassessed in view of recent global trends. • Responsible policy making and implementation follow-up are necessary

  9. Regulatory reforms and productivity: An empirical analysis of the Japanese electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Makiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese electricity industry has experienced regulatory reforms since the mid-1990s. This article measures productivity in Japan's steam power-generation sector and examines the effect of reforms on the productivity of this industry over the period 1978-2003. We estimate the Luenberger productivity indicator, which is a generalization of the commonly used Malmquist productivity index, using a data envelopment analysis approach. Factors associated with productivity change are investigated through dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation of panel data. Our empirical analysis shows that the regulatory reforms have contributed to productivity growth in the steam power-generation sector in Japan

  10. Thermal electricity production at EDF: the technological ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, M.

    1993-01-01

    In France, fossil fuel power plants are used for semi-base production (≤ 4.000 hours/year) and for peak periods (≤ 1.000 hours/year). Existing plants are renovated taking in account environmental protection: diminution of NO x and SO 2 concentrations. Three processes are used: circulating fluidized beds, fluidized beds under pressure, or integrated gasification combined cycle. (A.B.). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Electricity and catholyte production from ceramic MFCs treating urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Jimenez, Irene; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-19

    The use of ceramics as low cost membrane materials for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) has gained increasing interest, due to improved performance levels in terms of power and catholyte production. The catholyte production in ceramic MFCs can be attributed to a combination of water or hydrogen peroxide formation from the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathode, water diffusion and electroosmotic drag through the ion exchange membrane. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of ceramic wall/membrane thickness, in terms of power, as well as catholyte production from MFCs using urine as a feedstock. Cylindrical MFCs were assembled with fine fire clay of different thicknesses (2.5, 5 and 10 mm) as structural and membrane materials. The power generated increased when the membrane thickness decreased, reaching 2.1 ± 0.19 mW per single MFC (2.5 mm), which was 50% higher than that from the MFCs with the thickest membrane (10 mm). The amount of catholyte collected also decreased with the wall thickness, whereas the pH increased. Evidence shows that the catholyte composition varies with the wall thickness of the ceramic membrane. The possibility of producing different quality of catholyte from urine opens a new field of study in water reuse and resource recovery for practical implementation.

  12. Scenarios for shale oil, syncrude and electricity production in Estonia in the interim 1995-2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the author's pre-feasibility studies of oil shale utilization in oil production, electricity generation and cement industry. The electricity generation has been calculated on the basis of 1.4 and 1.6 GW oil shale power plants with pulverized fuel combustion today. The three scenarios OILMIN, OILMED and OILMAX differ by annual oil production and different investment costs. The investments in the oil shale processing industry seem to be more profitable than those in electricity generation. It is also important to take into account that the very high sensitivity of oil market to geopolitical aspects of resources and to sudden crises, makes the crude price a stochastic parameter, which loses its indicative character for long term economic choice. Therefore it will be very important to have the electric power plants with flexible combined oil shale and coal combustion. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  13. Politics design of cleaner production in the electric sector for the energy scenarios of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa P, Woody; Smith Q, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Cleaner production (PML) in Colombia has been implemented as an agreement of wills between the companies of different productive sectors and the Colombian environment ministry. In the electric sector, the agreement of PML has been implemented with successes and difficulties. A concern that exists today among the companies of the electric sector involved in the agreement is about its long-term viability. Supported in the planning tool of scenarios, an analysis of the possible futures of PML in the Colombian electric sector, using the energy scenarios for Colombia (UPME, 2000), is made. PML policies are designed that will allow to analyze its long-term implementation. This work seeks to contribute in the long-term analysis about the evolution and tendencies of PML in the Colombian electric sector, according with the markets dynamics, trends and competitiveness that are gaining space in the international community

  14. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  15. Consequences of flexible electricity production from biogas on the conventional power plant fleet and the CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhammer, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Electricity production using biogas is rather homogeneous throughout the year due to the compensational regulations. As a consequence of the fluctuating energy production from renewable energy sources a more flexible electricity production is needed. The contribution deals with the regulations and measures of the new renewable energy law 2012 and their impact on the conventional power plant fleet and the carbon dioxide emissions and their impact on an improvement of demand-oriented electricity production.

  16. Managing price risk in emerging electricity markets : OTC products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of power markets in the United States from traditional cost based rates to mature markets, characterized by significant specialization, high volume financial market and multiple futures/indices, is described. The meaning and characteristic features of the commodity market in electricity, OTC/futures products for the electricity markets, physical delivery vs. financial settlement, models for producer trading positions and consumer trading positions, long producer position, long spread option position, short consumer position, and long producer time spread position were explained

  17. Electricity production in a hydro system with a reservoir constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Lars; Skaar, Jostein; Soergard, Lars

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this article is to analyze how market power may affect the allocation of production between seasons (summer and winter) in a hydro power system with reservoir constraints and inflow uncertainty. We find that even without market power the price in the summer season may be lower than the expected price in the winter season. Market power may in some situations lead to higher sales and lower price in summer than the competitive outcome and in other situations to the opposite result. Furthermore, market power may lead to a smaller price difference between summer and winter than in a competitive market. (Author)

  18. Production of concentrates for supplying a national nuclear electric program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C.M.

    An analysis was made of the yearly requirements of natural U to satisfy a nuclear power program in Mexico. On the basis of these requirements an evaluation was made of the concentrate production necessary to supply those needs. The lack of known commercial reserves to satisfy the concentrate needs is shown. An estimation is made of the costs for the discovery and exploitation of sufficient reserves. In evaluating the U needs and associated costs, three cases were considered: all BWR or PWR or HWR

  19. Gross domestic product estimation based on electricity utilization by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Mirjana; Vujičić, Slađana; Gajić, Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to estimate gross domestic product (GDP) based on electricity estimation by artificial neural network (ANN). The electricity utilization was analyzed based on different sources like renewable, coal and nuclear sources. The ANN network was trained with two training algorithms namely extreme learning method and back-propagation algorithm in order to produce the best prediction results of the GDP. According to the results it can be concluded that the ANN model with extreme learning method could produce the acceptable prediction of the GDP based on the electricity utilization.

  20. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  1. New production of electric power when accelerating nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This investigation states that it is possible to eliminate nuclear power to the beginning of the year 2000. In this case the time for planning and construction of large coal power plants with condenser turbines should be set at seven years. The production cost excluding fuel will be 0.12 to 0.19 SEK per kWh. Investment cost is estimated to 5 500 to 8 200 SEK per kW. When using wood chips the cost will be 0.30 SEK and 11 300 SEK, respectively. A large part of the increased cost will include substantial flue gas purification. The existing plant of Karlshamn should be maintained with a minimum of charges and extensions

  2. Technologies for production of Electricity and Heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative...... to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability...... of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment...

  3. Wind energy in electric power production. Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lento, R; Peltola, E

    1984-01-15

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics also estimates on the available wind energy were made. 800 wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics include is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions causes extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of a plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  4. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, P.; Forsius, J.; Maekinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the latest knowledge about the greenhouse effect and its impact on electricity production and consumption in Finland and so to update the former study of Aittoniemi made at IVO in 1990. This research used the new climate change scenarios which were drawn up in the Nordic research project entitled Climate Change and Energy Production, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers, and in the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change, SILMU. These scenarios have been specially made for Finland, and are thus more suitable than the former global models. The base scenario was chosen to be the year 2025 with no climate change, and the climate change-affected years studied were 2025 and 2100. The base scenario of electricity consumption and production took advantage of the scenario of Ministry of Trade and Industry made at the end of the 1980s. Some changes were essential, however, since the present development proves that some of the assumptions concerning power production forms will not be relevant in 2025. Based on the known dependencies between electricity consumption and temperature, impacts were calculated for each affected consumption sector: electric heating, household consumption and industrial consumption, process industry excluded. The total effect on the supply system was estimated with the KAPAS model, developed for capacity planning of Finland. According to the results, the effects of the projected climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. (13 refs.)

  5. Electricity production and microbial characterization of thermophilic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xi-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Ting-Jia; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-11-01

    Thermophilic microbial fuel cell (TMFC) offers many benefits, but the investigations on the diversity of exoelectrogenic bacteria are scarce. In this study, a two-chamber TMFC was constructed using ethanol as an electron donor, and the microbial dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA clone-library sequencing. The open-circuit potential of TMFC was approximately 650mV, while the maximum voltage was around 550mV. The maximum power density was 437mW/m 2 , and the columbic efficiency in this work was 20.5±6.0%. The Firmicutes bacteria, related to the uncultured bacterium clone A55_D21_H_B_C01 with a similarity of 99%, accounted for 90.9% of all bacteria in the TMFC biofilm. This unknown bacterium has the potential to become a new thermophilic exoelectrogenic bacterium that is yet to be cultured. The development of TMFC-involved biotechnologies will be beneficial for the production of valuable chemicals and generation of energy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whatever the customer wants, the customer gets? Exploring the gap between consumer preferences and default electricity products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaenzig, Josef; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, residential customers can choose their preferred provider and select among a variety of different electricity products, including green power options. Successful product design and marketing strategies for green electricity may provide electricity providers with a competitive advantage, while at the same time contributing to energy policy objectives. This requires, however, a thorough understanding of customer preferences. We investigate the relative importance of different product attributes in creating customer value, and find that price and electricity mix are the two most important attributes. The German electricity customers we surveyed in 2009 expressed an implicit willingness to pay a premium of about 16% for electricity from renewable sources. We conclude that consumers are willing to pay a significant price premium for an upgrade from the current default electricity mix in Germany to a more environmentally friendly default electricity mix, and discuss implications for marketing strategy and energy policy. Our findings are based on a dataset of 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German residential consumers, collected in a stated preference survey. - Highlights: ► Study is based on 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German retail consumers. ► Apart from price, the electricity mix is the most important product attribute. ► Majority of consumers prefer nuclear-free electricity. ► Respondents are willing to pay a premium for green electricity. ► German default electricity mix does not correspond to current customer preferences.

  7. Disclosure of electricity products--lessons from consumer research as guidance for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Holt, Edward

    2003-01-01

    In this article we compare recent findings from focus group research on electricity information disclosure in Switzerland with consumer research in the US. On the basis of the results, we provide an overview of disclosure schemes in the US and in Europe. Our aim is to summarize the key issues of electricity disclosure from a residential customer's point of view and to underline the potential of consumer research for energy policy making. The results are as follows: Consumer preferences for electricity disclosure are very similar in Switzerland and the US. There is a basic demand for trustworthy information and market transparency. Consumers want to compare electricity products with regard to price, generation sources, and environmental and contractual attributes. Thus, the disclosure of critical information is important to improve competition by increasing consumer confidence in their ability to choose among electricity offerings. Even more, electricity disclosure is a key element of consumer protection in general, and is a useful educational tool in regulated electricity markets

  8. Governmental policy and prospect in electricity production from renewables in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katinas, Vladislovas; Markevicius, Antanas; Erlickyte, Regina; Marciukaitis, Mantas

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania, the generation of electricity is based on the nuclear energy and on the fossil fuels. After the decommissioning of Ignalina nuclear power plant in 2009, the Lithuanian Power Plant and other thermal plants will become the major sources of electricity. Consequently, the Lithuanian power sector must focus on the implementation of renewable energy projects, penetration of new technologies and on consideration of the future opportunities for renewables, and Government policy for promoting this kind of energy. Production of electricity from renewable energy is based on hydro, biomass and wind energy resources in Lithuania. Due to the typical climatic condition in Lithuania the solar photovoltaics and geothermal energy are not used for power sector. Moreover, the further development of hydropower plants is limited by environmental restrictions, therefore priority is given to wind energy development and installation of new biomass power plants. According to the requirements set out in the Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market [Official Journal L283, 33-40, 27 October 2001], 7% of gross consumption of electricity will be generated from renewable energy by 2010 in Lithuania. The aim of this paper is to show the estimation of the maximum renewable power penetration in the Lithuanian electricity sector and possible environmental impact

  9. Production planning of combined heat and power plants with regards to electricity price spikes : A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems could help manage the expected increase of volatility on the Nordic electricity market by starting a combined heat and power production plant (CHP) instead of a heat only production plant when electricity prices are expected to be high. Fortum Värme is interested in adjusting the production planning of their district heating system more towards high electricity prices and in their system there is a peak load CHP unit that could be utilised for this purpose. The econom...

  10. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A bench marking analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    2011-05-15

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO{sub 2} intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production through simple bench marking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Ethanol from sugar cane with simultaneous production of electrical energy and biofertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueiras, G.

    1981-08-04

    A flexible nonpolluting industrial scheme is described for converting sugar cane into fuel-grade ethanol, fertilizer, and electric power. The cleaned cane is treated in a diffuser to separate the juice, which is enzymically hydrolyze d to ethanol, and bagasse containing 65-85% moisture, which is mechanically ground with the rest of the cane plant (leaves and buds) and biochemically digested to provide liquid and solid fertilizers as well as a methane-containing gas, which is burned in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The vinasse from the ethanol fermentation is also cycled to the digestion step. The process conditions can be varied depending upon the desired product ratio; if fuel is preferred, each ton of cane (dry weight) can produce 135 L ethanol, 50 kW electric power, and 150 kg fertilizer; if electric energy is preferred, each ton can give 75 L ethanol, 115 kW power, and 220 kg fertilizer.

  12. Determinants of Electricity Demand in Nonmetallic Mineral Products Industry: Evidence from a Comparative Study of Japan and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity intensity is an important indicator for measuring production efficiency. A comparative study could offer a new perspective on investigating determinants of electricity demand. The Japanese non-metallic mineral products industry is chosen as the object for comparison considering its representative position in production efficiency. By adopting the cointegration model, this paper examines influencing factors of electricity demand in Japanese and Chinese non-metallic mineral products industries under the same framework. Results indicate that although economic growth and industrial development stages are different between the two countries, major factors that affect the sectoral energy consumption are the same. Specifically, economic growth and industrial activity contribute to the growth of sectoral electricity consumption, while R&D intensity, per capita productivity and electricity price are contributors to the decline of sectoral electricity consumption. Finally, in order to further investigate the development trend of sectoral electricity demand, future electricity consumption and conservation potential are predicted under different scenarios. Electricity demand of the Chinese non-metallic mineral products industry is predicted to be 680.53 TWh (terawatt-hours in 2020 and the sectoral electricity conservation potentials are estimated to be 118.26 TWh and 216.25 TWh under the moderate and advanced electricity-saving scenarios, respectively.

