Vickers, Linda D
2010-05-01
This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.
10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. The reasonably maximally exposed individual is...
40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual? 197.21 Section 197.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Standard § 197.21 Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual? The reasonably maximally...
K. Montague
2000-02-23
The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure.
Vickers, Linda
2015-02-01
Protection of the public from hazardous airborne releases at U.S. Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities is the highest priority in all operations. As a result, the safety basis calculations that derive the protection of the public in the form of safety-class structures, systems, and components (SC SSCs) must accurately model the accident event and airborne plume in order to characterize the relative severity of the consequences. The simple Gaussian plume model is the most accurate and most commonly used model to describe the pollutant plume relative concentration (X/Q) downwind at receptor. As a result, the X/Q value can easily be calculated by an electronic spreadsheet as shown by this paper.
Denise Heagerty
2002-01-01
To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE TELNET ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from Tuesday 28 January 2003 If you use telnet to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice http://cern.ch/security/telnet Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch
2004-01-01
To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE FTP ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from: Tuesday 20th January 2004 If you use ftp to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice: http://cern.ch/security/ftp Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch
2003-01-01
To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE FTP ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from: Tuesday 20th January 2004 If you use ftp to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice: http://cern.ch/security/ftp Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch
2003-01-01
To reduce the number of regular break-ins on CERN machines due to passwords exposed on the network in clear text, OFF-SITE TELNET ACCESS TO CERN WILL BE BLOCKED in the CERN firewall from Tuesday 28th January 2003 If you use telnet to access CERN computers from outside CERN then please see the link below for alternative access means and further advice http://cern.ch/security/telnet Denise Heagerty, CERN Computer Security officer, Computer.Security@cern.ch
Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies
Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-04-01
The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.
LHCb Off-site HLT Farm Demonstration
Neufeld, Niko
2012-01-01
The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) farm consists of about 1300 nodes, which are housed in the underground server room. Due to the constraints of the power supply and cooling system, it is difficult to install more servers in this room for the future. Off-site farm is a solution to enlarge the computing capacity. In this paper, we will demonstrate the concept of LHCb off-site HLT farm extension into the CERN computing center. Furthermore, the performance of the key technologies have been tested in the lab.
Off-Site Source Recovery Project Overview.
Coel-Roback, Rebecca J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-29
This report introduces the Off-Site Source Recovery project and gives a summary of domestic and international work. The mission of OSRP is to eliminate excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential risk to health, safety, and national security. OSRP identifies and tracks disused sealed sources potentially requiring recovery, and performs special form encapsulation for sealed sources to simplify transportation.
The Off-Site Rule. CERCLA Information Brief
Whitehead, B.
1994-03-01
Under Section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, wastes generated as a result of CERCLA remediation activities and transferred off-site must be managed at a facility operating in compliance with federal laws. EPA issued its Off-Site Policy (OSWER Directive No. 9834, 11), which gave guidance on complying with this particular requirement. Specifically, EPA requires off-site waste management facilities to fulfill EPA`s definition of acceptability and has established detailed procedures for issuing and reviewing unacceptability determinations. EPA proposed amending the National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR part 300) to include the requirements contained in the Off-Site Policy (53 FR 48218). On September 22, 1993 EPA published the Off-Site Rules [58 FR 49200], which became effective on October 22, 1993. The primary purpose of the Off-Site Rule is to clarify and codify CERCLA`s requirement to prevent wastes generated from remediation activities conducted under CERCLA from contributing to present or future environmental problems at off-site waste management facilities that receive them. Thus, the Off-Site Rule requires that CERCLA wastes only be sent to off-site facilities that meet EPA`s acceptability criteria. The final Off-Site Rule makes two major changes to the proposed Off-Site Rule: (1) only EPA, not an authorized State, can make determinations of the acceptability of off-site facilities that manage CERCLA wastes, and (2) the Off-Site eliminate the distinction between CERCLA wastes governed under pre-SARA and post-SARA agreements. The purpose of this information Brief is to highlight and clarify EPA`s final Off-Site and its implications on DOE remedial actions under CERCLA.
Ron Warren
2006-12-01
hypothetical maximally exposed individual at the closest NTS boundary to the proposed Divine Strake experiment, as estimated by the CAP88-PC model, was 0.005 mrem with wind blowing directly towards that location. Boundary dose, as modeled by NARAC, ranged from about 0.006 to 0.007 mrem. Potential doses to actual offsite populated locations were generally two to five times lower still, or about 40 to 100 times lower then the 0.1 mrem level at which EPA approval is required pursuant to Section 61.96.
Brendle, Joerg
2016-01-01
We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.
State of offsite construction in India-Drivers and barriers
Arif, M.; Bendi, D.; Sawhney, A.; Iyer, K. C.
2012-05-01
The rapid growth of the construction industry in India has influenced key players in the industry to adopt alternative technologies addressing time, cost and quality. The rising demand in housing, infrastructure and other facilities have further highlighted the need for the construction industry to look at adopting alternate building technologies. Offsite construction has evolved as a panacea to dealing with the under-supply and poor quality in the current age construction industry. Several offsite techniques have been adopted by the construction sector. Although, different forms of offsite techniques have been around for a while but their uptake has been low in the Indian context. This paper presents the perceptions about offsite construction in India and highlights some of the barriers and drivers facing the Indian construction industry. The data was gathered through a survey of 17 high level managers from some of the largest stakeholder organizations of the construction sector in India. The influence of time and cost has been highlighted as a major factor fuelling the adoption of offsite construction. However, the influence of current planning systems and the need for a paradigm shift are some of the prominent barriers towards the adoption of offsite techniques.
Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Biwer, B.
2006-05-22
The main purpose of this report is to document the benchmarking results and verification of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code as part of the quality assurance requirements of the RESRAD development program. This documentation will enable the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees and other stakeholders to use the quality-assured version of the code to perform dose analysis in a risk-informed and technically defensible manner to demonstrate compliance with the NRC's License Termination Rule, Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E); DOE's 10 CFR Part 834, Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment''; and other Federal and State regulatory requirements as appropriate. The other purpose of this report is to document the differences and similarities between the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes so that users (dose analysts and risk assessors) can make a smooth transition from use of the RESRAD (onsite) code to use of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code for performing both onsite and offsite dose analyses. The evolution of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code from the RESRAD (onsite) code is described in Chapter 1 to help the dose analyst and risk assessor make a smooth conceptual transition from the use of one code to that of the other. Chapter 2 provides a comparison of the predictions of RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE for an onsite exposure scenario. Chapter 3 documents the results of benchmarking RESRAD-OFFSITE's atmospheric transport and dispersion submodel against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAP88-PC (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) and ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex-Long Term) models. Chapter 4 documents the comparison results of the predictions of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code and its submodels with the predictions of peer models. This report was prepared
Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; McCormack, W.D.
1986-02-01
Since 1957, evaluations of offsite impacts from each year of operation have been summarized in publicly available, annual environmental reports. These evaluations included estimates of potential radiation exposure to members of the public, either in terms of percentages of the then permissible limits or in terms of radiation dose. The estimated potential radiation doses to maximally exposed individuals from each year of Hanford operations are summarized in a series of tables and figures. The applicable standard for radiation dose to an individual for whom the maximum exposure was estimated is also shown. Although the estimates address potential radiation doses to the public from each year of operations at Hanford between 1957 and 1984, their sum will not produce an accurate estimate of doses accumulated over this time period. The estimates were the best evaluations available at the time to assess potential dose from the current year of operation as well as from any radionuclides still present in the environment from previous years of operation. There was a constant striving for improved evaluation of the potential radiation doses received by members of the public, and as a result the methods and assumptions used to estimate doses were periodically modified to add new pathways of exposure and to increase the accuracy of the dose calculations. Three conclusions were reached from this review: radiation doses reported for the years 1957 through 1984 for the maximum individual did not exceed the applicable dose standards; radiation doses reported over the past 27 years are not additive because of the changing and inconsistent methods used; and results from environmental monitoring and the associated dose calculations reported over the 27 years from 1957 through 1984 do not suggest a significant dose contribution from the buildup in the environment of radioactive materials associated with Hanford operations.
K B Athreya
2009-09-01
It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.
Pathways for Off-site Corporate PV Procurement
Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-09-06
Through July 2017, corporate customers contracted for more than 2,300 MW of utility-scale solar. This paper examines the benefits, challenges, and outlooks for large-scale off-site solar purchasing through four pathways: power purchase agreements, retail choice, utility partnerships (green tariffs and bilateral contracts with utilities), and by becoming a licensed wholesale seller of electricity. Each pathway differs based on where in the United States it is available, the value provided to a corporate off-taker, and the ease of implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion of future pathway comparison, noting that to deploy more corporate off-site solar, new procurement pathways are needed.
40 CFR 68.30 - Defining offsite impacts-population.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-population... impacts—population. (a) The owner or operator shall estimate in the RMP the population within a circle... defined in § 68.22(a). (b) Population to be defined. Population shall include residential population. The...
Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment
Yang, X.
2016-01-01
Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil Xiaomei Yang Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within
Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment
Yang, X.
2016-01-01
Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil Xiaomei Yang Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within
40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis parameters. 68.22 Section 68.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... topography, as appropriate. Urban means that there are many obstacles in the immediate area; obstacles...
40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.
2010-07-01
... (toxics only); (10) Topography (toxics only); (11) Distance to endpoint; (12) Public and environmental... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...
40 CFR 68.33 - Defining offsite impacts-environment.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Defining offsite impacts-environment. 68.33 Section 68.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... impacts—environment. (a) The owner or operator shall list in the RMP environmental receptors within...
LHCb: The LHCb off-Site HLT Farm Demonstration
Liu, Guoming
2012-01-01
The LHCb High Level Trigger (HLT) farm consists of about 1300 nodes, which are housed in the underground server room of the experiment point. Due to the constraints of the power supply and cooling system, it is difficult to install more servers in this room for the future. Off-site computing farm is a solution to enlarge the computing capacity. In this paper, we will demonstrate the LHCb off-site HLT farm which locate in the CERN computing center. Since we use private IP addresses for the HLT farm, we would need virtual private network (VPN) to bridge both sites. There are two kinds of traffic in the event builder: control traffic for the control and monitoring of the farm and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) traffic. We adopt IP tunnel for the control traffic and Network Address Translate (NAT) for the DAQ traffic. The performance of the off-site farm have been tested and compared with the on-site farm. The effect of the network latency has been studied. To employ a large off-site farm, one of the potential bottle...
User's Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE
Gnanapragasam, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2015-04-01
The RESRAD-OFFSITE code can be used to model the radiological dose or risk to an offsite receptor. This User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 3.1 is an update of the User’s Guide for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 contained in the Appendix A of the User’s Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2 (ANL/EVS/TM/07-1, DOE/HS-0005, NUREG/CR-6937). This user’s guide presents the basic information necessary to use Version 3.1 of the code. It also points to the help file and other documents that provide more detailed information about the inputs, the input forms and features/tools in the code; two of the features (overriding the source term and computing area factors) are discussed in the appendices to this guide. Section 2 describes how to download and install the code and then verify the installation of the code. Section 3 shows ways to navigate through the input screens to simulate various exposure scenarios and to view the results in graphics and text reports. Section 4 has screen shots of each input form in the code and provides basic information about each parameter to increase the user’s understanding of the code. Section 5 outlines the contents of all the text reports and the graphical output. It also describes the commands in the two output viewers. Section 6 deals with the probabilistic and sensitivity analysis tools available in the code. Section 7 details the various ways of obtaining help in the code.
Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L
2017-04-01
The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines. In this study we evaluated the addition of verticutting (VC) to HTCC (HTCC+VC) in an attempt to further enhance infiltration and mitigate the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from managed turf. Overall, greater or equal quantities of pesticides were transported with runoff from plots managed with HTCC+VC compared to HTCC or VC alone. For the pesticides evaluated HTCCtransport of the high mobility pesticides while HTCC=VC=HTCC+VC for the low mobility pesticides. It is likely the addition of VC following HTCC further increased compaction and reduced availability of recently exposed soil sorptive sites produced from the HTCC. Results of this research provides guidance to golf course managers on selection of management practices that assure quality turf while minimizing off-site transport of pesticides, improving pesticide efficacy and the environmental stewardship of managed biological systems.
Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident
Carro, C A
2003-01-01
This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.
13 CFR 120.1025 - Off-site reviews and monitoring.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-site reviews and monitoring. 120.1025 Section 120.1025 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1025 Off-site reviews and monitoring. SBA may conduct...
14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.
2010-01-01
... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...
40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internet access to certain off-site... DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off... elements in the risk management plan database available on the Internet: (a) The concentration of...
2010-01-01
... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... substantial radiation levels offsite. DOE will determine that there has been a substantial discharge or dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation...
2010-01-01
... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as...
40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.
2010-07-01
... INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.8 Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal... analysis information by Federal government officials. 1400.8 Section 1400.8 Protection of...
2010-07-01
... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence analysis... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection...
Profit maximization mitigates competition
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
1996-01-01
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
Statistical Analysis of Loss of Offsite Power Events
Andrija Volkanovski
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of the loss of offsite power events (LOOP registered in four reviewed databases. The reviewed databases include the IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire SAPIDE database and the GRS (Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH VERA database reviewed over the period from 1992 to 2011. The US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensee Event Reports (LERs database and the IAEA International Reporting System (IRS database were screened for relevant events registered over the period from 1990 to 2013. The number of LOOP events in each year in the analysed period and mode of operation are assessed during the screening. The LOOP frequencies obtained for the French and German nuclear power plants (NPPs during critical operation are of the same order of magnitude with the plant related events as a dominant contributor. A frequency of one LOOP event per shutdown year is obtained for German NPPs in shutdown mode of operation. For the US NPPs, the obtained LOOP frequency for critical and shutdown mode is comparable to the one assessed in NUREG/CR-6890. Decreasing trend is obtained for the LOOP events registered in three databases (IRSN, GRS, and NRC.
Qingtongxia Aluminum Carrying Out Off-site Renovation in Ningdong Energy & Chemical Base
2008-01-01
<正>Recently,the off-site renovation project of Qingtongxia Aluminum commenced the con- struction in Linhe General Industrial Park of Ningdong Energy & Chemical Base,symboliz- ing a concrete step of Qingtongxia Aluminum
AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Polygons, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class was developed to support the AMCO Chemical Superfund Site air monitoring process and depicts a single polygon layer, Off-Site Air Monitors,...
77 FR 59001 - Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program
2012-09-25
... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... services provided by FEMA personnel for FEMA's Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program....
75 FR 19985 - Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program
2010-04-16
... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... services provided by FEMA personnel for FEMA's Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program....
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Reconstructing ancient sustainability: a comparison of onsite and offsite data
Lubos, Carolin; Dreibrodt, Stefan; Horejs, Barbara
2013-04-01
With the onset of sedentism humans started to convert their surroundings. Whereas reconstructions of geochemical traces of settlement activity (e.g. Arrhenius, 1931) or man's pressure on the soils of landscapes (e.g. van Andel et al., 1990; Bork, 1998) were carried out at many sites holistic approaches questioning the sustainability of ancient societies are missing so far. A new approach, applied to the multi layered settlement mound "Cukurici Höyük" (western Anatolia, Turkey) aims at comparing land use intensity and settlement intensity. Land use intensity of the former settlers will be described by determining slope instability phases and quantifying slope deposits at hills adjacent to the settlement. Geochemical and physical properties as well as bio remains will be analysed of the dated debris layers onsite and quantified as matter fluxes. Matter accumulation onsite, being an indicator for settlement intensities, is compared to slope instability phases offsite, describing the impact of former settlers on their environment. The approach aims at quantifying historical settlement pressure over several settlement phases and might shed light on different phases of sustainability in ancient Times. The planned project is imbedded within the archaeological project (ERC Project / Austrian Archaeological Institute) which investigates alternating societal systems in a changing environment between 7000 and 3000 BC. Focus is laid on architectural research, archaeobotany, archaeozoology, lithics, metallurgy, and ore deposit. In a first geoarchaeological field campaign differentiable slope deposits could be proved. These contained datable organic material as well as pottery sherds dating to different historical phases. A well-established archaeological chronosequence of settlement layers will provide the onsite framework for this new project. The paper presents preliminary results of the outlined approach. Additionally several geochemical methodologies applied to the debris
Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...
User's Manual for RESRAD-OFFSITE Version 2.
Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Biwer, B. M.; Kamboj, S.; Cheng, J. -J.; Klett, T.; LePoire, D.; Zielen, A. J.; Chen, S. Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Domotor, S.; Mo, T.; Schwartzman, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE; NRC
2007-09-05
The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code, which has been widely used for calculating doses and risks from exposure to radioactively contaminated soils. The development of RESRAD-OFFSITE started more than 10 years ago, but new models and methodologies have been developed, tested, and incorporated since then. Some of the new models have been benchmarked against other independently developed (international) models. The databases used have also expanded to include all the radionuclides (more than 830) contained in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 38 database. This manual provides detailed information on the design and application of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It describes in detail the new models used in the code, such as the three-dimensional dispersion groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model, the Gaussian plume model for atmospheric dispersion, and the deposition model used to estimate the accumulation of radionuclides in offsite locations and in foods. Potential exposure pathways and exposure scenarios that can be modeled by the RESRAD-OFFSITE code are also discussed. A user's guide is included in Appendix A of this manual. The default parameter values and parameter distributions are presented in Appendix B, along with a discussion on the statistical distributions for probabilistic analysis. A detailed discussion on how to reduce run time, especially when conducting probabilistic (uncertainty) analysis, is presented in Appendix C of this manual.
Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO
2005-01-01
A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.
Andrew M. Parker
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.
Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.
Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.
Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R
2010-01-01
Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.
On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?
Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;
2012-01-01
The concept of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) encompasses two options of supplying renewable energy, which can offset energy use of a building, in particular on-site or off-site renewable energy supply. Currently, the on-site options are much more popular than the off-site; however, taking...... into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context....... Therefore, this paper deploys the life cycle cost analysis and takes the private economy perspective to investigate the life cycle cost of different renewable energy supply options, and to identify the costoptimal combination between energy efficiency and renewable energy generation. The analysis includes...
Wireless remote control clinical image workflow: utilizing a PDA for offsite distribution
Liu, Brent J.; Documet, Luis; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.; Muldoon, Jean
2004-04-01
Last year we presented in RSNA an application to perform wireless remote control of PACS image distribution utilizing a handheld device such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). This paper describes the clinical experiences including workflow scenarios of implementing the PDA application to route exams from the clinical PACS archive server to various locations for offsite distribution of clinical PACS exams. By utilizing this remote control application, radiologists can manage image workflow distribution with a single wireless handheld device without impacting their clinical workflow on diagnostic PACS workstations. A PDA application was designed and developed to perform DICOM Query and C-Move requests by a physician from a clinical PACS Archive to a CD-burning device for automatic burning of PACS data for the distribution to offsite. In addition, it was also used for convenient routing of historical PACS exams to the local web server, local workstations, and teleradiology systems. The application was evaluated by radiologists as well as other clinical staff who need to distribute PACS exams to offsite referring physician"s offices and offsite radiologists. An application for image workflow management utilizing wireless technology was implemented in a clinical environment and evaluated. A PDA application was successfully utilized to perform DICOM Query and C-Move requests from the clinical PACS archive to various offsite exam distribution devices. Clinical staff can utilize the PDA to manage image workflow and PACS exam distribution conveniently for offsite consultations by referring physicians and radiologists. This solution allows the radiologist to expand their effectiveness in health care delivery both within the radiology department as well as offisite by improving their clinical workflow.
Off-site training of laparoscopic skills, a scoping review using a thematic analysis
Thinggaard, Ebbe; Kleif, Jakob; Bjerrum, Flemming
2016-01-01
on learning theories including proficiency-based learning, deliberate practice, and self-regulated learning. CONCLUSIONS: Methods of instructional design vary widely in off-site training of laparoscopic skills. Implementation can be facilitated by organizing courses and training curricula following sound...... education theories such as proficiency-based learning and deliberate practice. Directed self-regulated learning has the potential to improve off-site laparoscopic skills training; however, further studies are needed to demonstrate the effect of this type of instructional design....
Sorensen, J.L.; Ostergaard, D.; Leblanc, V.; Ottesen, B.; Konge, L.; Dieckmann, P.; Vleuten, C. van der
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities
Rudiger Bubner
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.
Hosokawa, Naoto
2011-10-01
In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.
Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.
1983-07-01
A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.
40 CFR 300.440 - Procedures for planning and implementing off-site response actions.
2010-07-01
... applies to any remedial or removal action involving the off-site transfer of any hazardous substance... emergency removal actions under CERCLA, emergency actions taken during remedial actions, or response actions... administrative or judicial challenge to the finding of noncompliance or uncontrolled releases upon which...
Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Willcox, M.V. [Dept. of Energy Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
1998-01-01
The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex.
Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste
N/A
1999-05-06
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.
On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?
Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund
2012-01-01
into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context...
Off-Site Supervision in Social Work Education: What Makes It Work?
Maynard, Sarah P.; Mertz, Linda K. P.; Fortune, Anne E.
2015-01-01
The field practicum is the signature pedagogy of the social work profession, yet field directors struggle to find adequate field placements--both in quantity and quality. To accommodate more students with a dwindling pool of practicum sites, creative models of field supervision have emerged. This article considers off-site supervision and its…
Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.
2006-09-05
A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the
Analysis of offsite dose calculation methodology for a nuclear power reactor
Moser, Donna Smith [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
1995-01-01
This technical study reviews the methodology for calculating offsite dose estimates as described in the offsite dose calculation manual (ODCM) for Pennsylvania Power and Light - Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES). An evaluation of the SSES ODCM dose assessment methodology indicates that it conforms with methodology accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Using 1993 SSES effluent data, dose estimates are calculated according to SSES ODCM methodology and compared to the dose estimates calculated according to SSES ODCM and the computer model used to produce the reported 1993 dose estimates. The 1993 SSES dose estimates are based on the axioms of Publication 2 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). SSES Dose estimates based on the axioms of ICRP Publication 26 and 30 reveal the total body estimates to be the most affected.
Shedrow, C.B.
1999-11-29
The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.
Janusz Brzozowski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Minutes of the workshop on off-site release criteria for contaminated materials
Singh, S.P.N.
1989-11-01
A one and one-half-day workshop was held May 2-3, 1989, at the Pollard Auditorium in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with the objective of formulating a strategy for developing reasonable and uniform criteria for releasing radioactively contaminated materials from the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This report contains the minutes of the workshop. At the conclusion of the workshop, a plan was formulated to facilitate the development of the above-mentioned off-site release criteria.
Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.
1997-08-01
This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.
Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with SCRPA method
Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.
2009-01-01
The Self Consistent Random Phase Approximation (SCRPA) and a Direct Analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model in 1D. We have considered an Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in one dimension with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with ones obtained by a Direct Analytical approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains with a rigorous manner. The analysi...
Landman, Claudia [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pro-Science GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Raskob, Wolfgang; Trybushnyi, Dmytro [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2016-07-01
JRodos is a non-commercial computer-based decision support system for nuclear accidents. The simulation models for assessing radiological and other consequences and the system features and components allow real-time operation for off-site emergency management as well as the use as a tool for preparing exercises and pre-plannng of countermeasures. There is an active user community that takes influence on further developments.
Zak, Michail
2008-01-01
A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).
ALTERNATIVES OF MACCS2 IN LANL DISPERSION ANALYSIS FOR ONSITE AND OFFSITE DOSES
Wang, John HC [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-05-01
In modeling atmospheric dispersion to determine accidental release of radiological material, one of the common statistical analysis tools used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2). MACCS2, however, has some limitations and shortfalls for both onsite and offsite applications. Alternative computer codes, which could provide more realistic calculations, are being investigated for use at LANL. In the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), the suitability of MACCS2 for the calculation of onsite worker doses was a concern; therefore, ARCON96 was chosen to replace MACCS2. YMP's use of ARCON96 provided results which clearly demonstrated the program's merit for onsite worker safety analyses in a wide range of complex configurations and scenarios. For offsite public exposures, the conservatism of MACCS2 on the treatment of turbulence phenomena at LANL is examined in this paper. The results show a factor of at least two conservatism in calculated public doses. The new EPA air quality model, AERMOD, which implements advanced meteorological turbulence calculations, is a good candidate for LANL applications to provide more confidence in the accuracy of offsite public dose projections.
Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
. A prominent research theme in health care studies is, therefore, to explicate the gap between theory and practice. The question this paper addresses is how a learning environment can be designed to bridge this theory-practice gap, expose the differences in situated interactions and qualify health...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...
Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...
Social group utility maximization
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Linda Lai
2010-01-01
This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...
HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization
Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.
1992-01-01
This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report
NONE
1995-09-01
The U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters requested this report to verify that Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) properly categorized hazardous waste shipped offsite from 1984 to 1991. LLNL categorized the waste shipments by the new guidelines provided on the definition of radioactive waste. For this validation, waste that has had no radioactivity added by DOE operations is nonradioactive. Waste to which DOE operations has added or concentrated any radioactivity is radioactive. This report documents findings from the review of available LLNL hazardous waste shipment information and summarizes the data validation strategy. The report discusses administrative and radiological control procedures in place at LLNL during the data validation period. It also describes sampling and analysis and surface survey procedures used in determining radionuclide concentrations for offsite release of hazardous waste shipments. The evaluation team reviewed individual items on offsite hazardous waste shipments and classified them, using the DOE-HQ waste category definitions. LLNL relied primarily on generator knowledge to classify wastes. Very little radioanalytical information exists on hazardous wastes shipped from LLNL. Slightly greater than one-half of those hazardous waste items for which the documentation included radioanalytical data showed concentrations of radioactivity higher than the LLNL release criteria used from 1989 to 1991. Based on this small amount of available radioanalytical data, very little (less than one percent) of the hazardous waste generated at the LLNL main site can be shown to contain DOE added radioactivity. LLNL based the criteria on the limit of analytical sensitivity for gross alpha and gross beta measurements and the background levels of tritium. Findings in this report are based on information and documentation on the waste handling procedures in place before the start of the hazardous waste shipping moratorium in May 1991.
Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012
Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-11
Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.
Assessment of uncertainties in early off-site consequences from nuclear reactor accidents
Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Upton, NY (US)); Khatib-Rahbar, M. (Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (US))
1990-04-01
A simplified approach has been developed to calculate uncertainties in early off-site consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. The consequence model (SMART) is based on a solution procedure that uses simplified meteorology and involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position. This is different from the discretization approach currently used in the CRAC2 and MACCS codes. The SMART code is fast running, thereby providing a valuable tool for sensitivity and uncertainty studies. The code was benchmarked against both MACCS version 1.4 and CRAC2. Results of benchmarketing and detailed sensitivity and uncertainty analyses using SMART are presented.
Off-Site Prefabrication: What Does it Require from the Trade Contractor?
Bekdik, Baris; Hall, Daniel; Aslesen, Sigmund
2016-01-01
understand and improve existing construction processes, relatively few contributions have focused on the opportunities for industrialization from the trade contractor’s perspective. This paper uses an in-depth case study to address the deployment strategy for off-site fabrication techniques and processes...... at only one case study, the conclusions are limited in generalizability to other prefabrication operations. However, it represents an important in-depth case from the trade contractors’ perspective and will contribute to the growing body of research focused on industrialization and prefabrication in lean...... construction. ....
MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK
Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims
Swanepoel, Konrad J
2011-01-01
A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
Evaluation and measurements of radioactive air emission and off-site doses at SLAC.
Chan, Ivy; Liu, James; Tran, Henry
2013-08-01
SLAC, a high-energy (GeV) electron accelerator facility, performs experimental and theoretical research using high-energy electron and/or positron beams that can produce secondary neutron and gamma radiation when beam losses occur. Radioactive gas production (mainly C, N, O, Ar) and release is one of the environmental protection program issues. U.S. DOE Order 458.1 requires that 40 CFR 61 Subpart H's NESHAP requirements be followed. These regulations prescribe a total dose limit of 0.1 mSv y to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) of the general public, a requirement for a continuous air monitoring system if a release point within a facility can cause > 1 × 10 mSv y to the MEI, and a requirement for periodic confirmatory measurements for minor sources which give releases that contribute ≤ 1 × 10 mSv y to the MEI. At SLAC, all air release points for current operations are evaluated to be minor sources. This paper describes SLAC's evaluation following NESHAP requirements; measurements using the Air Monitoring Station (AMS) as periodic confirmatory measurements are also discussed.
Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1997-2015
Johnson, Nancy Ellen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-07-01
Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. LOOP event frequencies and times required for subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2015. LOOP events during critical operation that do not result in a reactor trip, are not included. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. Emergency diesel generator reliability is also considered (failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour). There is an adverse trend in LOOP durations. The previously reported adverse trend in LOOP frequency was not statistically significant for 2006-2015. Grid-related LOOPs happen predominantly in the summer. Switchyard-centered LOOPs happen predominantly in winter and spring. Plant-centered and weather-related LOOPs do not show statistically significant seasonality. The engineering analysis of LOOP data shows that human errors have been much less frequent since 1997 than in the 1986 -1996 time period.
Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others
1996-06-01
This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.
Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant
Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.
1990-05-01
This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael
2015-01-01
Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.
Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1998–2013
Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.
2015-02-01
Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. Risk analyses suggest that loss of all alternating current power contributes over 70% of the overall risk at some U.S. nuclear plants. LOOP event and subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience during calendar years 1997 through 2013. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. The emergency diesel generator failure modes considered are failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends in LOOP frequencies over the 1997–2013 period are identified. There is a possibility that a significant trend in grid-related LOOP frequency exists that is not easily detected by a simple analysis. Statistically significant increases in recovery times after grid- and switchyard-related LOOPs are identified.
Off-site toxic consequence assessment: a simplified modeling procedure and case study.
Guarnaccia, Joe; Hoppe, Tom
2008-11-15
An assessment of off-site exposure from spills/releases of toxic chemicals can be conducted by compiling site-specific operational, geographic, demographic, and meteorological data and by using screening-level public-domain modeling tools (e.g., RMP Comp, ALOHA and DEGADIS). In general, the analysis is confined to the following: event-based simulations (allow for the use of known, constant, atmospheric conditions), known receptor distances (on the order of miles or less), short time scale for the distances considered (order of 10's of minutes or less), gently sloping rough terrain, dense and neutrally buoyant gas dispersion, known chemical inventory and infrastructure (used to define source-term), and known toxic endpoint (defines significance). While screening-level models are relatively simple to use, care must be taken to ensure that the results are meaningful. This approach allows one to assess risk from catastrophic release (e.g., via terrorism), or plausible release scenarios (related to standard operating procedures and industry standards). In addition, given receptor distance and toxic endpoint, the model can be used to predict the critical spill volume to realize significant off-site risk. This information can then be used to assess site storage and operation parameters and to determine the most economical and effective risk reduction measures to be applied.
Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident
Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.
Analysis of Loss-of-Offsite-Power Events 1998–2012
T. E. Wierman
2013-10-01
Loss of offsite power (LOOP) can have a major negative impact on a power plant’s ability to achieve and maintain safe shutdown conditions. Risk analyses performed loss of all alternating current power contributes over 70% of the overall risk at some U.S. nuclear plants. LOOP event and subsequent restoration of offsite power are important inputs to plant probabilistic risk assessments. This report presents a statistical and engineering analysis of LOOP frequencies and durations at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1998 through 2012. Frequencies and durations were determined for four event categories: plant-centered, switchyard-centered, grid-related, and weather-related. The EDG failure modes considered are failure to start, failure to load and run, and failure to run more than 1 hour. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. A statistically significant increase in industry performance was identified for plant-centered and switchyard-centered LOOP frequencies. There is no statistically significant trend in LOOP durations.
Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.
1999-01-01
This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.
Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars
2013-01-01
This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy...... in the constant pursue of value creation and cost reduction. On the basis of that system deliverances represent a promising strategy in the future development and application of off-site manufacturing practices. The application of system deliveries is however demanding as it represents a fundamental shift...... in the existing design and production practices. More specifically the development of system deliveries requires: (1) an explicit market focus, enabling the achievement of economy of scale, (2) a coordinated and coherent development around the system deliverance focusing on its internal and external modularity...
Maximal subgroups of finite groups
S. Srinivasan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.
Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
2000-01-01
of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...
Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2013-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Maximizing entropy over Markov processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2014-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon
2010-01-01
Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.
Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Rasmussen, N.C.
1978-06-01
Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment failure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects.
Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method
Harir, S [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco); Bennai, M [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco); Boughaleb, Y [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco)
2007-10-15
The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.
Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method
Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.
2007-10-01
The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.
New Source Term Model for the RESRAD-OFFSITE Code Version 3
Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gnanapragasam, Emmanuel [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Shih-Yew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2013-06-01
This report documents the new source term model developed and implemented in Version 3 of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This new source term model includes: (1) "first order release with transport" option, in which the release of the radionuclide is proportional to the inventory in the primary contamination and the user-specified leach rate is the proportionality constant, (2) "equilibrium desorption release" option, in which the user specifies the distribution coefficient which quantifies the partitioning of the radionuclide between the solid and aqueous phases, and (3) "uniform release" option, in which the radionuclides are released from a constant fraction of the initially contaminated material during each time interval and the user specifies the duration over which the radionuclides are released.
Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.
2000-12-01
This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)
An off-site screening process for the public in radiation emergencies and disasters
Yoon, Seok Won; Ho, Ha Wi; Jin, Young Woo [National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
A contamination screening process for the local population in radiation emergencies is discussed. We present an overview of the relevant Korean governmental regulations that underpin the development of an effective response system. Moreover, case studies of foreign countries responding to mass casualties are presented, and indicate that responses should be able to handle a large demand for contamination screening of the local public as well as screening of the immediate victims of the incident. We propose operating procedures for an off-site contamination screening post operated by the local government for members of the public who have not been directly harmed in the accident. In order to devise screening categories, sorting strategies assessing contamination and exposure are discussed, as well as a psychological response system. This study will lead to the effective operation of contamination screening clinics if an accident occurs. Furthermore, the role of contamination screening clinics in the overall context of the radiation emergency treatment system should be clearly established.
RHF RELAP5 model and preliminary loss-of-offsite-power simulation results for LEU conversion
Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Dionne, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Thomas, F. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble (Switzerland). RHF Reactor Dept.
2014-08-01
The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the RELAP5 model for the Institut Laue-Langevin High Flux Reactor (RHF) located in Grenoble, France, and provide an update to the key information required to complete, for example, simulations for a loss of offsite power (LOOP) accident. A previous status report identified a list of 22 items to be resolved in order to complete the RELAP5 model. Most of these items have been resolved by ANL and the RHF team. Enough information was available to perform preliminary safety analyses and define the key items that are still required. Section 2 of this document describes the RELAP5 model of RHF. The final part of this section briefly summarizes previous model issues and resolutions. Section 3 of this document describes preliminary LOOP simulations for both HEU and LEU fuel at beginning of cycle conditions.
RHF RELAP5 Model and Preliminary Loss-Of-Offsite-Power Simulation Results for LEU Conversion
Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Dionne, B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div.; Thomas, F. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble (Switzerland). RHF Reactor Dept.
2014-08-01
The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the RELAP5 model for the Institut Laue-Langevin High Flux Reactor (RHF) located in Grenoble, France, and provide an update to the key information required to complete, for example, simulations for a loss of offsite power (LOOP) accident. A previous status report identified a list of 22 items to be resolved in order to complete the RELAP5 model. Most of these items have been resolved by ANL and the RHF team. Enough information was available to perform preliminary safety analyses and define the key items that are still required. Section 2 of this document describes the RELAP5 model of RHF. The final part of this section briefly summarizes previous model issues and resolutions. Section 3 of this document describes preliminary LOOP simulations for both HEU and LEU fuel at beginning of cycle conditions.
Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang
2006-08-01
Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for
Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.
Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn
2016-03-15
Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes.
Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura
2015-01-01
Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…
Sørensen, Jette Led; Navne, Laura Emdal; Martin, Helle Max;
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty...
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Lai, Linda
2010-01-01
... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...
Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?
Linda Lai
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,
Dalia L. Diab
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Melissa Goertzen
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Objective – To measure the use of off-site storage for special collections materials and to examine how this use impacts core special collections activities. Design – Survey questionnaire containing both structured and open ended questions. Follow-up interviews were also conducted. Setting – Association of Research Libraries (ARL member institutions in the United States of America. Subjects – 108 directors of special collections. Methods – Participants were recruited via email; contact information was compiled through professional directories, web searches, and referrals from professionals at ARL member libraries. The survey was sent out on October 31, 2013, and two reminder emails were distributed before it closed three weeks later. The survey was created and distributed using Qualtrics, a research software that supports online data collection and analysis. All results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Qualtrics. Main Results – The final response rate was 58% (63 out of 108. The majority (51 participants, or 81% reported use of off-site storage for library collections. Of this group, 91% (47 out of 51 house a variety of special collections in off-site storage. The criteria most frequently utilized to designate these materials to off-site storage are use (87%, size (66%, format (60%, and value (57%. The authors found that special collections directors are most likely to send materials to off-site storage facilities that are established and in use by other departments at their home institution; access to established workflows, especially those linked to transit and delivery, and space for expanding collections are benefits. In regard to core special collections activities, results indicated that public service was most impacted by off-site storage. The authors discussed challenges related to patron use and satisfaction. In regard to management and processing, directors faced challenges using the same level of staff to maintain
Maximizing ROI with yield management
Neil Snyder
2001-01-01
.... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...
Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?
John List; Charles Mason
2009-01-01
Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
A. Garmroodi Asil
2017-09-01
To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.
Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity
Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy
2006-01-01
The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.
Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.
Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.
1990-03-01
The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.
Current State of Off-Site Manufacturing in Australian and Chinese Residential Construction
Malik M. A. Khalfan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Many techniques have been implemented to make construction industry more productive. The key focus is on reduction of total duration, reduction in construction cost, improvements in the quality, achieving more sustainable development, and safer construction sites. One of the techniques, which is emerging in the last two decades, is the use of off-site manufacturing (OSM within the construction industry. Several research projects and industry initiatives have reported the benefits and challenges of implementation of OSM. The focus of this paper is Australian and Chinese residential construction industry and the uptake of the OSM concepts. The paper presents a brief review of the current state of OSM in the last five to seven years with the context of the above-mentioned two countries. The paper concludes that the construction industry, both in Australia and China, needs to start walking the talk with regard to OSM adoption. The paper also highlights some of the research gaps in the OSM area, especially within the housing and residential sector.
Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.
Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.
1990-03-01
The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.
BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL SINGULAR INTEGRALS
CHEN JIECHENG; ZHU XIANGRONG
2005-01-01
The authors study the singular integrals under the Hormander condition and the measure not satisfying the doubling condition. At first, if the corresponding singular integral is bounded from L2 to itseff, it is proved that the maximal singu lar integral is bounded from L∞ to RBMO except that it is infinite μ-a.e. on Rd. A sufficient condition and a necessary condition such that the maximal singular integral is bounded from L2 to itself are also obtained. There is a small gap between the two conditions.
Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... that choice of setting for simulations does not seem to influence individual and team learning. Department-based local simulation, such as simulation in-house and especially in situ simulation, leads to gains in organisational learning. The overall objectives of simulation-based education and factors...... are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care...
Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki
2017-01-01
simulations. DISCUSSION: Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence......BACKGROUND: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities...... that choice of setting for simulations does not seem to influence individual and team learning. Department-based local simulation, such as simulation in-house and especially in situ simulation, leads to gains in organisational learning. The overall objectives of simulation-based education and factors...
Allen, P M
1983-09-01
Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.
Understanding maximal repetitions in strings
Crochemore, Maxime
2008-01-01
The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.
San Jiang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Regular inspection of transmission lines is an essential work, which has been implemented by either labor intensive or very expensive approaches. 3D reconstruction could be an alternative solution to satisfy the need for accurate and low cost inspection. This paper exploits the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV for outdoor data acquisition and conducts accuracy assessment tests to explore potential usage for offsite inspection of transmission lines. Firstly, an oblique photogrammetric system, integrating with a cheap double-camera imaging system, an onboard dual-frequency GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System receiver and a ground master GNSS station in fixed position, is designed to acquire images with ground resolutions better than 3 cm. Secondly, an image orientation method, considering oblique imaging geometry of the dual-camera system, is applied to detect enough tie-points to construct stable image connection in both along-track and across-track directions. To achieve the best geo-referencing accuracy and evaluate model measurement precision, signalized ground control points (GCPs and model key points have been surveyed. Finally, accuracy assessment tests, including absolute orientation precision and relative model precision, have been conducted with different GCP configurations. Experiments show that images captured by the designed photogrammetric system contain enough information of power pylons from different viewpoints. Quantitative assessment demonstrates that, with fewer GCPs for image orientation, the absolute and relative accuracies of image orientation and model measurement are better than 0.3 and 0.2 m, respectively. For regular inspection of transmission lines, the proposed solution can to some extent be an alternative method with competitive accuracy, lower operational complexity and considerable gains in economic cost.
10 years and 20,000 sources: the offsite source recovery project
Whitworth, Julia R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abeyta, Cristy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources. This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Sealed source recovery was initially considered a waste management activity, as evidenced by its initial organization under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Management (EM) program. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, however, the interagency community began to recognize the threat posed by excess and unwanted radiological material, particularly those that could not be disposed at the end of their useful life. After being transferred to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) when it became waste, but also any other materials that might be a 'national security consideration.' This paper discusses OSRP's history, recovery operations, expansion to accept high-activity beta-gamma-emitting sealed sources and devices and foreign-possessed sources, and more recent efforts such as cooperative projects with the Council on Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) and involvement in GTRI's Search and Secure project. Current challenges and future work will also be discussed.
Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1985.
Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.
1986-04-01
Evaluation approaches to document a record of credit for mitigation were developed in 1984-1985 for most of the habitat projects. Restoration of upriver anadromous fish runs through increased passage survival at main stem Columbia and Snake River dams is essential to the establishment of an off-site mitigation record, as well as to the success of the entire Fish and Wildlife program. The mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production (i.e., yield) at full-seeding as the basic measure of benefit from a habitat project. The IDFG evaluation approach consists of three basic, integrated levels: general monitoring, standing crop evaluations, and intensive studies. Annual general monitoring of anadromous fish densities in a small number of sections for each project will be used to follow population trends and define full-seeding levels. For most projects, smolt production will be estimated indirectly from standing crop estimates by factoring appropriate survival rates from parr to smolt stages. Intensive studies in a few key production streams will be initiated to determine these appropriate survival rates and provide other basic biological information that is needed for evaluation of the Fish and Wildlife program. A common physical habitat and fish population data base is being developed for every BPA habitat project in Idaho to be integrated at each level of evaluation. Compatibility of data is also needed between Idaho and other agencies and tribes in the Columbia River basin. No final determination of mitigation credit for any Idaho habitat enhancement project has been attainable to date.
Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.
Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B. (Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game, Boise, ID (USA)
1988-04-01
The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.
Lessons from a BACE1 inhibitor trial: off-site but not off base.
Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Long, Justin M; Greig, Nigel H
2014-10-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by formation of neuritic plaque primarily composed of a small filamentous protein called amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ is the processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP) by β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1). Hence, BACE1 activity plausibly plays a rate-limiting role in the generation of potentially toxic Aβ within brain and the development of AD, thereby making it an interesting drug target. A phase II trial of the promising LY2886721 inhibitor of BACE1 was suspended in June 2013 by Eli Lilly and Co., due to possible liver toxicity. This outcome was apparently a surprise to the study's team, particularly since BACE1 knockout mice and mice treated with the drug did not show such liver toxicity. Lilly proposed that the problem was not due to LY2886721 anti-BACE1 activity. We offer an alternative hypothesis, whereby anti-BACE1 activity may induce apparent hepatotoxicity through inhibiting BACE1's processing of β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase I (STGal6 I). In knockout mice, paralogues, such as BACE2 or cathepsin D, could partially compensate. Furthermore, the short duration of animal studies and short lifespan of study animals could mask effects that would require several decades to accumulate in humans. Inhibition of hepatic BACE1 activity in middle-aged humans would produce effects not detectable in mice. We present a testable model to explain the off-target effects of LY2886721 and highlight more broadly that so-called off-target drug effects might actually represent off-site effects that are not necessarily off-target. Consideration of this concept in forthcoming drug design, screening, and testing programs may prevent such failures in the future.
Note on maximal distance separable codes
YANG Jian-sheng; WANG De-xiu; JIN Qing-fang
2009-01-01
In this paper, the maximal length of maximal distance separable(MDS)codes is studied, and a new upper bound formula of the maximal length of MDS codes is obtained. Especially, the exact values of the maximal length of MDS codes in some parameters are given.
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
2014-07-22
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Asymptotics of robust utility maximization
Knispel, Thomas
2012-01-01
For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...
Maximal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana Sanwong; R.P. Sullivan
2007-01-01
In 1976 Howie proved that a finite congruence-free semigroup is a simple group if it has at least three elements but no zero elementInfinite congruence-free semigroups are far more complicated to describe, but some have been constructed using semigroups of transformations (for example, by Howie in 1981 and by Marques in 1983)Here, forcertain semigroups S of numbers and of transformations, we determine all congruences p on S such that S/p is congruence-free, that is, we describe all maximal congruences on such semigroups S.
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.
Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery
Jiang, Minghui
2009-01-01
In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...
Maximal right smooth extension chains
Huang, Yun Bao
2010-01-01
If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...
The maximal D = 4 supergravities
Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)
2007-06-15
All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.
Maximizing profit using recommender systems
Das, Aparna; Ricketts, Daniel
2009-01-01
Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based solely on the customer's past purchases, product ratings and demographic data without considering the profitability the items being recommended. In this work we study the question of how a vendor can directly incorporate the profitability of items into its recommender so as to maximize its expected profit while still providing accurate recommendations. Our approach uses the output of any traditional recommender system and adjust them according to item profitabilities. Our approach is parameterized so the vendor can control how much the recommendation incorporating profits can deviate from the traditional recommendation. We study our approach under two settings and show that it achieves approximately 22% more profit than traditional recommendations.
The maximal D=5 supergravities
de Wit, Bernard; Trigiante, M; Wit, Bernard de; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario
2007-01-01
The general Lagrangian for maximal supergravity in five spacetime dimensions is presented with vector potentials in the \\bar{27} and tensor fields in the 27 representation of E_6. This novel tensor-vector system is subject to an intricate set of gauge transformations, describing 3(27-t) massless helicity degrees of freedom for the vector fields and 3t massive spin degrees of freedom for the tensor fields, where the (even) value of t depends on the gauging. The kinetic term of the tensor fields is accompanied by a unique Chern-Simons coupling which involves both vector and tensor fields. The Lagrangians are completely encoded in terms of the embedding tensor which defines the E_6 subgroup that is gauged by the vectors. The embedding tensor is subject to two constraints which ensure the consistency of the combined vector-tensor gauge transformations and the supersymmetry of the full Lagrangian. This new formulation encompasses all possible gaugings.
Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization
Abdallah, A Nait
2012-01-01
Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.
None
1984-05-25
As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.
Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot, beeping nodes receive no feedback, while silent nodes can only differentiate between none of its neighbors beeping, or at least one of its neighbors beeping. We start by proving a lower bound that shows that in this model, it is not possible to locally converge to an MIS in sub-polynomial time. We then study four different relaxations of the model which allow us to circumvent the lower bound and find an MIS in polylogarithmic time. First, we show that if a polynomial upper bound on the network size is known, it is possi...
Maximal switchability of centralized networks
Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-08-01
We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
Wang, X Y; Qu, J Y; Shi, Z Q; Ling, Y S
2003-01-01
GNARD (Guangdong Nuclear Accident Real-time Decision support system) is a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the event of an accidental release from the nuclear power plants located in Guangdong province, China. The system is capable of calculating wind field, concentrations of radionuclide in environmental media and radiation doses. It can also estimate the size of the area where protective actions should be taken and provide other information about population distribution and emergency facilities available in the area. Furthermore, the system can simulate and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures assumed and calculate averted doses by protective actions. All of the results can be shown and analysed on the platform of a geographical information system (GIS).
Maskill, Mark (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)
2003-03-01
Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Sorensen, J.L.; Navne, L.E.; Martin, H.M.; Ottesen, B.; Albrecthsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.W.; Kjaergaard, H.; Vleuten, C. van der
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To examine how the setting in in situ simulation (ISS) and off-site simulation (OSS) in simulation-based medical education affects the perceptions and learning experience of healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups and content analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-f
Cocina, Frank G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, William C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hageman, John P [SWRI
2009-01-01
The Off-Site Source Recovery Project has been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory since 1998 to address the U.S. Department of Energy responsibility for collection and management of orphaned or disused radioactive sealed sources which may represent a risk to public health and national security if not properly managed.
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B, E-mail: agrawal@iopb.res.i, E-mail: bpradhan@iopb.res.i [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 005 (India)
2010-06-11
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo [Theory Center, KEK,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particles and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Masato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
Sampling and Representation Complexity of Revenue Maximization
Dughmi, Shaddin; Han, Li; Nisan, Noam
2014-01-01
We consider (approximate) revenue maximization in auctions where the distribution on input valuations is given via "black box" access to samples from the distribution. We observe that the number of samples required -- the sample complexity -- is tightly related to the representation complexity of an approximately revenue-maximizing auction. Our main results are upper bounds and an exponential lower bound on these complexities.
Lisonek, Petr
1996-01-01
our classifications confirmthe maximality of previously known sets, the results in E^7 and E^8are new. Their counterpart in dimension larger than 10is a set of unit vectors with only two values of inner products in the Lorentz space R^{d,1}.The maximality of this set again follows from a bound due...
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...
Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads
Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
2017-01-01
In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.
Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter
2014-06-07
Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen
2013-04-01
Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as
US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)
2004-02-01
Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually
Sørensen, Jette Led; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Ottesen, Bent; Konge, Lars; Dieckmann, Peter; Van der Vleuten, Cees
2017-01-21
Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has traditionally been conducted as off-site simulation in simulation centres. Some hospital departments also provide off-site simulation using in-house training room(s) set up for simulation away from the clinical setting, and these activities are called in-house training. In-house training facilities can be part of hospital departments and resemble to some extent simulation centres but often have less technical equipment. In situ simulation, introduced over the past decade, mainly comprises of team-based activities and occurs in patient care units with healthcare professionals in their own working environment. Thus, this intentional blend of simulation and real working environments means that in situ simulation brings simulation to the real working environment and provides training where people work. In situ simulation can be either announced or unannounced, the latter also known as a drill. This article presents and discusses the design of SBME and the advantage and disadvantage of the different simulation settings, such as training in simulation-centres, in-house simulations in hospital departments, announced or unannounced in situ simulations. Non-randomised studies argue that in situ simulation is more effective for educational purposes than other types of simulation settings. Conversely, the few comparison studies that exist, either randomised or retrospective, show that choice of setting does not seem to influence individual or team learning. However, hospital department-based simulations, such as in-house simulation and in situ simulation, lead to a gain in organisational learning. To our knowledge no studies have compared announced and unannounced in situ simulation. The literature suggests some improved organisational learning from unannounced in situ simulation; however, unannounced in situ simulation was also found to be challenging to plan and conduct, and more stressful among participants. The importance of
van Rooyen Elise
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...
Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration
Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand
2012-01-01
We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.
HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL
HR Division
2000-01-01
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Maximizing throughput by evaluating critical utilization paths
Weeda, P.J.
1991-01-01
Recently the relationship between batch structure, bottleneck machine and maximum throughput has been explored for serial, convergent and divergent process configurations consisting of two machines and three processes. In three of the seven possible configurations a multiple batch structure maximize
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...
Assessing off-site impacts of wildfires on aquatic organisms using in-situ assays
Ré, Ana; Saraiva, MariaJoão; Puga, João; Campos, Isabel; Pereira, Joana; Keizer, Jacob; Goncalves, Fernando; Abrantes, Nelson
2017-04-01
Wildfires have been recognized as an important source of diffuse pollution to aquatic systems, particularly through the production and transport of pyrolytic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals associated to ash/soil loads. However, the effects of these compounds from recently burnt areas on the aquatic biota have been largely ignored. Hence, the main goal of this study was to assess the ecotoxicological effects of wildfires in aquatic systems through the use of in situ experiments. In this sense, five sites were selected in a catchment partially burnt: two in the main water course - Ceira river (Miranda do Corvo, Portugal), being one located upstream (RUS) and the other downstream (RDS) the burnt area; two in tributary streams within the burnt area (SUS and SDS); and finally one in a stream located in the unburnt part of the catchment (CS). During the first post-fire rainfall events, distinct organisms, including the water flea Daphnia magna, the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmaresti, the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea and the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki were exposed in situ, in all five sites, using dedicated test chambers. After four days of field exposition, the mortality and post-exposure feeding inhibition were evaluated. Feeding depression after exposure time was selected as a sub-lethal endpoint because it is a quick, sensitive and ecologically relevant indicator of toxic stress. The results showed negligible mortality for all the species and sites, thus lethality was not sensitive to discern impacts among the assessed sites. Conversely, the sub-lethal post-exposure feeding inhibition endpoint, revealed a decrease of feeding rate, in streams within the burnt area (SUS and SDS), that seemed to be the most affected places in the study area. Conversely, the sites outside the burnt area, both on river (RUS) and on the stream (CS), showed no adverse effects in this endpoint. Hence, the current results pointed-out that
Fire exposed aluminium structures
Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.
2006-01-01
Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr
Fire exposed aluminium structures
Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.
2006-01-01
Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical
Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.
Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C
2004-04-01
We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups
M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2002-01-01
Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
Veil, J.A.
1997-09-01
According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.
Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach
M.Rajalakshmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.
Natural selection and the maximization of fitness.
Birch, Jonathan
2016-08-01
The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the 'new' interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, on which the theorem is exactly true for any evolving population that satisfies some minimal assumptions. The second is the Formal Darwinism project, which forges links between gene frequency change and optimal strategy choice. In both cases, I argue that the results fail to establish a biologically significant maximization principle. I conclude that it may be a mistake to look for universal maximization principles justified by theory alone. A more promising approach may be to find maximization principles that apply conditionally and to show that the conditions were satisfied in the evolution of particular traits.
Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms
Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais
2002-01-01
In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...
Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements
M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu
2017-04-01
In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.
Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian
2016-06-01
CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo.
Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim
Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN
2015-01-01
3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
The maximal process of nonlinear shot noise
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2009-05-01
In the nonlinear shot noise system-model shots’ statistics are governed by general Poisson processes, and shots’ decay-dynamics are governed by general nonlinear differential equations. In this research we consider a nonlinear shot noise system and explore the process tracking, along time, the system’s maximal shot magnitude. This ‘maximal process’ is a stationary Markov process following a decay-surge evolution; it is highly robust, and it is capable of displaying both a wide spectrum of statistical behaviors and a rich variety of random decay-surge sample-path trajectories. A comprehensive analysis of the maximal process is conducted, including its Markovian structure, its decay-surge structure, and its correlation structure. All results are obtained analytically and in closed-form.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Absence of parasympathetic reactivation after maximal exercise.
de Oliveira, Tiago Peçanha; de Alvarenga Mattos, Raphael; da Silva, Rhenan Bartels Ferreira; Rezende, Rafael Andrade; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout
2013-03-01
The ability of the human organism to recover its autonomic balance soon after physical exercise cessation has an important impact on the individual's health status. Although the dynamics of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise has been studied, little is known about heart rate variability after this type of exercise. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of heart rate and heart rate variability recovery after maximal exercise in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy male subjects (21·7 ± 3·4 years; 24·0 ± 2·1 kg m(-2) ) participated in the study. The experimental protocol consisted of an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer, until maximal voluntary exhaustion. After the test, recovery R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min. From the absolute differences between peak heart rate values and the heart rate values at 1 and 5 min of the recovery, the heart rate recovery was calculated. Postexercise heart rate variability was analysed from calculations of the SDNN and RMSSD indexes, in 30-s windows (SDNN(30s) and RMSSD(30s) ) throughout recovery. One and 5 min after maximal exercise cessation, the heart rate recovered 34·7 (±6·6) and 75·5 (±6·1) bpm, respectively. With regard to HRV recovery, while the SDNN(30s) index had a slight increase, RMSSD(30s) index remained totally suppressed throughout the recovery, suggesting an absence of vagal modulation reactivation and, possibly, a discrete sympathetic withdrawal. Therefore, it is possible that the main mechanism associated with the fall of HR after maximal exercise is sympathetic withdrawal or a vagal tone restoration without vagal modulation recovery. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Helena Cotler A.
2005-05-01
Full Text Available One of the primary global concerns during the new millennium is the assessment of the impact of accelerated soil erosion on the economy and the environment (Pimentel et al. 1995; Lal, 1995. Erosion damages the site on which it occurs and also has undesirable effects off-site in the larger environment. Erosion moves sediments and nutrients out of the land, creating the two most widespread water pollution problems in the rivers, lakes and dams. The nutrients impact water quality largely through the process of eutrophication caused by an excessive content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition to the nutrients presence, sediment and runoff may also carry toxic metals and organic compounds, such as pesticides (Brady and Weil, 1999; Lal, 1994; de Graaf, 2000; Renschler and Harbor, 2002. The sediment itself is a major pollutant causative agent, causing a wide range of environmental damages. The sedimentation of dams and canals, reduces their lifetime and efficiency, promoting a high restoration cost to the downstream users and affecting thenational budget. In this sense, sedimentation knowledge is an important tool to guide spatial planning efficiently. Despite more than six decades of research, sedimentation is still probably the most serious technical problem faced by the dam industry (Mc Cully, 2001. Many studies estimate present-day fluvial sediment and solute loads including both natural and accelerated soil erosion (Douglas, 1990. However, as Douglas mentioned (op.cit many do not include all the erosion caused by human activity, because the eroded sediment is redeposited after a short movement downslope. Many soil particles are detached and carried downslope only to be held and trapped by a plant, tree or other obstacle a little further downslope. The sediment reaching the valley floor may not be completely removed by the river, but may be redistributed as alluvial floodplain deposits. The sediment transported downstream may be redeposited
A study on the effect of containment filtered venting system to off-site under severe accident
Jeon, Ju Young; Kwon, Tae Eun; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
The containment filtered venting system reduces the range of the contamination area around the nuclear power plant by strengthening the integrity of the containment building. In this study, the probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to assess the effect of the CFVS to off-site. The accident source term was selected from a Probabilistic Safety Analysis report of SHINKORI 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The three source term categories from 19 STC were chosen to evaluate the effective dose and thyroid dose of residents around the power plant and the dose with CFVS and without CFVS were compared. The dose was calculated according to the distance from the nuclear power plant, so the damage scale based on the distance that exceeds the IAEA criteria for effective dose (100 mSv per 7 days) and thyroid dose (50 mSv per 7 days) were compared. The effective dose reduction rates of the STC-3, STC-4, STC-6 were about 95-99% in the whole range (0⁓35 km), 96-98% for the thyroid dose. There are similar results between effective dose and thyroid dose. After applying the CFVS, the damage scale that exceeds the effective dose criteria was about 1 km (mean). Especially, the STC-4 damage scale was decreased from 26 km (mean) to 1.2 km (mean) significantly. The damage scale that exceed the thyroid dose criteria was decreased to 2⁓3 km (mean). The STC-4 damage scale was also decreased significantly as compared to STC-3, STC-6 in terms of effective dose.