  13. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  14. Layered Electrical Product Application Protocol (AP). Draft: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product. The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product, the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transfering some or all of the information required. This applications protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining and exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format. The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.

  15. Energy and environmental impacts of electric vehicle battery production and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electric vehicle batteries use energy and generate environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for 4 selected battery types (advanced lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, nickel-cadmium, and nickel-metal hydride), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. For example, although the nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, energy requirements for production of the cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for the metal hydride electrodes, but the latter may be more difficult to recycle

  16. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  17. Summary - Advanced high-temperature reactor for hydrogen and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, the production of electricity has been assumed to be the primary application of nuclear energy. That may change. The production of hydrogen (H 2 ) may become a significant application. The technology to produce H 2 using nuclear energy imposes different requirements on the reactor, which, in turn, may require development of new types of reactors. Advanced High Temperature reactors can meet the high temperature requirements to achieve this goal. This alternative application of nuclear energy may necessitate changes in the regulatory structure

  18. Dynamics of particle production by strong electric fields in non-Abelian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, John F.; Mihaila, Bogdan; Cooper, Fred

    2010-01-01

    We develop methods for computing the dynamics of fermion pair production by strong color electric fields including backreaction using the semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov (B-V) equation. We implement the Schwinger pair production by inserting a source term in the B-V equation which includes Pauli-Blocking effects. We present numerical results for a model with SU(2) symmetries in (1+1) Cartesian dimensions.

  19. Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamț

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess milk production and chemical composition during the first 100 days of lactation, under the influence of electrical conductivity, parity and days in milk. Study was conducted at Research and Development Station for Bovine Arad, on 66 Romanian Spotted cows (20 primiparous, 46 multiparous. Significantly higher values (p≤0.017 of electrical conductivity were recorded for primiparous (10.15±0.09 mS/cm compared with multiparous (8.79±0.15 mS/cm. During the first 30 DIM electrical conductivity was higher (9.7±0.12 mS/cm than for 31 to 60 DIM (9.04±0.12 mS/cm; p≤0.001 and for 61 to 100 DIM (8.17±0.11 mS/cm, p≤0.001. Multifactorial regression model applied highlights significant influence of month of calving (p≤0.001 and DIM (p≤0.034 on the electrical conductivity, while parity had no influence (p>0.36. Medium and negative correlations were calculated between electrical conductivity and some chemical components (fat R=-0.15, protein R=-0.13, while to milk production correlation was positive (R=0.12. No significant correlations were obtained according to lactose content (R=-0.013. Dynamics of milk production and chemical composition have been significantly influenced by month of calving (p≤0.001, DIM (p≤0.001 and parity (p≤0.002. This study found no significant influence of milk electrical conductivity on milk production or chemical composition (p>0.59.

  20. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  1. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm...

  2. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated with help of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from

  3. Life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification versus other technologies for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the life cycle environmental performance of miscanthus gasification for electricity production in Denmark is evaluated and compared with that of direct combustion and anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared to those of natural gas to assess the potential...

  4. Report on renewable electricity self-consumption and self-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    After having indicated the main conclusions of this study in terms of observations, of objectives of a support arrangement, and of recommendations for the photovoltaic sector, this report first presents the legal context and some definitions for energy self-production and self-consumption: foreign experiments, legal framework of photovoltaic electricity sales, definition of self-production and self-consumption. It proposes an overview of opportunities and stakes for self-production and self-consumption: potential benefits, impact on the electric grid, supply safety, grid control, supply-demand equilibrium, safety of persons and goods, flexibility of the electric system. It presents the different types of self-consumers and self-producers in the individual housing sector, in collective building and urban blocks, and in industrial and office buildings. It addresses the case of non-interconnected areas: context, opportunity, principles. It discusses the impact of self-production/self-consumption on the economic fundamentals of the electric system and on the financing of renewable energies. The remuneration and financing issues are then discussed (examples, net-metering system, additional premium system, other arrangements) as well as the architecture of a support system. Several contributions of an association of individual producers and of different professional bodies of the energy, photovoltaic, and building sectors are proposed in appendix

  5. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Caribe General Electric Product in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Caribe General Electric Product facility (GE Río Piedras) covers approximately 4 acres and is situated on the northern coastal plain in a relatively flat industrial/urban area of Río Piedras with an elevation between 20 and 40 feet above mean sea leve

  6. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krömer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4 % (in EU) and 18.0 % (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A study on the implementation of the performance of electrical products standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, M A

    1984-03-01

    The Steering Committee on Electrical Products (SCOPEP) has developed a number of performance standards for selected electrical products and product attributes, under the direction of the Canadian Standards Association. Although the development of these standards shows that a successful standards writing process is in place, the initiation and implementation has been achieved by one or more stakeholder groups spearheading the requirement for the standard. As a result, SCOPEP has been unable to achieve its full potential in its role of developing peformance standards for electrical products. A study was undertaken with the aim of developing a strategic plan for SCOPEP which would be supported by marketing and other strategies. The major elements of the strategy include: selecting those products for which the benefits of a standards program significantly outweigh the costs; agreeing on the use of a framework which rigorously evaluates the cost-benefits of developing performance standards; producing a critical mass of products through the selection process so that revenues from label fees will ultimately balance program costs and support a full time SCOPEP secretariat; aggressively marketing the standards in all sectors, using a balanced push-and-pull strategy; and developing a protagonist attitude so that standards programs implemented are credible to all SCOPEP stakeholders. Detailed cost-benefit tables are appended. 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Electric energy production and environmental licensing: citizenship in Brazil in time of ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2017-01-01

    The choices of energy sources gain relevance in the face of the ecological crisis which has a central questioning on the modes of production and consumption and that stems from a system which changes everything into merchandise. On one hand, brazilian electricity generation has the advantage of using clean energy in great part of its composition, at least in discourse. On the other hand, though, there are high social and environmental costs, especially for communities living near the regions where projects for the electricity sector are built. This research aimed to identify and analyse different modes society takes part in the process of choosing energy sources for electricity generation in Brazil. It discusses the links between the ecological crisis and the production of electrical energy; how the institutional mechanisms for social participation on issues related to the production of electric power in Brazil work; and, how civil society participates in environmental licensing in the National Environment Council (CONAMA). A set of related approaches to the nature of the ecological crisis and the forms of social participation was adopted in the theoretical framework and an analysis of the electric sector panorama in Brazil has been drawn up. In order to investigate the forms society participates in issues related to the composition of the brazilian electricity matrix, the methodology comprised a documentary analysis and a case study. They included three categories of actors: (1) CONAMA's councilors, (2) experts from the Field; and (3) actors involved in the diagnosis study, planning and management of the electricity sector. The research identified inconsistencies, ambiguities and other relevant issues about the participation of society in the production of electrical energy. Such issues are related to: deficiencies in the mechanisms for information access; lack of transparency and patterns in internal documents; lack of social participation in the elaboration of

  9. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  10. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  11. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  12. Electricity mix and ecological assessments. Consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, M.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U.

    1998-12-01

    The study aims at analysing the methodological issues associated with the definition of electricity mixes and discussing the consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report has been designed as a guideline to support LCA practitioners in the systematic identification of the most appropriate electricity mixes for LCA applications. A detailed checklist has been developed for this purpose. It includes the following items: type of electricity supply (from the net, self production, direct contracts); voltage level; country/place of utilisation; year of utilisation; season/daytime of utilisation; import/export model; and, marginal vs. average approach. A few examples, utilising published LCA studies, illustrate the impacts of the insights gained in the present work. Although primarily aimed at applications in Switzerland, the main concepts, the modelling and parts of the information provided can also be applied to other European countries. In addition to the three models proposed earlier for the assessment of the Swiss yearly average electricity mix, a new model (M4) has been developed in the frame of the present task in order to take into account the conditions characteristic for Switzerland as a transit land for electricity trades between its neighbour countries. All existing electricity mix models as well as selected environmental inventories are described and compared in the report. As an example of results, the CO 2 emissions calculated for the Swiss yearly electricity supply mix are relatively small (48 g/kWh with model M4, as compared with 497 g/kWh for the average UCPTE mix). Key information on the structure of electricity generation and trade in Europe is provided. The modelling of the electricity supply for most of the European countries is less sensitive to the choice of an electricity model than for Switzerland. Considering that

  13. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  14. Potential of brown algae for sustainable electricity production through anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasahati, Peyman; Saffron, Christopher M.; Woo, Hee Chul; Liu, J. Jay

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity production through anaerobic digestion of brown algae was assessed. • Breakeven electricity selling price of 18.81 ¢/kWh was calculated. • AD unit has highest energy consumption of 14% of generated electricity. • Seaweed cost has largest cost contribution of 11.95 ¢/kWh to the calculated BESP. • Impact of economic and process parameters on BESP was assessed. - Abstract: This paper assesses the economics of heat and power production from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of brown algae (Laminaria japonica) at a plant scale of 400,000 dry tons/year. The conversion process was simulated in Aspen Plus v.8.6 to obtain rigorous heat and material balance for energy assessments and the development of a techno-economic model. The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) was found to be 18.81 ¢/kWh assuming 30 years of plant life and a 10% internal rate of return. The results show that the AD unit has the highest energy demand in the entire process and consumes approximately 14% of all electricity produced. In addition, the seaweed cost of 11.95 ¢/kWh is the largest cost component that contributes to the calculated BESP, which means that a reduction in the cost of seaweed cultivation can significantly decrease the electricity production cost. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the economic and process parameters in order to assess the impact of possible variations and uncertainties in these parameters. Results showed that solids loading, anaerobic digestion yield, and time, respectively, have the highest impact on BESP.

  15. The plant for co-production of synfuel and electricity with reduced CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kler, A.M.; Tyurina, E.A.; Mednikov, A.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation). Energy Systems Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Consideration is given to the prospective technologies for combined production of synthetic fuel (SF) and electricity. The mathematical models of plant for co-production of synfuel and electricity (PCSE) intended for combined production of electricity and synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether or membrane-based hydrogen production from coal were developed. They were used in the optimization studies on the installations. As a result of the studies, the design characteristics for the plant elements, the relationships between the SF and electricity productions, etc. were determined. These data were used to identify the ranges of SF price for various prices of fuel, electricity and equipment, and estimate the profitability of SF production. Special attention is paid to modeling of CO{sub 2} removal system as part of PCSE and studies on PCSE optimization. The account is taken of additional capital investments and power consumption in the systems.

  16. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  17. Steelmaking plants: towards lower energy consumption and lower CO2 production using more electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, R.

    2010-01-01

    Production processes of integrated steel plants, mostly based on coal as an energy source, produce about 2 tons of CO 2 per ton of steel. As specific CO 2 production has to be decreased by 20% in the mid-term (2020), immediate action is required to further decrease the specific energy consumption. The integrated plant is not energy self-sufficient as extra electricity must be bought from outside, but on the other hand, produces an excess of process gas that has to be used within the plant. Optimisation of the use of the internally produced gases is a key issue as either they are burned at the power plant with a conversion yield to electricity of about 40% and often much lower, or might be valued in the plant internal heat exchangers with a much higher efficiency such as ∼90% in the hot stoves or ∼65% or more in the present reheating furnaces. This paper shows that using the high-value coke oven gas as a chemical reactant (for DRI production) leads to significant extra metal production. From a global viewpoint, this extra metal production is almost carbon-free, as it requires only electricity for its manufacture. (author)

  18. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  19. Comparison of electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.

    1980-01-01

    Electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants their structure and future development are calculated and compared. Assumed beginning of operation is in the mid-1980. The technical and economical data are based on a nuclear power unit of 1 300 MW and on a coal-fired twin plant of 2 x 750 MW. The study describes and discusses the calculational method and the results. The costs for the electricity generation show an economic advantage for nuclear power. A sensitivity analysis shows that these results are valid also for changed input parameters. (orig.) [de

  20. Evaluation Of Electricity Production Cost Of Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Models

    OpenAIRE

    DÖNER, Nimeti

    2017-01-01

    The level of the development of countries is being measured by thecountry’s quantity of production and consumption energy. Concerning Turkey,according to an energy report of The World Energy Council Turkish NationalCommittee in order to meet the electricity needs of the country in 2010, there should befounded a 2000 MW(e) capacity nuclear power plant. For the nuclear electric powerplant considered to be founded in Turkey, three types of commercial reactor models,that are Pressiued Water React...

  1. Design, production and first commissioning results of the electrical feedboxes of the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, A.; Atieh, S.; Benda, V.; Bertarelli, A.; Bouillot, A.; CERN; Brodzinski, K.; Wroclaw Tech. U.; Folch, R.; CERN; Fydrych, J.; Wroclaw Tech. U.; Genet, M.; Koczorowski, S.; Metral, L.; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP; Fermilab; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP; CERN; Serpukhov, IHEP

    2007-01-01

    A total of 44 CERN designed cryogenic electrical feedboxes are needed to power the LHC superconducting magnets. The feedboxes include more than 1000 superconducting circuits fed by high temperature superconductor and conventional current leads ranging from 120 A to 13 kA. In addition to providing the electrical current to the superconducting circuits, they also ensure specific mechanical and cryogenic functions for the LHC. The paper focuses on the main design aspects and related production operations and gives an overview of specific technologies employed. Results of the commissioning of the feedboxes of the first LHC sectors are presented

  2. Fusion-product ash buildup in tokamak with radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The buildup of thermalized fusion products (ash) in a tokamak can seriously limit burn times. Prior studies have concentrated on deposition profile effects on alpha particle transport in tokamaks but have not considered the effect on ash of radial electric fields (either created internally, e.g. due to high-energy alpha leakage, or generated externally). The present study focuses on this issue since it appears that electric fields might offer one approach to control of the ash. Approximate field and source profiles are used, based on prior calculations

  3. Production technology optimization of biscuit baked by electric-contact way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, G. A.; Popov, V. P.; Khanina, T. V.; Maneeva, E. Sh; Krasnova, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Electric-contact way of baking allows one to maintain more nutrients used in biscuit making. As a result of the biscuit production technology optimization, it is established that 30-62,5% is an optimal amount of starch brought instead of flour; 184-200% is optimal amount of egg melange; at this a complex indicator of organoleptic properties will be more than 340 degrees, a complex indicator of physical and chemical properties will be more than 3,3 degrees, and specific costs of energy spent on the biscuit electric-contact baking process will be less than 100 W/kg.