Maximizing band gaps in plate structures
Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...
Maximal and Minimal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana SANWONG; Boorapa SINGHA; R.P.SULLIVAN
2009-01-01
In 2006,Sanwong and Sullivan described the maximal congruences on the semigroup N consisting of all non-negative integers under standard multiplication,and on the semigroup T(X) consisting of all total transformations of an infinite set X under composition. Here,we determine all maximal congruences on the semigroup Zn under multiplication modulo n. And,when Y X,we do the same for the semigroup T(X,Y) consisting of all elements of T(X) whose range is contained in Y. We also characterise the minimal congruences on T(X,Y).
Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics
1987-03-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
Malone, Shane; Roe, Mark; Doran, Dominic A; Gabbett, Tim J; Collins, Kieran
2017-03-01
To examine the relationship between chronic training loads, number of exposures to maximal velocity, the distance covered at maximal velocity, percentage of maximal velocity in training and match-play and subsequent injury risk in elite Gaelic footballers. Prospective cohort design. Thirty-seven elite Gaelic footballers from one elite squad were involved in a one-season study. Training and game loads (session-RPE multiplied by duration in min) were recorded in conjunction with external match and training loads (using global positioning system technology) to measure the distance covered at maximal velocity, relative maximal velocity and the number of player exposures to maximal velocity across weekly periods during the season. Lower limb injuries were also recorded. Training load and GPS data were modelled against injury data using logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated based on chronic training load status, relative maximal velocity and number of exposures to maximal velocity with these reported against the lowest reference group for these variables. Players who produced over 95% maximal velocity on at least one occasion within training environments had lower risk of injury compared to the reference group of 85% maximal velocity on at least one occasion (OR: 0.12, p=0.001). Higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) allowed players to tolerate increased distances (between 90 to 120m) and exposures to maximal velocity (between 10 to 15 exposures), with these exposures having a protective effect compared to lower exposures (OR: 0.22 p=0.026) and distance (OR=0.23, p=0.055). Players who had higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) tolerated increased distances and exposures to maximal velocity when compared to players exposed to low chronic training loads (≤4750AU). Under- and over-exposure of players to maximal velocity events (represented by a U-shaped curve) increased the risk of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.
Schmitt, David E.
This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…
MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM OF ABSTRACT ECONOMY
刘心歌; 蔡海涛
2001-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for a new type of preference correspondences which are Qθ-majorized is given. Then some existence theorems of equilibrium for abstract economy and qualitative game in which the constraint or preference correspondences are Qθ-majorized are obtained in locally convex topological vector spaces.
DNA solution of the maximal clique problem.
Ouyang, Q; Kaplan, P D; Liu, S; Libchaber, A
1997-10-17
The maximal clique problem has been solved by means of molecular biology techniques. A pool of DNA molecules corresponding to the total ensemble of six-vertex cliques was built, followed by a series of selection processes. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main qu
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing throughput in an automated test system
朱君
2007-01-01
@@ Overview This guide is collection of whitepapers designed to help you develop test systems that lower your cost, increase your test throughput, and can scale with future requirements. This whitepaper provides strategies for maximizing system throughput. To download the complete developers guide (120 pages), visit ni. com/automatedtest.
The gaugings of maximal D=6 supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2008-01-01
We construct the most general gaugings of the maximal D = 6 supergravity. The theory is ( 2, 2) supersymmetric, and possesses an on-shell SO( 5, 5) duality symmetry which plays a key role in determining its couplings. The field content includes 16 vector fields that carry a chiral spinor representat
WEIGHTED BOUNDEDNESS OF A ROUGH MAXIMAL OPERATOR
无
2000-01-01
In this note the authors give the weighted Lp-boundedness fora class of maximal singular integral operators with rough kernel.The result in this note is an improvement and extension ofthe result obtained by Chen and Lin in 1990.
Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.
Brown, Ronald A.
1992-01-01
Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2003-01-01
The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem
Shinji Yamashita
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.
Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2008-01-01
For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Maximally entangled mixed states made easy
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2006-01-01
We show that, contrarily to a recent claim [M. Ziman and V. Bu\\v{z}ek, Phys. Rev. A. \\textbf{72}, 052325 (2005)], it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local nonunital quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems
ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang
2009-01-01
We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults.
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults
Mako eOkanda
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
A correspondence between maximal abelian sub-algebras and linear logic fragments
SEILLER, THOMAS
2016-01-01
We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry of interact......We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry...... of interaction (Girard 2011. Theoretical Computer Science 412 (20) 1860–1883). The expressivity of the logic soundly interpreted in this model is dependent on properties of a MASA which is a parameter of the interpretation. We also unveil the essential role played by MASAs in previous geometry of interaction...
[Hematologic changes in workers exposed to radio wave radiation].
Budinscak, V; Goldoni, J; Sarić, M
1991-12-01
Haematological parameters were measured in 43 radar operators employed in air traffic control occupationally exposed to microwave radiation of low intensity over a period of four years. Exposure to heat, soft X-ray radiation and noise were within maximally allowed limits. The haematological changes included a decreased number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, platelets, segmented granulocytes and monocytes, and an increased number of leucocytes and lymphocytes. The changes were not pathologically significant and most of them were reversible.
Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval
Dahab, Eiman Abou El
2014-01-01
The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization
Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew
2012-01-01
Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...
Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.
Choey, M; Weigend, A S
1997-08-01
While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.
Maximally Symmetric Spacetimes emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations
Bravetti, A; Quevedo, H
2015-01-01
In this work we prove that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity emerge from the geometric structure of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic fluctuation theory. To present our argument, we begin by showing that the pseudo-Riemannian structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space is a solution to the vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity with a cosmological constant. Then, we use the geometry of equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's Field Equations -- Minkowski, de-Sitter and Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes -- correspond to thermodynamic fluctuations. Moreover, we argue that these might be the only possible solutions that can be derived in this manner. Thus, the results presented here are the first concrete examples of spacetimes effectively emerging from the thermodynamic limit over an unspecified microscopic theory without any further assumptions.
Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity
Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default
Lim, Thomas
2008-01-01
We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.
Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique
2011-01-01
This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...
Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests
Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric
2014-01-01
We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...
Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings
Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna
2014-01-01
We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.
Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M
2011-01-01
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance.
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.
Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia
2017-01-01
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in
Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment
Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs. The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n=23 performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT, time to achieve it (tPTI, contractile impulse (CI, root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS, and rate of torque development (RTD, in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m, RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s−1versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s−1, and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms. We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.
Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R
2002-11-01
Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...
ON THE SPACES OF THE MAXIMAL POINTS
梁基华; 刘应明
2003-01-01
For a continuous domain D, some characterization that the convex powerdomain CD is adomain hull of Max(CD) is given in terms of compact subsets of D. And in this case, it isproved that the set of the maximal points Max(CD) of CD with the relative Scott topology ishomeomorphic to the set of all Scott compact subsets of Max(D) with the topology induced bythe Hausdorff metric derived from a metric on Max(D) when Max(D) is metrizable.
Understanding of English Contracts though Relation Maxims
XU Chi-ying; JIANG Li-hui
2013-01-01
Contract is the legal evidence of the concerning parties of business. And this lead to its unique characteristics:technical terms, archaism, borrowed words, juxtaposition, and abbreviation. The understanding of contracts is of vital importance for each party, because it concerns the share of interests. In order to avoid ambiguity that some words or sentence in English contracts may lead to, and achieve“best relevance and least effort”of communication, this paper, by applying relation maxim, deeply analyze how to understand English contracts though selection of words, modification, the complexity and simplicity of sentence.
Maximizing results in reconstruction of cheek defects.
Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
2009-07-01
The face is exceedingly important, as it is the medium through which individuals interact with the rest of society. Reconstruction of cheek defects after trauma or surgery is a continuing challenge for surgeons who wish to reliably restore facial function and appearance. Important in aesthetic facial reconstruction are the aesthetic unit principles, by which the face can be divided in central facial units (nose, lips, eyelids) and peripheral facial units (cheeks, forehead, chin). This article summarizes established options for reconstruction of cheek defects and provides an overview of several modifications as well as tips and tricks to avoid complications and maximize aesthetic results.
Maximizing policy learning in international committees
Nedergaard, Peter
2007-01-01
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting
Gillam, W D
2011-01-01
Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.
Maximal coherence in a generic basis
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2016-12-01
Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.
Symmetry and approximability of submodular maximization problems
Vondrak, Jan
2011-01-01
A number of recent results on optimization problems involving submodular functions have made use of the multilinear relaxation of the problem. These results hold typically in the value oracle model, where the objective function is accessible via a black box returning f(S) for a given S. We present a general approach to deriving inapproximability results in the value oracle model, based on the notion of symmetry gap. Our main result is that for any fixed instance that exhibits a certain symmetry gap in its multilinear relaxation, there is a naturally related class of instances for which a better approximation factor than the symmetry gap would require exponentially many oracle queries. This unifies several known hardness results for submodular maximization, and implies several new ones. In particular, we prove that there is no constant-factor approximation for the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular function over the bases of a matroid. We also provide a closely matching approximation algorithm for...
Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem
Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2000-01-01
Topology optimization is used to optimize the eigenvalues of plates. The results are intended especially for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) but call be seen as more general. The problem is not formulated as a case of reinforcement of an existing structure, so there is a problem related...... to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...... is a practical MEMS application; a probe used in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the AFM probe the optimization is complicated by a constraint on the stiffness and constraints on higher order eigenvalues....
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André da Conceição Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André Da Conceiçao Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice
Boyle, Latham
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...
Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking
Djamel Eddine Saidouni
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy or which if they fail are assigned the value .The third value mean unknown whether true or false because the partial state space lacks sufficient information needed for a precise answer concerning the complete state space .To solve this problem each node exchange the information needed to conclude the result about the complete state space. The experimental version of the algorithm is currently being implemented using the functional programming language Erlang.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K
2016-01-01
Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...
Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces
Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B
2011-01-01
The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...
Greedy Maximal Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Li, Qiao
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks, i.e., the schedules are computed by adding links greedily based on some priority vector. Two special cases are considered: 1) Longest Queue First (LQF) scheduling, where the priorities are computed using queue lengths, and 2) Static Priority (SP) scheduling, where the priorities are pre-assigned. We first propose a closed-form lower bound stability region for LQF scheduling, and discuss the tightness result in some scenarios. We then propose an lower bound stability region for SP scheduling with multiple priority vectors, as well as a heuristic priority assignment algorithm, which is related to the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance gain of the proposed heuristic algorithm is finally confirmed by simulations.
Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection
Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA
2016-01-01
MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.
A New Biflavone from Selaginella pulvinata Maxim
XU Kang-Ping; XU Zhi; DENG Yin-Hua; LI Fu-Shuang; ZHOU Ying-Jun; HU Gao-Yun; TAN Gui-Shan
2003-01-01
@@ Selaginella pulvinata Maxim. distributes all over the country of China and is used for the treatment for haemor rhage. [1] We studied on the chemical constituents of S. pulvinata in order to find the active compounds. Dried stems and leaves of S. pulvinata (6.5 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol twice. The extract was evaporated under vacuum and than suspended in water, extracted with petroleum and EtOAc sequentially. The EtOAc extract was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with CHCl3-MeOH. As a result, a novel biflavone, named pulvinatabiflavone, was obtained from fractions 75 ～ 78. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 5,5″, 4′″ trihydroxy-7,7″-dimethoxy-[4′-O-6″]-biflavone (compound 1).
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2015-01-01
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.
Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam
2009-07-01
Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.
Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben
2016-01-01
A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…
From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin
Eliazar, Iddo
2014-12-01
The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.
THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC
Amir GANJİ
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.
Maximal elements of non necessarily acyclic binary relations
Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza Martínez
1992-01-01
The existence of maximal elements for binary preference relations is analyzed without imposing transitivity or convexity conditions. From each preference relation a new acyclic relation is defined in such a way that some maximal elements of this new relation characterize maximal elements of the original one. The result covers the case whereby the relation is acyclic.
Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. DESIGN: Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority...... of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. RESULTS: The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation...... of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions...
An Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Delin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)
2011-12-15
Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m{sup 3} and 27-2975 ng/m{sup 3} at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major {Sigma}PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured {phi} values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: > On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. > The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. > Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.
Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.
Luan, Mo; Li, Hong
2017-05-01
The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.
EXPLANATORY VARIANCE IN MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE
Jacalyn J. Robert McComb
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females, ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants' head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF, height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27 of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF.
Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice
Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2016-08-01
We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2014-03-01
Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Network channel allocation and revenue maximization
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika
2017-02-01
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Armin Töpfer
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children
Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide
2017-01-01
[Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644
Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.
Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A
2014-03-01
Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo.
Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization
Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan
2011-01-01
Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our foc...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....... in this paper is on the optimization of how a biochemical application is performed on a biochip. In this paper, we consider cell culture biochips, where several cell colonies are exposed to soluble compounds and monitored in real-time to determine the right combination of factors that leads to the desired...
Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs
无
2000-01-01
Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.
Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets
Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda
2009-03-01
The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.
Relative advantage, queue jumping, and welfare maximizing wealth distribution
2006-01-01
Suppose individuals get utilities from the total amount of wealth they hold and from their wealth relative to those immediately below them. This paper studies the distribution of wealth that maximizes an additive welfare function made up of these utilities. It interprets wealth distribution in a control theory framework to show that the welfare maximizing distribution may have unexpected properties. In some circumstances it requires that inequality be maximized at the poorest and richest ends...
Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes
Parker, Andrew M.; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Sums of magnetic eigenvalues are maximal on rotationally symmetric domains
Laugesen, Richard S; Roy, Arindam
2011-01-01
The sum of the first n energy levels of the planar Laplacian with constant magnetic field of given total flux is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, under normalization of the ratio (moment of inertia)/(area)^3 on the domain. The result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, with an analogue for Robin (or de Gennes) boundary conditions too. The square similarly maximizes the eigenvalue sum among parallelograms, and the disk maximizes among ellipses. More generally, a domain with rotational symmetry will maximize the magnetic eigenvalue sum among all linear images of that domain. These results are new even for the ground state energy (n=1).
Sums of Laplace eigenvalues - rotationally symmetric maximizers in the plane
Laugesen, R S
2010-01-01
The sum of the first $n \\geq 1$ eigenvalues of the Laplacian is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, maximal among parallelograms for the square, and maximal among ellipses for the disk, provided the ratio $\\text{(area)}^3/\\text{(moment of inertia)}$ for the domain is fixed. This result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues, and similar conclusions are derived for Robin boundary conditions and Schr\\"odinger eigenvalues of potentials that grow at infinity. A key ingredient in the method is the tight frame property of the roots of unity. For general convex plane domains, the disk is conjectured to maximize sums of Neumann eigenvalues.
Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors
Pedro Caruso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9% presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049. There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.
2012-01-01
We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.
The Negative Consequences of Maximizing in Friendship Selection.
Newman, David B; Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Yamada, Junko; Nezlek, John B
2017-02-27
Previous studies have shown that the maximizing orientation, reflecting a motivation to select the best option among a given set of choices, is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. In the present studies, we examined whether these relationships extend to friendship selection and how the number of options for friends moderated these effects. Across 5 studies, maximizing in selecting friends was negatively related to life satisfaction, positive affect, and self-esteem, and was positively related to negative affect and regret. In Study 1, a maximizing in selecting friends scale was created, and regret mediated the relationships between maximizing and well-being. In a naturalistic setting in Studies 2a and 2b, the tendency to maximize among those who participated in the fraternity and sorority recruitment process was negatively related to satisfaction with their selection, and positively related to regret and negative affect. In Study 3, daily levels of maximizing were negatively related to daily well-being, and these relationships were mediated by daily regret. In Study 4, we extended the findings to samples from the U.S. and Japan. When participants who tended to maximize were faced with many choices, operationalized as the daily number of friends met (Study 3) and relational mobility (Study 4), the opportunities to regret a decision increased and further diminished well-being. These findings imply that, paradoxically, attempts to maximize when selecting potential friends is detrimental to one's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s
Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks
T. Kleinow; A. Pelsser
2008-01-01
We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a solv
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
On a discrete version of Tanaka's theorem for maximal functions
Bober, Jonathan; Hughes, Kevin; Pierce, Lillian B
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove a discrete version of Tanaka's Theorem \\cite{Ta} for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in dimension $n=1$, both in the non-centered and centered cases. For the discrete non-centered maximal operator $\\wM $ we prove that, given a function $f: \\Z \\to \\R$ of bounded variation,
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass
A Class of Maximal Functions with Oscillating Kernels
Ahmad AL-SALMAN
2007-01-01
The author studies the Lp mapping properties of a class of maximal functions that are related to oscillatory singular integral operators. Lp estimates, as well as the corresponding weighted estimates of such maximal functions, are obtained. Moreover, several applications of our results are highlighted.
ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
Yulan Jiao
2010-01-01
In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1
maximal operator.
Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers
V. Krizhanovski
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
CHROMATIC NUMBER OF SQUARE OF MAXIMAL OUTERPLANAR GRAPHS
Luo Xiaofang
2007-01-01
Let χ(G2) denote the chromatic number of the square of a maximal outerplanar graph G and Q denote a maximal outerplanar graph obtained by adding three chords and χ(G2) = Δ + 2 if and only if G is Q, where Δ represents the maximum degree of G.
SAR image target segmentation based on entropy maximization and morphology
柏正尧; 刘洲峰; 何佩琨
2004-01-01
Entropy maximization thresholding is a simple, effective image segmentation method. The relation between the histogram entropy and the gray level of an image is analyzed. An approach, which speeds the computation of optimal threshold based on entropy maximization, is proposed. The suggested method has been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image targets segmentation. Mathematical morphology works well in reducing the residual noise.
Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.
Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.
1982-01-01
To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)
On the maximal efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
Leiderschneider, Elly
2015-01-01
The center of mass (CM) energy in a collisional Penrose process - a collision taking place within the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole - can diverge under suitable extreme conditions (maximal Kerr, near horizon collision and suitable impact parameters). We present an analytic expression for the CM energy, refining expressions given in the literature. Even though the CM energy diverges, we show that the maximal energy attained by a particle that escapes the black hole's gravitational pull and reaches infinity is modest. We obtain an analytic expression for the energy of an escaping particle resulting from a collisional Penrose process, and apply it to derive the maximal energy and the maximal efficiency for several physical scenarios: pair annihilation, Compton scattering, and the elastic scattering of two massive particles. In all physically reasonable cases (in which the incident particles initially fall from infinity towards the black hole) the maximal energy (and the corresponding efficiency) are only one o...
An, Taicheng; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo
2011-12-01
Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m(3) and 27-2975 ng/m(3) at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ∑PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD.
Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.
1990-09-01
In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.
Berthon, P; Fellmann, N
2002-09-01
The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.
商业银行国库业务非现场监管模式研究%Research on the Offsite Regulatory Model of Commercial Banks' Treasury Operations
李升高
2014-01-01
随着我国商业银行国库业务的快速发展，中央银行目前依赖手工报送和柜面监督的非现场监管模式已滞后于商业银行的国库业务信息化发展。本文分析了当前中央银行对商业银行国库业务非现场监管的现状与不足，指出建设国库业务非现场监管系统的意义，并从建设目标、功能需求和实现途径等方面，提出推进商业银行国库业务非现场监管系统建设的构想。%With the rapid development of commercial banks' treasury operations, the off-site supervision model of manual reporting and incase supervision in Central banks have lagged behind the development of the treasury business information in commercial banks. This paper analyzes the status quo and shortcomings about the off-site supervision in treasury operations of central bank to commercial banks, and points out the great significance in construction systems of offsite supervision in treasury operations. At last, the paper gives suggestions about building objectives, functional requirements and realization path.
Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim
sajjad rahmatian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.
Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.
Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
2010-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.
The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA
2006-01-01
We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.
Maximal regularity of second order delay equations in Banach spaces
无
2010-01-01
We give necessary and sufficient conditions of Lp-maximal regularity(resp.B sp ,q-maximal regularity or F sp ,q-maximal regularity) for the second order delay equations:u″(t)=Au(t) + Gu’t + F u t + f(t), t ∈ [0, 2π] with periodic boundary conditions u(0)=u(2π), u′(0)=u′(2π), where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,F and G are delay operators on Lp([-2π, 0];X)(resp.Bsp ,q([2π, 0];X) or Fsp,q([-2π, 0;X])).
Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.
Hurst, J B
1996-09-01
Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.
People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.
De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
2014-10-01
Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically.
Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications
Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.
Maximally entangled state can be a mixed state
Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Liu, W M
2009-01-01
We present mixed maximally entangled states in d\\otimes d' (d'\\geq 2d) spaces. This result is beyond the generally accepted fact that all maximally entangled states are pure. These states possess important properties of the pure maximally entangled states in $d\\otimes d$ systems, for example, they can be used as a resource for faithful teleportation, their local distinguishability property is also the same as the pure states case. On the other hand, one advantage of these mixed maximally entangled states is that the decoherence induced by certain noisy quantum channel does not destroy their entanglement. Thus one party of these mixed states can be sent through this channel to arbitrary distance while still keeping them as a valuable resource for quantum information processing. We also propose a scheme to prepare these states and confirm their advantage in NMR physical system.
Groups Satisfying the Maximal Condition on Non-modular Subgroups
Maria De Falco; Carmela Musella
2005-01-01
In this paper, (generalized) soluble groups for which the set of non-modular subgroups verifies the maximal condition and groups for which the set of non-permutable subgroups satisfies the same property are classified.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-01-01
.... Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs...
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Kwiat, P G; Munro, W J; Verstraete, F; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Nemoto, Kae; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-01-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy.
Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G
2013-08-01
We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.
Maximal induced paths and minimal percolating sets in hypercubes
Anil M. Shende
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$, the \\emph{$r$-bootstrap percolation} process can be described as follows: Start with an initial set $A$ of "infected'' vertices. Infect any vertex with at least $r$ infected neighbours, and continue this process until no new vertices can be infected. $A$ is said to \\emph{percolate in $G$} if eventually all the vertices of $G$ are infected. $A$ is a \\emph{minimal percolating set} in $G$ if $A$ percolates in $G$ and no proper subset of $A$ percolates in $G$. An induced path, $P$, in a hypercube $Q_n$ is maximal if no induced path in $Q_n$ properly contains $P$. Induced paths in hypercubes are also called snakes. We study the relationship between maximal snakes and minimal percolating sets (under 2-bootstrap percolation in hypercubes. In particular, we show that every maximal snake contains a minimal percolating set, and that every minimal percolating set is contained in a maximal snake.
Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael
2010-09-01
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.
Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2015-02-01
A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.
IMRank: Influence Maximization via Finding Self-Consistent Ranking
Cheng, Suqi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Huang, Junming; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-01-01
Influence maximization, fundamental for word-of-mouth marketing and viral marketing, aims to find a set of seed nodes maximizing influence spread on social network. Early methods mainly fall into two paradigms with certain benefits and drawbacks: (1)Greedy algorithms, selecting seed nodes one by one, give a guaranteed accuracy relying on the accurate approximation of influence spread with high computational cost; (2)Heuristic algorithms, estimating influence spread using efficient heuristics,...
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization
Mygind, Niels
2004-01-01
including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....
Maximal speed of particles in super-Lévy process
LIN Zheng-yan; CHENG Zong-mao
2008-01-01
We introduce a super-Lévy process and study maximal speed of all particles process is a measure on the set of paths.We study the maximal speed of all particles during a given time period,which turns out to be a function of the packing dimension of the time period.We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of a-fast patlls in the support and the range of the historical super-lévy process.
Taisia Vitkovski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, as in our institution, operating rooms are located in hospitals and the pathology suite is located at a distant location because of off-site consolidation of pathology services. Telepathology is a technology which bridges the gap between pathologists and offers a means to obtain a consultation remotely. We aimed to evaluate the utility of telepathology as a means to assist the pathologist at the time of intraoperative consultation of lung nodules when a subspecialty pathologist is not available to directly review the slide. Methods: Cases of lung nodules suspicious for a neoplasm were included. Frozen sections were prepared in the usual manner. The pathologists on the intraoperative consultation service at two of our system hospitals notified the thoracic pathologist of each case after rendering a preliminary diagnosis. The consultation was performed utilizing a Nikon™ Digital Sight camera and web-based Remote Medical Technologies™ software with live video streaming directed by the host pathologist. The thoracic pathologist rendered a diagnosis without knowledge of the preliminary interpretation then discussed the interpretation with the frozen section pathologist. The interpretations were compared with the final diagnosis rendered after sign-out. Results: One hundred and three consecutive cases were included. The frozen section pathologist and a thoracic pathologist had concordant diagnoses in 93 cases (90.2%, discordant diagnoses in nine cases (8.7%, and one case in which both deferred. There was an agreement between the thoracic pathologist′s diagnosis and the final diagnosis in 98% of total cases including 8/9 (88.9% of the total discordant cases. In two cases, if the thoracic pathologist had not been consulted, the patient would have been undertreated. Conclusions: We have shown that telepathology is an excellent consultation tool in the frozen section diagnosis of lung nodules.
Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Starkopf, Liis; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent
2015-01-01
Objective To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. Design Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority educational trial. Setting Obstetrics and anaesthesiology departments, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 100 participants in teams of 10, comprising midwives, specialised midwives, auxiliary nurses, nurse anaesthetists, operating theatre nurses, and consultant doctors and trainees in obstetrics and anaesthesiology. Interventions Two multiprofessional simulations (clinical management of an emergency caesarean section and a postpartum haemorrhage scenario) were conducted in teams of 10 in the ISS versus the OSS setting. Primary outcome Knowledge assessed by a multiple choice question test. Exploratory outcomes Individual outcomes: scores on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, stress measurements (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cognitive appraisal and salivary cortisol), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and perceptions of simulations. Team outcome: video assessment of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. Results The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions for changes at the organisational level. Conclusions In this randomised trial, no significant differences were found regarding knowledge, patient safety attitude, motivation or stress
Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees
Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying
2013-01-01
In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.
Maurice Schiff
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models. The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models.
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.
Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D
2000-10-01
The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines
Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire
Hertz, Kristian Dahl
2006-01-01
Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...
Advances in treating exposed fractures.
Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge
2015-01-01
The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.
Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire
Hertz, Kristian Dahl
2006-01-01
Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...
Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis
Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.
1996-03-01
The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.
Natural female mating rate maximizes hatchling size in a marine invertebrate.
Sprenger, D; Faber, J; Michiels, N K; Anthes, N
2008-07-01
1. Males and females often differ in their optimal mating rates, resulting potentially in conflicts over remating. In species with separate sexes, females typically have a lower optimal mating rate than males, and can regulate contacts with males accordingly. The realized mating rate may therefore be closer to the female's optimum. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, however, it has been suggested that the intraindividual optimization between 'male' and 'female' interests generates more 'male'-driven mating rates. 2. In order to assess the consequences of variation in mating rate on 'female' reproductive output, we exposed the simultaneously hermaphroditic sea slug Chelidonura sandrana to four mating rate regimes and recorded the effects on a variety of fitness components. 3. In focal 'females', we found (i) a slight but significant linear decrease in fecundity with mating rate, whereas (ii) maternal investment in egg capsule volume peaked at an intermediate mating rate. 4. Combining the observed fecundity cost with the apparent benefits of larger offspring size suggests that total female fitness is maximized at an intermediate mating rate. With the latter being close to the natural mating rate of C. sandrana in the field, our findings challenge the assumption of 'male'-driven mating systems in simultaneous hermaphrodites. 5. Our study provides experimental evidence for various mathematical models in which female fitness is maximized at intermediate mating rates.
The Automorphism Groups of a Family of Maximal Curves
Guralnick, Robert; Pries, Rachel
2011-01-01
The Hasse Weil bound restricts the number of points of a curve which are defined over a finite field; if the number of points meets this bound, the curve is called maximal. Giulietti and Korchmaros introduced a curve C_3 which is maximal over F_{q^6} and determined its automorphism group. Garcia, Guneri, and Stichtenoth generalized this construction to a family of curves C_n, indexed by an odd integer n greater than or equal to 3, such that C_n is maximal over F_{q^{2n}}. In this paper, we determine the automorphism group Aut(C_n) when n > 3; in contrast with the case n=3, it fixes the point at infinity on C_n. The proof requires a new structural result about automorphism groups of curves in characteristic p such that each Sylow p-subgroup has exactly one fixed point. MSC:11G20, 14H37.
Online Learning of Assignments that Maximize Submodular Functions
Golovin, Daniel; Streeter, Matthew
2009-01-01
Which ads should we display in sponsored search in order to maximize our revenue? How should we dynamically rank information sources to maximize value of information? These applications exhibit strong diminishing returns: Selection of redundant ads and information sources decreases their marginal utility. We show that these and other problems can be formalized as repeatedly selecting an assignment of items to positions to maximize a sequence of monotone submodular functions that arrive one by one. We present an efficient algorithm for this general problem and analyze it in the no-regret model. Our algorithm possesses strong theoretical guarantees, such as a performance ratio that converges to the optimal constant of 1-1/e. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on two real-world online optimization problems on the web: ad allocation with submodular utilities, and dynamically ranking blogs to detect information cascades.
Optimal bounded control for maximizing reliability of Duhem hysteretic systems
Ming XU; Xiaoling JIN; Yong WANG; Zhilong HUANG
2015-01-01
The optimal bounded control of stochastic-excited systems with Duhem hysteretic components for maximizing system reliability is investigated. The Duhem hysteretic force is transformed to energy-depending damping and stiffness by the energy dissipation balance technique. The controlled system is transformed to the equivalent non-hysteretic system. Stochastic averaging is then implemented to obtain the Itˆo stochastic equation associated with the total energy of the vibrating system, appropriate for eval-uating system responses. Dynamical programming equations for maximizing system re-liability are formulated by the dynamical programming principle. The optimal bounded control is derived from the maximization condition in the dynamical programming equa-tion. Finally, the conditional reliability function and mean time of first-passage failure of the optimal Duhem systems are numerically solved from the Kolmogorov equations. The proposed procedure is illustrated with a representative example.
Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans
Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S
1996-01-01
1. Unaccustomed eccentric exercise decreases whole-body insulin action in humans. To study the effects of one-legged eccentric exercise on insulin action in muscle and systemically, the euglycaemic clamp technique combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was used. Seven...... subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P eccentric exercise, muscle and whole-body insulin action is impaired at maximal...
Cross-Order Integral Relations from Maximal Cuts
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.; Søgaard, Mads
2015-01-01
We study the ABDK relation using maximal cuts of one- and two-loop integrals with up to five external legs. We show how to find a special combination of integrals that allows the relation to exist, and how to reconstruct the terms with one-loop integrals squared. The reconstruction relies on the observation that integrals across different loop orders can have support on the same generalized unitarity cuts and can share global poles. We discuss the appearance of nonhomologous integration contours in multivariate residues. Their origin can be understood in simple terms, and their existence enables us to distinguish contributions from different integrals. Our analysis suggests that maximal and near-maximal cuts can be used to infer the existence of integral identities more generally.
Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models
Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.
1987-01-01
The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem.
The F-Theorem and F-Maximization
Pufu, Silviu S
2016-01-01
This contribution contains a review of the role of the three-sphere free energy F in recent developments related to the F-theorem and F-maximization. The F-theorem states that for any Lorentz-invariant RG trajectory connecting a conformal field theory CFT_UV in the ultraviolet to a conformal field theory CFT_IR, the F-coefficient decreases: F_UV > F_IR. I provide many examples of CFTs where one can compute F, approximately or exactly, and discuss various checks of the F-theorem. F-maximization is the principle that in an N=2 SCFT, viewed as the deep IR limit of an RG trajectory preserving N=2 supersymmetry, the superconformal R-symmetry maximizes F within the set of all R-symmetries preserved by the RG trajectory. I review the derivation of this result and provide examples.
Viscosity and density dependence during maximal flow in man.
Staats, B A; Wilson, T A; Lai-Fook, S J; Rodarte, J R; Hyatt, R E
1980-02-01
Maximal expiratory flow curves were obtained from ten healthy subjects white breathing air and three other gas mixtures with different densities and viscosities. From these data, the magnitudes of the dependence of maximal flow on gas density and viscosity were obtained. The scaling laws of fluid mechanics, together with a model for the flow-limiting mechanism, were used to obtain a prediction of the relationship between the density dependence and the viscosity dependence of maximal flow. Although the data for individual subjects were too variable to allow a precise comparison with this prediction, the relationship between the mean density dependence and the mean viscosity dependence of all usbjects agreed with the theoretic prediction. This agreement supports the assumption, which is frequently made, that flow resistance rather than tissue visoelasticity is the dominant contributor to peripheral resistance. Information on the relationships between the pressure drop to the flow-limiting segment and flow, gas density and viscosity, and lung volume were also obtained.
Maximal supports and Schur-positivity among connected skew shapes
McNamara, Peter R W
2011-01-01
The Schur-positivity order on skew shapes is defined by B \\leq A if the difference s_A - s_B is Schur-positive. It is an open problem to determine those connected skew shapes that are maximal with respect to this ordering. A strong sufficient condition for the Schur-positivity of s_A - s_B is that the support of B is contained in that of A, where the support of B is defined to be the set of partitions lambda for which s_lambda appears in the Schur expansion of s_B. We show that to determine the maximal connected skew shapes in the Schur-positivity order and this support containment order, it suffices to consider a special class of ribbon shapes. We explicitly determine the support for these ribbon shapes, thereby determining the maximal connected skew shapes in the support containment order.
On-line Auditing:Reflections on Off-site Auditing%联网审计：非现场审计的思考
林忠华
2016-01-01
With the development of the information-based national economy,it has become an urgent task to develop information-based auditing.As a product of the high-stage of computer auditing,on-line auditing is an approach that adapts to the audit environment and is regarded as one of the major objectives of information-based audit work.As an off-site auditing approach,on-line auditing is characterized by real-time and remote audit as well as highly efficient data acquisition and analysis.The key technologies of on-line auditing involves networking technology,data acquisition and processing technology while the mandatory function and advantage thereof is the audit warning mechanism.The specialized auditing procedures include information system testing and auditing,daily on-line query,and data acquisition and analysis.At present there are still problems to be solved in the field of on-line auditing,which requires reference to pioneer successful examples and effective measures to consistently improve the on-line auditing system.%随着国民经济信息化，审计工作信息化已刻不容缓。联网审计作为计算机审计发展较高阶段的产物，是适应新的审计环境所产生的审计方式，是审计工作信息化的主攻方向之一。联网审计作为非现场审计，具有实时审计、远程审计、高效率的数据采集和分析等特征。组网技术、数据采集和处理技术是联网审计的关键技术，审计预警机制是联网审计的必备功能和优势所在。信息系统测试与审计、日常联网查询、数据采集与分析是联网审计的特殊审计程序。当前联网审计中还存在不少困难与问题，要借鉴联网审计的成功范例，采取有效对策和措施，不断完善联网审计制度。
Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake
Convertino, V. A.
1997-01-01
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake
Control for occupationally exposed personnels
Murakami, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Momose, Takuma
1999-03-01
The present status of the technology for the measurement of personnel exposure dose was reviewed based on the basic concept of ICRP Recommendation on new assessment of exposure dose. The personnel dosimeter which has been mostly used by occupationally exposed personnels in Japan is film badge or thermoluminescence dosimeter. Now, photoluminescent glass dosimeter has been paid attention because pulse excitation method by UV laser has been developed. Measurement at an accuracy of 0.1 mSv or more became possible by using this dosimeter at present. In addition, characteristic studies for practical application of electronic, photostimulated luminescence and neutron dosimeters are progressing now. Revision of kinetic model of in vivo metabolism of radioactive substances is progressing based on the recent findings since ICRP Recommendation in 1990. Monitoring an individual internal exposure is made by two methods; direct measurement of the radiation emitted from the body and indirect one by radioanalysis of excretes etc. The latter is inferior to the former in respect of the accuracy of dose assessment, but the direct method is more suitable to detect a little amount of radioactive substance incorporated because of its high sensitivity. In future, it is needed to provide a considerable number of whole body counters against a large-scale nuclear accident. (M.N.)
Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P
2014-01-15
In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P rate pressure product and RAP (P heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max .
Kakeya sets and directional maximal operators in the plane
Bateman, Michael
2009-01-01
We completely characterize the boundedness of planar directional maximal operators on $L^p$ . More precisely, if $\\Omega$ is a set of directions, we show that $M_{\\Omega}$ , the maximal operator associated to line segments in the directions $\\Omega$ , is unbounded on $L^p$ for all $p \\lt \\infty$ precisely when $\\Omega$ admits Kakeya-type sets. In fact, we show that if $\\Omega$ does not admit Kakeya sets, then $\\Omega$ is a generalized lacunary set, and hence, $M_{\\Omega}$ is bounded on $L^p$ ...
Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864
2011-01-01
We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.
How High Might the Revenue-maximizing Tax Rate Be?
Usher, Dan
2014-01-01
Through tax evasion, through the labour-leisure choice or in other ways, taxpayers reduce the tax base in response to an increase in the tax rate. The process is commonly-believed to generate a humped Laffer curve with a revenue-maximizing tax rate well short of 100%. That need not be so. In the â€œnew tax responsiveness literatureâ€ , the revenue-maximizing tax rate is inferred from the observed â€œelasticity of taxable incomeâ€ . It is shown in this article 1) that the inference is unwarran...
Maximizing opto‐mechanical interaction using topology optimization
Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization is perfo......This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization...
Constraining Torsion in Maximally symmetric (sub)spaces
Sur, Sourav
2013-01-01
We look into the general aspects of space-time symmetries in presence of torsion, and how the latter is affected by such symmetries. Focusing in particular to space-times which either exhibit maximal symmetry on their own, or could be decomposed to maximally symmetric subspaces, we work out the constraints on torsion in two different theoretical schemes. We show that at least for a completely antisymmetric torsion tensor (for e.g. the one motivated from string theory), an equivalence is set between these two schemes, as the non-vanishing independent torsion tensor components turn out to be the same.
Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces
Yan, Dongming
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.
Gap processing for adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling
Yan, Dongming
2013-09-01
In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.