  4. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  5. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsius, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Maekinen, P. [Imatran Voima Oy, Helsinki (Finland). Environmental Protection Div.

    1996-12-31

    In the next few decades, the probable strengthening of the greenhouse effect may bring about considerable changes in energy production and consumption, which depend on climate. It is presumed that some of the changes will occur even if the rise in greenhouse gas concentration will be reduced. Because the investments in energy production have a long-term influence, decision-makers should have an idea about the impact of the strengthening of the greenhouse effect on energy production and consumption in Finland. According to the results of this study, the effects of climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. The consumption of heating electricity will decrease substantially. Because the non- climate-dependent sectors of electricity consumption (process industry and services) account for more than a half of the total consumption, the effect on the total consumption is, however, rather small. The total annual hydropower production in Finland was estimated to be 2 % more both in the year 2025 and 2100 than at present. The annual mean discharges do not change very much compared to the present. The greatest difference in comparison with the present is the noticeable smoothing of the annual discharge variation. Particularly in Northern Finland the smoothing is considerable in average circumstances. In the scenario for the year 2100, in particular, the spring flood peak is, on average, significantly reduced, the flood peak takes place earlier and the average winter discharges increase

  6. Effects of climate change on the production and consumption of electricity in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsius, J; Kuivalainen, P; Maekinen, P [Imatran Voima Oy, Helsinki (Finland). Environmental Protection Div.

    1997-12-31

    In the next few decades, the probable strengthening of the greenhouse effect may bring about considerable changes in energy production and consumption, which depend on climate. It is presumed that some of the changes will occur even if the rise in greenhouse gas concentration will be reduced. Because the investments in energy production have a long-term influence, decision-makers should have an idea about the impact of the strengthening of the greenhouse effect on energy production and consumption in Finland. According to the results of this study, the effects of climate change on the total consumption and production of electricity will be limited. The structure of both electricity consumption and production will remain rather similar, the most important changes applying to hydro power. The consumption of heating electricity will decrease substantially. Because the non- climate-dependent sectors of electricity consumption (process industry and services) account for more than a half of the total consumption, the effect on the total consumption is, however, rather small. The total annual hydropower production in Finland was estimated to be 2 % more both in the year 2025 and 2100 than at present. The annual mean discharges do not change very much compared to the present. The greatest difference in comparison with the present is the noticeable smoothing of the annual discharge variation. Particularly in Northern Finland the smoothing is considerable in average circumstances. In the scenario for the year 2100, in particular, the spring flood peak is, on average, significantly reduced, the flood peak takes place earlier and the average winter discharges increase

  7. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  8. production-distribution of the electric power in France and in the regions in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the main statistical results available on the electric power production and the electricity transport and distribution. In a context of the european market deregulation, these data are very useful. They offer a tool to the government in favor of the the energy supply. They present a detailed description of the electric power park by each production channel (cogeneration, renewable energies...) and and by areas. (A.L.B.)

  9. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  10. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic electricity production of a grid-connected urban house in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, Milorad; Blagojevic, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    A technically attractive solution for sustainable present and future is to integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into building fabric of urban houses as an alternative to grid electricity, however, in Serbia this technology is rarely applied. To contribute to sustainability and create success conditions for renewable energy sources (RES) applications due its wish to join EU, Serbian government currently integrated RES into its new energy policy framework. In the near future in the separate law, the government will identify financial conditions to apply this policy and start RES use. To adequately inform this law, we calculated the electricity revenue during entire life of a two-floor house in Belgrade, Serbia and investment in PV panels (currently available on Serbian market) integrated in its entire envelope. It was discussed what are the current degree of economic viability of this solution and suggested level of state subventions needed to support the solar electricity production either by feed-in tariffs or other financial instruments

  12. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  13. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  14. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  15. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  16. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  17. Estimating and decomposing productivity growth of the electricity generation industry in Malaysia: A stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Kok Fong; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the total factor productivity (TFP) growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over the 1998 to 2005 period. The stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) approach is used to measure TFP change and decompose TFP growth into efficiency change and technical progress. We find that it achieved average annual TFP growth of 2.34%, with technical change contributing the most to the TFP growth over the eight year period. We hence hypothesise that the new power plants with their newer capital-embodied technologies commencing during the sample period are likely to be the main reason for this strong technical change. In addition, it is also noted that this estimate for the Malaysian electricity generation industry is larger than the estimate obtained for the electricity sector as a whole, where we obtain 1.34% per year for a comparable period. -- Highlights: •This is the first empirical study that examines the TFP growth of the Malaysian electricity generation industry using the SFA method. •An average annual TFP change of the Malaysian electricity generation industry over eight years (1998-2005) has been achieved at 2.34% per year. •The technical progress contributing the most to the TFP growth and technical efficiency change and scale change making small contributions over the sample period

  18. Examination of Electrical Resistance of Carburizers Used for Cast Iron Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the results of examination of selected carburizers used for cast iron production with respect to their electric resistance. Both the synthetic graphite carburizers and petroleum coke (petcoke carburizers of various chemical composition were compared. The relationships between electrical resistance of tested carburizers and their quality were found. The graphite carburizers exhibited much better conductivity than the petcoke ones. Resistance characteristics were different for the different types of carburizers. The measurements were performed according to the authors’ own method based on recording the electric current flow through the compressed samples. The samples of the specified diameter were put under pressure of the gradually increased value (10, 20, 50, 60, and finally 70 bar, each time the corresponding value of electric resistance being measured with a gauge of high accuracy, equal to 0.1μΩ. The higher pressure values resulted in the lower values of resistance. The relation between both the thermal conductance and the electrical conductance (or the resistance is well known and mentioned in the professional literature. The results were analysed and presented both in tabular and, additionally, in graphic form.

  19. Short Term Electric Production Technology Switching Under Carbon Cap and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines fuel switching in electricity production following the introduction of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS for greenhouse gas emissions. A short-run restricted cost equation is estimated with carbon permits, high-carbon fuels, and low carbon fuels as variable inputs. Shadow values and substitution elasticities for carbon-free energy resources from nuclear, hydroelectric and renewable sources are imputed from the cost equation. The empirical analysis examines 12 European countries using monthly data on fuel use, prices, and electricity generation during the first phase of the European Emissions Trading System. Despite low emission permit prices, this study finds statistically significant substitution between fossil fuels and carbon free sources of energy for electric power production. Significant substitution between fossil fuels and nuclear energy also was found. Still, while 18 of the 20 substitution elasticities are statistically significant, they are all less than unity, consistent with limited substitution. Overall, these results suggest that prices for carbon emission permits relative to prices for carbon and carbon free sources of energy do matter but that electric power producers have limited operational flexibility in the short-run to satisfy greenhouse gas emission limits.

  20. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  1. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  2. Potential Benefits from Improved Energy Efficiency of KeyElectrical Products: The Case of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert,Virginie; McMahon, James E.

    2005-12-20

    The goal of this project was to estimate the net benefits that cost-effective improvements in energy efficiency can bring to developing countries. The study focused on four major electrical products in the world's second largest developing country, India. These products--refrigerators, room air conditioners, electric motors, and distribution transformers--are important targets for efficiency improvement in India and in other developing countries. India is an interesting subject of study because of it's size and rapid economic growth. Implementation of efficient technologies in India would save billions in energy costs, and avoid hundreds of megatons of greenhouse gas emissions. India also serves as an example of the kinds of improvement opportunities that could be pursued in other developing countries.

  3. Co-production of electricity and ethanol, process economics of value prior combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treasure, T.; Gonzalez, R.; Venditti, R.; Pu, Y.; Jameel, H.; Kelley, S.; Prestemon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Economics of producing cellulosic ethanol and bio-power in the same facility using an autohydrolysis process. ► Feedstock considerably affect the economics of the biorefinery facility. ► Lower moisture content improves financial performance of the bio-power business. - Abstract: A process economic analysis of co-producing bioethanol and electricity (value prior to combustion) from mixed southern hardwood and southern yellow pine is presented. Bioethanol is produced by extracting carbohydrates from wood via autohydrolysis, membrane separation of byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis of extracted oligomers and fermentation to ethanol. The residual solids after autohydrolysis are pressed and burned in a power boiler to generate steam and electricity. A base case scenario of biomass combustion to produce electricity is presented as a reference to understand the basics of bio-power generation economics. For the base case, minimum electricity revenue of $70–$96/MWh must be realized to achieve a 6–12% internal rate of return. In the alternative co-production cases, the ethanol facility is treated as a separate business entity that purchases power and steam from the biomass power plant. Minimum ethanol revenue required to achieve a 12% internal rate of return was estimated to be $0.84–$1.05/l for hardwood and $0.74–$0.85/l for softwood. Based on current market conditions and an assumed future ethanol selling price of $0.65/l, the co-production of cellulosic bioethanol and power does not produce financeable returns. A risk analysis indicates that there is a probability of 26.6% to achieve an internal rate of return equal or higher than 12%. It is suggested that focus be placed on improving yield and reducing CAPEX before this technology can be applied commercially. This modeling approach is a robust method to evaluate economic feasibility of integrated production of bio-power and other products based on extracted hemicellulose.

  4. Deregulated electricity markets with thermal losses and production bounds: models and optimality conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussel, D.; Červinka, Michal; Marechal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-38 ISSN 0399-0559 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Deregulated electricity market * production bounds * mathematical program with complementarity constraints * M-stationarity * calmness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2016

  5. Electric dewatering and drying of fine-grained products; Elektrisk afvanding og toerring af finkornede produkter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.K.; Villumsen, A.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project was to elucidate four aspects related to using electric direct current to find an energy saving alternative to existing methods within dewatering of fine-grained products. The four aspects were a) electrophoresis forced sedimentation of chalk slurry, b) electro osmotic dewatering of chalk slurry, c) electro osmotic dewatering of agricultural chalk and d) electro osmotic dewatering of liquid organic wastes. (EHS)

  6. Evaluation of the electric power production cost growth due to decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, G.

    1982-01-01

    The increase of production cost for electric power generated by nuclear plants, due to their decommissioning and the end of operating life, is analysed in respect to (a) waiting time from indefinite shut-down date to the start of dismantlement, (b) financing method, (c) interest and inflation rates. The analysis shows that the additional cost is always small for those solutions which have higher probability to be adopted

  7. Who invests in renewable electricity production? : Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid; Sundberg, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES...

  8. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind; Effiziente Foerderung der Stromerzeugung aus Offshore-Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Energy Economics Group (EEG)

    2014-03-15

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  9. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  10. An estimate of the cost of electricity production from hot-dry rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an estimate of the cost to produce electricity from hot-dry rock (HDR). Employment of the energy in HDR for the production of electricity requires drilling multiple wells from the surface to the hot rock, connecting the wells through hydraulic fracturing, and then circulating water through the fracture system to extract heat from the rock. The basic HDR system modeled in this paper consists of an injection well, two production wells, the fracture system (or HDR reservoir), and a binary power plant. Water is pumped into the reservoir through the injection well where it is heated and then recovered through the production wells. Upon recovery, the hot water is pumped through a heat exchanger transferring heat to the binary, or working, fluid in the power plant. The power plant is a net 5.1-MW e binary plant employing dry cooling. Make-up water is supplied by a local well. In this paper, the cost of producing electricity with the basic system is estimated as the sum of the costs of the individual parts. The effects on cost of variations to certain assumptions, as well as the sensitivity of costs to different aspects of the basic system, are also investigated

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  12. The detection and measurement of the electrical mobility size distributions associated with radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Lin.

    1996-04-01

    The potential risk of lung cancer has evoked interest in the properties of radon decay products. There are two forms of this progeny: either attached to ambient aerosols, or still in the status of ions/molecules/small clusters. This ''unattached'' activity would give a higher dose per unit of airborne activity than the ''attached'' progeny that are rather poorly deposited. In this thesis, a system for determining unattached radon decay products electrical mobility size distribution by measuring their electrical mobilities was developed, based on the fact that about 88% of 218 Po atoms have unit charge at the end of their recoil after decay from 222 Rn, while the remainder are neutral. Essential part of the setup is the radon-aerosol chamber with the Circular Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (CEMS) inside. CEMS is used for sampling and classifying the charged radioactive clusters produced in the chamber. An alpha- sensitive plastic, CR-39 disk, is placed in CEMS as an inlaid disk electrode and the alpha particle detector. CEMS showed good performance in fine inactive particles' classification. If it also works well for radon decay products, it can offer a convenient size distribution measurement for radioactive ultrafine particles. However, the experiments did not obtain an acceptable resolution. Suggestions are made for solving this problem

  13. Incorporating externalities in the assessment of different energy options for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Souza, Jair Albo Marques de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio

    2002-01-01

    The production of electricity considering its full chain cycle arises major local, regional and global environmental impacts. This fact and the need of several countries to establish energy plans for the next decades and also the recognition that environmental issues are playing important role in the decision-making process justify the interest in appropriate and comprehensive methodologies and tools to deal with this matter, to be applied mainly in the power sector. The main aim of the present investigation was the implementation and application of a simplified methodology based on the impact pathway (or damage function) approach which is being proposed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the estimation of externalities arising from the full chain cycle of different energy sources for electricity production in its Member States. The externalities arising from different options, including coal, oil, gas and nuclear, were estimated. A computer model based on the optimization of non-linear functions was used as a support tool for decision-making in the power sector. Taking into consideration the externalities from the air emissions of different options, nuclear power is the best solution even taking into consideration the effects of high consequence/low probability accidents. It should be noted that this investigation is not only being used to implement an environmental database, but also in enhancing the Brazilian capability in evaluating the different energy options for electricity production in the framework of sustainable development. (author)

  14. Customers' preferences with regard to attributes of electric power products; Kundenpraeferenzen fuer leistungsrelevante Attribute von Stromprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhalter, Andreas; Kaenzig, Josef; Wuestenhagen, Rolf [Univ. St. Gallen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie

    2009-06-15

    This article addresses whether standard electricity products in Switzerland meet the preferences of private customers. To determine customers' preferred electricity product we conducted an online survey with choice experiments implying 9420 choice decisions by 628 respondents in Switzerland. Using hierarchical Bayes estimation we determined customer preferences and the importance of individual product attributes in product choice. This procedure makes it possible to calculate part worth utilities for product attributes and to derive customers' implicit willingness to pay. The ''electricity mix'' had the most important influence on choice decisions, followed by ''monthly electricity costs'' and the ''location of the electricity generation''. The current Swiss electricity mix which consists of mainly nuclear and hydro power was only rated second to last in a comparison of five alternative mixes. Customers clearly prefer electricity mixes containing green energy. Findings of this study reveal strategic options for product design, positioning, and marketing for a liberalized electricity market. (orig.)

  15. Electrical production testing of the D0 Silicon microstrip tracker detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D0, SMT Production Testing Group; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    The D0 Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) is the innermost system of the D0 detector in Run 2. It consists of 912 detector units, corresponding to 5 different types of assemblies, which add up to a system with 792,576 readout channels. The task entrusted to the Production Testing group was to thoroughly debug, test and grade each detector module before its installation in the tracker. This note describes the production testing sequence and the procedures by which the detector modules were electrically tested and characterized at the various stages of their assembly.

  16. Using climate response functions in analyzing electricity production variables. A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøfte, Lena S.; Martino, Sara; Mo, Birger

    2016-04-01

    This study analyses whether and to which extent today's hydropower system and reservoirs in Mid-Norway are able to balance new intermittent energy sources in the region, in both today's and tomorrow's climate. We also investigate if the electricity marked model EMPS gives us reasonable results also when run in a multi simulation mode without recalibration. Climate related energy (CRE) is influenced by the weather, the system for energy production and transport, and by market mechanisms. In the region of Mid-Norway, nearly all power demand is generated by hydro-electric facilities. Due to energy deficiency and limitations in the power grid the region experiences a deficit of electricity. The region is likely to experience considerable investments in wind power and small-scale hydropower and the transmission grid within and out of the region will probably be extended, so this situation might change. In addition climate change scenarios for the region agree on higher temperatures, more precipitation in total and a larger portion of the precipitation coming as rain instead of snow, as well as we expect slightly higher wind speed and more storms during the winter. Changing temperatures will also change the electricity demand. EMPS is a tool for forecasting and planning in electricity markets, developed for optimization and simulation of hydrothermal power systems with a considerable share of hydro power. It takes into account transport constraints and hydrological differences between major areas or regional subsystems. During optimization the objective is to minimize the expected cost in the whole system subject to all constraints. Incremental water values (marginal costs for hydropower) are computed for each area using stochastic dynamic programming. A heuristic approach is used to treat the interaction between areas. In the simulation part of the model total system costs are minimized week by week for each climate scenario in a linear problem formulation. A detailed

  17. Potential benefits from improved energy efficiency of key electrical products: The case of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Stephen; Letschert, Virginie E.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the world's second most populous country continues to grow rapidly, bringing prosperity to a growing middle class while further straining an energy infrastructure already stretched beyond capacity. At the same time, efficiency policy initiatives have gained a foothold in India, and promise to grow in number over the coming years. This paper considers the maximum cost-effective potential of efficiency improvement for key energy-consuming products in the Indian context. The products considered are: household refrigerators, window air conditioners, motors and distribution transformers. Together, these products account for about 27% of delivered electricity consumption in India. The analysis estimates the minimum Life-Cycle Cost option for each product class, according to use patterns and prevailing customer marginal rates in each sector. This option represents an efficiency improvement ranging between 12% and 60%, depending on product class. If this level of efficiency was achieved starting in 2010, we estimate that total electricity consumption in India could be reduced by 4.7% by 2020, saving over 74 million tons of oil equivalent and over 246 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Net present financial savings of this efficiency improvement totals 8.1 billion dollars

  18. The Water Footprint Assessment of Electricity Production: An Overview of the Economic-Water-Energy Nexus in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Paolo Miglietta; Domenico Morrone; Federica De Leo

    2018-01-01

    The term “water-energy nexus” has remarkable implications in the sustainable management of water resources. The aim of this paper is to analyse the production of electricity, from an economic and technical perspective, using the water footprint and economic water productivity approaches. After comparing the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the production of the electricity sector, the study then compares the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sourc...

  19. N2O and CO production by electric discharge - Atmospheric implications. [Venus atmosphere simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Howell, W. E.; Hughes, R. E.; Chameides, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Enhanced levels of N2O and CO were measured in tropospheric air samples exposed to a 17,500-J laboratory discharge. These enhanced levels correspond to an N2O production rate of about 4 trillion molecules/J and a CO production rate of about 10 to the 14th molecules/J. The CO measurements suggest that the primary region of chemical production in the discharge is the shocked air surrounding the lightning channel, as opposed to the slower-cooling inner core. Additional experiments in a simulated Venus atmosphere (CO2 - 95%, N2 - 5%, at one atmosphere) indicate an enhancement of CO from less than 0.1 ppm prior to the laboratory discharge to more than 2000 ppm after the discharge. Comparison with theoretical calculations appears to confirm the ability of a shock-wave/thermochemical model to predict the rate of production of trace species by an electrical discharge.

  20. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  1. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-12-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated by means of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition, external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. The average private costs for biomass and coal based power generation are projected to be 68 and 38 mECU/kWh respectively in the year 2005. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. If the quantified external damages and benefits are included the cost range for bio-electricity is 53-70 mECU/kWh and 45-72 mECU/kWh for coal. Indirect economic effects (increment of Gross Domestic Product) and the difference in CO2 emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NOx, SO2, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass (coal mining excluded). In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly to fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose response relations. More detailed analysis is required with respect to macro-economic impacts. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the support of bio-electricity production and/or taxation of coal based power generation. 88 refs

  2. Economic competitiveness of electricity production means inside smart grids: application to nuclear energy and variable renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Baritaud, M.; Berthelemy, M.

    2017-01-01

    For a long time the comparison of the production costs of electricity from various primary sources were made on the basis of levelised costs of electricity (LCOE). LCOE is in fact the cost of the technology used for the production. In recent years solar and wind energies have seen their LCOE drop sharply (-60 % for solar power in 5 years) while nuclear energy's LCOE is now stabilized. In order to assess the cost of renewable energies, LCOE are not sufficient because variable energies like solar or wind power require other means of production to compensate their variability. Another point is that renewable energies are decentralized and as a consequence require investments to develop the power distribution system. This analysis presents a new methodology to compare the costs of electricity production means. This methodology takes into account LCOE and a system cost that represents the cost of the effects of the technology on the rest of the electricity production system. (A.C.)

  3. Production of syngas and oil at biomass refinery and their application in low speed two stroke engines for combined cycle electric energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, Daltro Garcia [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: pinatti@demar.eel.usp.br; Oliveira, Isaias de; Ferreira, Joao Carlos; Romao, Erica Leonor [RM Materiais Refratarios Ltd., Lorena, SP (Brazil)], Emails: isaias@rm-gpc.com.br, joaocarlos@rm-gpc.com.br, ericaromao@rm-gpc.com.br; Conte, Rosa Ana [University of Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), SP (Brazil). Lorena School of Engineering. Dept. of Materials Engineering], E-mail: rosaconte@demar.eel.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Low speed two stroke engines burn fuels of medium quality with high efficiency (47%) and allows a flexible use of oil (> 8% of total power) and syngas (< 92%, low heating value-LHV>11.2MJ/m{sup 3}). Biomass refinery (BR) generates oil from sludge and oleaginous biomass by low temperature conversion and syngas from lignocellulosic biomass treated by diluted acidic prehydrolysis. BR has low investment cost (US$1,500.00/kW) compared with hydroelectric plants (US$2,500.00/kW) and both generate electric energy with sales price below US$75.00/MWh. It allows distributed generation from 30 MW up to 170 MW or centralized power of 1 GW with six motor generator sets. BR matrix, mass and energy balance, fuels compositions, modulations and scope of supply will be presented. Besides electric energy BR can be tailored to supply other products such as ethanol, H{sub 2} for fuel cells, biodiesel, fertilizer recycling, char and simultaneously maximizes the production of animal protein. (author)

  4. Determining the amount of rumen-protected methionine supplement that corresponds to the optimal levels of methionine in metabolizable protein for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Overton, T R; Schwab, C G; Tauer, L W

    2007-10-01

    The profitability of feeding rumen-protected Met (RPMet) sources to produce milk protein was estimated using a 2-step procedure: First, the effect of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) on milk protein production was estimated by using a quadratic Box-Cox functional form. Then, using these estimation results, the amounts of RPMet supplement that corresponded to the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms were determined. The data used in this study were modified from data used to determine the optimal level of Met in MP for lactating cows in the Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (NRC, 2001). The data used in this study differ from that in the NRC (2001) data in 2 ways. First, because dairy feed generally contains 1.80 to 1.90% Met in MP, this study adjusts the reference production value (RPV) from 2.06 to 1.80 or 1.90%. Consequently, the milk protein production response is also modified to an RPV of 1.80 or 1.90% Met in MP. Second, because this study is especially interested in how much additional Met, beyond the 1.80 or 1.90% already contained in the basal diet, is required to maximize farm profits, the data used are limited to concentrations of Met in MP above 1.80 or 1.90%. This allowed us to calculate any additional cost to farmers based solely on the price of an RPMet supplement and eliminated the need to estimate the dollar value of each gram of Met already contained in the basal diet. Results indicated that the optimal level of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production was 2.40 and 2.42%, where the RPV was 1.80 and 1.90%, respectively. These optimal levels were almost identical to the recommended level of Met in MP of 2.40% in the NRC (2001). The amounts of RPMet required to increase the percentage of Met in MP from each RPV to 2.40 and 2.42% were 21.6 and 18.5 g/d, respectively. On the other hand, the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing profit were 2.32 and 2.34%, respectively. The amounts

  5. The impact of Production Tax Credits on the profitable production of electricity from wind in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Lu; Tchou, Jeremy; McElroy, Michael B.; Nielsen, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    A spatial financial model using wind data derived from assimilated meteorological condition was developed to investigate the profitability and competitiveness of onshore wind power in the contiguous U.S. It considers not only the resulting estimated capacity factors for hypothetical wind farms but also the geographically differentiated costs of local grid connection. The levelized cost of wind-generated electricity for the contiguous U.S. is evaluated assuming subsidy levels from the Production Tax Credit (PTC) varying from 0 to 4 cents /kWh under three cost scenarios: a reference case, a high cost case, and a low cost case. The analysis indicates that in the reference scenario, current PTC subsidies of 2.1 cents /kWh are at a critical level in determining the competitiveness of wind-generated electricity compared to conventional power generation in local power market. Results from this study suggest that the potential for profitable wind power with the current PTC subsidy amounts to more than seven times existing demand for electricity in the entire U.S. Understanding the challenges involved in scaling up wind energy requires further study of the external costs associated with improvement of the backbone transmission network and integration into the power grid of the variable electricity generated from wind. - Highlights: → Wind power competitiveness is driven by meteorology and proximity to the grid. → We spatially model U.S. onshore wind under ranges of subsidies and costs. → Wind power is competitive at a PTC subsidy of 2.1 cents/kWh. → Under current PTC levels, profitable wind potential far exceeds U.S. power demand.

  6. Proposal for the creation of an inquiry commission to investigate the reality of electricity production costs in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After EDF's president has asked for a 20 percent rise for retail electricity prices in France, a group of members of the French Parliament has proposed the creation of an inquiry commission to investigate the costs of electricity production and transport in France (depending on production mode), evaluate the investments required to ensure a safe and reliable operation of nuclear plants, compare the investments needed depending on various electricity production modes for the next ten years in France, study various scenarios including the shutdown of all nuclear plants in the country, and therefore be able to evaluate the tariff evolutions that are required for the future

  7. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2008-12-15

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m{sup 2} projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m{sup 2} surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products. (orig.)

  8. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m2 projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m2 surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products.

  9. The costs of the different pathways of electricity production and saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the content and methodology of a report published by the French Court of Audit on the assessment of the costs of the nuclear sector. He briefly recalls the principle adopted by the Court, i.e. the method of the economic current cost which calculates a global MWh cost on the whole operation duration of the selected production tool. The author discusses the application of this method to different electricity production and consumption sectors: ground-based wind energy, the Flamanville EPR, use of low-energy bulbs, air-air heat pumps, a refrigerator. He compares and discusses the results obtained for different electricity production sectors (EPR, ground-based wind energy, and gas combined cycle technology) and their sensitivity to adopted hypotheses. He comments the evolution of the investment cost of nuclear reactors in France, the economic current costs of offshore wind energy and small photovoltaic production. He finally discusses the economic current costs of the different ways of energy saving and their sensitivity to the adopted hypotheses

  10. Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of co-production plants for electricity and potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA's activities related to seawater desalination using nuclear energy, a need was identified for developing criteria and methodologies in order to facilitate comparative economic evaluations of nuclear and fossil fuelled energy sources for desalination and generation of electricity. The aspect of costing of electricity and potable water from co-production plants is of particular interest. In response to these needs, the IAEA carried out a study to establish methodologies for allocating costs to the two final products of co-production plants based on thermodynamic criteria and to enable economic ranking of co-production plant alternatives. This publication describes the methodologies and presents the results obtained from analyzing a reference case, taken as an example. This publication has been discussed and reviewed at a consultants meeting convened by the IAEA in September 1996 in Vienna. The methodologies have been incorporated in an EXCEL spreadsheet routine which is available upon request from the IAEA. The IAEA staff member responsible for this publication is L. Breidenbach of the Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle. 30 refs, figs, tabs

  11. Quark and gluon production from a boost-invariantly expanding color electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Hidetoshi

    2017-07-01

    Particle production from an expanding classical color electromagnetic field is extensively studied, motivated by the early stage dynamics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We develop a formalism at one-loop order to compute the particle spectra by canonically quantizing quark, gluon, and ghost fluctuations under the presence of such an expanding classical color background field; the canonical quantization is done in the τ -η coordinates in order to take into account manifestly the expanding geometry. As a demonstration, we model the expanding classical color background field by a boost-invariantly expanding homogeneous color electric field with lifetime T , for which we obtain analytically the quark and gluon production spectra by solving the equations of motion of QCD nonperturbatively with respect to the color electric field. In this paper we study (i) the finite lifetime effect, which is found to modify significantly the particle spectra from those expected from the Schwinger formula; (ii) the difference between the quark and gluon production; and (iii) the quark mass dependence of the production spectra. Implications of these results to ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are also discussed.

  12. Reducing Electrical Consumption in the Forest Products Industry Using Lean Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott William Lyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry has an opportunity to reduce energy costs using energy management practices, thereby boosting its global competitiveness. Increasing manufacturing costs have contributed significantly to the decline of the forest products manufacturing industries in the U.S.; these increasing costs limit manufacturers’ abilities to compete with their global competitors. U.S. companies are continually improving their products, processes, finances, and business practices to better compete with global marketplaces; however, they may not be seizing all of the opportunities available through more efficient energy consumption practices. By eliminating non-valued added activities, lean thinking is an example of one tool that may improve performance and reduce costs. A case study was conducted at a cabinet manufacturer in Virginia to examine the impact of lean thinking on the consumption of electricity in the manufacturing process. An energy management system was used to provide rapid feedback on electrical energy consumption for production operations. Significant changes were observed after implementing energy reduction practices identified by lean thinking tools.

  13. Electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions in Poland`s power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, J.

    1996-09-01

    The report analyzes how the Polish power industry`s electricity production and SO{sub 2} emissions have changed between 1988 and 1994. It examines to what extent the Polish government`s reform of air pollution control and its reorganization of the power industry affected power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions in the same period. SO{sub 2} emissions from Polish power plants fell by 37% in 1988-1994. The drop in emissions was partly a result of the fall in economic activity and electricity production in the early 1990s. The main reasons for the emission reduction were the introduction of hard budget constraints, increased coal prices, and stricter enforcement of air pollution control. These reforms created strong incentives for power plants to switch to high-quality coal with lower sulfur content and higher heating value. Improved efficiency of electricity generation also contributed to the fall in SO{sub 2} emissions. 32 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  14. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Amiri, Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU's ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument. Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST. The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods

  15. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  16. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: circuitry and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  17. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  18. Enrichment of total steroidal saponins from the extracts of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim by macroporous resin and the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins in the final product by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulan; Gao, Xin; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Pengqi; Xu, Xinya; Zhang, Ting; Ge, Yanhui; Zhang, Bilin; Wang, Mingchan; Zeng, Aiguo; Luo, Zhimin; Chang, Chun

    2017-03-01

    An effective and simple method was established for the separation and enrichment of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. The adsorption and desorption properties of seven macroporous resins were investigated. Among the tested resins, AB-8 resin showed the best adsorption and desorption capacities. The adsorption of steroidal saponins on AB-8 at 25°C was quite consistent with both the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. By optimizing the dynamic adsorption and desorption parameters, the content of steroidal saponins increased from 5.20% in the crude extracts to 51.93% in the final product, with a recovery yield of 86.67%. Furthermore, by scale-up separation, the concentration and recovery of total steroidal saponins were 43.8 and 85.5%, respectively, which suggested that AB-8 resin had great industrial and pharmaceutical potential because of its high efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins was established for the first time, which was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the final product. Based on the methodological validation results, the high-performance liquid chromatography method can be widely applied to the quality control of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim due to its excellent accuracy, stability, and repeatability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  20. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  1. Production of electricity from the wind: a preliminary feasibility study for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanis, N

    1977-01-01

    Wind statistics for Greece show that the conditions prevailing on the Aegean islands--i.e. considerable amounts of wind energy, small electrical loads and high generation costs--are especially favorable for the installation of wind turbine generators (WTGs). This study gives preliminary design parameters for WTGs at six locations and evaluates their performance. The duration of operation varies from 5000 to 7400 hours annually and the specific production is between 2300 and 3600 kwh/kw. The installation of the WTGs would result in diesel fuel savings corresponding to a month's consumption. Finally, the cost of wind generated electricity will be lower than that from diesel engines one to three years after the installation of the WTGs.

  2. Productivity, pricing policy and investments in French and British nationalized electric companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, Martin; Huret, Romain

    2003-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the development of, and interaction between, pricing, investment and productivity in the nationalised electricity industries in the United Kingdom and France between 1945 and 1973. The paper concentrates on examining why the rate of diffusion of marginal approaches to pricing and investment was faster in France than in the UK, although it notes that, in theory at least, the coverage of marginalist ideas was greater in the UK than in France by the late 1960's. The paper highlights the influence of French engineers and economists such as Marcel Boiteux and Pierre Masse on the development of applied public economics in the UK, and suggests that the experiences of 1945- 1973 were to have a significant long-term impact on subsequent attitudes towards privatisation and the promotion of competition in the electricity industry in each economy

  3. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Joseph F.; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (~11 A/m2) and Coulombic efficiency (~70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ~80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed micro bial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. PMID:25048958

  4. Quality Assurance and Functionality Tests on Electrical Components during the ATLAS IBL Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalat, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During the shutdown of 2013-2014, for the enhancement of the current ATLAS Pixel Detector, a fourth layer (Insertable B Layer, IBL) is being built and will be installed between the innermost layer and a new beam pipe. A new generation of readout chip has been developed, and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been bump bonded to the Front Ends. Additionally, new staves and module flex circuits have been developed. A production QA test bench was therefore established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are being performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL; namely, connectivity tests, electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. This paper discusses the pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results fr...

  5. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-02-01

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m 3 ). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m 3 . In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  6. Thermoecological cost of electricity production in the natural gas pressure reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Usón, Sergio; Stanek, Wojciech; Bargiel, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel concept for thermodynamic evaluation of a selected energy system. The presented method has been developed by integration of the Thermo-Economic Analysis with the theory of Thermo-Ecological Cost. It can be applied as a thermodynamic evaluation method of rational resources management within any production system. It takes into account both the interrelation of irreversibility within the analyzed system and its influence on the global effects related to the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The proposed method has been applied to evaluate the production of electricity in the process of natural gas transmission at pressure reduction stations. The expansion system is based on an existing plant integrated with a CHP module, characterized by a performance ratio of 89.5% and exergy efficiency of 49.2%. Within the paper, this expansion plant is supplied with natural gas transported from a natural deposit through a case-study transmission system with 4 compressor stations. The TEC (thermoecological cost) method was applied in conjunction with thermoeconomic analysis. As a result, TEC of the electricity generated in the expanders was determined at 2.42 kJ/kJ, TEC of electricity from the CHP module is 1.77, and the TEC of medium-pressure natural gas distributed to consumers is 1.022. - Highlights: • The chain of NG transmission with an exergy recovery expansion plant was analyzed. • New methodology coupling the TEC (thermoecological cost) and thermoeconomics. • Decomposition of the TEC formation process. • Case-study transmission system yields TEC of natural gas = 1.0222. • Expansion plant yields TEC of electricity 2.42 (expanders) and 1.77 (CHP module)

  7. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  8. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  9. Comparison of Turkey's electrical energy consumption and production with some European countries and optimization of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunc, Murat; Camdali, Uenal; Parmaksizoglu, Cem

    2006-01-01

    Energy issues are directly related to the development of a country and the living standards of its people. Turkey is currently in a rapid industrialization process with a young and dynamic population of over 65 million. Due to relatively high growth rate of the population, increasing consumer oriented attitudes and as a result of rising levels of affluence, the primary energy demand is rising rapidly at an annual rate of 6.7 percent. In this study Turkey's energy resources, installed electric power capacity, electric energy production and consumption rates are investigated and compared with that of France, Germany and Switzerland. Turkey's electric energy consumption rates are predicted with regression analysis for the years of 2010 and 2020 and finally linear mathematical optimization model is developed to predict the distribution of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey

  10. Safety aspects of electric energy production and supplies in conditions of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sip, M.; Danilak, M. et al.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with safety aspects of electric energy production and supplies in conditions of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. Some terrorist attack and accidents are presented. Four video-sequences are included

  11. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R. [Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  12. Is Power Production Flexibility a Substitute for Storability? Evidence from Electricity Futures Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, M.; Huisman, R.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity is not storable. As a consequence, electricity demand and supply need to be in balance at any moment in time as a shortage in production volume cannot be compensated with supply from inventories. However, if the installed power supply capacity is very flexible, variation in demand can be counterbalanced with flexible adjustment of production volumes. Therefore, supply flexibility can replace the role of inventory. In this paper, we question whether power production flexibility is a substitute for storability. To do so, we examine power futures prices from countries that differ in their power supply and test whether power futures prices contain information about expected future spot prices and risk premiums and examine whether futures prices from a market in which power supply is more flexible would lead to futures prices that are more in line with the theory of storage. We find the opposite; futures prices from markets with flexible power supply behave according to the expectations theory. The implicit view from futures prices is that flexibility is not a substitute for storability.

  13. Correlated wind-power production and electric load scenarios for investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investment models require an accurate representation of the involved uncertainty. ► Demand and wind power production are correlated and uncertain parameters. ► Two methodologies are provided to represent uncertainty and correlation. ► An accurate uncertainty representation is crucial to get optimal results. -- Abstract: Stochastic programming constitutes a useful tool to address investment problems. This technique represents uncertain input data using a set of scenarios, which should accurately describe the involved uncertainty. In this paper, we propose two alternative methodologies to efficiently generate electric load and wind-power production scenarios, which are used as input data for investment problems. The two proposed methodologies are based on the load- and wind-duration curves and on the K-means clustering technique, and allow representing the uncertainty of and the correlation between electric load and wind-power production. A case study pertaining to wind-power investment is used to show the interest of the proposed methodologies and to illustrate how the selection of scenarios has a significant impact on investment decisions.

  14. Public synthesis of the reference costs study of the electric power production; Synthese publique de l'etude des couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Every 3 or 5 years, the DGEC published the reference costs study of the electric power production which evaluates, in a theoretical framework, the total cost of an electrical MWh, from different production ways. These studies bring information for the definition of the energy policy and the elaboration of the investments program. because of the great competition of the market, it was decided not to publish the absolute value of the hypothesis and the results but under indexed form. (A.L.B.)

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  16. Are uranium resources sufficient to face the expected revival of nuclear electricity production in the world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyve, C.

    2007-11-01

    This article proposes a table containing assessments of uranium resources in 2005 in different countries, and comments the evolution of uranium prices between 1968 and 2008. It discusses whether it would be possible to cope with a dramatic increase of uranium prices, whether it would be already possible to save uranium with the same level of electricity production, whether there is still some uranium resources to be discovered, whether we could rely on non conventional uranium sources (phosphates, sea water), and the role of future reactors

  17. Comparative gross domestic production and electricity consumption per capita in the context of nuclear power prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    Malaysia, based on its economic and industrial growth level should be able to absorb nuclear technology and capacity in implementing a nuclear power programme. Malaysia Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and electricity consumption (kWh per capita is higher compared with other developing countries, which have already announced their plans to implement nuclear power programme. Furthermore, Asia reliance on nuclear power plants to meet growing energy needs in the near future is also significantly increasing. This paper presents the comparative GDP and kWh per capita in Asia and globally in the context of nuclear power prospect in Malaysia. (Author)

  18. Effect of cloudiness on the production of electricity by photovoltaic panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrobak Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of different types of cloud on the production of electricity by photovoltaic panels. In the introductory part of the paper, processes in the atmosphere are described, giving rise to various types of clouds and, consequently, to the formation of cloud. In the next section of the paper, the system is described on which the research and the methodology of acquisition and data evaluation were carried out. The last part of the paper summarizes the overall results of the research.

  19. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  20. The Spanish energetic mix; prevision and historic evolution of the electric production structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revuelta, J.; Lopez Sanz, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the past and forecasted evolution of the electric production of the Spanish system (excluding the Spanish isolated systems), according to the records of the System Operator, Red Electrica de Espana, and the studies of its Network Planning department. The behaviour of the demand is analysed, as well as the evolution of the generation mix. The article expose the main recent changes the sector has undergone and points out the main future challenge it will face regarding the forecasted evolution of the demand, the integration of renewable energy sources, and the energy objectives established at European and national level. (Author)

  1. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day...

  2. Application of recourse optimization for risk management of electricity production with weekly and monthly horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparigliato, R.

    2008-06-01

    In this Phd, we focus on the problem of weekly risk management in electric production. In the first part of this work, we investigate how to take into account stochastic inflows in the optimal management of a hydraulic valley. Our model is based on robust optimization and linear decision rules. A validation procedure based on simulation over random scenarios shows that we are able to postpone constraints violations of volume at very low cost. The second part deals with the problem of active management of electrical power margin, defined as the difference between the total offer and the total demand, considering the different random parameters which affect the electrical system. The objective is to determine optimal solutions to be taken in order to satisfy the demand in 99% of the cases. In that purpose, we propose a new open-looped formulation, based on the stochastic process of power margin and on the use of probabilistic constraints. To be able to solve this problem, we generate power margin's scenarios using more realistic methods than those used in exploitation. At last, a closed-loop approach, based on the heuristic 'Stochastic Programming with Step Decision Rules', introduced by Thenie and Vial, is studied. First results are quite promising in comparison with the opened-loop ones. (author)

  3. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study.

  4. A Study of Digging Productivity of an Electric Rope Shovel for Different Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babaei Khorzoughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A performance monitoring study of an electric rope shovel operating in an open pit coal mine was conducted. As the mining industry moves toward higher productivity, profitability and predictability, the need for more reliable, productive and efficient mining shovels increases. Consequently, it is critical to study the productivity of these machines and to understand the effect of different operational parameters on that. In this paper a clustering analysis is performed to classify shovel digging effort and behaviour based on digging energy, dig time and payload per pass. Then the influence of the operator on the digging efficiency and productivity of the machine is analyzed with a focus on operator technique during digging. A statistical analysis is conducted on different cycle time components (dig time, swing time, return time for different operators. In addition to time components, swing and return angles as well as loading rate and mucking rate are observed and analyzed. The results of this study help to understand the effect of different operators on the digging productivity of the shovel and then to set the best operator practice.

  5. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO 2 emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries

  6. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  7. A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001. It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

  8. Technologies for production of electricity and heat in Sweden. Wind energy in perspective of international development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Niels-Erik; Lawaetz, Henrik; Lemming, Joergen; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-12-15

    The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 Euro/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 Euro/kW to approximately 1400 Euro/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 7-10 cEuro/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 5-6.5 cEuro/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 7cEuro/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the

  9. Maximal network reliability for a stochastic power transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Many studies regarded a power transmission network as a binary-state network and constructed it with several arcs and vertices to evaluate network reliability. In practice, the power transmission network should be stochastic because each arc (transmission line) combined with several physical lines is multistate. Network reliability is the probability that the network can transmit d units of electric power from a power plant (source) to a high voltage substation at a specific area (sink). This study focuses on searching for the optimal transmission line assignment to the power transmission network such that network reliability is maximized. A genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products is developed to solve this assignment problem. A real power transmission network is adopted to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method while comparing with the random solution generation approach.

  10. Reference-dependent electric vehicle production strategy considering subsidies and consumer trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we extend previous reference-dependence newsvendor research by incorporating both consumer trade-offs and government subsidies to evaluate the relevant influences on the optimal electric vehicle (EV) production decisions. We present the properties of the model, derive the closed-form solutions for the model given the relevant constraints, and use numerical experiments to illustrate the results. We find that subsidies, loss aversion, the performance of both EVs and internal combustion engine-powered vehicles (ICEVs), and the coefficient of variation of demand are significant factors influencing the optimal production quantity and the expected utilities of EV production. The high selling price and other high costs of ICEVs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high costs of EV enhance loss aversion. Our study enriches the literature on subsidies for EVs by establishing a behavioral model to incorporate the decision bias in terms of loss aversion at the firm level. These findings provide guiding principles for both policymakers and EV managers for making better strategies to promote EVs in the early immature market. - Highlights: • The performance of both electric vehicles (EVs) and internal combustion engine-power vehicles (ICEVs) influences the EV production decisions. • A loss averse EV manager produces less and obtains less the expected utility than a risk neutral one. • Subsidies help decrease the EV breakeven quantity, increase the optimal quantity, offset the influence of loss aversion. • Subsidies should be adjusted according to the performance of both EVs and the ICEVs, demand heterogeneity, and local conditions. • The high ICEVs costs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high EV costs enhance loss aversion

  11. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, Pavel; Davis, Cliff B.

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  12. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-01-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners

  13. The impact of electricity production upon the environment: the lessons drawn from recent european assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.; Beutier, D.

    2004-01-01

    European choices where energy policy is concerned must take account of the effects of each source of electricity production upon both man and the environment. In order to assess these effects, two approaches can be used: the external cost (EC) approach and the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach. Regarding nuclear energy, the documentation for life cycle analysis or for external cost type surveys is more comprehensive than for other forms of production and the values indicated are generally coherent. To a lesser extent, this is also the case of hydro-electricity. Therefore, in general it is relatively simple to establish reference thresholds for these sectors. The exercise becomes rather more difficult in the case of certain, so-called renewable energies, due to their intermittent nature and the high energy intensity processes that they include. This raises the question of national differences and the generic nature of the LCA. Indeed, the incorporation of secondary energy (or even replacement energy) leads to high levels of disparity according to the national mix concerned. A prime example of 'dependent' renewable energy is photovoltaic solar energy. Assessments remain incomplete for several sectors and other limitations apply to the accounting aspects of the LCA approach. (authors)

  14. Using supervised environmental composites in production and efficiency analyses. An application to Norwegian electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orea, Luis [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Oviedo Efficiency Group; Growitsch, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Jamasb, Tooraj [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2012-12-15

    Supervised dimension reduction methods have been extensively applied in different scientific fields like biology and medicine in recent years. However, they have hardly ever been used in micro economics, and in particular cost function modeling. Nonetheless, these methods can also be useful in regulation of natural monopolies such as gas, water, and electricity networks, where firms' cost and performance can be affected by a large number of environmental factors. In order to deal with this 'dimensionality' problem we propose using a supervised dimension reduction approach that aims to reduce the dimension of data without loss of information. Economic theory suggests that in the presence of other relevant production (cost) drivers, the traditional all-inclusive assumption is not satisfied and, hence, production or cost predictions (and efficiency estimates) might be biased. This paper shows that purging the data using a partial regression approach allows us to address this issue when analyzing the effect of weather and geography on cost efficiency in the context of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks.

  15. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  16. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  17. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  18. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  19. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers, electric ranges, and air-conditioners, under FTZ procedures...), fan motors, fans, filter/ dryers, expansion valves, accumulators, parts of electric water heaters...

  20. Quality assurance and functionality tests on electrical components during the ATLAS IBL production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentzsch, J

    2013-01-01

    To improve performance of the ATLAS inner tracker, a fourth Pixel layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed in 2014 on a new beam pipe. A new read out chip generation, FE-I4, has been developed and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been flip chipped to these front ends. New staves holding new stave and module flex circuits have been developed as well. Therefore, a production QA test bench has been established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. This setup combines former ATLAS Pixel services and a new readout system, namely the RCE (Reconfigurable Cluster Element) system developed at SLAC. With this setup all production staves will be tested to ensure the installation of only those staves which fulfill the IBL criteria. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. The pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results from testing a prototype stave are presented and discussed.

  1. Quality assurance and functionality tests on electrical components during the ATLAS IBL production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, J.

    2013-02-01

    To improve performance of the ATLAS inner tracker, a fourth Pixel layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed in 2014 on a new beam pipe. A new read out chip generation, FE-I4, has been developed and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been flip chipped to these front ends. New staves holding new stave and module flex circuits have been developed as well. Therefore, a production QA test bench has been established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. This setup combines former ATLAS Pixel services and a new readout system, namely the RCE (Reconfigurable Cluster Element) system developed at SLAC. With this setup all production staves will be tested to ensure the installation of only those staves which fulfill the IBL criteria. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. The pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results from testing a prototype stave are presented and discussed.

  2. Maximizing your fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J. [GE Capital Rail Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A series of viewgraphs were presented to illustrate this discussion which focused on the economics of the railroad environment in 2001 and beyond. Fleet productivity and customer relations were described. The viewgraphs were entitled: new car builds; fleet demographics for North American LPG/AA fleet; and, issues and trends of North American LPG/AA fleet. It was noted that there is a continued demand for North American LPG/AA fleet as cars are phased out. GE Capital Rail Services is addressing the future by focusing on the following four initiatives: service, globalization, building a six sigma company, and transforming into an e-business. The company's six sigma approach is based on customer orientation, safety and compliance, quality and reliability, productivity and planning, cost, and people and culture. The actions taken thus far have been a planned maintenance program, the relocation of safety valves, and the elimination of early failures. figs.

  3. Economic feasibility of electricity production from energy plantations present on community-managed forestlands in Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Alavalapati, Janaki R.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses economic feasibility of utilizing community-managed degraded forest areas for raising energy crops and using the produced biomass for electricity production in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India through gasification technology. Three fast-growing species, three gasifiers of different capacities, three capital costs, and two scenarios of carbon payments were considered for analysis. Sensitivity and risk analyses were undertaken for determining the effects of variations in inputs on selected outputs. Results suggest that 5 million megawatt hour electricity can be generated annually which will prevent 4 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year. The production cost of a unit of electricity was found inversely related to the scale of production. The average cost of electricity at the consumer level produced using 100 kW gasifier was $0.15/kWh, which was greater than the price of electricity supplied from grid i.e. $0.08/kWh. The unit cost of producing electricity using Acacia nilotica was lowest among all the selected species. Technological advancements suitable government incentives are needed to promote electricity generation from forest biomass through gasification technology. This will help in spurring economic development and reducing overall ecological footprint of the state. (author)

  4. The Water Footprint Assessment of Electricity Production: An Overview of the Economic-Water-Energy Nexus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “water-energy nexus” has remarkable implications in the sustainable management of water resources. The aim of this paper is to analyse the production of electricity, from an economic and technical perspective, using the water footprint and economic water productivity approaches. After comparing the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the production of the electricity sector, the study then compares the percentage of contribution of fossil and renewable sources to the consumptive water footprint of Italian electricity production for each year analysed. Furthermore, distinguishing between renewable and fossil sources, the paper proceeds to assess the total consumptive water footprint generated by each energy source for the electricity production in Italy during the period 2007–2016. The study represents an original contribution for the identification of policies and managerial implications in the context of the energy sector, serving as a practical guide. The results, in fact, confirm the need for scientific and practical efforts to manage electricity production in an integrated perspective and provide a first glance at addressing the optimal design of energy source mix in the Italian regulation context, contributing to reducing the water footprint, without ignoring the economic aspects.

  5. Production of Fischer–Tropsch fuels and electricity from bituminous coal based on steam hydrogasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Norbeck, Joseph M.; Park, Chan S.

    2012-01-01

    A new thermochemical process for (Fischer–Tropsch) FT fuels and electricity coproduction based on steam hydrogasification is addressed and evaluated in this study. The core parts include (Steam Hydrogasification Reactor) SHR, (Steam Methane Reformer) SMR and (Fisher–Tropsch Reactor) FTR. A key feature of SHR is the enhanced conversion of carbon into methane at high steam environment with hydrogen and no need for catalyst or the use of oxygen. Facilities utilizing bituminous coal for coproduction of FT fuels and electricity with carbon dioxide sequestration are designed in detail. Cases with design capacity of either 400 or 4000 TPD (Tonne Per Day) (dry basis) are investigated with process modeling and cost estimation. A cash flow analysis is performed to determine the fuels (Production Cost) PC. The analysis shows that the 400 TPD case due to a FT fuels PC of 5.99 $/gallon diesel equivalent results in a plant design that is totally uneconomic. The 4000 TPD plant design is expected to produce 7143 bbl/day FT liquids with PC of 2.02 $/gallon and 2.27 $/gallon diesel equivalent at overall carbon capture ratio of 65% and 90%, respectively. Prospective commercial economics benefits with increasing plant size and improvements from large-scale demonstration efforts on steam hydrogasification. -- Highlights: ► We develop a new thermochemical method for synthetic fuels production. ► Detailed plant design and process modeling for the Coal-to-Liquid facilities are performed. ► Economic analysis has been carried out in determining the fuel production cost and IRR. ► The fuels produced in this study can compete with petroleum when crude oil price is 100 $/bbl. ► Further economic benefit comes with plant scale-up and process commercial demonstration efforts.

  6. Impact of variable renewable production on electricity prices in Germany: a Markov switching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin de Lagarde, Cyril; Lantz, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the impact of renewable energy sources (RES) production on electricity spot prices. To do so, we use a two-regime Markov Switching (MS) model, that enables to disentangle the so-called 'merit-order effect' due to wind and solar photovoltaic productions (used in relative share of the electricity demand), depending on the price being high or low. We find that there are effectively two distinct price regimes that are put to light thanks to an inverse hyperbolic sine transformation that allows to treat negative prices. We also show that these two regimes coincide quite well with two regimes for the electricity demand (load). Indeed, when demand is low, prices are low and the merit-order effect is lower than when prices are high, which is consistent with the fact that the inverse supply curve is convex (i.e. has increasing slope). To illustrate this, we computed the mean marginal effects of RES production and load. On average, an increase of 1 GW of wind will decrease the price in regime 1 (resp. 2) by 0.77 euro /MWh (resp. 1 euro /MWh). The influence of solar is slightly weaker, as an extra gigawatt lowers the price of 0.73 euro /MWh in period 1, and 0.96 euro /MWh in regime 2. On the contrary, if the demand increases by 1 GW in regime 1 (resp. 2), the price increases on average by 0.93 euro /MWh (resp. 1.18 euro /MWh). Although we made sure these marginal effects are significantly different from one another, they are much more variable than the estimated coefficients of the model. Also, note that these marginal effects are only valid inside each regime when there is no switching. The latter regime partly corresponds to the high load regime, at the exception of periods during which RES production is high. The impact on volatility could also be observed: the variance of the (transformed) price is higher during the high-price regime than in the low-price one. In addition to the switching of the coefficients, we allowed the probabilities of

  7. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik; Stamate, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm, immersed into a ceramic dielectric barrier. A closed flow-through system necessary for the measurements was prepared by placing a quartz plate at a height of 3 mm from the ceramic barrier. The production of nitrogen radicals was determined from the removal of a trace amount of NO in pure N 2 gas, while the production of oxygen radicals was determined by ozone production in pure O 2 or synthetic air. The production efficiency of N and O radicals and NO oxidation in synthetic air was comparable with the efficiency of a volume barrier discharge device. The power density per unit of surface area of the CBD device was more than two times larger than that of a similar volume barrier discharge setup, which makes the CBD device a compact alternative for gas treatment. The production of ozone and different nitrogen oxides was also evaluated for the open system of the CBD which is usable for surface treatment. The ozone concentration of this system was nearly independent from the input power, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides increased with input power. The open system of the CBD was additionally tested for the treatment of a silicon surface. An increase of applied power decreased the time required to reduce the water contact angle below 10 degrees but also started to have an impact on the surface roughness. (paper)

  8. Hydrogen or Fossil Combustion Nuclear Combined Cycle Systems for Baseload and Peak Load Electricity Production. Annex X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    A combined cycle power plant is described that uses: (i) heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to meet baseload electrical demands; and (ii) heat from the same high temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen to meet peak load electrical demands. For baseload electricity production, fresh air is compressed, then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900{sup o}C by using heat provided by a high temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat transport loop, and finally exits through a high temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts and heats the air to 1300{sup o}C - the operating conditions for a standard natural gas fired combined cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until required. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electrical grid can vary from zero (i.e. when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. As nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electrical grid. This combined

  9. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  10. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharovsky, M [Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., Vodne elektrarne Trencin (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m{sup 3}/s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m{sup /}s, pump flow 6 x 22 m{sup 3}/s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m{sup 3}, max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the

  11. Geothermal power production in future electricity markets-A scenario analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkus, Alexandra; Barth, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Development and diffusion of new renewable energy technologies play a central role in mitigating climate change. In this context, small-scale deep geothermal power has seen growing interest in recent years as an environmentally friendly, non-intermittent energy source with large technical potential. Following the first successful demonstration projects, the German geothermal industry is currently experiencing an internationally unparalleled growth. In this study we explore the factors driving this development, and the role geothermal power production could play in the future of the German electricity market. For this, we apply the scenario technique, based on literature analysis and interviews with companies operating actively in the field. Our findings highlight the importance of political support and framework conditions in the electricity market, with the best prospects in a decentralised energy system based on renewable energy sources, where high investment costs and the risk of discovery failure are balanced by the benefits of low-carbon base load power. - Research highlights: → Small scale geothermal plants could provide base load for RES based power systems. → New technologies allow its use even in geologically inactive regions like Germany. → Key factors for growth are political support and power market framework conditions. → Main investment barriers are comparatively high investment costs and discovery risks. → Scale of use depends on technological evolution and energy system structure.

  12. The independent power production and the reorganization of the electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The transformation of the electric power production and distribution sector is in progress thanks to the progressive opening of markets and to the emergence of a new kind of actor: the independent producer. After the USA, the UK, and most of the emerging countries, the continental Europe is actively preparing its mutation. The historical actors try to protect their positions on their own national markets and at the same time to develop their international position. The newcomers (oil companies, independent power producers, collective service companies) have adopted a radically offensive strategy based on an international development and a skimming of the market. This study takes stock of the degree of liberalization of the different markets and analyzes their structuring elements and dynamism. An analytical presentation of the main actors of the electric power market is performed in order to evaluate their forces and feeblenesses in front of this mutation. Finally, it tries to answer the following questions: which are the most promising zones for the newcomers, and which companies will win this new deal? (J.S.)

  13. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell O Khunjar

    Full Text Available The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  14. Modification and tuning of diesel bus engine for biogas electricity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittiboon Siripornakarachai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is to convert and tune a bus diesel engine for electricity production in a farm using biogas as fuel. The engine under study is a Hino K-13CTI 13,000 cc 24 valve turbocharged engine coupled to a 3 phase 4 pole induction motor to produce electricity at 50 Hz. Modifications include an addition of biogas carburetor for air-fuel mixing, replacing the fuel injection system with spark ignition system, reduction of compression ratio from the original 16:1 to 8:1 using a cylinder head spacer, and modification of the turbocharger waste gate so the boost pressure can be adjusted. When the induction motor is synchronized to the power grid, the running speed of the engine is 1,500 rpm. Optimal engine efficiency was achieved at 28.6% by setting the lambda factor at 1.097, ignition timing at 54o before top dead center, and the turbocharger boost at 56 kPa. With this setting, the generator power output is 134.20 kilowatt with emission of CO and NOX being 1,154 and 896 ppm respectively.

  15. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  16. Impact of the interaction of material production and mechanical processing on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, Nora; Steentjes, Simon; Stöcker, Anett; Kawalla, Rudolf; Wei, Xuefei; Dierdorf, Jens; Hirt, Gerhard; Roggenbuck, Stefan; Korte-Kerzel, Sandra; Weiss, Hannes A.; Volk, Wolfram; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Thin laminations of non-grain oriented (NO) electrical steels form the magnetic core of rotating electrical machines. The magnetic properties of these laminations are therefore key elements for the efficiency of electric drives and need to be fully utilized. Ideally, high magnetization and low losses are realized over the entire polarization and frequency spectrum at reasonable production and processing costs. However, such an ideal material does not exist and thus, achievable magnetic properties need to be deduced from the respective application requirements. Parameters of the electrical steel such as lamination thickness, microstructure and texture affect the magnetic properties as well as their polarization and frequency dependence. These structural features represent possibilities to actively alter the magnetic properties, e.g., magnetization curve, magnetic loss or frequency dependence. This paper studies the influence of production and processing on the resulting magnetic properties of a 2.4 wt% Si electrical steel. Aim is to close the gap between production influence on the material properties and its resulting effect on the magnetization curves and losses at different frequencies with a strong focus on occurring interdependencies between production and mechanical processing. The material production is realized on an experimental processing route that comprises the steps of hot rolling, cold rolling, annealing and punching.

  17. Impact of the interaction of material production and mechanical processing on the magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leuning

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thin laminations of non-grain oriented (NO electrical steels form the magnetic core of rotating electrical machines. The magnetic properties of these laminations are therefore key elements for the efficiency of electric drives and need to be fully utilized. Ideally, high magnetization and low losses are realized over the entire polarization and frequency spectrum at reasonable production and processing costs. However, such an ideal material does not exist and thus, achievable magnetic properties need to be deduced from the respective application requirements. Parameters of the electrical steel such as lamination thickness, microstructure and texture affect the magnetic properties as well as their polarization and frequency dependence. These structural features represent possibilities to actively alter the magnetic properties, e.g., magnetization curve, magnetic loss or frequency dependence. This paper studies the influence of production and processing on the resulting magnetic properties of a 2.4 wt% Si electrical steel. Aim is to close the gap between production influence on the material properties and its resulting effect on the magnetization curves and losses at different frequencies with a strong focus on occurring interdependencies between production and mechanical processing. The material production is realized on an experimental processing route that comprises the steps of hot rolling, cold rolling, annealing and punching.

  18. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  19. Very High Efficiency Reactor (VHER) Concepts for Electrical Power Generation and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARMA JR, EDWARD J.; PICKARD, PAUL S.; SUO-ANTTILA, AHTI JORMA

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Very High Efficiency Reactor study was to develop and analyze concepts for the next generation of nuclear power reactors. The next generation power reactor should be cost effective compared to current power generation plant, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant. High-temperature reactor systems allow higher electrical generating efficiencies and high-temperature process heat applications, such as thermo-chemical hydrogen production. The study focused on three concepts; one using molten salt coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry, the other two using high-pressure helium coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry and a fuel-pebble element design. Peak operating temperatures, passive-safety, decay heat removal, criticality, burnup, reactivity coefficients, and material issues were analyzed to determine the technical feasibility of each concept

  20. Performances of nuclear power plants for combined production of electricity and hot water for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronzen, S.

    The possibilities for using nuclear power plants for combined production of heat and power seem to be very good in the future. With the chosen 600 MWsub (e) BWR plant a heat output up to 1200 MW can be arranged. An alternative, consisting of steam extractions from the low-pressure turbine, offers a flexible solution for heat and power generation. With this alternative the combined plant can use components from normal condensing nuclear power plants. The flexible extraction design also offers a real possibility for using the combined plant in electric peak generation. However, urban siting requires long distance heat transmission and the pipe design for this transmission is a major problem when planning and optimizing the whole nuclear combined heat and power plant. (author)

  1. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the main, general-perspective themes of Dr. Alvin Weinberg's leadership and long and varied work are: the effect of present and future nuclear energy projects on society, not only in the United States but throughout the world; analysis, comparison, and combination of various sources of energy; extensive multiple use of nuclear energy complexes (so-called NUPLEX, for nuclear complex) for various areas of the world; and use of ''Big Technology'' and ''Big Science'' for solving, or helping to solve, political problems. A combined hydro-nuclear-solar project for electric power production is discussed, as well as two other energy-related engineering projects. Some of the projects originated or were inspired by work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the leadership of Dr. Alvin Weinberg. Also reported are the technical characteristics and interrelationships of the three components of the envisaged hydronuclear-solar project

  2. Quality Assurance and Functionality Tests on Electrical Components during the ATLAS IBL Production

    CERN Document Server

    Jentzsch, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    For the first ATLAS pixel upgrade scheduled in 2013 a new front-end chip generation (FE- I4) has been developed. The second version (FE-I4B) hosting two different solid-state sensor technologies (planar silicon and 3D silicon) has been produced to be built into a new pixel layer (the Insertable B-Layer, IBL). Prototypes of these assembled modules have been tested in laboratory and testbeam measurements before and after irradiation. Quality assurance measurements under clean room conditions, including temperature and humidity control, have been and will be performed on the required parts during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and also assembled subsystems. Test results of measurements on flexes, modules and staves will be presented.

  3. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  4. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  5. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  6. Order of the 23 March 2006 relative to the return rate on the immobilized capital for the electric power production installation in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This order fixes the return rate on the investments capital of electric power production in non connected areas, used for the calculation of the compensation expenses of the electric utilities. (A.L.B.)

  7. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  8. Mass media coverage of the changes in the environment of electricity production in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Antonio, Santiago

    1998-01-01

    the idea of a public service under state control. The State's role in planning is restricted to electricity transport installations. Within this new market system, nuclear power will need to be competitive in relation to other energy sources, with emphasis laid on two highly important points: the reduction of production costs and the maintenance and improvement of levels of nuclear safety and radiological protection. The events leading up to the signing of the new Bill have served as a basis for a wide repercussion in the press. The period analysed with regard to the press is twelve months (December 1996 to November 1997). n total, almost 1,500 informative and opinion-leading articles were published during this period in both the national and local daily newspapers. The legislative reform in question also came in for a great deal of attention on radio and television. We have centred our analysis on the press because of the wide variety of information presented in the opinion pages and the way in which the news items have been handled. The information published on the new Electricity sector Bill has mainly been included in the economy and national news sections. The number of opinion leading articles which has appeared in the press exceeds what is normal. Underlining the messages most frequently appearing in the information published is necessary in order to be able to study what is known by public opinion in relation to the subject. The press messages having thus been identified, they are contrasted with those which should have been broadcast. The distance separating what was published and what should really have been underlined implies a knowledge gap for public opinion. In spite of the amount and amplitude - and in most cases the quality - of the information published in relation to the new legislation, certain of the most important concepts have gone unnoticed by the media. As is so often the case, the press has emphasised the more 'social' and controversial facts

  9. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  10. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  11. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  12. Local authorities faced with electricity market liberalization. The role of cities in electricity production and distribution in the Swiss Confederation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, St.

    2008-01-01

    In Switzerland, cities are highly involved in producing and - mainly - distributing electrical power. To those cities, defining what universal service and public interest service are seems essential, when faced with the opening energy markets. Such services can be guaranteed through concession contracts granted to companies conducting business on the city's territory It is the interest of regional distribution companies (one thousand in Switzerland...) to free themselves of local political requirements that could impair their growth. This new independence, combined with the good community service guarantee, should help those companies continue to contribute to the economic and lasting growth of the regions they have always served. (author)

  13. Production of long chain alkyl esters from carbon dioxide and electricity by a two-stage bacterial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tapio; Efimova, Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Santala, Suvi; Zhang, Tian; Santala, Ville

    2017-11-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a promising technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide into value-added multicarbon molecules. In order to broaden the product profile of MES processes, we developed a two-stage process for microbial conversion of carbon dioxide and electricity into long chain alkyl esters. In the first stage, the carbon dioxide is reduced to organic compounds, mainly acetate, in a MES process by Sporomusa ovata. In the second stage, the liquid end-products of the MES process are converted to the final product by a second microorganism, Acinetobacter baylyi in an aerobic bioprocess. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate for the first time the bacterial production of long alkyl esters (wax esters) from carbon dioxide and electricity as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The process holds potential for the efficient production of carbon-neutral chemicals or biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of solar electric production potential in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur - Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    While mainly proposing tables, graphs and maps, this report proposes a synthesis of a study performed to assess the potential production of solar electric energy in the PACA region. It briefly presents stakes of solar electric power development in the PACA region, outlines its potential benefits, briefly comments an assessment of existing photovoltaic installations in 2008 with an indication of the evolution since 2007, proposes an analysis of the different stakes related to the development of ground-based and of roof-based installations, an assessment of roof-based potential production and of ground-based potential production, an assessment of connection capacities for this potential production, and an assessment of PACA potential production by 2030

  15. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  16. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  17. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  18. Electricity production costs of wind power and photovoltaic plants. A re-assessment; Stromgestehungskosten von Windkraft- und Photovoltaikanlagen. Eine Neubewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Sven [arrhenius Institut fuer Energie- und Klimapolitik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Over the past few months a number of studies on the future development of the electricity production costs associated with the various green electricity production technologies have been presented, contributing to the discussion on the costs of the energy turnaround and the consequent necessity to amend the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG). However, the calculation base used in these cost surveys deserves questioning. More preferable would be a broadly based model which also takes account of systemic effects. This should also provide the basis for political decisions on the further course of development of renewable energy.

  19. Iron and steel industry and non-ferrous metal production - the electrical energy consumption and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazhev, Blagoja; Sofeski, Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Companies of iron and steel industry and non-ferrous metal production are the largest individual consumers of electricity and other forms of energy. This paper presents the electricity consumption in the last twenty-year period as well as data for their contribution in creating the gross domestic product (GDP) and engagement of labor force in the country. For some of the companies there is data for energy efficiency (kWh/t i.e. MJ/t) in last five years. (Original)

  20. Spectral representation of the particle production out of equilibrium—Schwinger mechanism in pulsed electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We develop a formalism to describe the particle production out of equilibrium in terms of dynamical spectral functions, i.e. Wigner transformed Pauli–Jordan's and Hadamard's functions. We take an explicit example of a spatially homogeneous scalar theory under pulsed electric fields and investigate the time evolution of the spectral functions. In the out-state we find an oscillatory peak in Hadamard's function as a result of the mixing between positive- and negative-energy waves. The strength of this peak is of the linear order of the Bogoliubov mixing coefficient, whereas the peak corresponding to the Schwinger mechanism is of the quadratic order. Between the in- and the out-states we observe a continuous flow of the spectral peaks together with two transient oscillatory peaks. We also discuss the medium effect at finite temperature and density. We emphasize that the entire structure of the spectral functions conveys rich information on real-time dynamics including the particle production. (paper)

  1. Classic articles and workbook: EPRI monographs on simulation of electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stremel, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    This monograph republishes several articles including a seminal one on probabilistic production costing for electric power generation. That article is given in the original French along with a English translation. Another article, written by R. Booth, gives a popular explanation of the theory, and a workbook by B. Manhire is included that carries through a simple example step by step. The classical analysis of non-probabilistic generator dispatch by L.K. Kirchmayer is republished along with an introductory essay by J.P. Stremel that puts in perspective the monograph material. The article in French was written by H. Baleriaux, E. Jamoulle, and Fr. Linard de Guertechin and first published in Brussels in 1967. It derived a method for calculating the expected value of production costs by modifying a load duration curve through the use of probability factors that account for unplanned random generator outages. Although the paper showed how pump storage plants could be included and how linear programming could be applied, the convolution technique used in the probabilistic calculations is the part most widely applied. The tutorial paper by Booth was written in a light style, and its lucidity helped popularize the method. The workbook by Manhire also shows how the calculation can be shortened significantly using cumulants to approximate the load duration curve

  2. Raising the avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis by utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinsong; Ma, Ruonan; Su, Bo; Li, Yinglong; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Avermectins, a group of anthelmintic and insecticidal agents produced from Streptomyces avermitilis, are widely used in agricultural, veterinary, and medical fields. This study presents the first report on the potential of using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) to improve avermectin production in S. avermitilis. The results of colony forming units showed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 10 kV/cm and 20 kV/cm had a significant effect on proliferation, while 100 pulses of nsPEFs at 30 kV/cm exhibited an obvious effect on inhibition of agents. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay revealed that 20 pulses of nsPEFs at 15 kV/cm increased avermectin production by 42% and reduced the time for reaching a plateau in fermentation process from 7 days to 5 days. In addition, the decreased oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and increased temperature of nsPEFs-treated liquid were evidenced to be closely associated with the improved cell growth and fermentation efficiency of avermectins in S. avermitilis. More importantly, the real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that nsPEFs could remarkably enhance the expression of aveR and malE in S. avermitilis during fermentation, which are positive regulator for avermectin biosynthesis. Therefore, the nsPEFs technology presents an alternative strategy to be developed to increase avermectin output in fermentation industry.

  3. Production of durable expanded perlite microspheres in a Vertical Electrical Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis, M.; Angelopoulos, P.; Taxiarchou, M.; Paspaliaris, I.

    2016-04-01

    Expanded perlite constitutes one of the most competitive insulating materials that is widely used in construction and manufacturing industry due to its unique properties combination; it is white, natural, lightweight, chemically inert, and exhibits superior insulating properties (thermal and acoustic) and fire resistance. Conventionally, perlite expansion is performed in vertical gas-fired furnaces; the conventional perlite expansion process has certain disadvantages which affect expanded products quality, thus limiting their performance and range of applications. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional expansion technique, a new perlite expansion process has been designed based on a vertical electrical furnace (VEF). In the current study, fine perlite samples (-150 μm) from Milos Island, Greece, were expansed in the novel VEF and a conventional gas-fired furnace with the aim to evaluate and compare the main physical properties of the expanded products. The novel expanded perlite particles were characterised by superior properties, namely increased compression strength, competitive water and oil absorption capability, size homogeneity, spherical shape and decreased surface porosity in comparison to conventionally expanded samples.

  4. New dawn for electricity? EU policy and the changing decision space for electricity production in Sweden; a CANES Working Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2009-11-15

    The European Union has taken an increasing interest in governing the energy sector in its Member States. However, EU still competes with national-level policies as well as sectoral organizational fields with sticky institutions, norms and knowledge. Therefore, despite its high ambitions in the energy field, for instance in the promotion of renewables and market reform, it is not clear whether the EU really exerts a strong influence, and if there is such an influence, the processes of influence and 'filtering' through to national political and industrial structures are not well understood. This paper examines a recent strategic change amongst national actors in Sweden in the energy sector; the decision space for investment in electricity. It examines the influence of European policy change, national political and policy change and organizational field-level developments on this decision space. It finds that European policy has rarely been very coercive, partly because Sweden has been a forerunner both on electricity market reform and renewable energy promotion, but that its influence is notable both directly through its emissions trading directive and more indirectly through signalling its intentions and long-term goals. Still, it appears that domestic developments, both cognitive and normative structures in the organizational field, and national policy change remain more instrumental determinants of the changed decision space. (Author)

  5. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  6. Productivity measurement in the presence of externalities: An example from the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, Kelly Ann

    Traditional productivity measures have ensured that environmental regulations were seen as deterrents to productivity growth. Such measures are constructed in a manner which make this conclusion inevitable. Traditional productivity measures include the regulation-induced additions to inputs, whether qualitatively or quantitatively, while continuing to ignore the value of the pollution emitted. The measure proposed in this thesis is derived formally from a model of social welfare. With the exception of 'prices' for emitted pollutants, for which marginal damage estimates will proxy, the proposed measure relies upon market prices, which are then incorporated into a conventional Divisia framework. Data from the electricity generation industry are used to construct both the conventional and newly proposed TFP growth rates. The industry provides an ideal framework within which this growth measure can be tested. It is a large industry that affects a majority of society as it is both consumed as a final good and pervasively used as an intermediate good. The industry is also a large polluter. On an annual basis it has been responsible for approximately one-third of the emissions of carbon-dioxide, one-third of the emissions of nitrous oxides, and two-thirds of the sulfur dioxides emissions, nationally. Furthermore, performance of the proposed measure across various samples was allowed by the diversity of utilities in the industry both with respect to location and fuel mix. Incorporating the value of externalities results in a productivity growth measure which is substantially improved. The difference in calculated productivity gains between the two measures is shown to be sizable under a number of circumstances. As well, the empirical analysis offers some general lessons as to the treatment of various pollutants--it is clearly demonstrated that movement in one pollutant cannot be used to proxy movements in others, or be used as an indicator as to the bias of traditional TFP

  7. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological

  8. Investment in sustainable electricity production by Dutch banks. A case study for the Fair Bank Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.; Kouwenhoven, D.

    2010-05-01

    This report contains the results of the second case study commissioned by the Fair Bank Guide on the financing practices of twelve investigated banks in the Netherlands. It has been examined which part of the investments in electricity generation by Dutch banks involves electricity generation from sustainable sources (sustainable electricity generation) [nl

  9. Industry will meet productivity goals, but can it hold the line on prices: electrical Canada, 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-01

    The Canadian electrical industry can expect to grow more muscle in 1967. Demand for electricity increases across the country and the big power projects will be the Nelson Columbia, Peace, Manicouagan, Outardes and Churchill Falls. With more promotion by utilities scheduled better electrical living will get a record shot in the arm.

  10. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The use of lignocellulose biomass residues as a feedstock offers good perspectives for large scale production of fuel ethanol at competitive costs. An evaluation was performed to assess the international status of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology and the economical and ecological system performance, to identify RandD approaches for further development. Deriving fermentable sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulose materials via suitable pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a critical RandD issue. Further development of pretreatment via mild, low temperature alkaline extraction or weak acid hydrolysis using CO2, dissolved in pressurized hot water ('carbonic acid process') shows good perspectives. Enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis with the currently available industrial cellulases accounts for 36-45% of ethanol production costs. At least a 10-fold increase of cellulase cost-effectiveness is required. Despite substantial RandD efforts, no suitable fermentation system is currently available for the fermentation of pentoses (mainly xylose) from the hemicellulose fraction. Several strains of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria are able to convert all (hemi)cellulose components into ethanol. Follow-up RandD will focus on isolation of suitable strain(s) from this group. The system evaluation shows a 40-55% energetic efficiency (LHV basis) for conversion of lignocellulose feedstocks to ethanol. Thermal conversion of non-fermentable residues (mainly lignin) in a Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) system can provide the total steam and electricity requirement for the production process and an electricity surplus for export to the grid, giving a total system efficiency of 56-68%. Water consumption in the process (28-54 liter water/liter ethanol) is much higher than in current ethanol production (lo-15 l/l ethanol). The large amount of process water (used in the pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis

  11. Time horizons and electricity futures: An application of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's general theory of economic production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Katharine N. [Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gibson Institute for Land, Food and Environment, Queen' s University of Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Mayumi, Kozo [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    This paper reports theoretical economic production work and uses electricity futures trading to illustrate its argument. The focus is relationships between time, production and tradition both in Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen's analytical representation of the production process (i.e., flow/fund model) and in his dialectical scheme dealing with the evolutionary changes in the economic process. Our main arguments are (1) the flow/fund model is designed to be employed in conjunction with attention to how the boundaries of a given process are determined and (2) process boundaries are dialectical distinctions - between process and not-process - that are strongly related to time and tradition. We propose that Georgescu-Roegen's The Entropy Law and the Economic Process is best understood as the elaboration of a general theory of economic production and we developed two conceptual tools (time {open_square} and meta-funds), both of which are related to the dialectical distinction between process and not-process, which we use to operationalise this general theory. Finally, we demonstrate that, although trading in electricity futures is surprising if one uses a stock/flow vs services distinction (because electricity supply is classed as a service) it appears perfectly logical under Georgescu-Roegen's general theory: shortening time horizons, combined with a shift in the relationship between raw fuel supplies and power production procedures, lead to a shift in the status of electricity supply, from fund to flow. (author)

  12. Estimation of the externalities associated with atmospheric emissions of the electric power production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Pereira, Maria Cristina; Branco, Otavio Eurico de Aquino; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays the activities connected to energy generation and distribution are those that most contribute to local, regional and global degradation of the environment. One of the most important contribution for externalities estimation is the ExternE Project, which has established a methodological framework called damage function approach to quantify both health and environmental impacts from electricity generation as well as to quantify in monetary terms the damage resulting from these physical impacts. In order to incorporate economic, social and environmental aspects in the decision process of energy planning in Brazil, a joint research project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency is being carried out. The primary objective of this Project is to perform a comparative assessment of external costs of alternative fuel cycles for electricity production. It includes not only the quantification of the physical impacts and damage costs associated with airborne emissions from the traditional fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) and nuclear energy, but also those from renewable resources, most specifically from hydroelectric. The main objective of this paper is to present preliminary results of the external costs associated to atmospheric emissions of an oil fired plant. Applying the Damage Function Approach methodology the quantification of healthy impacts and damage cost was performed. These results will later be compared with those from nuclear energy option. Atmospheric dispersion studies were carried out using the Industrial Complex Source Model. The healthy impacts were estimated using the exposure-response curves recommended by the ExternE Project. The monetary unit cost for different public health endpoints considered in this study were obtained indirectly by using unit cost values taken from Contingent Valuation studies sponsored by the World Bank, which are specific for developing countries. (author)

  13. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  14. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena-Sanchez, Raul; Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Perez-Alonso, Jose; Carreno-Ortega, Angel [University of Almeria, Depto. de Ingenieia Rural, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: acallejo@ual.es

    2012-07-15

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv Daniela). This study was undertaken in a commercial raspa y amagado greenhouse, typical of the Almeria region (Spain). Tomato plantlets were planted at a density of 0.75 plants m{sup -2}. The flexible solar panels were mounted on two parts of the roof in different arrangements (T1 and T2), each blacking out 9.8 % of its surface area. A control area (T0 arrangement) was fitted with no panels. No difference was found in terms of total or marketable production under these three arrangements, although fruit mean mass and maximum diameter of T0 were significantly greater than T1 and T2. Fruit in T0 matured earlier with more intense color compared with those in T1 and T2. However, these differences had no effect on price as the tomatoes produced under three conditions fell into the same commercial class (G class; diameter 67-81 mm). Solar panels covering 9.8 % roof area of the greenhouse did not affect yield and price of tomatoes despite of their negative effect on fruit size and color. (author)

  15. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  16. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  17. Characterization of ceramic electrical insulators discarded by the electricity distribution networks and compared with similar products without use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, C.S.; Mantovani, V.A.; Favero, M.; Morales, J.; Hasegawa, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of distribution networks for electricity generates a large amount of waste. Among these, one of the most representative weights is from porcelain, found in para-rays, braces, insulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recycling potential of two models of ceramic insulators, new and used. It had been subjected to comparative tests of scanning electron microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, contact angle, volatile content and density. In general, samples of new and used ceramic showed no differences that might be associated of material degradation by using. This indicates that the materials discarded and new ones are very close, which may encourage the reuse and recycling. (author)

  18. Co-Production of Electricity and Hydrogen Using a Novel Iron-based Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaly, Ahmad; Georgas, Adam; Leboreiro, Jose; Arora, Salil; Head, Megann; Trembly, Jason; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2011-09-30

    circulating fluid-bed reactor system for hydrogen production. Although a technology can be technically feasible, successful commercial deployment also requires that a technology offer an economic advantage over existing commercial technologies. To effective estimate the economics of this steam-iron process, a techno-economic analysis of this steam iron process and a commercial pressure swing adsorption process were completed. The results from this analysis described in this report show the economic potential of the steam iron process for integration with a gasification plant for coproduction of hydrogen and electricity.

  19. Wind blows where (and when) it wants: an analysis of the French electricity production, September-December 2010 - preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document analyses the set of data published on the RTE web site and concerning the electricity production and consumption in France from September to December 2010. Having a closer look to the wind energy production, it notably shows that, as expected, all steerable means of production play a coordinated role in covering the required power needs. The analysis of the wind energy power shows a 23 pc average efficiency which is associated to the strong fluctuations which are typical for this type of intermittent production. It notices that time and energy distributions of wind energy power supplied to the network are not related to increased electricity needs during this autumn period which is marked by several cold waves

  20. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.