Approximation algorithms for indefinite complex quadratic maximization problems
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,we consider the following indefinite complex quadratic maximization problem: maximize zHQz,subject to zk ∈ C and zkm = 1,k = 1,...,n,where Q is a Hermitian matrix with trQ = 0,z ∈ Cn is the decision vector,and m 3.An (1/log n) approximation algorithm is presented for such problem.Furthermore,we consider the above problem where the objective matrix Q is in bilinear form,in which case a 0.7118 cos mπ 2approximation algorithm can be constructed.In the context of quadratic optimization,various extensions and connections of the model are discussed.
Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM
Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2012-05-15
A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.
Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems
Popescu Otilia
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.
Weighted Inequalities for the Generalized Maximal Operator in Martingale Spaces
Wei CHEN; Peide LIU
2011-01-01
The generalized maximal operator M in martingale spaces is considered.For 1 ＜ p ≤ q ＜ ∞,the authors give a necessary and sufficient condition on the pair (（μ),v)for M to be a bounded operator from martingale space LP(v) into Lq(（μ）) or weak-Lq(（μ）),where （μ） is a measure on Ω× N and v a weight on Ω.Moreover,the similar inequalities for usual maximal operator are discussed.
Simulating Entangling Unitary Operator Using Non-maximally Entangled States
LI Chun-Xian; WANG Cheng-Zhi; NIE Liu-Ying; LI Jiang-Fan
2009-01-01
We use non-maximally entangled states (NMESs) to simulate an entangling unitary operator (EUO) w/th a certain probability. Given entanglement resources, the probability of the success we achieve is a decreasing function of the parameters of the EUO. Given an EUO, for certain entanglement resources the result is optimal, i.e., the probability obtains a maximal value, and for optimal result higher parameters of the EUO match more amount of entanglement resources. The probability of the success we achieve is higher than the known results under some condition.
Has the Brain Maximized its Information Storage Capacity?
Stepanyants, A L
2003-01-01
Learning and memory may rely on the ability of neuronal circuits to reorganize by dendritic spine remodeling. We have looked for geometrical parameters of cortical circuits, which maximize information storage capacity associated with this mechanism. In particular, we calculated optimal volume fractions of various neuropil components. The optimal axonal and dendritic volume fractions are not significantly different from anatomical measurements in the mouse and rat neocortex, and the rat hippocampus. This has led us to propose that the maximization of information storage capacity associated with dendritic spine remodeling may have been an important driving force in the evolution of the cortex.
Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers.
Subhashini, Arcot Sadagopa; Satchidhanandam, Natesa
2002-01-01
Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) curves were recorded with a computerized Spirometer (Med Spiror). Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV), mean and maximal flow rates were obtained in 25 quarry workers who were free from respiratory disorders and 20 healthy control subjects. All the functional values are lower in quarry workers than in the control subject, the largest reduction in quarry workers with a work duration of over 15 years, especially for FEF75. The effects are probably due to smoking rather than dust exposure.
Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces
Guo, Jianwei
2015-02-01
Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.
2010-04-01
... Employment and Training Administration Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor...). Information shows that Maxim Integrated Products was formerly known as Dallas Semiconductor. Some workers... insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. and Dallas...
EXPOSE-R2, the 3rd successful EXPOSE mission – a mission and mission ground reference overview
2016-01-01
For nearly 2 years the 3rd ESA EXPOSE mission, the 2nd on the Russian Zvezda module of the ISS, exposed a variety of astrobiological samples to space and simulated Mars environmental conditions. Various chemical compounds and organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, plant seeds, lychens, mosses and animal eggs and larvae from the international experiments BIOMEX, BOSS, P.S.S. and the IBMP-experiment were exposed to space vacuums dryness, extraterrestrial short wavelength UV, radiation and tem...
Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength
Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B
1993-01-01
The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects on...
Octonionization of three player, two strategy maximally entangled quantum games
Ahmed, Aden; Bleiler, Steve; Khan, Faisal Shah
2008-01-01
We develop an octonionic representation of the payoff function for three player, two strategy, maximally entangled quantum games in order to obtain computationally friendly version of this function. This computational capability is then exploited to analyze and potentially classify the Nash equilibria in the quantum games.
Neuromuscular fatigue after maximal exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Vallier, J M; Gruet, M; Mely, L; Pensini, M; Brisswalter, J
2011-04-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite their ventilatory limitation, would develop neuromuscular fatigue of quadriceps muscles following a maximal cycling exercise. Eleven adults with CF (age=26.8±6.9years; forced expiratory volume in 1s=54.1±12.8% predicted) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects performed a maximal incremental cycle test with respiratory gas exchange measurements. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis muscle were recorded before and after exercise. Neural and contractile properties of the quadriceps were also investigated using femoral nerve electrical stimulation. Patients had lower exercise capacity, peak oxygen uptake and MVC than controls. MVC fell significantly postexercise in both groups (CF: -20±10%, controls: -19±6%; ppattern (-38.4±14.4%, -42.1±14.7% and -15±20.4%) but the statistical significance was not reached for the maximal rate of twitch torque relaxation. In conclusion, CF patients demonstrated lower limb fatigue following symptom-limited cycle exercise, which was comparable to that exhibited by healthy controls. This fatigue may be due to contractile impairments and not to transmission failure. Further studies should be conducted in a larger sample to confirm these preliminary results.
Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication
Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko
2014-01-01
In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization al...
Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization
Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel
2014-01-01
In this paper, joint estimation of carrier frequency, phase, signal means and noise variance, in a maximum likelihood sense, is performed iteratively by employing expectation maximization. The parameter estimation is soft decision driven and allows joint carrier synchronization and data detection...
Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue
Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van
2013-01-01
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-e
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval
Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria
2011-01-01
useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.
Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.
Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R
2015-08-01
In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity with External Masses
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J
2013-01-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method at two loops to double-box basis integrals with up to three external massive legs. We use consistency equations based on the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish. We obtain unique formulae for the coefficients of the master double-box integrals. These formulae can be used either analytically or numerically.
The influence of body position on maximal performance in cycling.
Welbergen, E; Clijsen, L P
1990-01-01
Six healthy male subjects performed a 3-min supramaximal test in four different cycling positions: two with different trunk angles and two with different saddle-tube angles. Maximal power output and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured. Maximal power output was significantly higher in a standard sitting (SS, 381 W, SD 49) upright position compared to all other positions: standard racing (SR, 364 W, SD 49), recumbent backwards (RB, 355 W, SD 44) and recumbent forwards (RF, 341 W, SD 54). Although VO2max was also highest in SS (4.31 l.min-1, SD 0.5) upright position, the differences in VO2max were not significant (SR, 4.2 l.min-1, SD 0.53; RB, 4.17 l.min-1, SD 0.58; RF, 4.11 l.min-1, SD 0.66). It is concluded that (supra)maximal tests on a cycle ergometer should be performed in a sitting upright position and not in a racing position. In some cases when cycling on the road, higher speeds can be attained when sitting upright. This is especially true when cycling uphill when high power must be generated to overcome gravity but the road speed, and hence the power required to overcome air resistance, is relatively low.
A Revenue Maximization Approach for Provisioning Services in Clouds
Li Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increased reliability, security, and reduced cost of cloud services, more and more users are attracted to having their jobs and applications outsourced into IAAS data centers. For a cloud provider, deciding how to provision services to clients is far from trivial. The objective of this decision is maximizing the provider’s revenue, while fulfilling its IAAS resource constraints. The above problem is defined as IAAS cloud provider revenue maximization (ICPRM problem in this paper. We formulate a service provision approach to help a cloud provider to determine which combination of clients to admit and in what Quality-of-Service (QoS levels and to maximize provider’s revenue given its available resources. We show that the overall problem is a nondeterministic polynomial- (NP- hard one and develop metaheuristic solutions based on the genetic algorithm to achieve revenue maximization. The experimental simulations and numerical results show that the proposed approach is both effective and efficient in solving ICPRM problems.
Teacher Praise: Maximizing the Motivational Impact. Teaching Strategies.
McVey, Mary D.
2001-01-01
Recognizes the influence of praise on human behavior, and provides specific suggestions on how to maximize the positive effects of praise when intended as positive reinforcement. Examines contingency, specificity, and selectivity aspects of praise. Cautions teachers to avoid the controlling effects of praise and the possibility that praise may…
Maximizing Access, Equity, and Inclusion in General and Special Education
Obiakor, Festus E.
2011-01-01
The goal of any educational program is to help its students to maximize their fullest potential in inclusive environments. For many students with disabilities, having an inclusive environment seems to be an ideal policy. Ironically, this policy continues to be debatable and controversial. Sometimes, the controversy or debate dominates the real…
How to Maximize Learning for Gifted Math Students
Chamberlin, Scott A.
2008-01-01
Having a gifted math or science student in the family or classroom is a fascination as well as a significant challenge and responsibility for many parents and teachers. In order to help maximize student learning, several questions need to be asked. What should be the role of technology? How well do traditional schools serve gifted students? What…
Curriculum and Testing Strategies to Maximize Special Education STAAR Achievement
Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared W.
2015-01-01
This document is from a presentation at the 2015 annual conference of the Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT). The two sessions (each listed as feature sessions at the state conference) examined classroom strategies the presenter used in his chemistry classes to maximize Texas end-of-course chemistry test scores for his special population…
Simplicity and maximal commutative subalgebras of twisted generalized Weyl algebras
Hartwig, J.T.; Öinert, Per Johan
2013-01-01
conditions for certain TGWAs to be simple, in the case when R is commutative. We illustrate our theorems by considering some special classes of TGWAs and providing concrete examples. We also discuss how simplicity of a TGWA is related to the maximal commutativity of R and the (non-)existence of non...
Lifetime maximization routing with network coding in wireless multihop networks
DING LiangHui; WU Ping; WANG Hao; PAN ZhiWen; YOU XiaoHu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider the lifetime maximization routing with network coding in wireless mul- tihop networks. We first show that lifetime maximization with network coding is different from pure routing, throughput maximization with network coding and energy minimization with network coding. Then we formulate lifetime maximization problems in three different cases of （i） no network coding, （ii） two-way network coding, and （iii） overhearing network coding. To solve these problems, we use flow augmenting routing （FA） for the first case, and then extend the FA with network coding （FANC） by using energy minimized one-hop network coding. After that, we investigate the influence of parameters of FANC, evaluate the performance of FANC with two-way and overhearing network coding schemes and compare it with that without network coding under two different power control models, namely, protocol and physical ones. The results show that the lifetime can be improved significantly by using network coding, and the performance gain of network coding decreases with the increase of flow asymmetry and the power control ability.
The Long Conversation Maximizing Business Value from Information Technology Investment
Lorenzo, Oswaldo; González, Gastón; Ramdani, Boumediene
2011-01-01
For many years companies have been investing in enterprise systems and IT initiatives but they are now struggling to achieve the desired results. It takes a long time to make the best of your enterprise systems so businesses must stop looking for the next technology 'silver bullet' and instead maximize the value of existing IT investments.
5D Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills on the Lattice
Joseph, Anosh
2016-01-01
We provide details of the lattice construction of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The lattice theory is supersymmetric, gauge invariant and free from spectrum doublers. Such a supersymmetric lattice formulation is interesting as it can be used for non-perturbative explorations of the five-dimensional theory, which has a known gravitational dual.
Entropy Maximization and the Spatial Distribution of Species
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.
2010-01-01
Entropy maximization (EM, also known as MaxEnt) is a general inference procedure that originated in statistical mechanics. It has been applied recently to predict ecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions and species-area relationships. It is well known in physics that the EM resu
AN EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Hou Jicheng; He Wei
2007-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for an L*-majorized correspondence de-fined on a non-paracompact H-space is established. As applications of the result, an equilibrium existence theorem for a non-paracompact generalized game in H-spaces with infinitely many players and with L*-majorized correspondences is given.
Successive superalgebraic truncations from the four-dimensional maximal supergravity
Kim, C H; Kim, K Y; Kim, Y; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Young Jai; Kim, Kee Yong; Kim, Yongduk
1994-01-01
We study the four-dimensional {\\it N}=8 maximal supergravity in the context of Lie superalgebra SU(8/1). All possible successive superalgebraic truncations from four-dimensional {\\it N}=8 theory to {\\it N}=7, 6, \\cdots, 1 supergravity theories are systematically realized as sub-superalgebra chains of SU(8/1) by using the Kac-Dynkin weight techniques.
Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation
Airton Castro
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.
Statistical mechanics of influence maximization with thermal noise
Lynn, Christopher W.; Lee, Daniel D.
2017-03-01
The problem of optimally distributing a budget of influence among individuals in a social network, known as influence maximization, has typically been studied in the context of contagion models and deterministic processes, which fail to capture stochastic interactions inherent in real-world settings. Here, we show that by introducing thermal noise into influence models, the dynamics exactly resemble spins in a heterogeneous Ising system. In this way, influence maximization in the presence of thermal noise has a natural physical interpretation as maximizing the magnetization of an Ising system given a budget of external magnetic field. Using this statistical mechanical formulation, we demonstrate analytically that for small external-field budgets, the optimal influence solutions exhibit a highly non-trivial temperature dependence, focusing on high-degree hub nodes at high temperatures and on easily influenced peripheral nodes at low temperatures. For the general problem, we present a projected gradient ascent algorithm that uses the magnetic susceptibility to calculate locally optimal external-field distributions. We apply our algorithm to synthetic and real-world networks, demonstrating that our analytic results generalize qualitatively. Our work establishes a fruitful connection with statistical mechanics and demonstrates that influence maximization depends crucially on the temperature of the system, a fact that has not been appreciated by existing research.
Determinants of maximally attained level of pulmonary function
Wang, XB; Mensinga, TT; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B; Weiss, ST
2004-01-01
This study investigated the determinants of sex-specific maximally attained levels of FEV1, VC, and the ratio of FEV1 to VC. Subjects were between the ages of 15 and 35 years (1,818 males and 1,732 females), participating in the Vlagtwedde/Vlaardingen study in The Netherlands. The subjects were foll
Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education
Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue
2014-01-01
Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…
Should I Stay or Should I Go? Maximizers versus Satisficers
Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy; King, Stephanie L.
2008-01-01
In the present study, university students were presented a scenario in which a married couple was struggling in their marriage. These students were asked how likely it is that they would stay in a difficult marriage like the one described in the scenario. Each student also completed Schwartz's (2004) Maximization Scale. High scorers on this scale…
Nursing Students' Awareness and Intentional Maximization of Their Learning Styles
Mayfield, Linda Riggs
2012-01-01
This small, descriptive, pilot study addressed survey data from four levels of nursing students who had been taught to maximize their learning styles in a first-semester freshman success skills course. Bandura's Agency Theory supports the design. The hypothesis was that without reinforcing instruction, the students' recall and application of that…
The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2009-01-01
We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely car
A Data-Based Approach to Social Influence Maximization
Goyal, Amit; Lakshmanan, Laks V S
2011-01-01
Influence maximization is the problem of finding a set of users in a social network, such that by targeting this set, one maximizes the expected spread of influence in the network. Most of the literature on this topic has focused exclusively on the social graph, overlooking historical data, i.e., traces of past action propagations. In this paper, we study influence maximization from a novel data-based perspective. In particular, we introduce a new model, which we call credit distribution, that directly leverages available propagation traces to learn how influence flows in the network and uses this to estimate expected influence spread. Our approach also learns the different levels of influenceability of users, and it is time-aware in the sense that it takes the temporal nature of influence into account. We show that influence maximization under the credit distribution model is NP-hard and that the function that defines expected spread under our model is submodular. Based on these, we develop an approximation ...
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
Optoelectronic plethysmography compared to spirometry during maximal exercise.
Layton, Aimee M; Moran, Sienna L; Garber, Carol Ewing; Armstrong, Hilary F; Basner, Robert C; Thomashow, Byron M; Bartels, Matthew N
2013-01-15
The purpose of this study was to compare simultaneous measurements of tidal volume (Vt) by optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) and spirometry during a maximal cycling exercise test to quantify possible differences between methods. Vt measured simultaneously by OEP and spirometry was collected during a maximal exercise test in thirty healthy participants. The two methods were compared by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis at submaximal and maximal exercise. The average difference between the two methods and the mean percentage discrepancy were calculated. Submaximal exercise (SM) and maximal exercise (M) Vt measured by OEP and spirometry had very good correlation, SM R=0.963 (pspirometry. OEP could measure exercise Vt as much as 0.188 L above and -0.017 L below that of spirometry. The discrepancy between measurements was -2.0 ± 7.2% at SM and -2.4 ± 3.9% at M. In conclusion, Vt measurements at during exercise by OEP and spirometry are closely correlated and the difference between measurements was insignificant.
Entropy Maximization and the Spatial Distribution of Species
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.
Entropy maximization (EM, also known as MaxEnt) is a general inference procedure that originated in statistical mechanics. It has been applied recently to predict ecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions and species-area relationships. It is well known in physics that the EM
On Maximal Subgroups of a Finite Solvable Group
Gritsuk, D V
2011-01-01
The following result is received: Let $H$ be a non-normal maximal subgroup of a finite solvable group $G$ and let $q \\in \\pi(F(H/\\mathrm{Core}_GH))$, then $G$ has a Sylow $q$-subgroup $Q$ such that $N_{G}(Q) \\subseteq H$.
The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2009-01-01
We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely
Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: Maximizing a Timeout
Andrews, Staci R.
2015-01-01
This article provides recommendations for best practices for basketball coaches to maximize the instructional effectiveness of a timeout during competition. Practical applications are derived from research findings linking emotional intelligence to effective coaching behaviors. Additionally, recommendations are based on the implications of the…
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
The Bianchi classification of maximal D=8 gauged supergravities
Bergshoeff, E; Gran, U; Linares, R; Nielsen, M; Ortin, T; Roest, D
2004-01-01
We construct maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities by the reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds. Such manifolds have been classified by Bianchi. We divide the corresponding gauged supergravities into two classes: class A (with a Lagrangian) and class B (without a Lagr
The Bianchi classification of maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities
Bergshoeff, E.; Gran, U.; Linares, R.; Nielsen, M.; Ortín, T.; Roest, D.
2004-01-01
We construct maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities by the reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds. Such manifolds have been classified by Bianchi. We divide the corresponding gauged supergravities into two classes: class A (with a Lagrangian) and class B (without a Lagr
Minimal fusion systems with a unique maximal parabolic
Henke, Ellen
2011-01-01
We define minimal fusion systems in a way that every non-solvable fusion system has a section which is minimal. Minimal fusion systems can also be seen as analogs of Thompson's N-groups. In this paper, we consider a minimal fusion system F on a finite p-group S that has a unique maximal p-local s...
Neural network approach for solving the maximal common subgraph problem.
Shoukry, A; Aboutabl, M
1996-01-01
A new formulation of the maximal common subgraph problem (MCSP), that is implemented using a two-stage Hopfield neural network, is given. Relative merits of this proposed formulation, with respect to current neural network-based solutions as well as classical sequential-search-based solutions, are discussed.
Maximally parallel attribute on P Systems:Properties and applications
Chunyi Huang; Xiaoju Dong
2008-01-01
In this paper,we investigate the maximally parallel attribute of P Systems.Some properties of P Systems are introduced,which are the filter property and the enumeration property.The two properties are applied to solving the sorting problem and the Hamilton cycle problem.respectively.
Maximal isometric strength of the cervical musculature in 100 healthy volunteers
Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Bülow, P M
1999-01-01
A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.......A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature....
Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter A; Olsen, Peter; Petersen, Bibi; Johansen, Peter; Morling, Niels; Wulf, Hans C
2016-04-01
Vitamin D influences skeletal health as well as other aspects of human health. Even when the most obvious sources of variation such as solar UVB exposure, latitude, season, clothing habits, skin pigmentation and ethnicity are selected for, variation in the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) response to UVB remains extensive and unexplained. Our study assessed the inter-personal variation in 25(OH)D response to UVR and the maximal obtainable 25(OH)D level in 22 healthy participants (220 samples) with similar skin pigmentation during winter with negligible ambient UVB. Participants received identical UVB doses on identical body areas until a maximal level of 25(OH)D was reached. Major inter-personal variation in both the maximal obtainable UVB-induced 25(OH)D level (range 85-216 nmol l(-1), mean 134 nmol l(-1)) and the total increase in 25(OH)D (range 3-139 nmol l(-1), mean 48 nmol l(-1)) was found. A linear model including measured 25(OH)D baselines as personal intercepts explained 54.9% of the variation. By further including personal slopes in the model, as much as 90.8% of the variation could be explained. The explained variation constituted by personal differences in slopes thus represented 35.9%. Age, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, height and constitutive skin pigmentation (a skin area not exposed to UVB) explained 15.1% of this variation. Despite elimination of most known external sources of variation, our study demonstrated inter-personal variation corresponding to an observed maximal difference of 136 nmol l(-1) in the total increase of 25(OH)D and 131 nmol l(-1) in the maximal level of 25(OH)D.
Cohen, Sarah P; Orenstein, David M
2014-12-01
Disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF) is marked by worsening exercise tolerance. Further, maximal exercise capacity (VO2 peak) correlates with survival in CF, but maximal tests are uncomfortable and resource-intensive. A three-minute step test (STEP) has been validated in CF. Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise correlates with all-cause mortality in adult non-CF populations. We compared HR recovery after the three-minute step test with VO2 peak in children with CF. Twenty-four children with CF performed STEP and a maximal exercise test. Correlation between the tests was assessed. Maximum HR on STEP was lower than on the maximal test (140 vs. 190, p<0.01). Peak HR during STEP correlated inversely with VO2 peak. In subjects with mild lung disease, faster HR recovery after STEP correlated with higher VO2 peak. The three-minute step test is a feasible submaximal test in this patient population. HR during and after a three-minute step test may reflect VO2 peak in children with CF. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases maximal oxygen uptake in adult humans.
Richards, Jennifer C; Lonac, Mark C; Johnson, Tyler K; Schweder, Melani M; Bell, Christopher
2010-04-01
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, increases endurance performance in animals and promotes fat oxidation during cycle ergometer exercise in adult humans. We have investigated the hypothesis that short-term consumption of EGCG delays the onset of the ventilatory threshold (VT) and increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In this randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind study, 19 healthy adults (11 males and 8 females, age = 26 ± 2 yr (mean ± SE)) received seven placebo or seven EGCG (135-mg) pills. Forty-eight hours before data collection, participants began consuming three pills per day; the last pill was taken 2 h before exercise testing. VT and VO2max were determined from breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry data collected during continuous incremental stationary cycle ergometer exercise (20-35 W·min(-1)), from rest until volitional fatigue. Each condition/exercise test was separated by a minimum of 14 d. Compared with placebo, short-term EGCG consumption increased VO2max (3.123 ± 0.187 vs 3.259 ± 0.196 L·min(-1), P = 0.04). Maximal work rate (301 ± 15 vs 301 ± 16 W, P = 0.98), maximal RER (1.21 ± 0.01 vs 1.22 ± 0.02, P = 0.27), and maximal HR were unaffected (180 ± 3 vs 180 ± 3 beats·min(-1), P = 0.87). In a subset of subjects (n = 11), maximal cardiac output (determined via open-circuit acetylene breathing) was also unaffected by EGCG (29.6 ± 2.2 vs 30.2 ± 1.4 L·min(-1), P = 0.70). Contrary to our hypothesis, EGCG decreased VO2 at VT (1.57 ± 0.11 vs 1.48 ± 0.10 L·min(-1)), but this change was not significant (P = 0.06). Short-term consumption of EGCG increased VO2max without affecting maximal cardiac output, suggesting that EGCG may increase arterial-venous oxygen difference.
Jung, Halim; Jung, SangWoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...
Maximally entangled mixed states for qubit-qutrit systems
Mendonça, Paulo E. M. F.; Marchiolli, Marcelo A.; Hedemann, Samuel R.
2017-02-01
We consider the problems of maximizing the entanglement negativity of X-form qubit-qutrit density matrices with (i) a fixed spectrum and (ii) a fixed purity. In the first case, the problem is solved in full generality whereas, in the latter, partial solutions are obtained by imposing extra spectral constraints such as rank deficiency and degeneracy, which enable a semidefinite programming treatment for the optimization problem at hand. Despite the technically motivated assumptions, we provide strong numerical evidence that threefold degenerate X states of purity P reach the highest entanglement negativity accessible to arbitrary qubit-qutrit density matrices of the same purity, hence characterizing a sparse family of likely qubit-qutrit maximally entangled mixed states.
Document Classification Using Expectation Maximization with Semi Supervised Learning
Nigam, Bhawna; Salve, Sonal; Vamney, Swati
2011-01-01
As the amount of online document increases, the demand for document classification to aid the analysis and management of document is increasing. Text is cheap, but information, in the form of knowing what classes a document belongs to, is expensive. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the expectation maximization technique of data mining to classify the document and to learn how to improve the accuracy while using semi-supervised approach. Expectation maximization algorithm is applied with both supervised and semi-supervised approach. It is found that semi-supervised approach is more accurate and effective. The main advantage of semi supervised approach is "Dynamically Generation of New Class". The algorithm first trains a classifier using the labeled document and probabilistically classifies the unlabeled documents. The car dataset for the evaluation purpose is collected from UCI repository dataset in which some changes have been done from our side.
Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework
Frank W. Davis
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.
Origin of Constrained Maximal CP Violation in Flavor Symmetry
He, Hong-Jian; Xu, Xun-Jie
2015-01-01
Current data from neutrino oscillation experiments are in good agreement with $\\delta=-\\pi/2$ and $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$. We define the notion of "constrained maximal CP violation" for these features and study their origin in flavor symmetry models. We give various parametrization-independent definitions of constrained maximal CP violation and present a theorem on how it can be generated. This theorem takes advantage of residual symmetries in the neutrino and charged lepton mass matrices, and states that, up to a few exceptions, $\\delta=\\pm\\pi/2$ and $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$ are generated when those symmetries are real. The often considered $\\mu$-$\\tau$ reflection symmetry, as well as specific discrete subgroups of $O(3)$, are special case of our theorem.
Maximizing production rates of the Linde Hampson machine
Maytal, B.-Z.
2006-01-01
In contrast to the ideal case of unlimited size recuperator, any real Linde-Hampson machine of finite size recuperator can be optimized to reach the extreme rates of performance. The group of cryocoolers sharing the same size recuperator is optimized in a closed form by determining the corresponding flow rate which maximizes its rate of cold production. For a similar group of liquefiers an optimal flow rate is derived to maximize the rate of production of liquid cryogen. The group of cryocoolers sharing a constant and given flow rate is optimized by shortening the recuperator for reaching a maximum compactness measured by the cooling power per unit size of the recuperator. The optimum conditions are developed for nitrogen and argon. The relevance of this analysis is discussed in the context of practice of fast cooldown Joule-Thomson cryocooling.
Maximizing Cloud Providers Revenues via Energy Aware Allocation Policies
Mazzucco, Michele; Deters, Ralph
2011-01-01
Cloud providers, like Amazon, offer their data centers' computational and storage capacities for lease to paying customers. High electricity consumption, associated with running a data center, not only reflects on its carbon footprint, but also increases the costs of running the data center itself. This paper addresses the problem of maximizing the revenues of Cloud providers by trimming down their electricity costs. As a solution allocation policies which are based on the dynamic powering servers on and off are introduced and evaluated. The policies aim at satisfying the conflicting goals of maximizing the users' experience while minimizing the amount of consumed electricity. The results of numerical experiments and simulations are described, showing that the proposed scheme performs well under different traffic conditions.
String partition functions in Rindler space and maximal acceleration
Mertens, Thomas G; Zakharov, Valentin I
2015-01-01
We revisit non-interacting string partition functions in Rindler space by summing over fields in the spectrum. Using recent results of JHEP 1505 (2015) 106, this construction, first done by Emparan, can be put on much firmer ground. For open strings, we demonstrate that surface contributions to the higher spin fields correspond to open strings piercing the Rindler origin, unifying the higher spin surface contributions in string language. We generalize the construction of these partition functions to type II and heterotic superstrings and demonstrate modular invariance for the resulting partition functions. Also, explicit signs of spacetime supersymmetry are visible. All of these exhibit an IR divergence that can be interpreted as a maximal acceleration with $T_{\\text{crit}} = T_{H}/\\pi$ close to the black hole horizon. Ultimately, these partition functions are not physical, and divergences here should not be viewed as a failure of string theory: maximal acceleration is a feature of a faulty treatment of the h...
Neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic resistance loadings.
Walker, Simon; Davis, Lisa; Avela, Janne; Häkkinen, Keijo
2012-06-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic loadings, known to cause different adaptations underlying strength gain during training. Thirteen healthy, untrained males performed two leg press loadings, one week apart, consisting of 15 sets of 1 repetition maximum (MAX) and 5 sets of 10 repetition maximums (HYP). Concentric load and muscle activity, electromyography (EMG) amplitude and median frequency, was assessed throughout each set. Additionally, maximal bilateral isometric force and muscle activity was assessed pre-, mid-, and up to 30 min post-loading. Concentric load during MAX was decreased after set 10 (Pmuscle activity during HYP loading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integral circulant graphs of prime power order with maximal energy
Sander, Jürgen W; 10.1016/j.laa.2011.05.039
2011-01-01
The energy of a graph is the sum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. We study the energy of integral circulant graphs, also called gcd graphs, which can be characterized by their vertex count n and a set D of divisors of n in such a way that they have vertex set Zn and edge set {{a, b} : a, b in Zn; gcd(a - b, n) in D}. Using tools from convex optimization, we study the maximal energy among all integral circulant graphs of prime power order ps and varying divisor sets D. Our main result states that this maximal energy approximately lies between s(p - 1)p^(s-1) and twice this value. We construct suitable divisor sets for which the energy lies in this interval. We also characterize hyperenergetic integral circulant graphs of prime power order and exhibit an interesting topological property of their divisor sets.
Resistance maximization principle for defending networks against virus attack
Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng
2017-01-01
We investigate the defending of networks against virus attack. We define the resistance of a network to be the maximum number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible from random walk, from which random walk cannot escape. We show that for any network G, R(G) =H1(G) -H2(G) , where R(G) is the resistance of G, H1(G) and H2(G) are the one- and two-dimensional structural information of G, respectively, and that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attack. By using the theory, we investigate the defending of real world networks and of the networks generated by the preferential attachment and the security models. We show that there exist networks that are defensible by a small number of controllers from cascading failure of any virus attack. Our theory demonstrates that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attacks.
WEIGHTED INEQUALITIES FOR THE GEOMETRIC MAXIMAL OPERATOR ON MARTINGALE SPACES
无
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors introduce two operators-geometrical maximal operator Mo and the closely related limiting operator M*O, then they give sufficient conditions under which the equality MO = M*O holds, and characterize the equivalent relations between the weak or strong type weighted inequality and the property of W∞-weight or W*∞-weight for the geometrical maximal operator in the case of two-weight condition. What should be mentioned is that the new operator-the geometrical minimal operator is equal to the limitation of the minimal operator sequence, and the results for the minimal operator proved in [12] makes the proof elegant and evident.
Maximal-acceleration phase space relativity from Clifford algebras
Castro, C
2002-01-01
We present a new physical model that links the maximum speed of light with the minimal Planck scale into a maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in the spacetime tangent bundle and in phase spaces (cotangent bundle). Crucial in order to establish this link is the use of Clifford algebras in phase spaces. The maximal proper-acceleration bound is a = c^2/ \\Lambda in full agreement with the old predictions of Caianiello, the Finslerian geometry point of view of Brandt and more recent results in the literature. We present the reasons why an Extended Scale Relativity based on Clifford spaces is physically more appealing than those based on kappa-deformed Poincare algebras and the inhomogeneous quantum groups operating in quantum Minkowski spacetimes. The main reason being that the Planck scale should not be taken as a deformation parameter to construct quantum algebras but should exist already as the minimum scale in Clifford spaces.
Identities on Maximal Subgroups of GLn(D)
D. Kiani; M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2005-01-01
Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GLn(D) (n ≥ 1) such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M]is a PI-algebra, then [D: F] ＜∞. When D is non-commutative and F is infinite, it is also proved that if M satisfies a group identity and F[M] is algebraic over F, then we have either M = K* where K is a field and [D: F] ＜∞, or M is absolutely irreducible. For a finite dimensional division algebra D, assume that N is a subnormal subgroup of GLn(D)and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite.
Dynamically Disordered Quantum Walk as a Maximal Entanglement Generator
Vieira, Rafael; Amorim, Edgard P. M.; Rigolin, Gustavo
2013-11-01
We show that the entanglement between the internal (spin) and external (position) degrees of freedom of a qubit in a random (dynamically disordered) one-dimensional discrete time quantum random walk (QRW) achieves its maximal possible value asymptotically in the number of steps, outperforming the entanglement attained by using ordered QRW. The disorder is modeled by introducing an extra random aspect to QRW, a classical coin that randomly dictates which quantum coin drives the system’s time evolution. We also show that maximal entanglement is achieved independently of the initial state of the walker, study the number of steps the system must move to be within a small fixed neighborhood of its asymptotic limit, and propose two experiments where these ideas can be tested.
Maximal injective and mixing masas in group factors
Jolissaint, Paul
2010-01-01
We present families of pairs of finite von Neumann algebras $A\\subset M$ where $A$ is a maximal injective masa in the type $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factor $M$ with separable predual. Our results make use of the strong mixing and the asymptotic orthogonality properties of $A$ in $M$ and are borrowed from ideas of S. Popa who proved that if $G$ is a non abelian free group and if $a$ is one of its generators, then the von Neumann algebra generated by $a$ is maximal injective in the factor $L(G)$. Our results apply to pairs $H
Minimal length, maximal momentum and thermodynamics of black body radiation
Shababi, Homa
2013-01-01
In this paper we study thermodynamics of black body radiation in the presence of quantum gravitational effects through a Generalized Uncertainty Principle that admits both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum. We focus on quantum gravity induced modifications of thermodynamical quantities in this framework. Some important issues such as the generalized Planck distribution, Wien s law and Dulong Petit law are studied in this setup with details.
Oncoplastic Breast Reduction: Maximizing Aesthetics and Surgical Margins
Michelle Milee Chang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Oncoplastic breast reduction combines oncologically sound concepts of cancer removal with aesthetically maximized approaches for breast reduction. Numerous incision patterns and types of pedicles can be used for purposes of oncoplastic reduction, each tailored for size and location of tumor. A team approach between reconstructive and breast surgeons produces positive long-term oncologic results as well as satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes, rendering oncoplastic breast reduction a favorable treatment option for certain patients with breast cancer.
Maximal Subsemigroups of Finite Transformation Semigroups K(n, r)
Hao Bo YANG; Xiu Liang YANG
2004-01-01
Let Tn be the full transformation semigroup on the n-element set Xn. For an arbitrary integer r such that 2 ≤ r ≤ n - 1, we completely describe the maximal subsemigroups of the semigroup K(n, r) = {α∈ Tn: |im α| ≤ r}. We also formulate the cardinal number of such subsemigroups which is an answer to Problem 46 of Tetrad in 1969, concerning the number of subsemigroups of Tn.
LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP
Pedro Jimenez-Reyes
2016-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.
Cereal Crop Farm Planning for Profit Maximization in Afghanistan
Ahmadzai, Najeebullah; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke
2016-01-01
Cereal crops are the major component of agriculture sector in Afghanistan by generating income and providing food dietary of subsistence to the farm family. The sector which is dominated by small scale farmer across the country is facing numerous problems such as inefficient use of resources, poor production technology, low labor productivity and high production costs. This study was carried out to maximize farm income by optimization resource allocation and developing an optimal farm plan fo...
Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors
2005-08-01
Emmons, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 REPORT DATE: August 2005 TYPE OF REPORT...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM...binding affinities of peptide and carbohyd- Hollingsworth, M. A. 1997. Oligosaccharides expressed on MUCl rate with I-A’ will be illuminating. However
3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned
Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.
2011-10-01
The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook
Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans
Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L
2011-01-01
Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial...... respiration. High resolution respirometry was used to quantify mitochondrial respiration from the biopsies of arm and leg muscles while in-vivo arm and leg VO(2) were determined by the Fick method during leg cycling and arm cranking. We hypothesized that muscle mitochondrial respiratory rate exceeds...... that of systemic oxygen delivery. The state 3 mitochondrial respiration of the deltoid muscle (4.3±0.4 mmol o(2)kg(-1) min(-1)) was similar to the in-vivo VO(2) during maximal arm cranking (4.7±0.5 mmol O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) with 6 kg muscle. In contrast, the mitochondrial state 3 of the quadriceps was 6.9±0.5 mmol...
Computing a Clique Tree with the Algorithm Maximal Label Search
Anne Berry
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The algorithm MLS (Maximal Label Search is a graph search algorithm that generalizes the algorithms Maximum Cardinality Search (MCS, Lexicographic Breadth-First Search (LexBFS, Lexicographic Depth-First Search (LexDFS and Maximal Neighborhood Search (MNS. On a chordal graph, MLS computes a PEO (perfect elimination ordering of the graph. We show how the algorithm MLS can be modified to compute a PMO (perfect moplex ordering, as well as a clique tree and the minimal separators of a chordal graph. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on the labeling structure of MLS for the beginning of a new clique in the clique tree to be detected by a condition on labels. MLS is also used to compute a clique tree of the complement graph, and new cliques in the complement graph can be detected by a condition on labels for any labeling structure. We provide a linear time algorithm computing a PMO and the corresponding generators of the maximal cliques and minimal separators of the complement graph. On a non-chordal graph, the algorithm MLSM, a graph search algorithm computing an MEO and a minimal triangulation of the graph, is used to compute an atom tree of the clique minimal separator decomposition of any graph.
Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate
A. Khodayari
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.
The Parallel Maximal Cliques Algorithm for Protein Sequence Clustering
Khalid Jaber
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Protein sequence clustering is a method used to discover relations between proteins. This method groups the proteins based on their common features. It is a core process in protein sequence classification. Graph theory has been used in protein sequence clustering as a means of partitioning the data into groups, where each group constitutes a cluster. Mohseni-Zadeh introduced a maximal cliques algorithm for protein clustering. Approach: In this study we adapted the maximal cliques algorithm of Mohseni-Zadeh to find cliques in protein sequences and we then parallelized the algorithm to improve computation times and allowed large protein databases to be processed. We used the N-Gram Hirschberg approach proposed by Abdul Rashid to calculate the distance between protein sequences. The task farming parallel program model was used to parallelize the enhanced cliques algorithm. Results: Our parallel maximal cliques algorithm was implemented on the stealth cluster using the C programming language and a hybrid approach that includes both the Message Passing Interface (MPI library and POSIX threads (PThread to accelerate protein sequence clustering. Conclusion: Our results showed a good speedup over sequential algorithms for cliques in protein sequences.
Dynamics of hydrogen-like atom bounded by maximal acceleration
Friedman, Yaakov
2012-01-01
The existence of a maximal acceleration for massive objects was conjectured by Caianiello 30 years ago based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Many consequences of this hypothesis have been studied, but until now, there has been no evidence that boundedness of the acceleration may lead to quantum behavior. In previous research, we predicted the existence of a universal maximal acceleration and developed a new dynamics for which all admissible solutions have an acceleration bounded by the maximal one. Based on W. K\\"{u}ndig's experiment, as reanalyzed by Kholmetskii et al, we estimated its value to be of the order $10^{19}m/s^2$. We present here a solution of our dynamical equation for a classical hydrogen-like atom and show that this dynamics leads to some aspects of quantum behavior. We show that the position of an electron in a hydrogen-like atom can be described only probabilistically. We also show that in this model, the notion of "center of mass" must be modified. This modification supports the no...
Budget Allocation for Maximizing Viral Advertising in Social Networks
Bo-Lei Zhang; Zhu-Zhong Qian; Wen-Zhong Li; Bin Tang; Xiaoming Fu
2016-01-01
Viral advertising in social networks has arisen as one of the most promising ways to increase brand awareness and product sales. By distributing a limited budget, we can incentivize a set of users as initial adopters so that the advertising can start from the initial adopters and spread via social links to become viral. Despite extensive researches in how to target the most influential users, a key issue is often neglected: how to incentivize the initial adopters. In the problem of influence maximization, the assumption is that each user has a fixed cost for being initial adopters, while in practice, user decisions for accepting the budget to be initial adopters are often probabilistic rather than deterministic. In this paper, we study optimal budget allocation in social networks to maximize the spread of viral advertising. In particular, a concave probability model is introduced to characterize each user’s utility for being an initial adopter. Under this model, we show that it is NP-hard to find an optimal budget allocation for maximizing the spread of viral advertising. We then present a novel discrete greedy algorithm with near optimal performance, and further propose scaling-up techniques to improve the time-eﬃciency of our algorithm. Extensive experiments on real-world social graphs are implemented to validate the effectiveness of our algorithm in practice. The results show that our algorithm can outperform other intuitive heuristics significantly in almost all cases.
Reference values of maximal oxygen uptake for polish rowers.
Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Michał; Ładyga, Maria; Długołęcka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz
2014-12-09
The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes' fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the "trainability" of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19-22 years (U23 category).
Improved Algorithms OF CELF and CELF++ for Influence Maximization
Jiaguo Lv
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the wide application in some fields, such as viral marketing, sales promotion etc, influence maximization has been the most important and extensively studied problem in social network. However, the most classical KK-Greedy algorithm for influence maximization is inefficient. Two major sources of the algorithm’s inefficiency were analyzed in this paper. With the analysis of algorithms CELF and CELF++, all nodes in the influenced set of u would never bring any marginal gain when a new seed u was produced. Through this optimization strategy, a lot of redundant nodes will be removed from the candidate nodes. Basing on the strategy, two improved algorithms of Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++ were proposed in this study. To evaluate the two algorithms, the two algorithms with their benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++ were conducted on some real world datasets. To estimate the algorithms, influence degree and running time were employed to measure the performance and efficiency respectively. Experimental results showed that, compared with benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++, matching effects and higher efficiency were achieved by the new algorithms Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++. Solutions with the proposed optimization strategy can be useful for the decisionmaking problems under the scenarios related to the influence maximization problem.
Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.
Dong Li
Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Maximal mixing as a `sum' of small mixings
Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Mehta, Poonam; Vempati, Sudhir K
2009-01-01
In models with two sources of neutrino masses, we look at the possibility of generating maximal/large mixing angles in the total mass matrix, where both the sources have only small mixing angles. We show that in the two generation case, maximal mixing can naturally arise only when the total neutrino mass matrix has a quasi-degenerate pattern. The best way to demonstrate this is by decomposing the quasi-degenerate spectrum in to hierarchial and inverse-hierarchial mass matrices, both with small mixing. Such a decomposition of the quasi-degenerate spectra is in fact very general and can be done irrespective of the mixing present in the mass matrices. With three generations, and two sources, we show that only one or all the three small mixing angles in the total neutrino mass matrix can be converted to maximal/large mixing angles. The decomposition of the degenerate pattern in this case is best realised in to sub-matrices whose dominant eigenvalues have an alternating pattern. On the other hand, it is possible t...
Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.
Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng
2014-01-01
Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers
Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)
2014-12-01
Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers
Maurice Schiff; Arvind Panagariya
1995-01-01
The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977). In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i) if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both count...
Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie
Nastiti Rokhmania
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.
Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor C
2016-01-01
This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) performed before maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) would attenuate muscle damage of the knee extensors. Untrained men were placed to an experimental group that performed 6 sets of 10 MVIC at 90° knee flexion 2 weeks before 6 sets of 10 MaxEC or a control group that performed MaxEC only (n = 13/group). Changes in muscle damage markers were assessed before to 5 days after each exercise. Small but significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion (ROM) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were evident at immediately to 2 days post-MVIC (p < 0.05), but other variables (e.g. thigh girth, myoglobin concentration, B-mode echo intensity) did not change significantly. Changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (p < 0.05) by 45% (soreness)-67% (CK) for the experimental than the control group. These results suggest that MVIC conferred potent protective effect against MaxEC-induced muscle damage.
Ibai eGarcia-Tabar
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2 and carbon dioxide (FCO2 of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001 in FO2 and FCO2 of -0.18% and -0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptake values were 5-6% lower (P < 0.001 whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8-9% higher (P < 0.001. The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 minutes of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise.
XU Jin
2016-01-01
A maximal planar graph is called the recursive maximal planar graph if it can be obtained from 4 K by embedding a 3-degree vertex in some triangular face continuously. The uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture states that a planar graph is uniquely 4-colorable if and only if it is a recursive maximal planar graph. This conjecture, which has 43 years of history, is a very influential conjecture in graph coloring theory after the Four-Color Conjecture. In this paper, the structures and properties of dumbbell maximal planar graphs and recursive maximal planar graphs are studied, and an idea of proving the uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture is proposed based on the extending-contracting operation proposed in this series of article (2).
Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator
2012-12-31
ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational
Maximizing Career-Oriented Academic Advising at the Departmental Level.
Munski, Douglas C.
1983-01-01
A course developed within an academic department to expose students to discipline-specific career information and decision making is described, including course assignments and student reactions. A side benefit has been closer career-oriented connections between faculty and practitioners. (MSE)
Low-frequency fatigue at maximal and submaximal muscle contractions
R.R. Baptista
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle force production following repetitive contractions is preferentially reduced when muscle is evaluated with low-frequency stimulation. This selective impairment in force generation is called low-frequency fatigue (LFF and could be dependent on the contraction type. The purpose of this study was to compare LFF after concentric and eccentric maximal and submaximal contractions of knee extensor muscles. Ten healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 4.2 years; weight: 73.8 ± 7.7 kg; height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m executed maximal voluntary contractions that were measured before a fatigue test (pre-exercise, immediately after (after-exercise and after 1 h of recovery (after-recovery. The fatigue test consisted of 60 maximal (100% or submaximal (40% dynamic concentric or eccentric knee extensions at an angular velocity of 60°/s. The isometric torque produced by low- (20 Hz and high- (100 Hz frequency stimulation was also measured at these times and the 20:100 Hz ratio was calculated to assess LFF. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test was used to determine significant (P < 0.05 differences. LFF was evident after-recovery in all trials except following submaximal eccentric contractions. LFF was not evident after-exercise, regardless of exercise intensity or contraction type. Our results suggest that low-frequency fatigue was evident after submaximal concentric but not submaximal eccentric contractions and was more pronounced after 1-h of recovery.
Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis.
Iodice, Carmela; Balletta, Mario M; Minutolo, Roberto; Giannattasio, Paolo; Tuccillo, Stefano; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; D'Amora, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Giorgio; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca
2003-06-01
Elimination of residual proteinuria is the novel target in renoprotection; nevertheless, whether a greater suppression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) effectively improves the antiproteinuric response in patients with moderate proteinuria remains ill-defined. We evaluated the effects of maximizing RAS suppression on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria in ten patients with stable nonnephrotic proteinuria (2.55 +/- 0.94 g/24 hours) due to primary nonproliferative glomerulonephritis (NPGN), and normal values of creatinine clearance (103 +/- 17 mL/min). The study was divided in three consecutive phases: (1) four subsequent 1-month periods of ramipril at the dose of 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 mg/day; (2) 2 months of ramipril 20 mg/day + irbesartan 300 mg/day; and (3) 2 months of irbesartan 300 mg/day alone. Maximizing RAS suppression was not coupled with any major effect on renal function and blood pressure; conversely, a significant decrement in hemoglobin levels, of 0.8 g/dL on average, was observed during up-titration of ramipril dose. The 2.5 mg dose of ramipril significantly decreased proteinuria by 29%. Similar changes were detected after irbesartan alone (-28%). The antiproteinuric effect was not improved either by the higher ramipril doses (-30% after the 20 mg dose) or after combined treatment (-33%). The reduction of proteinuria led to amelioration of the markers of tubular damage, as testified by the significant decrement of alpha 1 microglobulin (alpha 1m) excretion and of the tubular component of proteinuria at sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In nonnephrotic NPGN patients, standard doses of either ramipril or irbesartan lead to significant reduction of residual proteinuria and amelioration of the qualitative features suggestive of tubular damage. The enhancement of RAS suppression up to the maximal degree does not improve the antiproteinuric response and is coupled with a decrement of hemoglobin levels.
Weak incidence algebra and maximal ring of quotients
Surjeet Singh
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Let X, X′ be two locally finite, preordered sets and let R be any indecomposable commutative ring. The incidence algebra I(X,R, in a sense, represents X, because of the well-known result that if the rings I(X,R and I(X′,R are isomorphic, then X and X′ are isomorphic. In this paper, we consider a preordered set X that need not be locally finite but has the property that each of its equivalence classes of equivalent elements is finite. Define I*(X,R to be the set of all those functions f:X×X→R such that f(x,y=0, whenever x⩽̸y and the set Sf of ordered pairs (x,y with x
Dopaminergic balance between reward maximization and policy complexity
Naama eParush
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Previous reinforcement-learning models of the basal ganglia network have highlighted the role of dopamine in encoding the mismatch between prediction and reality. Far less attention has been paid to the computational goals and algorithms of the main-axis (actor. Here, we construct a top-down model of the basal ganglia with emphasis on the role of dopamine as both a reinforcement learning signal and as a pseudo-temperature signal controlling the general level of basal ganglia excitability and motor vigilance of the acting agent. We argue that the basal ganglia endow the thalamic-cortical networks with the optimal dynamic tradeoff between two constraints: minimizing the policy complexity (cost and maximizing the expected future reward (gain. We show that this multi-dimensional optimization processes results in an experience-modulated version of the softmax behavioral policy. Thus, as in classical softmax behavioral policies, probability of actions are selected according to their estimated values and the pseudo-temperature, but in addition also vary according to the frequency of previous choices of these actions. We conclude that the computational goal of the basal ganglia is not to maximize cumulative (positive and negative reward. Rather, the basal ganglia aim at optimization of independent gain and cost functions. Unlike previously suggested single-variable maximization processes, this multi-dimensional optimization process leads naturally to a softmax-like behavioral policy. We suggest that beyond its role in the modulation of the efficacy of the cortico-striatal synapses, dopamine directly affects striatal excitability and thus provides a pseudo-temperature signal that modulates the trade-off between gain and cost. The resulting experience and dopamine modulated softmax policy can then serve as a theoretical framework to account for the broad range of behaviors and clinical states governed by the basal ganglia and dopamine systems.
Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers
J?rs, Erik; Gonz?les, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; dos Santos, Raquel A.; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; B?lum, Jesper; Lander, Flemming
2007-01-01
Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated wit...
Finding the Maximizers of the Information Divergence from an Exponential Family
Rauh, Johannes
2009-01-01
This paper investigates maximizers of the information divergence from an exponential family $E$. It is shown that the $rI$-projection of a maximizer $P$ to $E$ is a convex combination of $P$ and a probability measure $P_-$ with disjoint support and the same value of the sufficient statistics $A$. This observation can be used to transform the original problem of maximizing $D(\\cdot||E)$ over the set of all probability measures into the maximization of a function $\\Dbar$ over a convex subset of $\\ker A$. The global maximizers of both problems correspond to each other. Furthermore, finding all local maximizers of $\\Dbar$ yields all local maximizers of $D(\\cdot||E)$. This paper also proposes two algorithms to find the maximizers of $\\Dbar$ and applies them to two examples, where the maximizers of $D(\\cdot||E)$ were not known before.
Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology
Nielsen, Kjell
2014-01-01
Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.
Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia
Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Rådegran, G
2003-01-01
To unravel the mechanisms by which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is reduced with severe acute hypoxia in humans, nine Danish lowlanders performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion, while breathing room air (normoxia) or 10.5% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, approximately 5,300 m above sea...... level). With hypoxia, exercise PaO2 dropped to 31-34 mmHg and arterial O2 content (CaO2) was reduced by 35% (P ..., as reflected by the higher alveolar-arterial O2 difference in hypoxia (P stroke VOlume (P
Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four: Examples and Maximal Types
Ionel, Marianty
2009-01-01
Austere submanifolds in Euclidean space were introduced by Harvey and Lawson in connection with their study of calibrated geometries. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of 4-dimensional austere submanifolds were classified by Bryant, into three types which we label A, B, and C. In this paper, we show that type A submanifolds correspond exactly to real Kahler submanifolds, we construct new examples of such submanifolds in R^6 and R^10, and we obtain classification results on submanifolds of types B and C with maximal second fundamental forms.
Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Maximally Rotating Linear Dilaton Black Holes
Sakalli, I
2016-01-01
We investigate the wave dynamics of a charged massive scalar field propagating in a maximally rotating (extremal) linear dilaton black hole geometry. We prove the existence of a discrete and infinite family of resonances describing non-decaying (stationary) scalar configurations (clouds) enclosing these rapidly rotating black holes. The results obtained signal the potential stationary scalar field distributions (dark matter) around the extremal linear dilaton black holes. In particular, we analytically compute the effective height of those clouds above the center of the black hole.
Amplification of maximally-path-entangled number states
Agarwal, G. S.; Chaturvedi, S.; Rai, Amit
2010-04-01
We examine the behavior of a non-Gaussian state like the maximally path-entangled number state commonly known as a N00N state under phase-insensitive amplification. We derive an analytical result for the density matrix of the N00N state for arbitrary gain of the amplifier. We consider cases of both symmetric and antisymmetric amplification of the two modes of the N00N state. We quantitatively evaluate the loss of entanglement by the amplifier in terms of the logarithmic negativity parameter. We find that N00N states are more robust than their Gaussian counterparts.
Generation of maximally entangled states of qudits using twin photons
Neves, L; Gómez, J G A; Monken, C H; Saavedra, C; Pádua, S; Neves, Leonardo
2004-01-01
We report an experiment to generate maximally entangled states of D-dimensional quantum systems, qudits, by using transverse spatial correlations of two parametric down-converted photons. Apertures with D-slits in the arms of the twin fotons define the qudit space. By manipulating the pump beam correctly the twin photons will pass only by symmetrically opposite slits, generating entangled states between these differents paths. Experimental results for qudits with D=4 and D=8 are shown. We demonstrate that the generated states are entangled states.
Image fusion based on expectation maximization algorithm and steerable pyramid
Gang Liu(刘刚); Zhongliang Jing(敬忠良); Shaoyuan Sun(孙韶媛); Jianxun Li(李建勋); Zhenhua Li(李振华); Henry Leung
2004-01-01
In this paper, a novel image fusion method based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and steerable pyramid is proposed. The registered images are first decomposed by using steerable pyramid.The EM algorithm is used to fuse the image components in the low frequency band. The selection method involving the informative importance measure is applied to those in the high frequency band. The final fused image is then computed by taking the inverse transform on the composite coefficient representations.Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms conventional image fusion methods.
AN ENDPOINT ESTIMATE FOR MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
无
2007-01-01
A weak type endpoint estimate for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator T*Af(x)=supε＞0|(f)(x-y)＞ε (Ω(x-y)/(|x-y|(n+1)))(A(x)-A(y)-▽A(y)(x-y))f(y)dy| is established, where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one, and A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). A regularity condition on Ω which implies an LlogL type estimate of T*A is given.
A new solution for maximal clique problem based sticker model.
Darehmiraki, Majid
2009-02-01
In this paper, we use stickers to construct a solution space of DNA for the maximal clique problem (MCP). Simultaneously, we also apply the DNA operation in the sticker-based model to develop a DNA algorithm. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the MCP is resolved with biological operations in the sticker-based model for the solution space of the sticker. Moreover, this work presents clear evidence of the ability of DNA computing to solve the NP-complete problem. The potential of DNA computing for the MCP is promising given the operational time complexity of O(nxk).
Alzheimer's disease care management plan: maximizing patient care.
Treinkman, Anna
2005-03-01
Nurse practitioners have the potential to significantly impact the care of patients with dementia. Healthcare providers can now offer patients medications that will control symptoms and prolong functioning. As a result of ongoing contact with patients, NPs play an important role in assessing and screening patients for AD and educating the patients, families, and caregivers about the disease. Alzheimer's disease is a chronic, progressive illness that requires long-term management. Nurse practitioners should be familiar with available medications and appreciate the need to individualize therapy to maximize efficacy and minimize potential adverse drug reactions.
About non-maximality of the action functional
W. Freire
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this work first we review some cases where the action exhibits a minimal or a saddle-point criticality for velocity-independent potentials (V(x, t and maximum when the potential is velocity-dependent (V(x,ẋ,t. In the following we will use the functional (“directional” derivative of second order to present a mathematically rigorous proof of the non-maximality of the classical functional action for potentials V(x, t velocity-independent.
Remote State Preparation via a Non-Maximally Entangled Channel
郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We investigate remote state preparation (RSP) via a non-maximally entangled channel for three cases: a general qubit; a special ensemble of qubits (qubit states on the equator of the Bloch sphere); and an asymptotic limit of N copies ofa general state. The results show that the classical communication cost of RSP for the two latter cases can be less than that of teleportation, but for the first case, in a restricted setting, the classical communication cost is equal to that of teleportation. Whether or not this is the case for a more general setting is still an open question.
Maximizing residual capacity in connection-oriented networks
Krzysztof Walkowiak
2006-07-01
Full Text Available The following problem arises in the study of survivable connection-oriented networks. Given a demand matrix to be routed between nodes, we want to route all demands, so that the residual capacity given by the difference between link capacity and link flow is maximized. Each demand can use only one path. Therefore, the flow is modeled as nonbifurcated multicommodity flow. We call the considered problem nonbifurcated congestion (NBC problem. Solving NBC problem enables robust restoration of failed connections in a case of network failure. We propose a new heuristic algorithm for NBC problem and compare its performance with existing algorithms.
Gribov ambiguities at the Landau -- maximal Abelian interpolating gauge
Pereira, A D
2014-01-01
In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived.
Synthetic-aperture radar autofocus by maximizing sharpness.
Fienup, J R
2000-02-15
To focus a synthetic-aperture radar image that is suffering from phase errors, a phase-error estimate is found that, when it is applied, maximizes the sharpness of the image. Closed-form expressions are derived for the gradients of a sharpness metric with respect to phase-error parameters, including both a point-by-point (nonparametric) phase function and coefficients of a polynomial expansion. Use of these expressions allows for a highly efficient gradient-search algorithm for high-order phase errors. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with an example.
Light Meson Physics from Maximally Twisted Mass Lattice QCD
Baron, R; Dimopoulos, P; Farchioni, F; Frezzotti, R; Gimenez, V; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Lubicz, V; Michael, C; Muenster, G; Palao, D; Rossi, G C; Scorzato, L; Shindler, A; Simula, S; Sudmann, T; Urbach, C; Wenger, U
2009-01-01
We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for two mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 MeV to 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision.