WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximally entangled mixed

  1. Maximally entangled mixed states of two atoms trapped inside an optical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shangbin; Xu Jingbo

    2009-01-01

    In some off-resonant cases, the reduced density matrix of two atoms symmetrically coupled with an optical cavity can very approximately approach maximally entangled mixed states or maximal Bell violation mixed states in their evolution. The influence of a phase decoherence on the generation of a maximally entangled mixed state is also discussed

  2. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  3. Parametric source of two-photon states with a tunable degree of entanglement and mixing: Experimental preparation of Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinelli, C.; Di Nepi, G.; De Martini, F.; Barbieri, M.; Mataloni, P.

    2004-01-01

    A parametric source of polarization-entangled photon pairs with striking spatial characteristics is reported. The distribution of the output electromagnetic k modes excited by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to the output detectors can be very broad. Using these states realized over a full entanglement ring output distribution, the nonlocal properties of the generated entanglement have been tested by standard Bell measurements and by Ou-Mandel interferometry. A 'mode-patchwork' technique based on the quantum superposition principle is adopted to synthesize in a straightforward and reliable way any kind of mixed state, of large conceptual and technological interest in modern quantum information. Tunable Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states have indeed been created by this technique and investigated by quantum tomography. A study of the entropic and nonlocal properties of these states has been undertaken experimentally and theoretically, by a unifying variational approach

  4. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  5. Generation of maximally entangled mixed states of two atoms via on-resonance asymmetric atom-cavity couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shang-Bin

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for generating the maximally entangled mixed state of two atoms on-resonance asymmetrically coupled to a single mode optical cavity field is presented. The part frontier of both maximally entangled mixed states and maximal Bell violating mixed states can be approximately reached by the evolving reduced density matrix of two atoms if the ratio of coupling strengths of two atoms is appropriately controlled. It is also shown that exchange symmetry of global maximal concurrence is broken if and only if coupling strength ratio lies between (√(3)/3) and √(3) for the case of one-particle excitation and asymmetric coupling, while this partial symmetry breaking cannot be verified by detecting maximal Bell violation

  6. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  7. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  8. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  9. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  10. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  11. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  12. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  13. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  14. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  15. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  16. Quantum dialogue using non-maximally entangled states based on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yan; Song Jie; Song Heshan

    2007-01-01

    We present a secure quantum dialogue protocol using non-maximally entangled two-particle states via entanglement swapping at first, and then discuss the requirements for a real quantum dialogue. Within the present version two authorized users can exchange their faithful secret messages securely and simultaneously based on the method of entanglement purification

  17. On the maximal dimension of a completely entangled subspace for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    dim S = d1d2 ...dk − (d1 +···+ dk) + k − 1, where E is the collection of all completely entangled subspaces. When H1 = H2 and k = 2 an explicit orthonormal basis of a maximal completely entangled subspace of H1 ⊗ H2 is given. We also introduce a more delicate notion of a perfectly entangled subspace for a multipartite ...

  18. Hard-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamidas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present, for the first time, a Hardy-type proof of nonlocality for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional total Hilbert space. Furthermore, the violation of local realistic predictions occurs for 25 % of trials, exceeding the 9 % maximum obtained by Hardy for nonmaximally entangled states. (author)

  19. Bounds on absolutely maximally entangled states from shadow inequalities, and the quantum MacWilliams identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Felix; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens; Gühne, Otfried

    2018-04-01

    A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. Maximal entanglement is then present across every bipartition. The existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correction and the shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in dimensions larger than two. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation. Finally, we consider AME states whose subsystems have different local dimensions, and present an example for a 2×3×3×3 system that shows maximal entanglement across every bipartition.

  20. On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.

  1. On entanglement in neutrino mixing and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2010-06-01

    We report on recent results about entanglement in the context of particle mixing and oscillations. We study in detail single-particle entanglement arising in two-flavor neutrino mixing. The analysis is performed first in the context of Quantum Mechanics, and then for the case of Quantum Field Theory.

  2. Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.

  3. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  4. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  5. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-10-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  6. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  7. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. A tri-atom W state can be generated by adjusting the interaction times between ...

  8. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  9. Maximal entanglement of two spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Starting with two weakly-coupled anti-ferromagnetic spinor condensates, we show that by changing the sign of the coefficient of the spin interaction, $U_{2}$, via an optically-induced Feshbach resonance one can create an entangled state consisting of two anti-correlated ferromagnetic condensates. This state is maximally entangled and a generalization of the Bell state from two anti-correlated spin-1/2 particles to two anti-correlated spin$-N/2$ atomic samples, where $N$ is the total number of...

  10. Mutually Unbiased Maximally Entangled Bases for the Bipartite System Cd⊗ C^{dk}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hua; Tao, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Tian-Jiao; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The construction of maximally entangled bases for the bipartite system Cd⊗ Cd is discussed firstly, and some mutually unbiased bases with maximally entangled bases are given, where 2≤ d≤5. Moreover, we study a systematic way of constructing mutually unbiased maximally entangled bases for the bipartite system Cd⊗ C^{dk}.

  11. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-01-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  12. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  13. Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, 78216 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Garcia, M E [Theoretische Physik, FB 18, Universitaet Kassel and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Str.40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2009-08-07

    In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.

  14. Maximal overlap with a fully separable state and translational invariance for multipartite entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H. T.; Yuan Di; Tian, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The maximal overlap with the fully separable state for the multipartite entangled pure state with translational invariance is studied explicitly by some exact and numerical evaluations, focusing on the one-dimensional qubit system and some representative types of translational invariance. The results show that the translational invariance of the multipartite state could have an intrinsic effect on the determination of the maximal overlap and the nearest fully separable state for multipartite entangled states. Furthermore, a hierarchy of the basic entangled states with translational invariance is found, from which one could readily find the maximal overlap and a related fully separable state for the multipartite state composed of different translational invariance structures.

  15. Strong monotonicity in mixed-state entanglement manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    A strong entanglement monotone, which never increases under local operations and classical communications (LOCC), restricts quantum entanglement manipulation more strongly than the usual monotone since the usual one does not increase on average under LOCC. We propose strong monotones in mixed-state entanglement manipulation under LOCC. These are related to the decomposability and one-positivity of an operator constructed from a quantum state, and reveal geometrical characteristics of entangled states. These are lower bounded by the negativity or generalized robustness of entanglement

  16. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ministry of Education, School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei ... MS received 9 October 2014; revised 10 January 2015; accepted 22 April 2015 ... in some sense, be regarded as an entanglement concentration process.

  17. Teleportation of Quantum States through Mixed Entangled Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2006-01-01

    @@ We describe a protocol for quantum state teleportation via mixed entangled pairs. With the help of an ancilla,near-perfect teleportation might be achieved. For pure entangled pairs, perfect teleportation might be achieved with a certain probability without using an ancilla. The protocol is generalized to teleportation of multiparticle states and quantum secret sharing.

  18. Entanglement in Quantum Field Theory: particle mixing and oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M; Dell'Anno, F; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F

    2013-01-01

    The phenomena of particle mixing and flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are associated with multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that, in the framework of quantum field theory, these phenomena exhibit a fine structure of quantum correlations, as multi-mode multi-particle entanglement appears. Indeed, the presence of anti-particles adds further degrees of freedom, thus providing nontrivial contributions both to flavor entanglement and, more generally, to multi-partite entanglement. By using the global entanglement measure, based on the linear entropies associated with all the possible bipartitions, we analyze the entanglement in the multiparticle states of two-flavor neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. A direct comparison with the instance of the quantum mechanical Pontecorvo single-particle states is also performed.

  19. Entanglement near the optical instability point in damped four wave mixing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiangga, S.; Temnuch, W.; Frank, T. D.

    2018-06-01

    Entanglement of electromagnetic field modes of signal and idler photons generated by four-wave mixing (FWM) devices is a quantum phenomenon that has been examined in various experimental and theoretical studies. The focus of this theoretical study is on two aspects of this phenomenon: the emergence of signal and idler photons due to an optical instability and the entanglement of the signal and idler modes above the instability threshold. For simple FWM devices that are subjected to damping it is shown that the signal and idler modes are entangled close to the point of optical instability at which the signal and idler photons emerges. The degree of entanglement as measured by a particular entanglement function proposed earlier in the literature assumes at the point of optical instability a unique value that is independent of the model parameters of the devices. The value is slightly higher than the value reported in a FWM experiment by Boyer et al (2008 Science 321 544). Numerical simulations suggest that the aforementioned entanglement function is U-shaped such that the degree of entanglement at the instability point is the maximal possible one and represents the optimal value. A similar U-shaped pattern was observed in an FWM experiment conducted by Lawrie et al (2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 151107). Our semi-analytical findings are derived within the framework of the positive P representation of quantum optical processes and are compared with the aforementioned experimental observations by Boyer et al and Lawrie et al.

  20. Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses

  1. Energy localization in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashaev, Oktay K; Gurkan, Zeynep N

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the Möbius transformation for symmetric points under the generalized circle in the complex plane, the system of symmetric spin coherent states corresponding to antipodal qubit states is introduced. In terms of these states, we construct the maximally entangled complete set of two-qubit coherent states, which in the limiting cases reduces to the Bell basis. A specific property of our symmetric coherent states is that they never become unentangled for any value of ψ from the complex plane. Entanglement quantifications of our states are given by the reduced density matrix and the concurrence determinant, and it is shown that our basis is maximally entangled. Universal one- and two-qubit gates in these new coherent state basis are calculated. As an application, we find the Q symbol of the XY Z model Hamiltonian operator H as an average energy function in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space. It shows regular finite-energy localized structure with specific local extremum points. The concurrence and fidelity of quantum evolution with dimerization of double periodic patterns are given. (paper)

  2. Teleportation of an unknown bipartite state via non-maximally entangled two-particle state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Hai-Jing; Guo Yan-Qing; Song He-Shan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a new scheme for teleporting an unknown entangled state of two particles is proposed. To weaken the requirement for the quantum channel, without loss of generality, two communicators only share a non-maximally entangled two-particle state. Teleportation can be probabilistically realized if sender performs Bell-state measurements and Hadamard transformation and receiver introduces two auxiliary particles, operates G-not operation, single-qubit measurements and appropriate unitary transformations. The probability of successful teleportation is determined by the smaller one among the coefficients' absolute values of the quantum channel.

  3. Analysis of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states for bell inequality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Smirr, J.-L.; Kaiser, F.; Diamanti, E.; Issautier, A.; Alibart, O.; Frey, R.; Zaquine, I.; Tanzilli, S.

    2012-06-01

    When elliptically polarized maximally entangled states are considered, i.e., states having a non random phase factor between the two bipartite polarization components, the standard settings used for optimal violation of Bell inequalities are no longer adapted. One way to retrieve the maximal amount of violation is to compensate for this phase while keeping the standard Bell inequality analysis settings. We propose in this paper a general theoretical approach that allows determining and adjusting the phase of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states in order to optimize the violation of Bell inequalities. The formalism is also applied to several suggested experimental phase compensation schemes. In order to emphasize the simplicity and relevance of our approach, we also describe an experimental implementation using a standard Soleil-Babinet phase compensator. This device is employed to correct the phase that appears in the maximally entangled state generated from a type-II nonlinear photon-pair source after the photons are created and distributed over fiber channels.

  4. Quantum circuit implementation of the optimal information-disturbance tradeoff of maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang ShengLi; Zou Xubo; Li Ke; Jin Chenhui; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    We give a direct derivation for the information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a maximally entangled state, which was first obtained by Sacchi (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 220502) in terms of the covariant positive operator valued measurement (POVM) and Jamiolkowski's isomorphism. We find that, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which is one of the most powerful tools in deriving the tradeoff for a single-particle pure state still plays a key role in the case of the maximal entanglement estimation. Our result shows that the inequality becomes equality when the optimal tradeoff is achieved. Moreover, we demonstrate that such a tradeoff is physically achievable with a quantum circuit that only involves single- and two-particle logic gates and single-particle measurements

  5. Practical single-photon-assisted remote state preparation with non-maximally entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    Remote state preparation (RSP) and joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocols for single-photon states are investigated via linear optical elements with partially entangled states. In our scheme, by choosing two-mode instances from a polarizing beam splitter, only the sender in the communication protocol needs to prepare an ancillary single-photon and operate the entanglement preparation process in order to retrieve an arbitrary single-photon state from a photon pair in partially entangled state. In the case of JRSP, i.e., a canonical model of RSP with multi-party, we consider that the information of the desired state is split into many subsets and in prior maintained by spatially separate parties. Specifically, with the assistance of a single-photon state and a three-photon entangled state, it turns out that an arbitrary single-photon state can be jointly and remotely prepared with certain probability, which is characterized by the coefficients of both the employed entangled state and the target state. Remarkably, our protocol is readily to extend to the case for RSP and JRSP of mixed states with the all optical means. Therefore, our protocol is promising for communicating among optics-based multi-node quantum networks.

  6. Loss-induced limits to phase measurement precision with maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Mark A.; Kaushik, Sumanth

    2007-01-01

    The presence of loss limits the precision of an approach to phase measurement using maximally entangled states, also referred to as NOON states. A calculation using a simple beam-splitter model of loss shows that, for all nonzero values L of the loss, phase measurement precision degrades with increasing number N of entangled photons for N sufficiently large. For L above a critical value of approximately 0.785, phase measurement precision degrades with increasing N for all values of N. For L near zero, phase measurement precision improves with increasing N down to a limiting precision of approximately 1.018L radians, attained at N approximately equal to 2.218/L, and degrades as N increases beyond this value. Phase measurement precision with multiple measurements and a fixed total number of photons N T is also examined. For L above a critical value of approximately 0.586, the ratio of phase measurement precision attainable with NOON states to that attainable by conventional methods using unentangled coherent states degrades with increasing N, the number of entangled photons employed in a single measurement, for all values of N. For L near zero this ratio is optimized by using approximately N=1.279/L entangled photons in each measurement, yielding a precision of approximately 1.340√(L/N T ) radians

  7. Natural maximal νμ-ντ mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1999-01-01

    The naturalness of maximal mixing between myon- and tau-neutrinos is investigated. A spontaneously broken nonabelian generation symmetry can explain a small parameter which governs the deviation from maximal mixing. In many cases all three neutrino masses are almost degenerate. Maximal ν μ -ν τ -mixing suggests that the leading contribution to the light neutrino masses arises from the expectation value of a heavy weak triplet rather than from the seesaw mechanism. In this scenario the deviation from maximal mixing is predicted to be less than about 1%. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  9. Thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a Heisenberg chain through a Werner state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Li-Yuan; Fang Mao-Fa

    2008-01-01

    The thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXX chain under the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction through a noisy quantum channel given by a Werner state is investigated. The dependences of the thermal entanglement of the teleported state on the DM coupling constant, the temperature and the entanglement of the noisy quantum channel are studied in detail for both the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic cases. The result shows that a minimum entanglement of the noisy quantum channel must be provided in order to realize the entanglement teleportation. The values of fidelity of the teleported state are also studied for these two cases. It is found that under certain conditions, we can transfer an initial state with a better fidelity than that for any classical communication protocol.

  10. Parametric conversion and maximally entangled photon pair via collective excitations in a cycle atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Yu, R.; Yang, X.

    2008-01-01

    We study the propagation of two quantized optical fields via considering the collective effects of photonic emissions and excitations of a three-level cyclic-type system (such as atomic ensemble with symmetry broken, or the chiral molecular gases, or manual 'atomic' array with symmetry broken), where the quantum transitions is driven by two quantized fields and a classical one. The results show that the parametric conversion and maximally entangled photon pair generation can be achieved by means of the collective excitation of the two upper energy levels induced by the classic optical field. This investigation may be used for the generated coherent short-wavelength quantum radiation and quantum information processing

  11. Revivals and entanglement from initially entangled mixed states of a damped Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, R.W.; Rajagopal, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    An exact density matrix of a phase-damped Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with entangled Bell-like initial states formed from a model two-state atom and sets of adjacent photon number states of a single-mode radiation field is presented. The entanglement of the initial states and the subsequent time evolution is assured by finding a positive lower bound on the concurrence of local 2x2 projections of the full 2x∞ JCM density matrix. It is found that the time evolution of the lower bound of the concurrence systematically captures the corresponding collapse and revival features in atomic inversion, relative entropies of atomic and radiation, mutual entropy, and quantum deficit. The atom and radiation subsystems exhibit alternating sets of collapses and revivals in a complementary fashion due to the initially mixed states of the atom and radiation employed here. This is in contrast with the result obtained when the initial state of the dissipationless system is a factored pure state of the atom and radiation, where the atomic and radiation entropies are necessarily the same. The magnitudes of the entanglement lower bound and the atomic and radiation revivals become larger as both the magnitude and phase of the Bell-like initial state contribution increase. The time evolution of the entropy difference of the total system and that of the radiation subsystem exhibit negative regions called 'supercorrelated' states which do not appear in the atomic subsystem. Entangled initial states are found to enhance this supercorrelated feature. Finally, the effect of phase damping is to randomize both the subsystems for asymptotically long times. It may be feasible to experimentally investigate the results presented here using the Rabi oscillation methods of microwave and optical cavity quantum electrodynamics since pure photon number states have recently been produced and observed

  12. Remote entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides

  13. No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, P. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Scott, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.

  14. Softly Broken Lepton Numbers: an Approach to Maximal Neutrino Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss models where the U(1) symmetries of lepton numbers are responsible for maximal neutrino mixing. We pay particular attention to an extension of the Standard Model (SM) with three right-handed neutrino singlets in which we require that the three lepton numbers L e , L μ , and L τ be separately conserved in the Yukawa couplings, but assume that they are softly broken by the Majorana mass matrix M R of the neutrino singlets. In this framework, where lepton-number breaking occurs at a scale much higher than the electroweak scale, deviations from family lepton number conservation are calculable, i.e., finite, and lepton mixing stems exclusively from M R . We show that in this framework either maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing or maximal solar neutrino mixing or both can be imposed by invoking symmetries. In this way those maximal mixings are stable against radiative corrections. The model which achieves maximal (or nearly maximal) solar neutrino mixing assumes that there are two different scales in M R and that the lepton number (dash)L=L e -L μ -L τ 1 is conserved in between them. We work out the difference between this model and the conventional scenario where (approximate) (dash)L invariance is imposed directly on the mass matrix of the light neutrinos. (author)

  15. Impossibility criterion for obtaining pure entangled states from mixed states by purifying protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Liang Linmei; Li Chengzu; Huang Mingqiu

    2002-01-01

    Purifying noisy entanglement is a protocol that can increase the entanglement of a mixed state (as a source) at the expense of the entanglement of others (such as an ancilla) by collective measurement. A protocol with which one can get a pure entangled state from a mixed state is defined as purifying mixed states. We address a basic question: can one get a pure entangled state from a mixed state? We give a necessary and sufficient condition of purifying a mixed state by fit local operations and classical communication and show that for a class of source states and ancilla states in arbitrary bipartite systems purifying mixed states is impossible by finite rounds of purifying protocols. For 2x2 systems, it is proved that arbitrary states cannot be purified by individual measurement. The possible application and meaning of the conclusion are discussed

  16. Recovery of maximally entangled quantum states by weak-measurement reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Yusef; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.

    2018-05-01

    Maximal quantum entanglement provided by N00N states is a unique resource in the quest for the ultimate precision in physical measurements. Such states, however, are fragile and prone to decoherence. Even in weak-measurement schemes, as we demonstrate in this work, the phase super-resolution provided by N00N states is achieved at a cost of an N-fold enhancement of amplitude damping. Still, as the analysis presented here shows, a partial collapse of N00N states induced by weak measurements can be reversed, despite the dramatic, N-fold enhancement of amplitude damping, through appropriate reversal operations on the post-measurement state, enabling a full restoration of the Heisenberg-limit phase super-resolution of N00N states.

  17. General linear-optical quantum state generation scheme: Applications to maximally path-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanMeter, N. M.; Lougovski, P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Uskov, D. B.; Kieling, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce schemes for linear-optical quantum state generation. A quantum state generator is a device that prepares a desired quantum state using product inputs from photon sources, linear-optical networks, and postselection using photon counters. We show that this device can be concisely described in terms of polynomial equations and unitary constraints. We illustrate the power of this language by applying the Groebner-basis technique along with the notion of vacuum extensions to solve the problem of how to construct a quantum state generator analytically for any desired state, and use methods of convex optimization to identify bounds to success probabilities. In particular, we disprove a conjecture concerning the preparation of the maximally path-entangled |n,0>+|0,n> (NOON) state by providing a counterexample using these methods, and we derive a new upper bound on the resources required for NOON-state generation

  18. Two local observables are sufficient to characterize maximally entangled states of N qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting; Chitambar, Eric

    2011-02-01

    Maximally entangled states (MES) represent a valuable resource in quantum information processing. In N-qubit systems the MES are N-GHZ states [i.e., the collection of |GHZN>=(1)/(2)(|00…0>+|11…1>)] and its local unitary (LU) equivalences. While it is well known that such states are uniquely stabilized by N commuting observables, in this article we consider the minimum number of noncommuting observables needed to characterize an N-qubit MES as the unique common eigenstate. Here, we prove, rather surprisingly, that in this general case any N-GHZ state can be uniquely stabilized by only two observables. Thus, for the task of MES certification, only two correlated measurements are required with each party observing the spin of his or her system along one of two directions.

  19. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita

    2012-05-01

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  20. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2012-05-15

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  1. Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, F; Malkoc, O; Samuelsson, P

    2017-01-20

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.

  2. Minimal Entanglement Witness from Electrical Current Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and noncollinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be detected with only two measurements, except the maximally entangled states, which require three. Moreover, detector settings for optimal entanglement witnessing are presented.

  3. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  4. Searching for highly entangled multi-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Iain D K; Stepney, Susan; Sudbery, Anthony; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple numerical optimization procedure to search for highly entangled states of 2, 3, 4 and 5 qubits. We develop a computationally tractable entanglement measure based on the negative partial transpose criterion, which can be applied to quantum systems of an arbitrary number of qubits. The search algorithm attempts to optimize this entanglement cost function to find the maximal entanglement in a quantum system. We present highly entangled 4-qubit and 5-qubit states discovered by this search. We show that the 4-qubit state is not quite as entangled, according to two separate measures, as the conjectured maximally entangled Higuchi-Sudbery state. Using this measure, these states are more highly entangled than the 4-qubit and 5-qubit GHZ states. We also present a conjecture about the NPT measure, inspired by some of our numerical results, that the single-qubit reduced states of maximally entangled states are all totally mixed

  5. Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaryan, Sayatnova, E-mail: sayat@mail.yerphi.am [Department of Theoretical Physics, A. Alikhanyan National Laboratory, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2011-06-06

    Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.

  6. Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaryan, Sayatnova

    2011-01-01

    Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.

  7. Entanglement of mixed quantum states for qubits and qudit in double photoionization of atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, M., E-mail: bminakshi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Asansol Girls’ College, Asansol 713304 (India); Sen, S. [Department of Physics, Triveni Devi Bhalotia College, Raniganj 713347 (India)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study tripartite entanglement between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. • We study bipartite entanglement between any two subsystems of a tripartite system. • We have presented a quantitative application of entangled properties in Neon atom. - Abstract: Quantum entanglement and its paradoxical properties are genuine physical resources for various quantum information tasks like quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computer technology. The physical characteristic of the entanglement of quantum-mechanical states, both for pure and mixed, has been recognized as a central resource in various aspects of quantum information processing. In this article, we study the bipartite entanglement of one electronic qubit along with the ionic qudit and also entanglement between two electronic qubits. The tripartite entanglement properties also have been investigated between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. All these studies have been done for the single-step double photoionization from an atom following the absorption of a single photon without observing spin orbit interaction. The dimension of the Hilbert space of the qudit depends upon the electronic state of the residual photoion A{sup 2+}. In absence of SOI, when Russell–Saunders coupling (L–S coupling) is applicable, dimension of the qudit is equal to the spin multiplicity of A{sup 2+}. For estimations of entanglement and mixedness, we consider the Peres–Horodecki condition, concurrence, entanglement of formation, negativity, linear and von Neumann entropies. In case of L–S coupling, all the properties of a qubit–qudit system can be predicted merely with the knowledge of the spins of the target atom and the residual photoion.

  8. Distillable entanglement in d circle times d dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, S; Zaraket, H

    2003-01-01

    Distillable entanglement (E-d) is one of the acceptable measures of entanglement of mixed states. On the basis of discrimination through local operation and classical communication, this letter gives E-d for two classes of orthogonal multipartite maximally entangled states.

  9. Non-Maximal Tripartite Entanglement Degradation of Dirac and Scalar Fields in Non-Inertial Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Salman; Khan, Niaz Ali; Khan, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The π-tangle is used to study the behavior of entanglement of a nonmaximal tripartite state of both Dirac and scalar fields in accelerated frame. For Dirac fields, the degree of degradation with acceleration of both one-tangle of accelerated observer and π-tangle, for the same initial entanglement, is different by just interchanging the values of probability amplitudes. A fraction of both one-tangles and the π-tangle always survives for any choice of acceleration and the degree of initial entanglement. For scalar field, the one-tangle of accelerated observer depends on the choice of values of probability amplitudes and it vanishes in the range of infinite acceleration, whereas for π-tangle this is not always true. The dependence of π-tangle on probability amplitudes varies with acceleration. In the lower range of acceleration, its behavior changes by switching between the values of probability amplitudes and for larger values of acceleration this dependence on probability amplitudes vanishes. Interestingly, unlike bipartite entanglement, the degradation of π-tangle against acceleration in the case of scalar fields is slower than for Dirac fields. (general)

  10. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-01-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion

  11. A New Quantum Proxy Multi-signature Scheme Using Maximally Entangled Seven-Qubit States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Liu, Jian; Li, Zeng-You

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum proxy multi-signature scheme using seven-qubit entangled quantum state as quantum channels, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. This scheme is based on controlled quantum teleportation. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability.

  12. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  13. Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobek, K; Banaszek, K; Karpiński, M; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R; Horodecki, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental scheme based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple-photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons we prepare mixed-entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy. (paper)

  14. Generation of bright quadricolor continuous-variable entanglement by four-wave-mixing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y. B.; Sheng, J. T.; Xiao, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to produce bright quadricolor continuous-variable (CV) entanglement by a four-wave mixing process (FWM) with four-level atoms inside the optical ring cavities operating above threshold. The Stokes and anti-Stokes beams are generated via the pump beam (tuned close to one atomic transition) and the coupling beam (tuned to the resonance of another atomic transition), respectively. The quadruply resonant and narrowed linewidth of the cavity fields with different frequencies are achieved and quadricolor CV entanglement among the four cavity fields is demonstrated according to the criterion proposed by van Loock and Furusawa [Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003)]. This scheme provides a way to generate bright quadricolor CV entanglement and will be significant for applications in quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  15. Error exponents for entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Koashi, Masato; Matsumoto, Keiji; Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Consider entanglement concentration schemes that convert n identical copies of a pure state into a maximally entangled state of a desired size with success probability being close to one in the asymptotic limit. We give the distillable entanglement, the number of Bell pairs distilled per copy, as a function of an error exponent, which represents the rate of decrease in failure probability as n tends to infinity. The formula fills the gap between the least upper bound of distillable entanglement in probabilistic concentration, which is the well-known entropy of entanglement, and the maximum attained in deterministic concentration. The method of types in information theory enables the detailed analysis of the distillable entanglement in terms of the error rate. In addition to the probabilistic argument, we consider another type of entanglement concentration scheme, where the initial state is deterministically transformed into a (possibly mixed) final state whose fidelity to a maximally entangled state of a desired size converges to one in the asymptotic limit. We show that the same formula as in the probabilistic argument is valid for the argument on fidelity by replacing the success probability with the fidelity. Furthermore, we also discuss entanglement yield when optimal success probability or optimal fidelity converges to zero in the asymptotic limit (strong converse), and give the explicit formulae for those cases

  16. Benchmarks and statistics of entanglement dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiersch, Markus

    2009-01-01

    In the present thesis we investigate how the quantum entanglement of multicomponent systems evolves under realistic conditions. More specifically, we focus on open quantum systems coupled to the (uncontrolled) degrees of freedom of an environment. We identify key quantities that describe the entanglement dynamics, and provide efficient tools for its calculation. For quantum systems of high dimension, entanglement dynamics can be characterized with high precision. In the first part of this work, we derive evolution equations for entanglement. These formulas determine the entanglement after a given time in terms of a product of two distinct quantities: the initial amount of entanglement and a factor that merely contains the parameters that characterize the dynamics. The latter is given by the entanglement evolution of an initially maximally entangled state. A maximally entangled state thus benchmarks the dynamics, and hence allows for the immediate calculation or - under more general conditions - estimation of the change in entanglement. Thereafter, a statistical analysis supports that the derived (in-)equalities describe the entanglement dynamics of the majority of weakly mixed and thus experimentally highly relevant states with high precision. The second part of this work approaches entanglement dynamics from a topological perspective. This allows for a quantitative description with a minimum amount of assumptions about Hilbert space (sub-)structure and environment coupling. In particular, we investigate the limit of increasing system size and density of states, i.e. the macroscopic limit. In this limit, a universal behaviour of entanglement emerges following a ''reference trajectory'', similar to the central role of the entanglement dynamics of a maximally entangled state found in the first part of the present work. (orig.)

  17. Benchmarks and statistics of entanglement dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiersch, Markus

    2009-09-04

    In the present thesis we investigate how the quantum entanglement of multicomponent systems evolves under realistic conditions. More specifically, we focus on open quantum systems coupled to the (uncontrolled) degrees of freedom of an environment. We identify key quantities that describe the entanglement dynamics, and provide efficient tools for its calculation. For quantum systems of high dimension, entanglement dynamics can be characterized with high precision. In the first part of this work, we derive evolution equations for entanglement. These formulas determine the entanglement after a given time in terms of a product of two distinct quantities: the initial amount of entanglement and a factor that merely contains the parameters that characterize the dynamics. The latter is given by the entanglement evolution of an initially maximally entangled state. A maximally entangled state thus benchmarks the dynamics, and hence allows for the immediate calculation or - under more general conditions - estimation of the change in entanglement. Thereafter, a statistical analysis supports that the derived (in-)equalities describe the entanglement dynamics of the majority of weakly mixed and thus experimentally highly relevant states with high precision. The second part of this work approaches entanglement dynamics from a topological perspective. This allows for a quantitative description with a minimum amount of assumptions about Hilbert space (sub-)structure and environment coupling. In particular, we investigate the limit of increasing system size and density of states, i.e. the macroscopic limit. In this limit, a universal behaviour of entanglement emerges following a ''reference trajectory'', similar to the central role of the entanglement dynamics of a maximally entangled state found in the first part of the present work. (orig.)

  18. Symmetric mixed states of n qubits: Local unitary stabilizers and entanglement classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, David W.; Walck, Scott N. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We classify, up to local unitary equivalence, local unitary stabilizer Lie algebras for symmetric mixed states of n qubits into six classes. These include the stabilizer types of the Werner states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and its generalizations, and Dicke states. For all but the zero algebra, we classify entanglement types (local unitary equivalence classes) of symmetric mixed states that have those stabilizers. We make use of the identification of symmetric density matrices with polynomials in three variables with real coefficients and apply the representation theory of SO(3) on this space of polynomials.

  19. Probabilistic Controlled Teleportation of a Triplet W State with Combined Channel of Non-Maximally Entangled Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Dong; Jian-Fu, Teng

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for probabilistic controlled teleportation of a triplet W state using combined non-maximally entangled channel of two Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) states and one Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state is proposed. In this scheme, an (m + 2)-qubit GHZ state serves not only as the control parameter but also as the quantum channel. The m control qubits are shared by m supervisors. With the aid of local operations and individual measurements, including Bell-state measurement, Von Neumann measurement, and mutual classical communication etc., Bob can faithfully reconstruct the original state by performing relevant unitary transformations. The total probability of successful teleportation is only dependent on channel coefficients of EPR states and GHZ, independent of the number of supervisor m. This protocol can also be extended to probabilistic controlled teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit state using combined non-maximally entangled channel of N – 1 EPR states and one (m + 2)-qubit GHZ. (general)

  20. Neutrino tri-bi-maximal mixing from a non-Abelian discrete family symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Varzielas, I M; Ross, Graham G

    2007-01-01

    The observed neutrino mixing, having a near maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle and a large solar mixing angle, is close to tri-bi-maximal. We argue that this structure suggests a family symmetric origin in which the magnitude of the mixing angles are related to the existence of a discrete non-Abelian family symmetry. We construct a model in which the family symmetry is the non-Abelian discrete group $\\Delta(27)$, a subgroup of $SU(3)$ in which the tri-bi-maximal mixing directly follows from the vacuum structure enforced by the discrete symmetry. In addition to the lepton mixing angles, the model accounts for the observed quark and lepton masses and the CKM matrix. The structure is also consistent with an underlying stage of Grand Unification.

  1. Entropy correlation and entanglement for mixed states in an algebraic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xiwen; Chen Jinghua; Wan Mingfang; Ma Zhongqi

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative with potential connections to actual experiments, other than the systems more usually used in the field of entanglement, the dynamics of entropy correlation and entanglement between two anharmonic vibrations in a well-established algebraic model, with parameters extracted from fitting to highly excited spectral experimental results for molecules H 2 O and SO 2 , is studied in terms of the linear entropy and two negativities for various initial states that are respectively taken to be the mixed density matrices of thermal states and squeezed states on each mode. For a suitable parameter in initial states the entropies in two stretches can show positive correlation or anti-correlation. And the linear entropy of each mode is positively correlated with the negativities just for the mixed-squeezed states with small parameters in H 2 O while they do not display any correlation in other cases. For the mixed-squeezed states the negativities exhibit dominantly positive correlations with an effective mutual entropy. The differences in the linear entropy and the negativities between H 2 O and SO 2 are discussed as well. Those are useful for molecular quantum computing and quantum information processing

  2. Enhancement of Continuous Variable Entanglement in Four-Wave Mixing due to Atomic Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Zhu, Zhu; Xiang-Ming, Hu; Fei, Wang; Jing-Yan, Li

    2010-01-01

    We explore the effects of atomic memory on quantum correlations of two-mode light fields from four-wave mixing. A three-level atomic system in Λ configuration is considered, in which the atomic relaxation times are comparable to or longer than the cavity relaxation times and thus there exists the atomic memory. The quantum correlation spectrum in the output is calculated without the adiabatic elimination of atomic variables. It is shown that the continuous variable entanglement is enhanced over a wide range of the normalized detuning in the intermediate and bad cavity cases compared with the good cavity case. In some situations more significant enhancement occurs at sidebands

  3. Maximal neutrino mixing from a minimal flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; Carone, Christopher D.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2000-01-01

    We study a number of models, based on a non-Abelian discrete group, that successfully reproduce the simple and predictive Yukawa textures usually associated with U(2) theories of flavor. These models allow for solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems that do not require altering successful predictions for the charged fermions or introducing sterile neutrinos. Although Yukawa matrices are hierarchical in the models we consider, the mixing between second- and third-generation neutrinos is naturally large. We first present a quantitative analysis of a minimal model proposed in earlier work, consisting of a global fit to fermion masses and mixing angles, including the most important renormalization group effects. We then propose two new variant models: The first reproduces all important features of the SU(5)xU(2) unified theory with neither SU(5) nor U(2). The second demonstrates that discrete subgroups of SU(2) can be used in constructing viable supersymmetric theories of flavor without scalar universality even though SU(2) by itself cannot. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Integrated Sources of Polarization Entangled Photon Pair States via Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing in AlGaAs Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultavewuti, Pisek

    Polarization-entangled photon pair states (PESs) are indispensable in several quantum protocols that should be implemented in an integrated photonic circuit for realizing a practical quantum technology. Preparing such states in integrated waveguides is in fact a challenge due to polarization mode dispersion. Unlike other conventional ways that are plagued with complications in fabrication or in state generation, in this thesis, the scheme based on parallel spontaneous four-wave mixing processes of two polarization waveguide modes is thoroughly studied in theory and experimentation for the polarization entanglement generation. The scheme in fact needs the modal dispersion, contradictory to the general perception, as revealed by a full quantum mechanical framework. The proper modal dispersion balances the effects of temporal walk-off and state factorizability. The study also shows that the popular standard platform such as a silicon-on-insulator wafer is far from suitable to implement the proposed simple generation technique. Proven by the quantum state tomography, the technique produces a highly-entangled state with a maximum concurrence of 0.97 +/- 0:01 from AlGaAs waveguides. In addition, the devices directly generated Bell states with an observed fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0:01 without any post-generation compensating steps. Novel suspended device structures, including their components, are then investigated numerically and experimentally characterized in pursuit of finding the geometry with the optimal dispersion property. The 700 nm x 1100 nm suspended rectangular waveguide is identified as the best geometry with a predicted maximum concurrence of 0.976 and a generation bandwidth of 3.3 THz. The suspended waveguide fabrication procedure adds about 15 dB/cm and 10 dB/cm of propagation loss to the TE and TM mode respectively, on top of the loss in corresponding full-cladding waveguides. Bridges, which structurally support the suspended waveguides, are optimized using

  5. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle τ (T) to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle τ (T) from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  6. Charcterization of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Bo

    2006-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Generating maximally-path-entangled number states in two spin ensembles coupled to a superconducting flux qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Yusef; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.

    2018-01-01

    An ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to a circuit QED device is shown to enable an efficient, high-fidelity generation of high-N00N states. Instead of first creating entanglement and then increasing the number of entangled particles N , our source of high-N00N states first prepares a high-N Fock state in one of the NV ensembles and then entangles it to the rest of the system. With such a strategy, high-N N00N states can be generated in just a few operational steps with an extraordinary fidelity. Once prepared, such a state can be stored over a longer period of time due to the remarkably long coherence time of NV centers.

  8. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network...

  9. Entanglement, purity, and energy: Two qubits versus two modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Derek; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between the entanglement, mixedness, and energy of two-qubit and two-mode Gaussian quantum states. We parametrize the set of allowed states of these two fundamentally different physical systems using measures of entanglement, mixedness, and energy that allow us to compare and contrast the two systems using a phase diagram. This phase diagram enables one to clearly identify not only the physically allowed states, but the set of states connected under an arbitrary quantum operation. We pay particular attention to the maximally entangled mixed states of each system. Following this we investigate how efficiently one may transfer entanglement from two-mode to two-qubit states

  10. The emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlsten, O C O; Oliveira, R; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In Oliveira et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 130502) we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within O(N 3 ) steps, where N is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cutoff moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite setting. Numerically, we find that the mutual information appears to behave similarly to the quantum correlations and that there is a well-behaved phase-space flow of entanglement properties towards an equilibrium. We describe how the emergence of typical entanglement can be used to create a much simpler tripartite entanglement description. The results form a bridge between certain abstract results concerning typical (also known as generic) entanglement relative to an unbiased distribution on pure states and the more physical picture of distributions emerging from random local interactions

  11. Nonzero θ13 and neutrino masses from the modified tri-bi-maximal neutrino mixing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damanik, A.

    2014-01-01

    There are 3 types of neutrino mixing matrices: tri-bi-maximal, bi-maximal and democratic. These 3 types of neutrino mixing matrices predict that the mixing angle θ 13 should be null. Motivated by the recent experimental evidence of nonzero and relatively large θ 13 , we modified the tribimaximal mixing matrix by introducing a simple perturbation matrix into tribimaximal neutrino mixing matrix. In this scenario, we obtained nonzero mixing angle θ 13 =7.9 degrees which is in agreement with the present experimental results. By imposing 2 zeros texture into the obtained neutrino mass matrix from modified tribimaximal mixing matrix, we then have the neutrino mass spectrum in normal hierarchy. Some phenomenological implications are also discussed. It appears that if we use the solar neutrino squared-mass difference to determine the values of neutrino masses, then we cannot have the correct value for the atmospheric squared-mass difference. Conversely, if we use the experimental value of the squared-mass difference to determine the neutrino masses, then we cannot have the correct value for the solar neutrino squared-mass difference

  12. Large and almost maximal neutrino mixing within the type II see-saw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Within the type II see-saw mechanism the light neutrino mass matrix is given by a sum of a direct (or triplet) mass term and the conventional (type I) see-saw term. Both versions of the see-saw mechanism explain naturally small neutrino masses, but the type II scenario offers interesting additional possibilities to explain large or almost maximal or vanishing mixings which are discussed in this paper. We first introduce 'type II enhancement' of neutrino mixing, where moderate cancellations between the two terms can lead to large neutrino mixing even if all individual mass matrices and terms generate small mixing. However, nearly maximal or vanishing mixings are not naturally explained in this way, unless there is a certain initial structure (symmetry) which enforces certain elements of the matrices to be identical or related in a special way. We therefore assume that the leading structure of the neutrino mass matrix is the triplet term and corresponds to zero U e3 and maximal θ 23 . Small but necessary corrections are generated by the conventional see-saw term. Then we assume that one of the two terms corresponds to an extreme mixing scenario, such as bimaximal or tri-bimaximal mixing. Deviations from this scheme are introduced by the second term. One can mimic Quark-Lepton Complementarity in this way. Finally, we note that the neutrino mass matrix for tri-bimaximal mixing can be-depending on the mass hierarchy-written as a sum of two terms with simple structure. Their origin could be the two terms of type II see-saw

  13. Two Light Sterile Neutrinos that Mix Maximally with Each Other and Moderately with Three Active Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 3+1 neutrino models with one light sterile neutrino turn out to be not very effective, at least two light sterile neutrinos may be needed to reconcile the solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments with the LSND result, if this is confirmed by the ongoing MiniBooNE experiment (and when the CPT invariance is assumed to hold for neutrino oscillations). We present an attractive 3+2 neutrino model, where two light sterile neutrinos mix maximally with each other, in analogy to the observed maximal mixing of muon and tauon active neutrinos. But, while the mixing of ν e and (ν μ - ν τ )/√2 is observed as large (though not maximal), the mixing of ν e with the corresponding combination of two light sterile neutrinos is expected to be only moderate because of the reported smallness of LSND oscillation amplitude. The presented model turns out, however, not to be more effective in explaining the hypothetic LSND result than the simplest 3+1 neutrino model. On the other hand, in the considered 3+2 model, the deviations from conventional oscillations of three active neutrinos appear to be minimal within a larger class of 3+2 models. (author)

  14. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

  15. Net returns, fiscal risks, and the optimal patient mix for a profit-maximizing hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozatalay, S; Broyles, R

    1987-10-01

    As is well recognized, the provisions of PL98-21 not only transfer financial risks from the Medicare program to the hospital but also induce institutions to adjust the diagnostic mix of Medicare beneficiaries so as to maximize net income or minimize the net loss. This paper employs variation in the set of net returns as the sole measure of financial risk and develops a model that identifies the mix of beneficiaries that maximizes net income, subject to a given level of risk. The results indicate that the provisions of PL98-21 induce the institution to deny admission to elderly patients presenting conditions for which the net return is relatively low and the variance in the cost per case is large. Further, the paper suggests that the treatment of beneficiaries at a level commensurate with previous periods or the preferences of physicians may jeopardize the viability and solvency of Medicare-dependent hospitals.

  16. Measuring the deviation of the 2-3 lepton mixing from maximal with atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M C; Smirnov, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the deviation of the 2-3 leptonic mixing from maximal, D_23 = 1/2 - sin^2(theta_23), is one of the key issues for understanding the origin of the neutrino masses and mixing. In the three-neutrino context we study the dependence of various observables in the atmospheric neutrinos on D_23. We perform a global three-neutrino analysis of the atmospheric and reactor neutrino data taking into account the effects of both the oscillations driven by the "solar" parameters (Delta_m_21^2 and theta_12) and the 1-3 mixing. The departure from the one-dominant mass scale approximation results into the shift of the 2-3 mixing from maximal by Delta_sin^2(theta_23) ~ 0.04, so that D_23 ~ 0.04 +- 0.07 (1 sigma). Though value of the shift is not statistically significant, the tendency is robust. The shift is induced by the excess of the e-like events in the sub-GeV sample. We show that future large scale water Cherenkov detectors can determine D_23 with accuracy of a few percent, comparable with the sensitivit...

  17. Improved Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Gaussian Mixed Model Using the Kernel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Izhan Mohd Yusoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraud activities have contributed to heavy losses suffered by telecommunication companies. In this paper, we attempt to use Gaussian mixed model, which is a probabilistic model normally used in speech recognition to identify fraud calls in the telecommunication industry. We look at several issues encountered when calculating the maximum likelihood estimates of the Gaussian mixed model using an Expectation Maximization algorithm. Firstly, we look at a mechanism for the determination of the initial number of Gaussian components and the choice of the initial values of the algorithm using the kernel method. We show via simulation that the technique improves the performance of the algorithm. Secondly, we developed a procedure for determining the order of the Gaussian mixed model using the log-likelihood function and the Akaike information criteria. Finally, for illustration, we apply the improved algorithm to real telecommunication data. The modified method will pave the way to introduce a comprehensive method for detecting fraud calls in future work.

  18. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  19. Entanglement distribution in quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perseguers, Sebastien

    2010-04-15

    This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a

  20. Quantifying tripartite entanglement for three-qubit generalized Werner states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The adequate quantification of entanglement in multipartite mixed states is still a theoretically unsolved problem, even in the case of three qubits. In order to investigate the robustness of entanglement against noise one often employs the so-called generalized Werner states, i.e., pure maximally entangled states mixed with the completely unpolarized state. Even for those states there are no quantitative results available. In this contribution, we present the solution of the problem for three-qubit generalized Werner states (as well as for the whole family of full-rank mixed states which obey the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger symmetry) by providing an exact quantitative account of the tripartite entanglement contained in those states.

  1. Renormalisation group corrections to the littlest seesaw model and maximal atmospheric mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-01-01

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, θ_2_3=45"∘±1"∘, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.

  2. Renormalisation group corrections to the littlest seesaw model and maximal atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jue [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, Shun [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-06

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, θ{sub 23}=45{sup ∘}±1{sup ∘}, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.

  3. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  4. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  5. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  6. Mode entanglement of Gaussian fermionic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spee, C.; Schwaiger, K.; Giedke, G.; Kraus, B.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the entanglement of n -mode n -partite Gaussian fermionic states (GFS). First, we identify a reasonable definition of separability for GFS and derive a standard form for mixed states, to which any state can be mapped via Gaussian local unitaries (GLU). As the standard form is unique, two GFS are equivalent under GLU if and only if their standard forms coincide. Then, we investigate the important class of local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). These are central in entanglement theory as they allow one to partially order the entanglement contained in states. We show, however, that there are no nontrivial Gaussian LOCC (GLOCC) among pure n -partite (fully entangled) states. That is, any such GLOCC transformation can also be accomplished via GLU. To obtain further insight into the entanglement properties of such GFS, we investigate the richer class of Gaussian stochastic local operations assisted by classical communication (SLOCC). We characterize Gaussian SLOCC classes of pure n -mode n -partite states and derive them explicitly for few-mode states. Furthermore, we consider certain fermionic LOCC and show how to identify the maximally entangled set of pure n -mode n -partite GFS, i.e., the minimal set of states having the property that any other state can be obtained from one state inside this set via fermionic LOCC. We generalize these findings also to the pure m -mode n -partite (for m >n ) case.

  7. Entanglement in a two-spin (1/2, 3/2) mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ chain with an inhomogeneous external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ketao; Liang Mingchao; Xu Hongyu; Zhu Chengbo

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of negativity, we investigate the thermal entanglement of a two-spin (1/2, 3/2) mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ chain with an inhomogeneous external magnetic field. We obtain the analytical results of entanglement of this model. For the case of uniform magnetic field, we find that the critical temperature increases with the increase of the anisotropy parameter k, and for the same couplings, the critical temperature is higher than the results of the spin-1/2 XXZ chain and (1/2, 1) mixed-spin XXZ chain. Evidence of the quantum phase transition is found, and by adjusting the inhomogeneous magnetic parameter b, one is able to obtain more entanglement at higher temperature.

  8. Faithful teleportation with arbitrary pure or mixed resource states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming; Wang Zhixi [School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li Zongguo [College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Lijost Xianqing, E-mail: zhaomingjingde@126.com [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-05-27

    We study faithful teleportation systematically with arbitrary entangled states as resources. The necessary conditions of mixed states to complete perfect teleportation are proved. Based on these results, the necessary and sufficient conditions of faithful teleportation of an unknown state |{phi}) in C{sup d} with an entangled resource {rho} in C{sup m} otimes C{sup d} and C{sup d} otimes C{sup n} are derived. It is shown that for {rho} in C{sup m} otimes C{sup d}, {rho} must be a maximally entangled state, while for {rho} in C{sup d} otimes C{sup n}, {rho} must be a pure maximally entangled state. Moreover, we show that the sender's measurements must be all projectors of maximally entangled pure states. The relations between the entanglement of the formation of the resource states and faithful teleportation are also discussed.

  9. Faithful teleportation with arbitrary pure or mixed resource states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming; Wang Zhixi; Li Zongguo; Lijost Xianqing

    2011-01-01

    We study faithful teleportation systematically with arbitrary entangled states as resources. The necessary conditions of mixed states to complete perfect teleportation are proved. Based on these results, the necessary and sufficient conditions of faithful teleportation of an unknown state |φ) in C d with an entangled resource ρ in C m otimes C d and C d otimes C n are derived. It is shown that for ρ in C m otimes C d , ρ must be a maximally entangled state, while for ρ in C d otimes C n , ρ must be a pure maximally entangled state. Moreover, we show that the sender's measurements must be all projectors of maximally entangled pure states. The relations between the entanglement of the formation of the resource states and faithful teleportation are also discussed.

  10. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  11. Teleportation of N-particle entangled W state via entanglement swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan You-Bang

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for teleporting an unknown N-particle entangled W state is proposed via entanglement swapping. In this scheme, N maximally entangled particle pairs are used as quantum channel. As a special case, the teleportation of an unknown four-particle entangled W state is studied.

  12. Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they

  13. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  14. Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.

  15. Nonlocality and entanglement in qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batle, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casas, M, E-mail: vdfsjbv4@uib.es [Departament de Fisica and IFISC-CSIC, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-11-04

    Nonlocality and quantum entanglement constitute two special aspects of the quantum correlations existing in quantum systems, which are of paramount importance in quantum-information theory. Traditionally, they have been regarded as identical (equivalent, in fact, for pure two qubit states, that is, Gisin's Theorem), yet they constitute different resources. Describing nonlocality by means of the violation of several Bell inequalities, we obtain by direct optimization those states of two qubits that maximally violate a Bell inequality, in terms of their degree of mixture as measured by either their participation ratio R = 1/Tr({rho}{sup 2}) or their maximum eigenvalue {lambda}{sub max}. This optimum value is obtained as well, which coincides with previous results. Comparison with entanglement is performed too. An example of an application is given in the XY model. In this novel approximation, we also concentrate on the nonlocality for linear combinations of pure states of two qubits, providing a closed form for their maximal nonlocality measure. The case of Bell diagonal mixed states of two qubits is also extensively studied. Special attention concerning the connection between nonlocality and entanglement for mixed states of two qubits is paid to the so-called maximally entangled mixed states. Additional aspects for the case of two qubits are also described in detail. Since we deal with qubit systems, we will perform an analogous study for three qubits, employing similar tools. Relation between distillability and nonlocality is explored quantitatively for the whole space of states of three qubits. We finally extend our analysis to four-qubit systems, where nonlocality for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of arbitrary number of parties is computed. (paper)

  16. Generation, concentration and purification for ionic entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2007-01-01

    In cavity QED, the atoms would be sent through the sequential arrays of cavities for the generation of multi-cavity entanglement, or several atoms would be sent into the same cavity mode one bye one for the generation of multi-atom entanglement. The complexity of these processes will impose limitations on the experimental feasibility of it. So, following our previous publication [International Journal Of Quantum Information 2, 231 (2004)] we will propose an alternative scheme for the preparation of multi-cavity W state via cavity QED, which uses the geometrical method to do what other authors have proposed previously using sequential arrays of cavities. Due to the impossibility that one quantum system can be isolated from the environment absolutely, the entanglement of the entangled objects will decrease exponentially with the propagating distance of the objects, and the practically available quantum entangled states are all non-maximally entangled states or the more general case--mixed states. Following our previous publications [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042307 (2005), ibid. 71, 012308 (2005)], we will propose an entanglement generation, concentration and purification scheme for atomic or ionic system, which is mainly based on Cavity QED and linear optical elements. This purification process avoids the controlled-NOT (C-NOT) operations needed in the original purification protocol, which simplifies the whole purification process

  17. Reduction of entanglement degradation in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr Esfahani, B.; Shamirzaie, M.; Soltani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bipartite entanglement for states of a noninteracting bosonic or fermionic field in the spacetime of a spherically symmetric black hole of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity is investigated. Although the initial state is chosen to be maximally entangled as the Bell states, the Hawking-Unruh effect causes the state to be mixed and the entanglement degrades, but with different asymptotic behaviors for the fermionic and bosonic fields. The Gauss-Bonnet term with positive α can play an antigravitation role and so this causes a decrease in the Hawking-Unruh effect and consequently reduces the entanglement degradation. On the other hand, the suggested higher dimensions for the spacetime lead to increased entanglement degradation by increasing the dimension. There is a dramatic difference between the behaviors of the entanglement in terms of the radius of the horizon for a five-dimensional black hole and that for higher dimensional black holes. Both bosonic and fermionic fields entanglements are treated beyond the single-mode approximation. Also, the cases where the accelerating observers located at regions near and far from the event horizon of black hole are studied separately.

  18. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored

  19. Entanglement in continuous-variable systems: recent advances and current perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

  20. Comparison of the attempts of quantum discord and quantum entanglement to capture quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasimi, Asma Al-; James, Daniel F. V.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of quantum systems disturb their states. To quantify this nonclassical characteristic, Zurek and Ollivier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017901 (2001)] introduced the quantum discord, a quantum correlation that can be nonzero even when entanglement in the system is zero. Discord has aroused great interest as a resource that is more robust against the effects of decoherence and offers the exponential speed-up of certain computational algorithms. Here, we study general two-level bipartite systems and give general results on the relationship between discord, entanglement, and linear entropy. We also identify the states for which discord takes a maximal value for a given entropy or entanglement, thus placing strong bounds on entanglement-discord and entropy-discord relations. We find out that although discord and entanglement are identical for pure states, they differ when generalized to mixed states as a result of the difference in the method of generalization.

  1. Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo

    2010-01-01

    Entanglement purification is a very important element for long-distance quantum communication. Different from all the existing entanglement purification protocols (EPPs) in which two parties can only obtain some quantum systems in a mixed entangled state with a higher fidelity probabilistically by consuming quantum resources exponentially, here we present a deterministic EPP with hyperentanglement. Using this protocol, the two parties can, in principle, obtain deterministically maximally entangled pure states in polarization without destroying any less-entangled photon pair, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication exponentially. Meanwhile, it will be shown that this EPP can be used to complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis perfectly. We also discuss this EPP in a practical transmission.

  2. Wanting to Maximize the Positive and Minimize the Negative: Implications for Mixed Affective Experience in American and Chinese Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H.; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared to Chinese. In this paper, we argue that these cultural differences are due to “ideal affect,” or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in two experience sampling studies conducted in the U.S. and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) television clip in the U.S. and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's mixed affective experience. PMID:26121525

  3. Wanting to maximize the positive and minimize the negative: implications for mixed affective experience in American and Chinese contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Tsai, Jeanne L; Jiang, Da; Wang, Yaheng; Fung, Helene H; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that European Americans have fewer mixed affective experiences (i.e., are less likely to experience the bad with the good) compared with Chinese. In this article, we argue that these cultural differences are due to "ideal affect," or how people ideally want to feel. Specifically, we predict that people from individualistic cultures want to maximize positive and minimize negative affect more than people from collectivistic cultures, and as a result, they are less likely to actually experience mixed emotions (reflected by a more negative within-person correlation between actual positive and negative affect). We find support for this prediction in 2 experience sampling studies conducted in the United States and China (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, we demonstrate that ideal affect is a distinct construct from dialectical view of the self, which has also been related to mixed affective experience (Study 3). Finally, in Study 4, we demonstrate that experimentally manipulating the desire to maximize the positive and minimize the negative alters participants' actual experience of mixed emotions during a pleasant (but not unpleasant or combined pleasant and unpleasant) TV clip in the United States and Hong Kong. Together, these findings suggest that across cultures, how people want to feel shapes how they actually feel, particularly people's experiences of mixed affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Entanglement properties between two atoms in the binomial optical field interacting with two entangled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tang-Kun; Zhang Kang-Long; Tao Yu; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the degree of entanglement between two atoms in a system of the binomial optical field interacting with two arbitrary entangled atoms is investigated. The influence of the strength of the dipole–dipole interaction between two atoms, probabilities of the Bernoulli trial, and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the atomic entanglement are discussed. The result shows that the two atoms are always in the entanglement state. Moreover, if and only if the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the entanglement evolution is not affected by the parameters, and the degree of entanglement is always kept as 1. (paper)

  5. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2009-02-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  6. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-02-06

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.

  7. Statistical mechanics of multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics

  8. Universal distortion-free entanglement concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of universal entanglement concentration, which converts many copies of an unknown pure state to an exact maximally entangled state. The yield of the protocol, which is outputted as a classical information, is probabilistic, and achieves the entropy rate with high probability, just as nonuniversal entanglement concentration protocols do

  9. Knitting neutrino mass textures with or without Tri-Bi maximal mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontaris, G.K., E-mail: leonta@uoi.gr [Theoretical Physics Division, Ioannina University, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlachos, N.D. [Theoretical Physics Division, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-08-03

    The solar and baseline neutrino oscillation data suggest bimaximal neutrino mixing among the first two generations, and trimaximal mixing between all three neutrino flavors. It has been conjectured that this indicates the existence of an underlying symmetry for the leptonic fermion mass textures. The experimentally measured quantities, however, are associated to the latter indirectly and in a rather complicated way through the mixing matrices of the charged leptons and neutrinos. Motivated by these facts, we derive exact analytical expressions which directly link the charged lepton and neutrino mass and mixing parameters to measured quantities and obtain constraints on the parameter space. We discuss deviations from Tri-Bi mixing matrices and present minimal extensions of the Harrison, Perkins and Scott matrices capable of interpreting all neutrino data.

  10. Optimal simulation of a perfect entangler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Nengkun; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng

    2010-01-01

    A 2 x 2 unitary operation is called a perfect entangler if it can generate a maximally entangled state from some unentangled input. We study the following question: How many runs of a given two-qubit entangling unitary operation are required to simulate some perfect entangler with one-qubit unitary operations as free resources? We completely solve this problem by presenting an analytical formula for the optimal number of runs of the entangling operation. Our result reveals an entanglement strength of two-qubit unitary operations.

  11. Local copying of orthogonal entangled quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Fabio; Chefles, Anthony; Plenio, Martin B

    2004-01-01

    In classical information theory one can, in principle, produce a perfect copy of any input state. In quantum information theory, the no cloning theorem prohibits exact copying of non-orthogonal states. Moreover, if we wish to copy multiparticle entangled states and can perform only local operations and classical communication (LOCC), then further restrictions apply. We investigate the problem of copying orthogonal, entangled quantum states with an entangled blank state under the restriction to LOCC. Throughout, the subsystems have finite dimension D. We show that if all of the states to be copied are non-maximally entangled, then novel LOCC copying procedures based on entanglement catalysis are possible. We then study in detail the LOCC copying problem where both the blank state and at least one of the states to be copied are maximally entangled. For this to be possible, we find that all the states to be copied must be maximally entangled. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for LOCC copying under these conditions. For two orthogonal, maximally entangled states, we provide the general solution to this condition. We use it to show that for D = 2, 3, any pair of orthogonal, maximally entangled states can be locally copied using a maximally entangled blank state. However, we also show that for any D which is not prime, one can construct pairs of such states for which this is impossible

  12. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone

  13. Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal

    2001-09-01

    Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.

  14. Electric Field Generation and Control of Bipartite Quantum Entanglement between Electronic Spins in Mixed Valence Polyoxovanadate [GeV14O40]8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palii, Andrew; Aldoshin, Sergey; Tsukerblat, Boris; Borràs-Almenar, Juan José; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Coronado, Eugenio

    2017-08-21

    As part of the search for systems in which control of quantum entanglement can be achieved, here we consider the paramagnetic mixed valence polyoxometalate K 2 Na 6 [GeV 14 O 40 ]·10H 2 O in which two electrons are delocalized over the 14 vanadium ions. Applying a homogeneous electric field can induce an antiferromagnetic coupling between the two delocalized electronic spins that behave independently in the absence of the field. On the basis of the proposed theoretical model, we show that the external field can be used to generate controllable quantum entanglement between the two electronic spins traveling over a vanadium network of mixed valence polyoxoanion [GeV 14 O 40 ] 8- . Within a simplified two-level picture of the energy pattern of the electronic pair based on the previous ab initio analysis, we evaluate the temperature and field dependencies of concurrence and thus indicate that the entanglement can be controlled via the temperature, magnitude, and orientation of the electric field with respect to molecular axes of [GeV 14 O 40 ] 8- .

  15. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  16. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  17. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  18. Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei

    analytical entanglement monotones that can be increased by SEP. Finally, we investigate the idea of a new class of multipartite entangled states, the Absolutely Maximal Entangled (AME) states, which is characterized by the fact that any bipartition of the states would give a maximal entangled state between the two sets. The relationship between AME states and Quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols is exhibited and the application of AME states in novel quantum communication protocols is also explored.

  19. Entanglement detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: otfried.guehne@uibk.ac.at; Toth, Geza [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque-Basque Foundation for Science, Alameda Urquijo 36, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); ICFO-Institute of Photonic Sciences, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-04-15

    How can one prove that a given quantum state is entangled? In this paper we review different methods that have been proposed for entanglement detection. We first explain the basic elements of entanglement theory for two or more particles and then entanglement verification procedures such as Bell inequalities, entanglement witnesses, the determination of nonlinear properties of a quantum state via measurements on several copies, and spin squeezing inequalities. An emphasis is given to the theory and application of entanglement witnesses. We also discuss several experiments, where some of the presented methods have been implemented.

  20. Collapse–revival of quantum discord and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xue-Qun; Zhang, Bo-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. Our results predict certain quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomena for quantum discord and entanglement when the field is in Fock state and the two atoms are initially in maximally mixed state, which is a special separable state. Our calculations also show that the oscillations of the time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase and they both have similar evolution behavior in some time range. The fact reveals the consistency of quantum discord and entanglement in some dynamical aspects. - Highlights: • The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. • A quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomenon for quantum discord and entanglement is reported. • A phenomenon of correlations revivals different from that of non-Markovian dynamics is revealed. • The oscillations of time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase in our system. • Quantum discord and entanglement have similar evolution behavior in some time range

  1. Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ted

    2016-05-20

    A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.

  2. An adjoint-based framework for maximizing mixing in binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Maximilian; Schmid, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Mixing in the inertial, but laminar parameter regime is a common application in a wide range of industries. Enhancing the efficiency of mixing processes thus has a fundamental effect on product quality, material homogeneity and, last but not least, production costs. In this project, we address mixing efficiency in the above mentioned regime (Reynolds number Re = 1000 , Peclet number Pe = 1000) by developing and demonstrating an algorithm based on nonlinear adjoint looping that minimizes the variance of a passive scalar field which models our binary Newtonian fluids. The numerical method is based on the FLUSI code (Engels et al. 2016), a Fourier pseudo-spectral code, which we modified and augmented by scalar transport and adjoint equations. Mixing is accomplished by moving stirrers which are numerically modeled using a penalization approach. In our two-dimensional simulations we consider rotating circular and elliptic stirrers and extract optimal mixing strategies from the iterative scheme. The case of optimizing shape and rotational speed of the stirrers will be demonstrated.

  3. New Aspects of Field Entropy Squeezing as an Indicator for Mixed State Entanglement in an Effective Two-Level System with Stark Shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Abdel-Khalek; M.M.A.Ahmed; A-S F.Obada

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic field,initially prepared in a coherent state.Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested.The temporal evolution of the negativity,Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated.The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.%We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic Reid, initially prepared in a coherent state. Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested. The temporal evolution of the negativity, Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated. The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.

  4. Brownian entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdyan, A.E.; Khrennikov, A.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th.M.

    2005-01-01

    For two classical Brownian particles an analog of continuous-variable quantum entanglement is presented: The common probability distribution of the two coordinates and the corresponding coarse-grained velocities cannot always be prepared via mixing of any factorized distributions referring to the two particles separately. This is possible for particles which have interacted in the past, but do not interact at present. Three factors are crucial for the effect: (1) separation of time scales of coordinate and momentum which motivates the definition of coarse-grained velocities; (2) the resulting uncertainty relations between the coordinate of the Brownian particle and the change of its coarse-grained velocity; (3) the fact that the coarse-grained velocity, though pertaining to a single Brownian particle, is defined on a common context of two particles. The Brownian entanglement is a consequence of a coarse-grained description and disappears for a finer resolution of the Brownian motion. Analogies with the quantum situation are discussed, as well as possibilities of experimental realization of the effect in examples of macroscopic Brownian motion

  5. Idea Sharing: How to Maximize Participation in a Mixed-Level English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching a class of mixed EFL/ESL levels can be problematic for both instructors and students. The disparate levels of ability often mean that some students are not challenged enough while others struggle to keep pace. Drawing on experience in the university classroom in Japan, this practice promotes good preparation, self-reliance, inclusiveness,…

  6. Multiple Quantum Coherences (MQ) NMR and Entanglement Dynamics in the Mixed-Three-Spin XXX Heisenberg Model with Single-Ion Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Arian Zad

    2016-12-01

    We analytically investigate Multiple Quantum (MQ) NMR dynamics in a mixed-three-spin (1/2,1,1/2) system with XXX Heisenberg model at the front of an external homogeneous magnetic field B. A single-ion anisotropy property ζ is considered for the spin-1. The intensities dependence of MQ NMR coherences on their orders (zeroth and second orders) for two pairs of spins (1,1/2) and (1/2,1/2) of the favorite tripartite system are obtained. It is also investigated dynamics of the pairwise quantum entanglement for the bipartite (sub)systems (1,1/2) and (1/2,1/2) permanently coupled by, respectively, coupling constants J}1 and J}2, by means of concurrence and fidelity. Then, some straightforward comparisons are done between these quantities and the intensities of MQ NMR coherences and ultimately some interesting results are reported. We also show that the time evolution of MQ coherences based on the reduced density matrix of the pair spins (1,1/2) is closely connected with the dynamics of the pairwise entanglement. Finally, we prove that one can introduce MQ coherence of the zeroth order corresponds to the pair spins (1,1/2) as an entanglement witness at some special time intervals.

  7. Optimal Entanglement Witnesses for Qubits and Qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Durstberger, K.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Krammer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We give a review of the connection between an optimal entanglement witness and the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states): a generalized Bell inequality is derived within the concept of entanglement witnesses, in the sense that a violation of the inequality detects entanglement and not non-locality liKEX usual Bell inequalities do. It can be seen that the maximal violation equals the Hilbert-Schmidt measure. Furthermore, since finding the nearest separable state to a given entangled state is rather difficult, a method for checking an estimated nearest separable state is presented. This is illustrated with isotropic qubit and qutrit states; the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, the optimal entanglement witness and the maximal violation of the GBI are calculated for those cases. Possible generalizations for arbitrary dimensions are discussed. (author)

  8. Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhani, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not √(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate

  9. Modular entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  10. Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougouffa, Smail; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four-qubit system and we demonstrate the conditions under which the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of non-zero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. Complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes, with transfer to the other pairs being limited to 50%. We find that complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of qubits may take place if the initial state is not the maximally entangled state and the atoms couple to the cavity modes with unequal strengths. Depending on the ratio between the coupling strengths, optimal entanglement can be created between the atoms and one of the cavity modes.

  11. Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.

  12. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  13. Entangled entanglement: A construction procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.Uchida@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Computer Science, Währinger Strasse 29, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bertlmann, Reinhold A., E-mail: Reinhold.Bertlmann@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiesmayr, Beatrix C., E-mail: Beatrix.Hiesmayr@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-10-30

    The familiar Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states can be rewritten by entangling the Bell states for two qubits with a third qubit state, which is dubbed entangled entanglement. We show that in a constructive way we obtain all eight independent GHZ states that form the simplex of entangled entanglement, the magic simplex. The construction procedure allows a generalization to higher dimensions both, in the degrees of freedom (considering qudits) as well as in the number of particles (considering n-partite states). Such bases of GHZ-type states exhibit a cyclic geometry, a Merry Go Round, that is relevant for experimental and quantum information theoretic applications.

  14. Minimal Entanglement Witness From Electrical Current Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Brange, F.; Malkoc, O.; Samuelsson, P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite great efforts, an unambiguous demonstration of entanglement of mobile electrons in solid state conductors is still lacking. Investigating theoretically a generic entangler-detector setup, we here show that a witness of entanglement between two flying electron qubits can be constructed from only two current cross correlation measurements, for any nonzero detector efficiencies and non-collinear polarization vectors. We find that all entangled pure states, but not all mixed ones, can be ...

  15. Entanglement property in matrix product spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingmin

    2012-01-01

    We study the entanglement property in matrix product spin-ring systems systemically by von Neumann entropy. We find that: (i) the Hilbert space dimension of one spin determines the upper limit of the maximal value of the entanglement entropy of one spin, while for multiparticle entanglement entropy, the upper limit of the maximal value depends on the dimension of the representation matrices. Based on the theory, we can realize the maximum of the entanglement entropy of any spin block by choosing the appropriate control parameter values. (ii) When the entanglement entropy of one spin takes its maximal value, the entanglement entropy of an asymptotically large spin block, i.e. the renormalization group fixed point, is not likely to take its maximal value, and so only the entanglement entropy S n of a spin block that varies with size n can fully characterize the spin-ring entanglement feature. Finally, we give the entanglement dynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the matrix product system. (author)

  16. Bounds on the entanglement attainable from unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Terri M.; Brown, Kenneth R.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2005-01-01

    The role of mixed-state entanglement in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computation is not yet well understood. In particular, despite the success of quantum-information processing with NMR, recent work has shown that quantum states used in most of those experiments were not entangled. This is because these states, derived by unitary transforms from the thermal equilibrium state, were too close to the maximally mixed state. We are thus motivated to determine whether a given NMR state is entanglable - that is, does there exist a unitary transform that entangles the state? The boundary between entanglable and nonentanglable thermal states is a function of the spin system size N and its temperature T. We provide bounds on the location of this boundary using analytical and numerical methods; our tightest bound scales as N∼T, giving a lower bound requiring at least N∼22 000 proton spins to realize an entanglable thermal state at typical laboratory NMR magnetic fields. These bounds are tighter than known bounds on the entanglability of effective pure states

  17. Dynamics of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms for various entangled initial states, including pure and mixed states. We find that the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death behaviors is distinct in the evolution of entanglement for different initial states. What deserves mentioning here is that the initial portion of the excited state in the initial state is responsible for the sudden death of entanglement, and the degree of this effect also depends on the initial states

  18. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  19. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  20. An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It may be noted that these protocols are not the only approaches of gener- ating maximally entangled states. There are several other protocols such as entanglement purification [8–12], quantum entanglement distillation [13,14], etc., to this effect. The history of ECP starts in the work of Bennett et al [8] in 1996 in which he ...

  1. Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary n-Particle Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Yong-Jun; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; GUO Zhan-Ying

    2005-01-01

    A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary n-particle entangled state via n pairs of non-maximally entangled states is proposed. The probability of successful teleportation is determined only by the smaller coefficients of the partially entangled pairs. The method is very easy to be realized.

  2. Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Yong; Jin Guangsheng

    2011-01-01

    We present an entanglement purification protocol and an entanglement concentration protocol for electron-spin entangled states, resorting to quantum-dot spin and optical-microcavity-coupled systems. The parity-check gates (PCGs) constructed by the cavity-spin-coupling system provide a different method for the entanglement purification of electron-spin entangled states. This protocol can efficiently purify an electron ensemble in a mixed entangled state. The PCGs can also concentrate electron-spin pairs in less-entangled pure states efficiently. The proposed methods are more flexible as only single-photon detection and single-electron detection are needed.

  3. Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo; Gu Shi-Pu; Wang Xing-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. (paper)

  4. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes constructed from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhang; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Chunhui; Chen, Riqing

    2017-12-01

    Recently, entanglement-assisted quantum codes have been constructed from cyclic codes by some scholars. However, how to determine the number of shared pairs required to construct entanglement-assisted quantum codes is not an easy work. In this paper, we propose a decomposition of the defining set of negacyclic codes. Based on this method, four families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes constructed in this paper satisfy the entanglement-assisted quantum Singleton bound, where the minimum distance satisfies q+1 ≤ d≤ n+2/2. Furthermore, we construct two families of entanglement-assisted quantum codes with maximal entanglement.

  5. Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, Shohini, E-mail: sghose@wlu.ca [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Hamel, Angele [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.

  6. Bound entanglement and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation

  7. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  8. Characterizing quantum correlations. The genuine multiparticle negativity as entanglement monotone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    divergence is observed in the first derivative of the genuine multiparticle negativity. It is then shown that genuine three- and fourparticle entanglement obeys finite-size scaling and that the genuine three-particle entanglement has a finite spatial range. In the third part, a generalisation to the so-called stabiliser formalism is introduced. The idea of characterising pure stabiliser states via a maximal commuting group of local symmetries is extended to mixed states. These so-called stabilised states are then characterised by a not necessarily maximal commuting group of local symmetries and unite graph diagonal states and X-states in a single framework. Finally, the ambiguity of local base change is studied and a method to obtain a classification of the underlying symmetry groups into equivalence classes under local Clifford operations is provided. In the last part of this thesis, it is shown how symmetries of a state may be used to simplify the optimisation problem defining the genuine multiparticle negativity. A relationship between the symmetry of a state and the internal structure of the optimisation is established that can be used to reduce the number of variables in the optimisation problem. The latter is an instance of a semidefinite programming problem for which efficient numerical optimisation algorithms with a certified solution exist.

  9. Quantum walks with entangled coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas-Andraca, S E; Ball, J L; Burnett, K; Bose, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical formalism for the description of un- restricted quantum walks with entangled coins and one walker. The numerical behaviour of such walks is examined when using a Bell state as the initial coin state, with two different coin operators, two different shift operators, and one walker. We compare and contrast the performance of these quantum walks with that of a classical random walk consisting of one walker and two maximally correlated coins as well as quantum walks with coins sharing different degrees of entanglement. We illustrate that the behaviour of our walk with entangled coins can be very different in comparison to the usual quantum walk with a single coin. We also demonstrate that simply by changing the shift operator, we can generate widely different distributions. We also compare the behaviour of quantum walks with maximally entangled coins with that of quantum walks with non-entangled coins. Finally, we show that the use of different shift operators on two and three qubit coins leads to different position probability distributions in one- and two-dimensional graphs

  10. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... entanglement between the two atoms changes periodically and undergoes the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and ...

  11. Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco

    2009-01-01

    When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.

  12. Studying entanglement-assisted entanglement transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Liyi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study catalysis of entanglement transformations for n-level pure entangled states. We propose an algorithm of finding the required catalystic entanglement. We introduce several examples by way of demonstration. We evaluate the lower and upper bound of the required inequalities for deciding whether there are m-level appropriate catalyst states for entanglement transformations for two n-level pure entangled states

  13. How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call “entanglement mediation”. Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.

  14. Criterion for testing multiparticle negative-partial-transpose entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, B.; Zhou, D.L.; Zhang, P.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the criterion of multiparticle entanglement based on the overlaps of a given quantum state ρ with maximally entangled states. For a system of m particles, each with N distinct states, we prove that ρ is m-particle negative partial transpose entangled, if there exists a maximally entangled state vertical bar MES>, such that >1/N. While this sufficiency condition is weaker than the Peres-Horodecki criterion in all cases, it applies to multi-particle systems, and becomes especially useful when the number of particles (m) is large. We also consider the converse of this criterion and illustrate its invalidity with counter examples

  15. Positive maps, majorization, entropic inequalities and detection of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, R; Stasinska, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss some general connections between the notions of positive map, weak majorization and entropic inequalities in the context of detection of entanglement among bipartite quantum systems. First, basing on the fact that any positive map Λ:M d (C)→M d (C) can be written as the difference between two completely positive maps Λ=Λ 1 -Λ 2 , we propose a possible way to generalize the Nielsen-Kempe majorization criterion. Then, we present two methods of derivation of some general classes of entropic inequalities useful for the detection of entanglement. While the first one follows from the aforementioned generalized majorization relation and the concept of Schur-concave decreasing functions, the second is based on some functional inequalities. What is important is that, contrary to the Nielsen-Kempe majorization criterion and entropic inequalities, our criteria allow for the detection of entangled states with positive partial transposition when using indecomposable positive maps. We also point out that if a state with at least one maximally mixed subsystem is detected by some necessary criterion based on the positive map Λ, then there exist entropic inequalities derived from Λ (by both procedures) that also detect this state. In this sense, they are equivalent to the necessary criterion [IxΛ](rhov AB )≥0. Moreover, our inequalities provide a way of constructing multi-copy entanglement witnesses and therefore are promising from the experimental point of view. Finally, we discuss some of the derived inequalities in the context of the recently introduced protocol of state merging and the possibility of approximating the mean value of a linear entanglement witness.

  16. Berry phase in entangled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)

  17. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  18. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM (Italy)

    2010-06-04

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  19. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-06-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  20. Classical statistical mechanics approach to multipartite entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.

  1. The geometry of entanglement and Grover's algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Naoki; Mizobe, Kimitake

    2008-01-01

    A measure of entanglement with respect to a bipartite partition of n-qubit has been defined and studied from the viewpoint of Riemannian geometry (Iwai 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 12161). This paper has two aims. One is to study further the geometry of entanglement, and the other is to investigate Grover's search algorithms, both the original and the fixed-point ones, in reference with entanglement. As the distance between the maximally entangled states and the separable states is known already in the previous paper, this paper determines the set of maximally entangled states nearest to a typical separable state which is used as an initial state in Grover's search algorithms, and to find geodesic segments which realize the above-mentioned distance. As for Grover's algorithms, it is already known that while the initial and the target states are separable, the algorithms generate sequences of entangled states. This fact is confirmed also in the entanglement measure proposed in the previous paper, and then a split Grover algorithm is proposed which generates sequences of separable states only with respect to the bipartite partition

  2. Teleportation of Multi-qudit Entangled States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Xiao-Gui; LI Hong-Mei; ZENG Hao-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose a method to realize the teleportation of an unknown entangled state that consists of many qudits through a partially entangled-qudit quantum channel with the help of 2 log2 d-bit classical communication. The operations used in the teleportation process include a generalized Bell-state measurement and a series of singlequdit π-measurements performed by Alice, a series of generalized qudit-Pauli gates and two-level unitary gates,as well as a qubit measurement performed by Bob. For a maximally entangled quantum channel, the successful probability of the teleportation becomes unit.

  3. Hybrid Proximal-Point Methods for Zeros of Maximal Monotone Operators, Variational Inequalities and Mixed Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriengsak Wattanawitoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove strong and weak convergence theorems of modified hybrid proximal-point algorithms for finding a common element of the zero point of a maximal monotone operator, the set of solutions of equilibrium problems, and the set of solution of the variational inequality operators of an inverse strongly monotone in a Banach space under different conditions. Moreover, applications to complementarity problems are given. Our results modify and improve the recently announced ones by Li and Song (2008 and many authors.

  4. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entanglement is an important resource for quantum information processing. [1–3] and also one of the most important nonclassical properties in quantum theory. ... consideration, which consists of two entangled two-level atoms A and B with ...

  5. Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Devakul, Trithep; Halbasch, Matthew G.; Zaletel, Michael P.; Swingle, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  6. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  7. Quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect

  8. Sudden entanglement death, and ways to avoid it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J.H.; Ting Yu

    2005-01-01

    We report that non-communicating but entangled qubit pairs are almost universally liable to sudden entanglement death. In the presence of minor and purely local environmental noises their mixed-state entanglement may abruptly become zero long before the noises are able to destroy the local qubit coherence. Despite the inability of unitary transformations to alter entanglement, for example of Werner states, unitary transformations have been found to delay or defeat the sudden death event. These results upset the conventional understanding that entanglement lifetime can be estimated from qubit lifetime. This is not even approximately or qualitatively true. (author)

  9. Scheme for entanglement concentration of unknown atomic entangled states by interference of polarized photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yanbian University, Yanji, Jilin 133002 (China); Yeon, Kyu-Hwang, E-mail: hfwang@ybu.edu.c, E-mail: szhang@ybu.edu.c [Department of Physics and BK21 Program for Device Physics, College of Natural Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-14

    Based on the interference effect of polarized photons, we propose a practical scheme for entanglement concentration of unknown atomic entangled states. In the scheme, two {lambda}{lambda}-type atoms belonging to different entangled pairs are individually trapped in two spatially separated cavities. By the subsequent detection of the polarized photons leaking out of the separate optical cavities, Alice and Bob as two distant parties can probabilistically extract one maximally entangled four-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state from two identical partially entangled Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. We also discuss the influence of cavity decay on the success probability of the scheme. The scheme is feasible and within the reach of current experimental technology.

  10. Entanglements in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renxuan; Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Caggiano, Nick; Gomez, Enrique; Colby, Ralph

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and poly-((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT), are widely used as hole and electron transport materials in a variety of electronic devices. However, fundamental knowledge regarding chain entanglements and nematic-to-isotropic transition is still lacking and are crucial to maximize charge transport properties. A systematic melt rheology study on P3HT with various molecular weights and regio regularities was performed. We find that the entanglement molecular weight Me is 5.0 kg/mol for regiorandom P3HT, but the apparent Me for regioregular P3HT is significantly higher. The difference is postulated to arise from the presence of a nematic phase only in regioregular P3HT. Analogously, PFTBT shows a clear rheological signature of the nematic-to-isotropic transition as a reversible sharp transition at 278 C. Shearing of this nematic phase leads to anisotropic crystalline order in PFTBT. We postulate that aligning the microstructure will impact charge transport and thereby advance the field of conducting polymers. National Science Foundation.

  11. Generalized Entanglement Entropies of Quantum Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Wen; Lloyd, Seth; Zhu, Elton Yechao; Zhu, Huangjun

    2018-03-01

    The entanglement properties of random quantum states or dynamics are important to the study of a broad spectrum of disciplines of physics, ranging from quantum information to high energy and many-body physics. This Letter investigates the interplay between the degrees of entanglement and randomness in pure states and unitary channels. We reveal strong connections between designs (distributions of states or unitaries that match certain moments of the uniform Haar measure) and generalized entropies (entropic functions that depend on certain powers of the density operator), by showing that Rényi entanglement entropies averaged over designs of the same order are almost maximal. This strengthens the celebrated Page's theorem. Moreover, we find that designs of an order that is logarithmic in the dimension maximize all Rényi entanglement entropies and so are completely random in terms of the entanglement spectrum. Our results relate the behaviors of Rényi entanglement entropies to the complexity of scrambling and quantum chaos in terms of the degree of randomness, and suggest a generalization of the fast scrambling conjecture.

  12. Circuit QED: generation of two-transmon-qutrit entangled states via resonant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xi-Mei; Zheng, Zhen-Fei; Lu, Dao-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2018-04-01

    We present a way to create entangled states of two superconducting transmon qutrits based on circuit QED. Here, a qutrit refers to a three-level quantum system. Since only resonant interaction is employed, the entanglement creation can be completed within a short time. The degree of entanglement for the prepared entangled state can be controlled by varying the weight factors of the initial state of one qutrit, which allows the prepared entangled state to change from a partially entangled state to a maximally entangled state. Because a single cavity is used, only resonant interaction is employed, and none of identical qutrit-cavity coupling constant, measurement, and auxiliary qutrit is needed, this proposal is easy to implement in experiments. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to prepare a two-qutrit partially or maximally entangled state with two natural or artificial atoms of a ladder-type level structure, coupled to an optical or microwave cavity.

  13. Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-10-07

    We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.

  14. Entanglement capacity of nonlocal Hamiltonians: A geometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, Behzad; Hassan, Ali Saif M.; Joag, Pramod S.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a geometric approach to quantify the capability of creating entanglement for a general physical interaction acting on two qubits. We use the entanglement measure proposed by us for N-qubit pure states [Ali Saif M. Hassan and Pramod S. Joag, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062334 (2008)]. This geometric method has the distinct advantage that it gives the experimentally implementable criteria to ensure the optimal entanglement production rate without requiring a detailed knowledge of the state of the two qubit system. For the production of entanglement in practice, we need criteria for optimal entanglement production, which can be checked in situ without any need to know the state, as experimentally finding out the state of a quantum system is generally a formidable task. Further, we use our method to quantify the entanglement capacity in higher level and multipartite systems. We quantify the entanglement capacity for two qutrits and find the maximal entanglement generation rate and the corresponding state for the general isotropic interaction between qutrits, using the entanglement measure of N-qudit pure states proposed by us [Ali Saif M. Hassan and Pramod S. Joag, Phys. Rev. A 80, 042302 (2009)]. Next we quantify the genuine three qubit entanglement capacity for a general interaction between qubits. We obtain the maximum entanglement generation rate and the corresponding three qubit state for a general isotropic interaction between qubits. The state maximizing the entanglement generation rate is of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger class. To the best of our knowledge, the entanglement capacities for two qutrit and three qubit systems have not been reported earlier.

  15. Entanglement degradation in depolarizing light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the classical regime, when a beam of light is scattered by a medium, it may emerge partially or completely depolarized depending on the optical properties of the medium. Correspondingly, in the quantum regime, when an entangled two-photon pair is scattered, the classical depolarization may result in an entanglement degradation. Here, relations between photon scattering, entanglement and multi-mode detection are investigated. We establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed, and we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multi-mode detection. We show that any multi-mode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-CHSH inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes. (author)

  16. Multipartite entanglement via the Mayer-Vietoris theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrascu, Andrei T.

    2017-10-01

    The connection between entanglement and topology manifests itself in the form of the ER-EPR duality. This statement however refers to the maximally entangled states only. In this article I study the multipartite entanglement and the way in which it relates to the topological interpretation of the ER-EPR duality. The 2 dimensional genus 1 torus will be generalised to a n-dimensional general torus, where the information about the multipartite entanglement will be encoded in the higher inclusion maps of the Mayer-Vietorist sequence.

  17. Efficient electronic entanglement concentration assisted by single mobile electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan

    2013-01-01

    We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for mobile electrons with charge detection. This protocol is quite different from other ECPs for one can obtain a maximally entangled pair from a pair of less-entangled state and a single mobile electron with a certain probability. With the help of charge detection, it can be repeated to reach a higher success probability. It also does not need to know the coefficient of the original less-entangled states. All these advantages may make this protocol useful in current distributed quantum information processing

  18. Comment on ‘A scattering quantum circuit for measuring Bell's time inequality: a nuclear magnetic resonance demonstration using maximally mixed states’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, G C; Briggs, G A D; Benjamin, S C; Gauger, E M

    2012-01-01

    A recent paper by Souza, Oliveira and Sarthour (SOS) reports the experimental violation of a Leggett-Garg (LG) inequality (sometimes referred to as a temporal Bell inequality). The inequality tests for quantum mechanical superposition: if the inequality is violated, the dynamics cannot be explained by a large class of classical theories under the heading of macrorealism. Experimental tests of the LG inequality are beset by the difficulty of carrying out the necessary so-called ‘non-invasive’ measurements (which for the macrorealist will extract information from a system of interest without disturbing it). SOS argue that they nevertheless achieve this difficult goal by putting the system in a maximally mixed state. The system then allegedly undergoes no perturbation during their experiment. Unfortunately, the method is ultimately unconvincing to a skeptical macrorealist and so the conclusions drawn by SOS are unjustified. (comment)

  19. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  20. Entanglement in mesoscopic structures: Role of projection

    OpenAIRE

    Beenakker, C.W.J.; Lebedev, A.V.; Blatter, G.; Lesovik, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the appearance of entanglement in non-interacting mesoscopic structures. Our setup involves two oppositely polarized sources injecting electrons of opposite spin into the two incoming leads. The mixing of these polarized streams in an ideal four-channel beam splitter produces two outgoing streams with particular tunable correlations. A Bell inequality test involving cross-correlated spin-currents in opposite leads signals the presence of spin-entanglement ...

  1. Entanglement without nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt-Horsman, C.; Vedral, V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the characterization of entanglement from the perspective of a Heisenberg formalism. We derive a two-party generalized separability criterion, and from this describe a physical understanding of entanglement. We find that entanglement may be considered as fundamentally a local effect, and therefore as a separate computational resource from nonlocality. We show how entanglement differs from correlation physically, and explore the implications of this concept of entanglement for the notion of classicality. We find that this understanding of entanglement extends naturally to multipartite cases

  2. A heralded two-qutrit entangled state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Sanders, Barry C; Rudolph, Terry

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for building a heralded two-qutrit entangled state from polarized photons. An optical circuit is presented to build the maximally entangled two-qutrit state from two heralded Bell pairs and ideal threshold detectors. Several schemes are discussed for constructing the two Bell pairs. We also show how one can produce an unbalanced two-qutrit state that could be of general purpose use in some protocols. In terms of the applications of the maximally entangled qutrit state, we mainly focus on how to use the state to demonstrate a violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality under the restriction of measurements which can be performed using linear optical elements and photon counting. Other possible applications of the state, such as for higher dimensional quantum cryptography, teleportation and generation of heralded two-qudit states, are also briefly discussed.

  3. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...

  4. Quantum entanglement and geometry of determinantal varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao

    2006-01-01

    Quantum entanglement was first recognized as a feature of quantum mechanics in the famous paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Recently it has been realized that quantum entanglement is a key ingredient in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography. In this paper, we introduce algebraic sets, which are determinantal varieties in the complex projective spaces or the products of complex projective spaces, for the mixed states on bipartite or multipartite quantum systems as their invariants under local unitary transformations. These invariants are naturally arised from the physical consideration of measuring mixed states by separable pure states. Our construction has applications in the following important topics in quantum information theory: (1) separability criterion, it is proved that the algebraic sets must be a union of the linear subspaces if the mixed states are separable; (2) simulation of Hamiltonians, it is proved that the simulation of semipositive Hamiltonians of the same rank implies the projective isomorphisms of the corresponding algebraic sets; (3) construction of bound entangled mixed states, examples of the entangled mixed states which are invariant under partial transpositions (thus PPT bound entanglement) are constructed systematically from our new separability criterion

  5. Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G

    2008-11-14

    Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies.

  6. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  7. The revised geometric measure of entanglement for isotropic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ya

    2011-01-01

    Based on the revised geometric measure of entanglement (RGME), we obtain the analytical expression of isotropic state and generalize to n-particle and d-dimension mixed state case. Meantime, we obtain the relation about isotropic state E-tilde sin 2 (ρ) ≤ E re (ρ). The results indicate RGME is an appropriate measure of entanglement. (authors)

  8. Entanglement swapping of noisy states: A kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Brukner, Caslav; Buzek, Vladimir; Zukowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We address the question as to whether an entangled state that satisfies local realism will give a violation of the same after entanglement swapping in a suitable scenario. We consider such a possibility as a kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality. Importantly, it will indicate that checking for violation of local realism, in the state obtained after entanglement swapping, can be a method for detecting entanglement in the input state of the swapping procedure. We investigate various entanglement swapping schemes, which involve mixed initial states. The strength of violation of local realism by the state obtained after entanglement swapping is compared with the one for the input states. We obtain a kind of superadditivity of violation of local realism for Werner states, consequent upon entanglement swapping involving Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state measurements. We also discuss whether entanglement swapping of specific states may be used in quantum repeaters with a substantially reduced need to perform the entanglement distillation step

  9. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  10. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  11. Holography and Entanglement in Flat Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a holographic correspondence of the flat spacetime based on the behavior of the entanglement entropy and the correlation functions. The holographic dual theory turns out to be highly nonlocal. We argue that after most part of the space is traced out, the reduced density matrix gives the maximal entropy and the correlation functions become trivial. We present a toy model for this holographic dual using a nonlocal scalar field theory that reproduces the same property of the entanglement entropy. Our conjecture is consistent with the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes in asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  12. Entanglement production in quantum decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum decision theory introduced recently is formulated as a quantum theory of measurement. It describes prospect states represented by complex vectors of a Hilbert space over a prospect lattice. The prospect operators, acting in this space, form an involutive bijective algebra. A measure is defined for quantifying the entanglement produced by the action of prospect operators. This measure characterizes the level of complexity of prospects involved in decision making. An explicit expression is found for the maximal entanglement produced by the operators of multimode prospects.

  13. Entanglement in a QFT Model of Neutrino Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.; Dell’Anno, F.; De Siena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Tools of quantum information theory can be exploited to provide a convenient description of the phenomena of particle mixing and flavor oscillations in terms of entanglement, a fundamental quantum resource. We extend such a picture to the domain of quantum field theory where, due to the nontrivial nature of flavor neutrino states, the presence of antiparticles provides additional contributions to flavor entanglement. We use a suitable entanglement measure, the concurrence, that allows extracting the two-mode (flavor) entanglement from the full multimode, multiparticle flavor neutrino states

  14. Inequalities detecting quantum entanglement for 2 x d systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingjing; Wang Zhixi; Ma Teng; Fei Shaoming

    2011-01-01

    We present a set of inequalities for detecting quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states. For 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems, the inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary separability conditions for both pure and mixed states. For the case of d>3, these inequalities are necessary conditions for separability, which detect all entangled states that are not positive under partial transposition and even some entangled states with positive partial transposition. These inequalities are given by mean values of local observables and present an experimental way of detecting the quantum entanglement of 2 x d quantum states and even multiqubit pure states.

  15. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-03-03

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  16. Tight upper bound for the maximal quantum value of the Svetlichny operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Shen, Shuqian; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2017-10-01

    It is a challenging task to detect genuine multipartite nonlocality (GMNL). In this paper, the problem is considered via computing the maximal quantum value of Svetlichny operators for three-qubit systems and a tight upper bound is obtained. The constraints on the quantum states for the tightness of the bound are also presented. The approach enables us to give the necessary and sufficient conditions of violating the Svetlichny inequality (SI) for several quantum states, including the white and color noised Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. The relation between the genuine multipartite entanglement concurrence and the maximal quantum value of the Svetlichny operators for mixed GHZ class states is also discussed. As the SI is useful for the investigation of GMNL, our results give an effective and operational method to detect the GMNL for three-qubit mixed states.

  17. Anomalies of the entanglement entropy in chiral theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Nabil [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wall, Aron C. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We study entanglement entropy in theories with gravitational or mixed U(1) gauge-gravitational anomalies in two, four and six dimensions. In such theories there is an anomaly in the entanglement entropy: it depends on the choice of reference frame in which the theory is regulated. We discuss subtleties regarding regulators and entanglement entropies in anomalous theories. We then study the entanglement entropy of free chiral fermions and self-dual bosons and show that in sufficiently symmetric situations this entanglement anomaly comes from an imbalance in the flux of modes flowing through the boundary, controlled by familiar index theorems. In two and four dimensions we use anomalous Ward identities to find general expressions for the transformation of the entanglement entropy under a diffeomorphism. (In the case of a mixed anomaly there is an alternative presentation of the theory in which the entanglement entropy is not invariant under a U(1) gauge transformation. The free-field manifestation of this phenomenon involves a novel kind of fermion zero mode on a gravitational background with a twist in the normal bundle to the entangling surface.) We also study d-dimensional anomalous systems as the boundaries of d+1 dimensional gapped Hall phases. Here the full system is non-anomalous, but the boundary anomaly manifests itself in a change in the entanglement entropy when the boundary metric is sheared relative to the bulk.

  18. Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.

  19. Accessibility of physical states and non-uniqueness of entanglement measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Santos, Marcelo Franca; Vedral, Vlatko

    2004-01-01

    Ordering physical states is the key to quantifying some physical property of the states uniquely. Bipartite pure entangled states are totally ordered under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) in the asymptotic limit and uniquely quantified by the well-known entropy of entanglement. However, we show that mixed entangled states are partially ordered under LOCC even in the asymptotic limit. Therefore, non-uniqueness of entanglement measure is understood on the basis of an operational notion of asymptotic convertibility

  20. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  1. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuai-Shuai; Shu Qi; Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan

    2017-01-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. (paper)

  2. Entanglement-assisted quantum MDS codes from negacyclic codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangdong; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena; Liu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The entanglement-assisted formalism generalizes the standard stabilizer formalism, which can transform arbitrary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. In this work, we construct six classes of q-ary entanglement-assisted quantum MDS (EAQMDS) codes based on classical negacyclic MDS codes by exploiting two or more pre-shared maximally entangled states. We show that two of these six classes q-ary EAQMDS have minimum distance more larger than q+1. Most of these q-ary EAQMDS codes are new in the sense that their parameters are not covered by the codes available in the literature.

  3. One-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification with linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Long, Gui Lu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Quantum Information and Measurements, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-01-09

    We present a one-step deterministic multipartite entanglement purification scheme for an N-photon system in a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state with linear optical elements. The parties in quantum communication can in principle obtain a maximally entangled state from each N-photon system with a success probability of 100%. That is, it does not consume the less-entangled photon systems largely, which is far different from other multipartite entanglement purification schemes. This feature maybe make this scheme more feasible in practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We proposed a deterministic entanglement purification scheme for GHZ states. ► The scheme uses only linear optical elements and has a success probability of 100%. ► The scheme gives a purified GHZ state in just one-step.

  4. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.

    2012-03-01

    High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

  5. Bipartite entanglement in continuous variable cluster states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, Hugo; Browne, Daniel E, E-mail: cqthvc@nus.edu.s, E-mail: d.browne@ucl.ac.u [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-11-15

    A study of the entanglement properties of Gaussian cluster states, proposed as a universal resource for continuous variable (CV) quantum computing is presented in this paper. The central aim is to compare mathematically idealized cluster states defined using quadrature eigenstates, which have infinite squeezing and cannot exist in nature, with Gaussian approximations that are experimentally accessible. Adopting widely used definitions, we first review the key concepts, by analysing a process of teleportation along a CV quantum wire in the language of matrix product states. Next we consider the bipartite entanglement properties of the wire, providing analytic results. We proceed to grid cluster states, which are universal for the qubit case. To extend our analysis of the bipartite entanglement, we adopt the entropic-entanglement width, a specialized entanglement measure introduced recently by Van den Nest et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 150504), adapting their definition to the CV context. Finally, we consider the effects of photonic loss, extending our arguments to mixed states. Cumulatively our results point to key differences in the properties of idealized and Gaussian cluster states. Even modest loss rates are found to strongly limit the amount of entanglement. We discuss the implications for the potential of CV analogues for measurement-based quantum computation.

  6. Majorana entanglement bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, Stephan; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold

    2015-06-01

    We study the concurrence of entanglement between two quantum dots in contact to Majorana bound states on a floating superconducting island. The distance between the Majorana states, the charging energy of the island, and the average island charge are shown to be decisive parameters for the efficiency of entanglement generation. We find that long-range entanglement with basically distance-independent concurrence is possible over wide parameter regions, where the proposed setup realizes a "Majorana entanglement bridge." We also study the time-dependent concurrence obtained after one of the tunnel couplings is suddenly switched on, which reveals the time scales for generating entanglement. Accurate analytical expressions for the concurrence are derived both for the static and the time-dependent cases. Our results indicate that entanglement formation in interacting Majorana devices can be fully understood in terms of an interplay of elastic cotunneling (also referred to as "teleportation") and crossed Andreev reflection processes.

  7. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  8. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise

  9. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  10. Remarks on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daegene

    2004-01-01

    In two partially entangled states, entanglement swapping by Bell measurement will yield the weaker entanglement of the two. This scheme is optimal because the average entanglement cannot increase under local operation and classical communication. However, for more than two states, this scheme does not always yield the weakest link. We consider projective measurements other than Bell-type measurement and show, numerically, that while Bell measurement may not be unique, it is indeed optimal among these projective measurements. We also discuss the non-uniqueness of Bell measurements. (letter to the editor)

  11. Probabilistic Teleportation of a Four-Particle Entangled W State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN You-Bang; FU Hao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, two schemes for teleporting an unknown four-particle entangled W state is proposed. In the first scheme, two partial entangled four-particle states are used as quantum channels, while in the second scheme,four non-maximally entangled particle pairs are considered as quantum channels. It is shown that the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both schemes, if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is also shown that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.

  12. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  13. Microscopic wormholes and the geometry of entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    It has recently been suggested that Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair. This relationship has been dubbed as the ER = EPR correlation. In this work, we consider the latter conjecture in the context of quadratic Palatini theory. An important result, which stems from the underlying assumptions as regards the geometry on which the theory is constructed, is the fact that all the charged solutions of the quadratic Palatini theory possess a wormhole structure. Our results show that spacetime may have a foam like microstructure with wormholes generated by fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. This involves the spontaneous creation/annihilation of entangled particle-antiparticle pairs, existing in a maximally entangled state connected by a nontraversable wormhole. Since the particles are produced from the vacuum and therefore exist in a singlet state, they are necessarily entangled with one another. This gives further support to the ER = EPR claim. (orig.)

  14. Effects of three-body interactions on the dynamics of entanglement in spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Cuihua; Wu Yinzhong; Li Zhenya

    2009-01-01

    With the consideration of three-body interaction, dynamics of pairwise entanglement in spin chains is studied. The dependence of pairwise entanglement dynamics on the type of coupling, and distance between the spins is analyzed in a finite chain for different initial states. It is found that, for an Ising chain, three-body interactions are not in favor of preparing entanglement between the nearest neighbor spins, while three-body interactions are favorable for creating entanglement between remote spins from a separable initial state. For an isotropic Heisenberg chain, the pairwise concurrence will decrease when three-body interactions are considered both for a separable initial state and for a maximally entangled initial state, however, three-body interactions will retard the decay of the concurrence in an Ising chain when the initial state takes the maximally entangled state.

  15. Complete hierarchies of efficient approximations to problems in entanglement theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, Jens; Hyllus, Philipp; Guehne, Otfried; Curty, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    We investigate several problems in entanglement theory from the perspective of convex optimization. This list of problems comprises (A) the decision whether a state is multiparty entangled, (B) the minimization of expectation values of entanglement witnesses with respect to pure product states, (C) the closely related evaluation of the geometric measure of entanglement to quantify pure multiparty entanglement, (D) the test whether states are multiparty entangled on the basis of witnesses based on second moments and on the basis of linear entropic criteria, and (E) the evaluation of instances of maximal output purities of quantum channels. We show that these problems can be formulated as certain optimization problems: as polynomially constrained problems employing polynomials of degree 3 or less. We then apply very recently established known methods from the theory of semidefinite relaxations to the formulated optimization problems. By this construction we arrive at a hierarchy of efficiently solvable approximations to the solution, approximating the exact solution as closely as desired, in a way that is asymptotically complete. For example, this results in a hierarchy of efficiently decidable sufficient criteria for multiparticle entanglement, such that every entangled state will necessarily be detected in some step of the hierarchy. Finally, we present numerical examples to demonstrate the practical accessibility of this approach

  16. Effect of mode–mode competition on atom–atom entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wu; Mao-Fa, Fang; Jian-Wu, Cai

    2010-01-01

    A system consisting of two atoms interacting with a two-mode vacuum is considered, where each atom is resonant with the two cavity modes through two different competing transitions. The effect of mode–mode competition on the atom–atom entanglement is investigated. We find that the entanglement between the two atoms can be induced by the mode–mode competition. For the initial atomic state |Ψ(0)}, whether the atoms are initially separated or entangled, a large or even maximal entanglement between them can be obtained periodically by introducing the mode–mode competition. For the initial atomic state |Φ(0)}, the strong mode–mode competition can prevent the two atoms entangled initially from suffering entanglement sudden death; besides, it makes them in a more stable and longer-lived entanglement than in the non-competition case. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. Multi-photon entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, M.L.

    2000-09-01

    The motivation of this thesis was to create higher-order entanglements. The first experimental observation of a four-photon entanglement was presented in the experiment of this thesis. And the visibility of this entanglement was 0.79+-0.06, which is sufficient to make claims of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. This therefore lays a foundation for experiments showing the nonlocality of teleportation, and the purification of entanglement. The work of this thesis brings together a lot of earlier work done by the Zeilinger Group, and lays a foundation for future experiments. Earlier experiments such as teleportation together with entanglement swapping, which are 'complete teleportation' in as much as the state teleported is entirely undefined, can be combined and re-done with this four-photon entanglement. This result would be the first demonstration of complete, nonlocal teleportation. Also this experiment can be slightly modified and used to perform the first experimental quantum purification of entanglement, which is of vital importance to the fields of quantum information, and also is interesting for fundamental experiments on entanglement. Another direct application of this experiment is to perform the first 'event-ready' testing of Bell's Inequality. Here the four-photon entanglement can be used as a source of entangled photons, whereby the photons have no common source. This would enable an even more stringent testing of Bells theorem. Finally this experiment can be used for the demonstration and investigation of many practical, directly applicable quantum information schemes. For instance quantum cryptography, error correction, and computing. (author)

  18. Coherence and entanglement measures based on Rényi relative entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2017-01-01

    We study systematically resource measures of coherence and entanglement based on Rényi relative entropies, which include the logarithmic robustness of coherence, geometric coherence, and conventional relative entropy of coherence together with their entanglement analogues. First, we show that each Rényi relative entropy of coherence is equal to the corresponding Rényi relative entropy of entanglement for any maximally correlated state. By virtue of this observation, we establish a simple operational connection between entanglement measures and coherence measures based on Rényi relative entropies. We then prove that all these coherence measures, including the logarithmic robustness of coherence, are additive. Accordingly, all these entanglement measures are additive for maximally correlated states. In addition, we derive analytical formulas for Rényi relative entropies of entanglement of maximally correlated states and bipartite pure states, which reproduce a number of classic results on the relative entropy of entanglement and logarithmic robustness of entanglement in a unified framework. Several nontrivial bounds for Rényi relative entropies of coherence (entanglement) are further derived, which improve over results known previously. Moreover, we determine all states whose relative entropy of coherence is equal to the logarithmic robustness of coherence. As an application, we provide an upper bound for the exact coherence distillation rate, which is saturated for pure states. (paper)

  19. Generation and control of electronic hybrid entanglement via a two-dimensional Rashba anisotropic nanodot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, F.; Rastgoo, S.; Golshan, M.M., E-mail: golshan@susc.ac.ir

    2014-06-13

    In the present article we report the dynamics of electronic spin–subbands, as well as subband–subband, hybrid entanglements in a two-dimensional anisotropic quantum dot. The dot is under the influence of Rashba effect and an external magnetic field. To study the hybrid entanglements, we partition the system into two categories in which either spatial degrees of freedom, subbands, entangle with the spin or the subbands become entangled amongst themselves. For the first case we calculate the von Neumann entropy, while for the latter the negativity is calculated. Our calculations show that for both cases information is periodically distributed between the corresponding subspaces. Effects of Rashba parameter and magnetic field on the characteristics of such oscillatory behavior are also discussed. For spin–subband entanglement the oscillations include dips, surrounded by plateaus of maximal entanglement. The subband–subband entanglement shows vanishingly small plateaus. The duration of plateaus is controlled by Rashba coupling and the external field. - Highlights: • Dynamics of hybrid entanglements in a parabolic 2-dimensional electron gas is reported. • The electron gas is influenced by the Rashba spin–orbit coupling and a magnetic field. • Spin–subband entanglement exhibits oscillations with dips and maximal plateaus. • Subband–subband entanglement also oscillates, but with vanishingly small plateaus. • The vigilance of plateaus is controllable by the Rashba effect and/or the field.

  20. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  1. Optimal estimation of entanglement in optical qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Florio, Angela; Genovese, Marco; Meda, Alice; Shurupov, Alexander P.; Giorda, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We address the experimental determination of entanglement for systems made of a pair of polarization qubits. We exploit quantum estimation theory to derive optimal estimators, which are then implemented to achieve ultimate bound to precision. In particular, we present a set of experiments aimed at measuring the amount of entanglement for states belonging to different families of pure and mixed two-qubit two-photon states. Our scheme is based on visibility measurements of quantum correlations and achieves the ultimate precision allowed by quantum mechanics in the limit of Poissonian distribution of coincidence counts. Although optimal estimation of entanglement does not require the full tomography of the states we have also performed state reconstruction using two different sets of tomographic projectors and explicitly shown that they provide a less precise determination of entanglement. The use of optimal estimators also allows us to compare and statistically assess the different noise models used to describe decoherence effects occurring in the generation of entanglement.

  2. Entanglement dynamics of three-qubit states in noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siomau, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu (Finland); Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The implementation of schemes for quantum teleportation requires the quantification of entanglement for states that, in general, are mixed due to the interaction with the environment. We study the entanglement dynamics of three-qubit GHZ and W states under the influence of the environment. As noise models for the influence of the environment we use {sigma}{sub z}, {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y} Pauli as well as the depolarizing channel. The entanglement of the states is quantified with the lower bound to the three-qubit concurrence. We show that the GHZ state preserves more entanglement than the W state in transmission through {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y} Pauli and the depolarizing channels. For {sigma}{sub z} Pauli channel, in contrast, the W state preserves more entanglement than the GHZ state.

  3. Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.

    Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.

  4. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  5. Extremal entanglement and mixedness in continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between mixedness and entanglement for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We introduce generalized entropies based on Schatten p norms to quantify the mixedness of a state and derive their explicit expressions in terms of symplectic spectra. We compare the hierarchies of mixedness provided by such measures with the one provided by the purity (defined as tr ρ 2 for the state ρ) for generic n-mode states. We then review the analysis proving the existence of both maximally and minimally entangled states at given global and marginal purities, with the entanglement quantified by the logarithmic negativity. Based on these results, we extend such an analysis to generalized entropies, introducing and fully characterizing maximally and minimally entangled states for given global and local generalized entropies. We compare the different roles played by the purity and by the generalized p entropies in quantifying the entanglement and the mixedness of continuous variable systems. We introduce the concept of average logarithmic negativity, showing that it allows a reliable quantitative estimate of continuous variable entanglement by direct measurements of global and marginal generalized p entropies

  6. Multiple-copy entanglement transformation and entanglement catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Runyao; Feng Yuan; Li Xin; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    We prove that any multiple-copy entanglement transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)] can be implemented by a suitable entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)]. Furthermore, we show that the combination of multiple-copy entanglement transformation and the entanglement-assisted one is still equivalent to the pure entanglement-assisted one. The mathematical structure of multiple-copy entanglement transformations then is carefully investigated. Many interesting properties of multiple-copy entanglement transformations are presented, which exactly coincide with those satisfied by the entanglement-assisted ones. Most interestingly, we show that an arbitrarily large number of copies of state should be considered in multiple-copy entanglement transformations

  7. Universal quantum entanglement between an oscillator and continuous fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Haixing; Danilishin, Stefan; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    Quantum entanglement has been actively sought in optomechanical and electromechanical systems. The simplest system is a mechanical oscillator interacting with a coherent optical field, while the oscillator also suffers from thermal decoherence. With a rigorous functional analysis, we develop a mathematical framework for treating quantum entanglement that involves infinite degrees of freedom. We show that the quantum entanglement is always present between the oscillator and continuous optical field--even when the environmental temperature is high and the oscillator is highly classical. Such a universal entanglement is also shown to be able to survive more than one mechanical oscillation period if the characteristic frequency of the optomechanical interaction is larger than that of the thermal noise. In addition, we introduce effective optical modes that are ordered by the entanglement strength to better understand the entanglement structure, analogously to the energy spectrum of an atomic system. In particular, we derive the optical mode that is maximally entangled with the mechanical oscillator, which will be useful for future quantum computing and encoding information into mechanical degrees of freedom.

  8. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  9. Witnessing entanglement by proxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Bruß, Dagmar; Kampermann, Hermann; Huber, Marcus; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement is a ubiquitous feature of low temperature systems and believed to be highly relevant for the dynamics of condensed matter properties and quantum computation even at higher temperatures. The experimental certification of this paradigmatic quantum effect in macroscopic high temperature systems is constrained by the limited access to the quantum state of the system. In this paper we show how macroscopic observables beyond the mean energy of the system can be exploited as proxy witnesses for entanglement detection. Using linear and semi-definite relaxations we show that all previous approaches to this problem can be outperformed by our proxies, i.e. entanglement can be certified at higher temperatures without access to any local observable. For an efficient computation of proxy witnesses one can resort to a generalised grand canonical ensemble, enabling entanglement certification even in complex systems with macroscopic particle numbers. (paper)

  10. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  11. Sudden birth versus sudden death of entanglement for the extended Werner-like state in a dissipative environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan-Jia, Shan; Tao, Chen; Ji-Bing, Liu; Wei-Wen, Cheng; Tang-Kun, Liu; Yan-Xia, Huang; Hong, Li

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival. (general)

  12. Teleportation of a Coherent Superposition State Via a nonmaximally Entangled Coherent Xhannel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ We investigate the problemm of teleportation of a superposition coherent state with nonmaximally entangled coherent channel. Two strategies are considered to complete the task. The first one uses entanglement concentration to purify the channel to a maximally entangled one. The second one teleports the state through the nonmaximally entangled coherent channel directly. We find that the probabilities of successful teleportations for the two strategies are depend on the amplitudes of the coherent states and the mean fidelity of teleportation using the first strategy is always less than that of the second strategy.

  13. Transplanckian entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli

    2004-01-01

    The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation

  14. Selective Extraction of Entangled Textures via Adaptive PDE Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture and feature extraction is an important research area with a wide range of applications in science and technology. Selective extraction of entangled textures is a challenging task due to spatial entanglement, orientation mixing, and high-frequency overlapping. The partial differential equation (PDE transform is an efficient method for functional mode decomposition. The present work introduces adaptive PDE transform algorithm to appropriately threshold the statistical variance of the local variation of functional modes. The proposed adaptive PDE transform is applied to the selective extraction of entangled textures. Successful separations of human face, clothes, background, natural landscape, text, forest, camouflaged sniper and neuron skeletons have validated the proposed method.

  15. Multipartite entanglement and firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminate the need for a firewall. Specifically, we constructed a toy model for black hole decay which has different entanglement behavior than that assumed by AMPS. We discuss the additional steps that would be needed to bring lessons from our toy model to our understanding of realistic black holes.

  16. Single-copy entanglement in critical quantum spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, J.; Cramer, M.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the single-copy entanglement as a quantity to assess quantum correlations in the ground state in quantum many-body systems. We show for a large class of models that already on the level of single specimens of spin chains, criticality is accompanied with the possibility of distilling a maximally entangled state of arbitrary dimension from a sufficiently large block deterministically, with local operations and classical communication. These analytical results--which refine previous results on the divergence of block entropy as the rate at which maximally entangled pairs can be distilled from many identically prepared chains--are made quantitative for general isotropic translationally invariant spin chains that can be mapped onto a quasifree fermionic system, and for the anisotropic XY model. For the XX model, we provide the asymptotic scaling of ∼(1/6)log 2 (L), and contrast it with the block entropy

  17. Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu-Bo; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2010-04-01

    We present an efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel. The basic idea in the present scheme is that two parties in quantum communication first transmit the entangled states in the frequency degree of freedom which suffers little from the noise in an optical fiber. After the two parties share the photon pairs, they add some operations and equipments to transfer the frequency entanglement of pairs into the polarization entanglement with the success probability of 100%. Finally, they can get maximally entangled polarization states with polarization independent wavelength division multiplexers and quantum frequency up-conversion which can erase distinguishability for frequency. Compared with conventional entanglement purification protocols, the present scheme works in a deterministic way in principle. Surprisingly, the collective noise leads to an additional advantage.

  18. Entanglement of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-symmetric states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens

    2012-01-13

    The first characterization of mixed-state entanglement was achieved for two-qubit states in Werner's seminal work [Phys. Rev. A 40, 4277 (1989)]. A physically important extension concerns mixtures of a pure entangled state [such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state] and the unpolarized state. These mixed states serve as benchmark for the robustness of multipartite entanglement. They share the symmetries of the GHZ state. We call such states GHZ symmetric. Here we give a complete description of the entanglement in the family of three-qubit GHZ-symmetric states and, in particular, of the three-qubit generalized Werner states. Our method relies on the appropriate parametrization of the states and on the invariance of entanglement properties under general local operations. An application is the definition of a symmetrization witness for the entanglement class of arbitrary three-qubit states.

  19. Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.

  20. Device-independent entanglement certification of all entangled states

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Joseph; Šupić, Ivan; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Acín, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We present a method to certify the entanglement of all bipartite entangled quantum states in a device-independent way. This is achieved by placing the state in a quantum network and constructing a correlation inequality based on an entanglement witness for the state. Our method is device-independent, in the sense that entanglement can be certified from the observed statistics alone, under minimal assumptions on the underlying physics. Conceptually, our results borrow ideas from the field of s...

  1. When catalysis is useful for probabilistic entanglement transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng

    2004-01-01

    We determine all 2x2 quantum states that can serve as useful catalysts for a given probabilistic entanglement transformation, in the sense that they can increase the maximal transformation probability. When higher-dimensional catalysts are considered, a sufficient and necessary condition is derived under which a certain probabilistic transformation has useful catalysts

  2. Electron entanglement near a superconductor and Bell inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the case of energy filters, Bell-inequality checks constitute a definite probe of entanglement. We formulate Bell-type inequalities in terms of current–current cross-correlations associated with contacts with varying magnetization orientations. We find maximal violation (as in photons) when a superconductor is the particle ...

  3. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  4. Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University,Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP),Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)

    2016-10-06

    The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.

  5. Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.

  6. Impact of quantum–classical correspondence on entanglement enhancement by single-mode squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Sijo K.; Chew, Lock Yue; Sanjuán, Miguel A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum entanglement between two field modes can be achieved through the collective squeezing of the two respective modes. If single-mode squeezing is performed prior to such a two-mode squeezing, an enhancement of entanglement production can happen. Interestingly, the occurrence of this enhancement can be implicitly linked to the local classical dynamical behavior via the paradigm of quantum–classical correspondence. In particular, the entanglement generated through quantum chaos is found to be hardly enhanced by prior squeezing, since it is bounded by the saturation value of the maximally entangled Schmidt state with fixed energy. These results illustrate that entanglement enhancement via initial squeezing can serve as a useful indicator of quantum chaotic behaviour. - Highlights: • Continuous-variable entanglement is explored in the Pullen–Edmonds Hamiltonian. • The local phase-space structure and the entanglement enhancement are related. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is smaller for the chaotic orbit. • Entanglement enhancement via squeezing is higher for the regular orbit. • The magnitude of the entanglement enhancement serves as a quantum-chaos indicator

  7. Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plenio, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)

  8. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, H. M.; Jones, S. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schrodinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict ...

  9. Efficient entanglement purification for polarization logic Bell state with the photonic Faraday rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Logic-qubit entanglement is a promising resource in quantum information processing, especially in future large-scale quantum networks. In the paper, we put forward an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for nonlocal mixed logic entangled states with the bit-flip error in the logic qubits of the logic Bell state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity and atomic state measurement. Different from existing EPPs, this protocol can also purify the logic p...

  10. Cosmological quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2012-01-01

    We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this transition in a rigorous way and discuss the importance of entanglement and decoherence in this process. We conclude with some prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area. These include extensions of current theoretical efforts, possible future observational pursuits, and experimental analogues that emulate these cosmic effects in a laboratory setting. (paper)

  11. Optimization of entanglement witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, M.; Kraus, B.; Cirac, J. I.; Horodecki, P.

    2000-11-01

    An entanglement witness (EW) is an operator that allows the detection of entangled states. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such operators to be optimal, i.e., to detect entangled states in an optimal way. We show how to optimize general EW, and then we particularize our results to the nondecomposable ones; the latter are those that can detect positive partial transpose entangled states (PPTES's). We also present a method to systematically construct and optimize this last class of operators based on the existence of ``edge'' PPTES's, i.e., states that violate the range separability criterion [Phys. Lett. A 232, 333 (1997)] in an extreme manner. This method also permits a systematic construction of nondecomposable positive maps (PM's). Our results lead to a sufficient condition for entanglement in terms of nondecomposable EW's and PM's. Finally, we illustrate our results by constructing optimal EW acting on H=C2⊗C4. The corresponding PM's constitute examples of PM's with minimal ``qubit'' domains, or-equivalently-minimal Hermitian conjugate codomains.

  12. Entanglement witness via quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiadong; Ding, Zhiyong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan; Yu, Lizhi; Sun, Wenyang; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-12-01

    By virtue of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (EUR), we analyze entanglement witness via the efficiencies of the estimates proposed by Berta (2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) and Pati (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 042105). The results show that, without a structured reservoir, the entanglement regions witnessed by these EUR estimates are only determined by the chosen estimated setup, and have no correlation with the explicit form of the initial state. On the other hand, with the structured reservoirs, the time regions during which the entanglement can be witnessed, and the corresponding entanglement regions closely depend on the choice of the estimated setup, the initial state and the state purity p . Concretely, for a pure state with p=1 , the entanglement can be witnessed by both estimates, while for mixed states with p=0.78 , it can only be witnessed using the Pati estimate. What is more, we find that the time regions incorporating the Pati estimate become discontinuous for the initial state with ≤ft| {{φ }\\prime } \\right> ={≤ft(≤ft| 01 \\right> +≤ft| 10 \\right> \\right)}/{\\sqrt{2}} , and the corresponding entanglement regions remain the same; however the entanglement can only be witnessed once by utilizing the Berta estimate.

  13. Universal entanglement transformations without communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Wim van; Hayden, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We show that in the presence of finite catalysts, any pure bipartite entangled state can be converted into any other, to unlimited accuracy, without the use of any communication, quantum or classical. We call this process embezzling entanglement because it involves removing a small amount of entanglement from the catalyst in a physically unnoticeable way

  14. Quantum Statistics and Entanglement Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, L. E. H.; Lumsden, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Interpretations of quantum measurement theory have been plagued by two questions, one concerning the role of observer consciousness and the other the entanglement phenomenon arising from the superposition of quantum states. We emphasize here the remarkable role of quantum statistics in describing the entanglement problem correctly and discuss the relationship to issues arising from current discussions of intelligent observers in entangled, decohering quantum worlds.

  15. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  16. Images in quantum entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-28

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction {psi}{sub O} plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: {psi}= 1/{radical}2 ({psi}{sub O}{+-}{psi}{sub I} ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle {nu}{sub 123} entanglement, two-particle entanglements {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23} and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters {nu}{sub 12}, {nu}{sub 13}, {nu}{sub 23}, {nu}{sub 123} and {phi}{sub 123} are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function ({alpha}{sub 1}, {beta}{sub 1}), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  17. Images in quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G J

    2009-01-01

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction Ψ O plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: Ψ= 1/√2 (Ψ O ±Ψ I ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle ν 123 entanglement, two-particle entanglements ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters ν 12 , ν 13 , ν 23 , ν 123 and φ 123 are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function (α 1 , β 1 ), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  18. Entanglement between electronic states in silicene and photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastgoo, S. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirkani, H. [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golshan, M.M., E-mail: golshan@susc.ac.ir [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-12

    Temporal behavior of entanglement between electrons in silicene and single mode radiations is reported. We show that the corresponding total Hamiltonian and time evolution operators are block diagonal. Initial states are divided into two categories for which buckling and the intrinsic spin–orbit effects are either of opposite or the same signs. Negativity shows that π-electrons and photons periodically become entangled for both categories. The entanglement spontaneously shows abrupt variations when buckling and the spin–orbit effects are equal but opposite in sign, leading to quantum phase transitions. As photonic excitations increase, the entanglement exhibits plateaus of constant durations for such initial states. - Highlights: • Time evolution of entanglement between π-electrons and photons in silicene is reported. • Intrinsic spin–orbit coupling (ISOC) and buckling effect (BE) are taken into account. • Initial states with ISOC and BE of opposite signs show quantum phase transitions. • Quantum phase transitions spontaneously occur when ISOC is equal to BE. • Periodic plateaus of maximal entanglement are observed for high photonic excitations.

  19. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Marzolino, U; Parisi, G

    2010-01-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  20. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Marzolino, U.; Parisi, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2010-02-01

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  1. Multipartite entanglement and frustration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Marzolino, U [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Parisi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Centre for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), CNR-INFM, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.facchi@ba.infn.it

    2010-02-15

    Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration will arise. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.

  2. Entanglement in miscible blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The entanglement length Le of polymer chains (corresponding to the entanglement molecular weight Me) is not an intrinsic material parameter but changes with the interaction with surrounding chains. For miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(tert-butyl styrene) (PtBS), changes of Le on blending was examined. It turned out that the Le averaged over the number fractions of the Kuhn segments of the components (PI and PtBS) satisfactorily describes the viscoelastic behavior of pseudo-monodisperse blends in which the terminal relaxation time is the same for PI and PtBS.

  3. Wormholes and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John C Baez; Vicary, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Maldacena and Susskind have proposed a correspondence between wormholes and entanglement, dubbed ER=EPR. We study this in the context of three-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where we show that the formation of a wormhole is the same process as creating a particle–antiparticle pair. A key feature of the ER=EPR proposal is that certain apparently entangled degrees of freedom turn out to be the same. We name this phenomenon ‘fake entanglement’, and show how it arises in our TQFT model. (paper)

  4. Generating continuous variable optical quantum states and entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.K.; Bowen, W.P.; Schnabel, R.; Treps, N.; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.-A.; Ralph, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quantum information research has recently been shown to have many applications in the field of communication and information processing. Quantum states and entanglement play a central role to almost all quantum information protocols, and form the basic building blocks for larger quantum information networks. We present an overview of the research activities at the quantum optics group at the ANU relating to this area. In particular, we demonstrate technology to suppress the noise on a coherent laser beam to below that of even vacuum. This quantum state of light is called 'squeezed light'. We show experimentally that by mixing two squeezed beams on a beam splitter, a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled beams can be created. This kind of entanglement exhibits below shot noise correlations between both the phase and amplitude quandratures of two beams. Our experimental results show conclusively that our entangled beams demonstrate the famous EPR paradox

  5. Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations

  6. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  7. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check for bound entanglement where appropiate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes...

  8. Necessary and sufficient condition for distillability with unit fidelity from finite copies of a mixed state: The most efficient purification protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Liang Linmei; Li Chengzu; Huang Mingqiu

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that any entangled mixed state in 2x2 systems can be purified via infinite copies of the mixed state. But, can one distill a pure maximally entangled state from finite copies of a mixed state in any bipartite system by local operation and classical communication? This is more meaningful in practical application. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for this distillability. This condition requires that there exist distillable subspaces. According to this condition, one can judge easily whether a mixed state is distillable or not. We also analyze some properties of distillable subspaces, and discuss the most efficient purification protocol. Finally, we discuss the distillable enanglement of a two-qubit system for the case of finite copies

  9. Entanglement-assisted quantum parameter estimation from a noisy qubit pair: A Fisher information analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeau-Blondeau, François, E-mail: chapeau@univ-angers.fr

    2017-04-25

    Benefit from entanglement in quantum parameter estimation in the presence of noise or decoherence is investigated, with the quantum Fisher information to asses the performance. When an input probe experiences any (noisy) transformation introducing the parameter dependence, the performance is always maximized by a pure probe. As a generic estimation task, for estimating the phase of a unitary transformation on a qubit affected by depolarizing noise, the optimal separable probe and its performance are characterized as a function of the level of noise. By entangling qubits in pairs, enhancements of performance over that of the optimal separable probe are quantified, in various settings of the entangled pair. In particular, in the presence of the noise, enhancement over the performance of the one-qubit optimal probe can always be obtained with a second entangled qubit although never interacting with the process to be estimated. Also, enhancement over the performance of the two-qubit optimal separable probe can always be achieved by a two-qubit entangled probe, either partially or maximally entangled depending on the level of the depolarizing noise. - Highlights: • Quantum parameter estimation from a noisy qubit pair is investigated. • The quantum Fisher information is used to assess the ultimate best performance. • Theoretical expressions are established and analyzed for the Fisher information. • Enhanced performances are quantified with various entanglements of the pair. • Enhancement is shown even with one entangled qubit noninteracting with the process.

  10. Monogamy of entanglement and teleportation capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soojoon; Park, Jungjoon

    2009-01-01

    The monogamy inequality in terms of the concurrence, called the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality [V. Coffman et al., Phys. Rev. A 61, 052306 (2000)], and its generalization [T. J. Osborne and F. Verstraete, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 220503 (2006)] hold on general n-qubit states including mixed ones. In this Brief Report, we consider the monogamy inequalities in terms of the fully entangled fraction and the teleportation fidelity. We show that the monogamy inequalities do not hold on general mixed states, while the inequalities hold on n-qubit pure states.

  11. Additional Quantum Properties of Entangled Bipartite Qubit Systems Coupled to Photon Baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, C

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution of an entangled bi-partite qubit interacting with two independent photon baths in isolated cavities is not unitary. It is shown that the bi-partite qubit oscillates between pure and mixed states, and that the initial entanglement is lost and recovered in time by time as a consequence of its interaction with the baths. (paper)

  12. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R

    2016-12-20

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  13. Experimental test of entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Duan, Lu-Ming; Hou, Pan-Yu; Wilczek, Frank; Xu, Da; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Zu, Chong

    2017-12-01

    Entangled histories arise when a system partially decoheres in such a way that its past cannot be described by a sequence of states, but rather a superposition of sequences of states. Such entangled histories have not been previously observed. We propose and demonstrate the first experimental scheme to create entangled history states of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type. In our experiment, the polarization states of a single photon at three different times are prepared as a GHZ entangled history state. We define a GHZ functional which attains a maximum value 1 on the ideal GHZ entangled history state and is bounded above by 1 / 16 for any three-time history state lacking tripartite entanglement. We have measured the GHZ functional on a state we have prepared experimentally, yielding a value of 0 . 656 ± 0 . 005, clearly demonstrating the contribution of entangled histories.

  14. Nonlocality and Multipartite Entanglement in Asymptotically Flat Space-Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Shahpoor; Amiri, Firouz

    2016-01-01

    We study the Bell's inequality and multipartite entanglement generation for initially maximally entangled states of free Dirac field in a non inertial frame and asymptotically flat Robertson–Walker space-time. For two qubit case, we show that the Bell's inequality always is violated as measured by the accelerated observers which are in the causally connected regions. On the other hand, for those observers in the causally disconnected regions inequality is not violated for any values of acceleration. The generated three qubit state from two qubit state due to acceleration of one parties has a zero 3-tangle. For a three qubit state, the inequality violated for measurements done by both causally connected and disconnected observers. Initially GHZ state with non zero 3-tangle, in accelerated frame, transformed to a four qubit state with vanishing 4-tangle value. On the other hand, for a W-state with zero 3-tangle, in non inertial frame, transformed to a four qubit state with a non-zero 4-tangle acceleration dependent. In an expanding space-time with asymptotically flat regions, for an initially maximally entangled state, the maximum value of violation of Bell's inequality in the far past decreased in the far future due to cosmological particle creation. For some initially maximally entangled states, the generated four qubit state due to expansion of space-time, has non vanishing 4-tangle. (paper)

  15. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  16. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  17. Facets of tripartite entanglement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum mechanical correlations between results of measurments on entangled ..... It is interesting that motivation underpinning Einstein locality is not the relativistic re- quirement of no faster-than-light signalling but rather a consideration related .... of the relevant studies see, for instance, D Home, Conceptual foundations.

  18. Topological network entanglement as order parameter for the emergence of geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2017-01-01

    We show that, in discrete models of quantum gravity, emergent geometric space can be viewed as the entanglement pattern in a mixed quantum state of the ‘universe’, characterized by a universal topological network entanglement. As a concrete example we analyze the recently proposed model in which geometry emerges due to the condensation of 4-cycles in random regular bipartite graphs, driven by the combinatorial Ollivier–Ricci curvature. Using this model we show that the emergence of geometric order decreases the entanglement entropy of random configurations. The lowest geometric entanglement entropy is realized in four dimensions. (paper)

  19. Experimental detection of nonclassical correlations in mixed-state quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passante, G.; Moussa, O.; Trottier, D. A.; Laflamme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment to detect nonclassical correlations in a highly mixed state. The correlations are characterized by the quantum discord and are observed using four qubits in a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The state analyzed is the output of a DQC1 computation, whose input is a single quantum bit accompanied by n maximally mixed qubits. This model of computation outperforms the best known classical algorithms and, although it contains vanishing entanglement, it is known to have quantum correlations characterized by the quantum discord. This experiment detects nonvanishing quantum discord, ensuring the existence of nonclassical correlations as measured by the quantum discord.

  20. Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantcheff, M.B. [IFLP-CONICET CC 67, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadelha, Alexandre L. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Marchioro, Dafni F.Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciencias da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacuum state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017). (orig.)

  1. Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz

    2018-02-01

    In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacumm state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017).

  2. Quantum entanglement in inhomogeneous 1D systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement entropy of the ground state of a quantum lattice model with local interactions usually satisfies an area law. However, in 1D systems some violations may appear in inhomogeneous systems or in random systems. In our inhomogeneous system, the inhomogeneity parameter, h, allows us to tune different regimes where a volumetric violation of the area law appears. We apply the strong disorder renormalization group to describe the maximally entangled state of the system in a strong inhomogeneity regime. Moreover, in a weak inhomogeneity regime, we use a continuum approximation to describe the state as a thermo-field double in a conformal field theory with an effective temperature which is proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter of the system. The latter description also shows that the universal scaling features of this model are captured by a massless Dirac fermion in a curved space-time with constant negative curvature R = h2, providing another example of the relation between quantum entanglement and space-time geometry. The results we discuss here were already published before, but here we present a more didactic exposure of basic concepts of the rainbow system for the students attending the Latin American School of Physics "Marcos Moshinsky" 2017.

  3. Genuine three-qubit entanglement from coupling to a heat bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Braun, Daniel [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Initially unentangled qubits which do not interact which each other can become entangled by interacting with a common heat bath. But with more than two qubits, there exist several inequivalent types of entanglement. Therefore it is an important question which types of entanglement can be generated. While exactly determining and quantifying the entanglement for mixed states of more than two qubits is an unsolved problem, recent advancements based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger symmetry allow to determine a good lower bound for the entanglement. By using those methods we show that for three qubits coupled to the same heat bath indeed all types of entanglement can be generated for almost all separable initial states.

  4. Multiparticle entanglement manipulation under positive partial transpose preserving operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Satoshi; Plenio, Martin B.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the transformation of multipartite states in the single-copy setting under positive-partial-transpose-preserving operations (PPT operations) and obtain both qualitative and quantitative results. First, for some pure-state transformations that are impossible under local operations and classical communication (LOCC), we demonstrate that they become possible with a surprisingly large success probability under PPT operations. Furthermore, we clarify the convertibility of arbitrary multipartite pure states under PPT operations and show that a drastic simplification in the classification of pure-state entanglement occurs when the set of operations is switched from LOCC to PPT operations. Indeed, the infinitely many types of LOCC-incomparable entanglement are reduced to only one type under the action of PPT operations. This is a clear manifestation of the increased power afforded by the use of PPT-bound entanglement. In addition, we further enlarge the set of operations to clarify the effect of another type of bound entanglement, multipartite unlockable bound entanglement, and show that a further simplification occurs. As compared to pure states a more complicated situation emerges in mixed-state settings. While single-copy distillation becomes possible under PPT operations for some mixed states it remains impossible for other mixed states

  5. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  6. Limit temperature for entanglement in generalized statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the main properties of general thermal states derived from non-additive entropic forms and their use for studying quantum entanglement. It is shown that all these states become more mixed as the temperature increases, approaching the full random state for T→∞. The formalism is then applied to examine the limit temperature for entanglement in a two-qubit XXZ Heisenberg chain, which exhibits the peculiar feature of being independent of the applied magnetic field in the conventional von Neumann based statistics. In contrast, this temperature is shown to be field dependent in a generalized statistics, even for small deviations from the standard form. Results for the Tsallis-based statistics are examined in detail

  7. Probabilistic Teleportation of the Three-Particle Entangled State viaEntanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路洪

    2001-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a three-particle entangled state via entanglement swapping is proposed. It is shown that if a two-particle entangled state and a three-particle entangled state (both are not maximum entangled states) are used as quantum channels, probabilistic teleportation of the three-particle entangled state can be realized.

  8. Entanglement reactivation in separable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Combining two entanglement-breaking channels into a correlated-noise environment restores the distribution of entanglement. Surprisingly, this reactivation can be induced by the injection of separable correlations from the composite environment. In any dimension (finite or infinite), we can construct classically correlated ‘twirling’ environments which are entanglement-breaking in the transmission of single systems but entanglement-preserving when two systems are transmitted. Here entanglement is simply preserved by the existence of decoherence-free subspaces. Remarkably, even when such subspaces do not exist, a fraction of the input entanglement can still be distributed. This is found in separable Gaussian environments, where distillable entanglement is able to survive the two-mode transmission, despite being broken in any single-mode transmission by the strong thermal noise. In the Gaussian setting, entanglement restoration is a threshold process, occurring only after a critical amount of correlations has been injected. Such findings suggest new perspectives for distributing entanglement in realistic environments with extreme decoherence, identifying separable correlations and classical memory effects as physical resources for ‘breaking entanglement-breaking’. (paper)

  9. Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang

    2007-01-01

    We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space

  10. The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can

    2002-01-01

    We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN

  11. Negativity as the Entanglement Measure to Probe the Kondo Regime in the Spin-Chain Kondo Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Sodano, Pasquale; Bose, Sougato

    2009-01-01

    We study the entanglement of an impurity at one end of a spin chain with a block of spins using negativity as a true measure of entanglement to characterize the unique features of the gapless Kondo regime in the spin chain Kondo model. For this spin chain in the Kondo regime we determine- with a true entanglement measure- the spatial extent of the Kondo screening cloud, we propose an ansatz for its ground state and demonstrate that the impurity spin is indeed maximally entangled with the clou...

  12. Radiative processes of two entangled atoms in cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huabing; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the radiative processes of two static two-level atoms in a maximally entangled state coupled to vacuum electromagnetic field in the cosmic string spacetime. We find that the decay rate from the entangled state to the ground state crucially depends on the atomic separation, the polarization directions of the individual atoms, the atom-string distance and the deficit angle induced by the string. As the atom-string distance increases, the decay rate oscillates around the result in Minkowski spacetime and the amplitude gradually decreases. The oscillation is more severe for larger planar angle deficit. We analyze the decay rate in different circumstances such as near zone and specific polarization cases. Some comparisons between symmetric and antisymmetric states are performed. By contrast with the case in Minkowski spacetime, we can reveal the effects of the cosmic string on the radiative properties of the entangled atoms.

  13. Entanglement between two interacting CFTs and generalized holographic entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollabashi, Ali; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting N=4 super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S 5 direction, instead of the AdS 5 direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy

  14. Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.

  15. Maximizing profit on New England organic dairy farms: an economic comparison of 4 total mixed rations for organic Holsteins and Jerseys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, S P; Clark, G W; Anderson, G W; Kersbergen, R J; Lunak, M; Marcinkowski, D P; Murphy, M R; Schwab, C G; Erickson, P S

    2011-06-01

    The objective of these experiments was to compare 4 total mixed rations fed to USDA-certified organic dairy cows in New England. Forty-eight Jersey cows from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and 64 Holstein cows from the University of Maine (UMaine) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments testing the main effects of corn silage versus grass silage as the forage base and commodity concentrates versus a complete pelleted concentrate mixture. Treatment diets were fed as a total mixed ration for 8 wk during the winter and spring months of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Milk yield, component, and quality data were recorded and used to calculate the value of the milk produced for each cow. The dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded and used to calculate the average cost per cow per day of each diet. Income over feed costs were calculated for each diet using milk value and feed cost data. Feed cost and income over feed cost data were resampled using bootstrap methodology to examine potential patterns. Milk yield, milk fat and true protein concentrations, and SCC were similar among treatments. Cows at UNH fed corn silage tended to have higher DMI and lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage, whereas cows fed pellets had higher DMI than cows fed commodities. Cows at UNH fed commodities tended to have higher body condition scores than those fed pellets. Cows at UMaine fed commodities tended to have higher DMI than did cows fed pellets, and cows fed corn silage had lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage. Body weights and body condition scores were not different for cows at UMaine. Feed costs were significantly higher for corn silage diets and diets at UNH containing pellets, but not at UMaine. The calculated value of the milk and income over feed costs did not differ among treatments at either university. Bootstrap replications indicated that the corn silage with commodities diet generally had the highest feed cost at both UNH

  16. Hawking radiation, entanglement, and teleportation in the background of an asymptotically flat static black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qiyuan; Jing Jiliang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Hawking temperature on the entanglement and teleportation for the scalar field in a most general, static, and asymptotically flat black hole with spherical symmetry has been investigated. It has been shown that the same 'initial entanglement' for the state parameter α and its 'normalized partners'√(1-α 2 ) will be degraded by the Hawking effect with increasing Hawking temperature along two different trajectories except for the maximally entangled state. In the infinite Hawking temperature limit, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the state no longer has distillable entanglement for any α. It is interesting to note that the mutual information in this limit is equal to just half of the 'initially mutual information'. It has also been demonstrated that the fidelity of teleportation decreases as the Hawking temperature increases, which indicates the degradation of entanglement.

  17. Performing Cosmopolitan Entanglement in the Philippine Pista: Sariaya Agawan Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley V. Guevarra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay proposes cosmopolitan entanglement as a conceptual framework for the understanding of the Philippine pista (fiesta. The pista is a cosmopolitan phenomenon because communities engage in a disposition of cultural openness with the strange and the stranger. It is a performance of entanglement because it is a complex cultural phenomenon projected to be solemn yet secular, a festivity that neither the State nor the Church is in an ultimate position of authority, a parade of divinity, and a procession of spectacle. In arguing for cosmopolitan entanglement in the pista, the essay explores the 2007 Agawan festivity in Sariaya, Quezon, some 120 km south of Manila, as a case study. The first part is a conceptualization of cosmopolitanism as related to the pista using the Catholic dogma as lens. The analysis of Catholic dogma is necessary because in the Philippines the pista has its origin in Catholicism, its celebrations often coinciding with the feast day of a community’s patron saint. The second part examines the pista as a performance of entanglement. The final section describes the Sariaya pista via the Agawan festival as a case of cosmopolitan entanglement. The pista in Sariaya is an exemplar of cosmopolitan entanglement because community members perform cultural openness, which is also a mixing and matching of different performance activities, a strategy of combining the secular and the sacred, and a welcoming gesture to both the familiar and the stranger.

  18. Entanglement entropy for descendent local operators in 2D CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Guo, Wu-Zhong; He, Song; Wu, Jie-qiang

    2015-01-01

    We mainly study the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy of the states locally excited by the descendent operators in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs). In rational CFTs, we prove that the increase of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy for a class of descendent operators, which are generated by L"("−")L̄"("−") onto the primary operator, always coincide with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the corresponding primary operator. That means the Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy for these descendent operators are the same as the ones of their corresponding primary operator. For 2D rational CFTs with a boundary, we confirm that the Rényi entropy always coincides with the logarithmic of quantum dimension of the primary operator during some periods of the evolution. Furthermore, we consider more general descendent operators generated by ∑d_{_n__i_}_{_n__j_}(∏_iL_−_n__i∏_jL̄_−_n__j) on the primary operator. For these operators, the entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy get additional corrections, as the mixing of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic Virasoro generators enhance the entanglement. Finally, we employ perturbative CFT techniques to evaluate the Rényi entropy of the excited operators in deformed CFT. The Rényi and entanglement entropies are increased, and get contributions not only from local excited operators but also from global deformation of the theory.

  19. Stability of global entanglement in thermal states of spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, Gavin K.; Bullock, Stephen S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of a one-dimensional chain of qubits coupled via nearest-neighbor spin-spin interactions. The entanglement measure used is the n-concurrence, which is distinct from other measures on spin chains such as bipartite entanglement in that it can quantify 'global' entanglement across the spin chain. Specifically, it computes the overlap of a quantum state with its time-reversed state. As such, this measure is well suited to study ground states of spin-chain Hamiltonians that are intrinsically time-reversal-symmetric. We study the robustness of n-concurrence of ground states when the interaction is subject to a time-reversal antisymmetric magnetic field perturbation. The n-concurrence in the ground state of the isotropic XX model is computed and it is shown that there is a critical magnetic field strength at which the entanglement experiences a jump discontinuity from the maximum value to zero. The n-concurrence for thermal mixed states is derived and a threshold temperature is computed below which the system has nonzero entanglement

  20. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  1. Entangled network and quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Nasser, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Math. Dept., College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-11-21

    A theoretical scheme is introduced to generate entangled network via Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. The dynamics of entanglement between different nodes, which is generated by direct or indirect interaction, is investigated. It is shown that, the direction of (DM) interaction and the locations of the nodes have a sensational effect on the degree of entanglement. The minimum entanglement generated between all the nodes is quantified. The upper and lower bounds of the entanglement depend on the direction of DM interaction, and the repetition of the behavior depends on the strength of DM. The generated entangled nodes are used as quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation, where it is shown that the fidelity of teleporting unknown information between the network members depends on the locations of the members.

  2. Quantum entanglement via nilpotent polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Akulin, Vladimir M.; Smilga, Andrei V.; Viola, Lorenza

    2006-01-01

    We propose a general method for introducing extensive characteristics of quantum entanglement. The method relies on polynomials of nilpotent raising operators that create entangled states acting on a reference vacuum state. By introducing the notion of tanglemeter, the logarithm of the state vector represented in a special canonical form and expressed via polynomials of nilpotent variables, we show how this description provides a simple criterion for entanglement as well as a universal method for constructing the invariants characterizing entanglement. We compare the existing measures and classes of entanglement with those emerging from our approach. We derive the equation of motion for the tanglemeter and, in representative examples of up to four-qubit systems, show how the known classes appear in a natural way within our framework. We extend our approach to qutrits and higher-dimensional systems, and make contact with the recently introduced idea of generalized entanglement. Possible future developments and applications of the method are discussed

  3. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2010-01-01

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  4. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-05

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  5. Maximizing research study effectiveness in malaria elimination settings: a mixed methods study to capture the experiences of field-based staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Haller, Britt; Lek, Dysoley; Yok, Sovann; Richards, Jack S; Whittaker, Maxine Anne

    2017-09-11

    In a drug-resistant, malaria elimination setting like Western Cambodia, field research is essential for the development of novel anti-malarial regimens and the public health solutions necessary to monitor the spread of resistance and eliminate infection. Such field studies often face a variety of similar implementation challenges, but these are rarely captured in a systematic way or used to optimize future study designs that might overcome similar challenges. Field-based research staff often have extensive experience and can provide valuable insight regarding these issues, but their perspectives and experiences are rarely documented and seldom integrated into future research protocols. This mixed-methods analysis sought to gain an understanding of the daily challenges encountered by research field staff in the artemisinin-resistant, malaria elimination setting of Western Cambodia. In doing so, this study seeks to understand how the experiences and opinions of field staff can be captured, and used to inform future study designs. Twenty-two reports from six field-based malaria studies conducted in Western Cambodia were reviewed using content analysis to identify challenges to conducting the research. Informal Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews were also conducted among field research staff. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken using Nvivo 9 ® software. Triangulation and critical case analysis was also used. There was a lack of formalized avenues through which field workers could report challenges experienced when conducting the malaria studies. Field research staff faced significant logistical barriers to participant recruitment and data collection, including a lack of available transportation to cover long distances, and the fact that mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) are usually excluded from studies because of challenges in follow-up. Cultural barriers to communication also hindered participant recruitment and created

  6. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  7. Global entanglement in multiparticle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, David A.; Wallach, Nolan R.

    2002-01-01

    We define a polynomial measure of multiparticle entanglement which is scalable, i.e., which applies to any number of spin-(1/2) particles. By evaluating it for three particle states, for eigenstates of the one dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet and on quantum error correcting code subspaces, we illustrate the extent to which it quantifies global entanglement. We also apply it to track the evolution of entanglement during a quantum computation

  8. Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2010-01-01

    We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...

  9. Time-resolved entanglement of bound and dissociative atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hayashi, M.; Lin, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically examine the time-independent and -dependent degrees of entanglement fidelities of bi-partite systems consisting of various bound two particles and of those of dissociative ones. The target maximally entangled state is defined as the non-interacting two particles: they are assumed to be infinitely far away from each other in the distant future. In this case, the potential energy functions which are non-local in nature can be regarded as entangling source. We investigate, how much we can make the target maximally entangled state from the initial (probably somewhat entangled) state without using any non-local external unitary transformation. Specifically, we investigate the cases where the two particles interact by attractive and repulsive Coulomb, harmonic, and Morse potentials which are ubiquitous in physics and chemistry. All of these omnipresent potentials exert non-local unitary transformations of multi-partite systems, which gives rise to the time-dependent entanglement according to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the time-independent case, the bound state with identical mass or different mass shows a definite time-independent entanglement fidelity for each eigenstate. In the time-dependent case, time-dependence manifests itself both in the bound and the dissociative systems. In the former case, the entanglement shows regular oscillatory patterns in harmony with the wave packet revival in the harmonic potential and a prominent enhancement in the anharmonic potential while in the latter case the entanglement diminishes very quickly. From these results, we point out that the time-evolution of the entanglement is much more sensitive to the interaction (potential) of two particles and to the initial wavepacket than that of the autocorrelation function

  10. Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.

  11. Entanglement in a parametric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Qamar, Shahid; Lee, Hai-Woong; Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk, E-mail: zubairy@physics.tamu.edu

    2008-07-28

    In this paper, we consider a parametric converter as a source of entangled radiation. We examine recently derived conditions (Hillery and Zubairy 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 050503, Duan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) for determining when the two output modes in a parametric converter are entangled. We show that for different initial field states, the two criteria give different conditions that ensure that the output states are entangled. We also present an input-output calculation for the entanglement of the output field.

  12. Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state via a partial entangled four-particle state and a partial entangled pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏毅; 李承祖; 陈平行

    2003-01-01

    We present a scheme to probabilistically teleport an arbitrary and unknown three-particle state via a two-particle non-maximally entangled state and a four-particle non-maximally entangled state as the quantum channel. With the help of Bell-state measurements, an arbitrary three-particle state can be perfectly teleported if a receiver introduces a collective unitary transformation. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in greater detail. This scheme can be generalized to the teleportation of an arbitrary and unknown multiparticle state.

  13. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xu-Tao; Zhang Zai-Chen; Xu Jin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless quantum communication networks transfer quantum state by teleportation. Existing research focuses on maximal entangled pairs. In this paper, we analyse the distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs. A quantum routing scheme with multi-hop teleportation is proposed. With the proposed scheme, is not necessary for the quantum path to be consistent with the classical path. The quantum path and its associated classical path are established in a distributed way. Direct multi-hop teleportation is conducted on the selected path to transfer a quantum state from the source to the destination. Based on the feature of multi-hop teleportation using partially entangled pairs, if the node number of the quantum path is even, the destination node will add another teleportation at itself. We simulated the performance of distributed wireless quantum communication networks with a partially entangled state. The probability of transferring the quantum state successfully is statistically analyzed. Our work shows that multi-hop teleportation on distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled pairs is feasible. (general)

  14. Schemes for Probabilistic Teleportation of an Unknown Three-Particle Three-Level Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two schemes for teleporting an unknown three-particle three-level entangled state are proposed. In the first scheme, two partial three-particle three-level entangled states are used as the quantum channels, while in the second scheme, three two-particle three-level non-maximally entangled states are employed as quantum channels.It is shown that the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both two schemes, if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is shown also that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.

  15. Entanglement distribution in star network based on spin chain in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Ming; Ma, Lei

    2018-06-01

    After star network of spins was proposed, generating entanglement directly through spin interactions between distant parties became possible. We propose an architecture which involves coupled spin chains based on nitrogen-vacancy centers and nitrogen defect spins to expand star network. The numerical analysis shows that the maximally achievable entanglement Em exponentially decays with the length of spin chains M and spin noise. The entanglement capability of this configuration under the effect of disorder and spin loss is also studied. Moreover, it is shown that with this kind of architecture, star network of spins is feasible in measurement of magnetic-field gradient.

  16. Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Yanhua

    1999-01-01

    The project 'Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation' concerns a series of experimental and theoretical investigations on multi-photon entangled states and the applications, for example...

  17. Maximal violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for infinite dimensional states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zohren, S.; Gill, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a much simplified version of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for the 2×2×d Bell scenario. Numerical maximization of the violation of this inequality over all states and measurements suggests that the optimal state is far from maximally entangled, while the best

  18. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  19. Qutrits and ququarts in spontaneous parametric down-conversion, correlations and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. V., E-mail: fedorovmv@gmail.com; Volkov, P. A.; Milhailova, J. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate features of biphoton qutrits and ququarts with the symmetry of biphoton wavefunctions fully taken into account. Entanglement quantifiers of such states are found as functions of qutrit and ququart parameters. For biphoton qutrits, a general relation between degrees of entanglement and polarization is established. In the case of biphoton ququarts, photon frequencies are considered as variables independent of polarization variables, with both polarization and frequency degrees of freedom equally contributing to the total ququart entanglement. Averaging over one of these two degrees of freedom is shown to reduce pure ququart states to mixed two-qubit states. The degree of polarization and degrees of correlations in mixed polarization states are investigated.

  20. Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-01-01

    We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes

  1. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  2. Partial recovery of entanglement in bipartite-entanglement transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh

    2002-01-01

    Any deterministic bipartite-entanglement transformation involving finite copies of pure states and carried out using local operations and classical communication (LOCC) results in a net loss of entanglement. We show that for almost all such transformations, partial recovery of lost entanglement is achievable by using 2x2 auxiliary entangled states, no matter how large the dimensions of the parent states are. For the rest of the special cases of deterministic LOCC transformations, we show that the dimension of the auxiliary entangled state depends on the presence of equalities in the majorization relations of the parent states. We show that genuine recovery is still possible using auxiliary states in dimensions less than that of the parent states for all patterns of majorization relations except only one special case

  3. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  4. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W entanglement witnesses for the noninteracting Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibian, Hessam; Clark, John W.; Behbood, Naeimeh; Hingerl, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The existence and nature of tripartite entanglement of a noninteracting Fermi gas (NIFG) is investigated. Three classes of parametrized entanglement witnesses (EWs) are introduced with the aim of detecting genuine tripartite entanglement in the three-body reduced density matrix and discriminating between the presence of the two types of genuine tripartite entanglement, W/B and GHZ/W (the convex set of B states is comprised of mixed states of product and biseparable states; that of W states is comprised of mixed states of B states and W-type pure entangled states; and the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) set contains generic mixtures of any kind for a tripartite system). By choosing appropriate EW operators, the problem of finding GHZ and W EWs is reduced to linear programming. Specifically, we devise W EWs based on a spin-chain model with periodic boundary conditions, and we construct a class of parametrized GHZ EWs by linearly combining projection operators corresponding to all the different state-vector types arising for a three-fermion system. A third class of EWs is provided by a GHZ stabilizer operator capable of distinguishing W/B from GHZ/B entanglement, which is not possible with W EWs. Implementing these classes of EWs, it is found that all states containing genuine tripartite entanglement are of W type, and hence states containing GHZ/W genuine tripartite entanglement do not arise. Some genuine tripartite entangled states that have a positive partial transpose (PPT) with respect to some bipartition are detected. Finally, it is demonstrated that a NIFG does not exhibit 'pure'W/B genuine tripartite entanglement: three-party entanglement without any separable or biseparable admixture does not occur.

  5. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed

  6. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); CNISM and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

  7. Dynamics of Entanglement in Jaynes–Cummings Nodes with Nonidentical Qubit-Field Coupling Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tuo Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How to analytically deal with the general entanglement dynamics of separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes with continuous-variable fields is still an open question, and few analytical approaches can be used to solve their general entanglement dynamics. Entanglement dynamics between two separate Jaynes–Cummings nodes are examined in this article. Both vacuum state and coherent state in the initial fields are considered through the numerical and analytical methods. The gap between two nonidentical qubit-field coupling strengths shifts the revival period and changes the revival amplitude of two-qubit entanglement. For vacuum-state fields, the maximal entanglement is fully revived after a gap-dependence period, within which the entanglement nonsmoothly decreases to zero and partly recovers without exhibiting sudden death phenomenon. For strong coherent-state fields, the two-qubit entanglement decays exponentially as the evolution time increases, exhibiting sudden death phenomenon, and the increasing gap accelerates the revival period and amplitude decay of the entanglement, where the numerical and analytical results have an excellent coincidence.

  8. Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quantum systems (methods such as entanglement swapping [5] fall in this ... continued till the particles anti-bunch, in which case they are entangled. 2. .... in the context of the scattering of ballistic electrons from a magnetic impurity in a semi-.

  9. Spin-photon entangling diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...

  10. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.

  11. High dimensional entanglement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info McLaren_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2190 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name McLaren_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 High dimensional... entanglement M. McLAREN1,2, F.S. ROUX1 & A. FORBES1,2,3 1. CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 2. School of Physics, University of the Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 7602, Matieland 3. School of Physics, University of Kwazulu...

  12. Spacetime equals entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasunori [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Salzetta, Nico, E-mail: nsalzetta@berkeley.edu [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We study the Hilbert space structure of classical spacetimes under the assumption that entanglement in holographic theories determines semiclassical geometry. We show that this simple assumption has profound implications; for example, a superposition of classical spacetimes may lead to another classical spacetime. Despite its unconventional nature, this picture admits the standard interpretation of superpositions of well-defined semiclassical spacetimes in the limit that the number of holographic degrees of freedom becomes large. We illustrate these ideas using a model for the holographic theory of cosmological spacetimes.

  13. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang, Ru [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Ethnic Minority Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Chuan, E-mail: wangchuan@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  14. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  15. Maximal violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for four-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Libin; Chen Jingling; Chen Shigang

    2004-01-01

    Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for bipartite systems of four dimensions is studied in detail by employing the unbiased eight-port beam splitters measurements. The uniform formulas for the maximum and minimum values of this inequality for such measurements are obtained. Based on these formulas, we show that an optimal nonmaximally entangled state is about 6% more resistant to noise than the maximally entangled one. We also give the optimal state and the optimal angles which are important for experimental realization

  16. Thermal excitation spectrum from entanglement in an expanding quantum string

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Berges

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A surprising result in e+e− collisions is that the particle spectra from the string formed between the expanding quark–antiquark pair have thermal properties even though scatterings appear not to be frequent enough to explain this. We address this problem by considering the finite observable interval of a relativistic quantum string in terms of its reduced density operator by tracing over the complement region. We show how quantum entanglement in the presence of a horizon in spacetime for the causal transfer of information leads locally to a reduced mixed-state density operator. For very early proper time τ, we show that the entanglement entropy becomes extensive and scales with the rapidity. At these early times, the reduced density operator is of thermal form, with an entanglement temperature Tτ=ħ/(2πkBτ, even in the absence of any scatterings.

  17. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2008-01-01

    channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...

  18. Two-way and three-way negativities of three-qubit entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose to quantify three-qubit entanglement using global negativity along with K-way negativities, where K=2 and 3. The principle underlying the definition of K-way negativity for pure and mixed states of N subsystems is a positive partial transpose sufficient condition. However, K-way partial transpose with respect to a subsystem is defined so as to shift the focus to K-way coherences instead of K subsystems of the composite system. A quantum state of a three-qubit system is characterized by the coherences measured by global, two-way, and three-way negativities. For a canonical state of three-qubit system, entanglement measures for genuine tripartite entanglement, W-like entanglement, and bipartite entanglement can be related to two-way and three-way negativities

  19. The relation between majorization theory and quantum information from entanglement monotones perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, V. [Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Science, Okan University, Istanbul (Turkey); Netas Telecommunication Inc., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.

  20. The Effect of Spin Squeezing on the Entanglement Entropy of Kicked Tops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Teng Siang Ong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of spin squeezing on two-coupled quantum kicked tops, which have been previously shown to exhibit a quantum signature of chaos in terms of entanglement dynamics. Our results show that initial spin squeezing can lead to an enhancement in both the entanglement rate and the asymptotic entanglement for kicked tops when the initial state resides in the regular islands within a mixed classical phase space. On the other hand, we found a reduction in these two quantities if we were to choose the initial state deep inside the chaotic sea. More importantly, we have uncovered that an application of periodic spin squeezing can yield the maximum attainable entanglement entropy, albeit this is achieved at a reduced entanglement rate.

  1. Strong violations of Bell-type inequalities for path-entangled number states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lund, Austin P.

    2007-01-01

    We show that nonlocal correlation experiments on the two spatially separated modes of a maximally path-entangled number state may be performed. They lead to a violation of a Clauser-Horne Bell inequality for any finite photon number N. We also present an analytical expression for the two-mode Wigner function of a maximally path-entangled number state and investigate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for such a state. We test other Bell-type inequalities. Some are violated by a constant amount for any N

  2. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  3. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  4. Effects of black hole evaporation on the quantum entangled state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Doyeol [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the effect of black hole evaporation on the entangled state in which one party of a pair, Alice, falls into the black hole at formation while the other party, Bob, remains outside the black hole. The final state of a black hole is studied by taking into account a general unitary evolution of a black-hole matter state. The mixedness is found to decrease under a general unitary transformation when the initial matter state is in a mixed state and the mean fidelity at the evaporation is smaller than the fidelity of the quantum teleportation by a factor of the inverse square of the number of states of a black hole. The change in the entanglement of the Alice-Bob pair at evaporation is studied by calculating the entanglement fidelity and eigenvalues of the partial transposed block density matrix. The entanglement fidelity is found to be inversely proportional to the square of the Hilbert space dimension N, and the entanglement could survive the evaporation process.

  5. Method for universal detection of two-photon polarization entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horodecki, Paweł; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Życzkowski, Karol

    2015-03-01

    Detecting and quantifying quantum entanglement of a given unknown state poses problems that are fundamentally important for quantum information processing. Surprisingly, no direct (i.e., without quantum tomography) universal experimental implementation of a necessary and sufficient test of entanglement has been designed even for a general two-qubit state. Here we propose an experimental method for detecting a collective universal witness, which is a necessary and sufficient test of two-photon polarization entanglement. It allows us to detect entanglement for any two-qubit mixed state and to establish tight upper and lower bounds on its amount. A different element of this method is the sequential character of its main components, which allows us to obtain relatively complicated information about quantum correlations with the help of simple linear-optical elements. As such, this proposal realizes a universal two-qubit entanglement test within the present state of the art of quantum optics. We show the optimality of our setup with respect to the minimal number of measured quantities.

  6. Statistical properties of quantum entanglement and information entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, M.M.A.

    2007-03-01

    Key words: entropy, entanglement, atom-field interaction, trapped ions, cold atoms, information entropy. Objects of research: Pure state entanglement, entropy squeezing mazer. The aim of the work: Study of the new entanglement features and new measures for both pure-state and mixed state of particle-field interaction. Also, the impact of the information entropy on the quantum information theory. Method of investigation: Methods of theoretical physics and applied mathematics (statistical physics, quantum optics) are used. Results obtained and their novelty are: All the results of the dissertation are new and many new features have been discovered. Particularly: the most general case of the pure state entanglement has been introduced. Although various special aspects of the quantum entropy have been investigated previously, the general features of the dynamics, when a multi-level system and a common environment are considered, have not been treated before and our work therefore, field a gap in the literature. Specifically: 1) A new entanglement measure due to quantum mutual entropy (mixed-state entanglement) we called it DEM, has been introduced, 2) A new treatment of the atomic information entropy in higher level systems has been presented. The problem has been completely solved in the case of three-level system, 3) A new solution of the interaction between the ultra cold atoms and cavity field has been discovered, 4) Some new models of the atom-field interaction have been adopted. Practical value: The subject carries out theoretic character. Application region: Results can be used in quantum computer developments. Also, the presented results can be used for further developments of the quantum information and quantum communications. (author)

  7. Squashed entanglement in infinite dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse two possible definitions of the squashed entanglement in an infinite-dimensional bipartite system: direct translation of the finite-dimensional definition and its universal extension. It is shown that the both definitions produce the same lower semicontinuous entanglement measure possessing all basis properties of the squashed entanglement on the set of states having at least one finite marginal entropy. It is also shown that the second definition gives an adequate lower semicontinuous extension of this measure to all states of the infinite-dimensional bipartite system. A general condition relating continuity of the squashed entanglement to continuity of the quantum mutual information is proved and its corollaries are considered. Continuity bound for the squashed entanglement under the energy constraint on one subsystem is obtained by using the tight continuity bound for quantum conditional mutual information (proved in the Appendix by using Winter’s technique). It is shown that the same continuity bound is valid for the entanglement of formation. As a result the asymptotic continuity of the both entanglement measures under the energy constraint on one subsystem is proved.

  8. Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Honda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.

  9. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  10. Entanglement in a Dimerized Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Xiang; Zhu, Shiqun

    2008-01-01

    The entanglement properties in an antiferromagnetic dimerized Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain are investigated. The entanglement gap, which is the difference between the ground-state energy and the minimal energy that any separable state can attain, is calculated to detect the entanglement. It is found that the entanglement gap can be increased by varying the alternation parameter. Through thermal energy, the witness of the entanglement can determine a characteristic temperature below that an entan...

  11. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  12. Slow Images and Entangled Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swordy, Simon

    2007-01-01

    I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.

  13. Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2007-01-01

    Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x> we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η>as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x>and |η>. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x>may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x>.

  14. Optimal control of orientation and entanglement for two dipole-dipole coupled quantum planar rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongling; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2018-05-09

    Optimal control simulations are performed for orientation and entanglement of two dipole-dipole coupled identical quantum rotors. The rotors at various fixed separations lie on a model non-interacting plane with an applied control field. It is shown that optimal control of orientation or entanglement represents two contrasting control scenarios. In particular, the maximally oriented state (MOS) of the two rotors has a zero entanglement entropy and is readily attainable at all rotor separations. Whereas, the contrasting maximally entangled state (MES) has a zero orientation expectation value and is most conveniently attainable at small separations where the dipole-dipole coupling is strong. It is demonstrated that the peak orientation expectation value attained by the MOS at large separations exhibits a long time revival pattern due to the small energy splittings arising form the extremely weak dipole-dipole coupling between the degenerate product states of the two free rotors. Moreover, it is found that the peak entanglement entropy value attained by the MES remains largely unchanged as the two rotors are transported to large separations after turning off the control field. Finally, optimal control simulations of transition dynamics between the MOS and the MES reveal the intricate interplay between orientation and entanglement.

  15. Semiquantum secret sharing using entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing is a procedure for sharing a secret among a number of participants such that only the qualified subsets of participants have the ability to reconstruct the secret. Even in the presence of eavesdropping, secret sharing can be achieved when all the members are quantum. So what happens if not all the members are quantum? In this paper, we propose two semiquantum secret sharing protocols by using maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states in which quantum Alice shares a secret with two classical parties, Bob and Charlie, in a way that both parties are sufficient to obtain the secret, but one of them cannot. The presented protocols are also shown to be secure against eavesdropping.

  16. Gaussian entanglement revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel approach to the separability problem for Gaussian quantum states of bosonic continuous variable systems. We derive a simplified necessary and sufficient separability criterion for arbitrary Gaussian states of m versus n modes, which relies on convex optimisation over marginal covariance matrices on one subsystem only. We further revisit the currently known results stating the equivalence between separability and positive partial transposition (PPT) for specific classes of Gaussian states. Using techniques based on matrix analysis, such as Schur complements and matrix means, we then provide a unified treatment and compact proofs of all these results. In particular, we recover the PPT-separability equivalence for: (i) Gaussian states of 1 versus n modes; and (ii) isotropic Gaussian states. In passing, we also retrieve (iii) the recently established equivalence between separability of a Gaussian state and and its complete Gaussian extendability. Our techniques are then applied to progress beyond the state of the art. We prove that: (iv) Gaussian states that are invariant under partial transposition are necessarily separable; (v) the PPT criterion is necessary and sufficient for separability for Gaussian states of m versus n modes that are symmetric under the exchange of any two modes belonging to one of the parties; and (vi) Gaussian states which remain PPT under passive optical operations can not be entangled by them either. This is not a foregone conclusion per se (since Gaussian bound entangled states do exist) and settles a question that had been left unanswered in the existing literature on the subject. This paper, enjoyable by both the quantum optics and the matrix analysis communities, overall delivers technical and conceptual advances which are likely to be useful for further applications in continuous variable quantum information theory, beyond the separability problem.

  17. Quantum states and their marginals. From multipartite entanglement to quantum error-correcting codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Felix Michael

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of the curious phenomenon of quantum entanglement lies the relation between the whole and its parts. In my thesis, I explore different aspects of this theme in the multipartite setting by drawing connections to concepts from statistics, graph theory, and quantum error-correcting codes: first, I address the case when joint quantum states are determined by their few-body parts and by Jaynes' maximum entropy principle. This can be seen as an extension of the notion of entanglement, with less complex states already being determined by their few-body marginals. Second, I address the conditions for certain highly entangled multipartite states to exist. In particular, I present the solution of a long-standing open problem concerning the existence of an absolutely maximally entangled state on seven qubits. This sheds light on the algebraic properties of pure quantum states, and on the conditions that constrain the sharing of entanglement amongst multiple particles. Third, I investigate Ulam's graph reconstruction problems in the quantum setting, and obtain legitimacy conditions of a set of states to be the reductions of a joint graph state. Lastly, I apply and extend the weight enumerator machinery from quantum error correction to investigate the existence of codes and highly entangled states in higher dimensions. This clarifies the physical interpretation of the weight enumerators and of the quantum MacWilliams identity, leading to novel applications in multipartite entanglement.

  18. Evolution of tripartite entangled states in a decohering environment and their experimental protection using dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Arvind, Dorai, Kavita

    2018-02-01

    We embarked upon the task of experimental protection of different classes of tripartite entangled states, namely, the maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W states and the tripartite entangled state called the W W ¯ state, using dynamical decoupling. The states were created on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor and allowed to evolve in the naturally noisy NMR environment. Tripartite entanglement was monitored at each time instant during state evolution, using negativity as an entanglement measure. It was found that the W state is most robust while the GHZ-type states are most fragile against the natural decoherence present in the NMR system. The W W ¯ state, which is in the GHZ class yet stores entanglement in a manner akin to the W state, surprisingly turned out to be more robust than the GHZ state. The experimental data were best modeled by considering the main noise channel to be an uncorrelated phase damping channel acting independently on each qubit, along with a generalized amplitude damping channel. Using dynamical decoupling, we were able to achieve a significant protection of entanglement for GHZ states. There was a marginal improvement in the state fidelity for the W state (which is already robust against natural system decoherence), while the W W ¯ state showed a significant improvement in fidelity and protection against decoherence.

  19. On the robustness of entanglement in analogue gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, D E; Friis, N; Fuentes, I; Weinfurtner, S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of generating quantum-correlated quasi-particles utilizing analogue gravity systems. The quantumness of these correlations is a key aspect of analogue gravity effects and their presence allows for a clear separation between classical and quantum analogue gravity effects. However, experiments in analogue systems, such as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and shallow water waves, are always conducted at non-ideal conditions, in particular, one is dealing with dispersive media at non-zero temperatures. We analyse the influence of the initial temperature on the entanglement generation in analogue gravity phenomena. We lay out all the necessary steps to calculate the entanglement generated between quasi-particle modes and we analytically derive an upper bound on the maximal temperature at which given modes can still be entangled. We further investigate a mechanism to enhance the quantum correlations. As a particular example, we analyse the robustness of the entanglement creation against thermal noise in a sudden quench of an ideally homogeneous BEC, taking into account the super-sonic dispersion relations. (paper)

  20. Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McLaren, M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available by performing a Bell-type experiment and showing a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, we use quantum state tomography to indicate higher-dimensional entanglement in terms of BG modes....

  1. Gaussian entanglement distribution via satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert

    2015-02-01

    In this work we analyze three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme, the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the tradeoff between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.

  2. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  3. Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)

  4. Entanglement scaling in lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, K M R [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Cramer, M [QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Eisert, J [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, 53 Prince' s Gate, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    We review some recent rigorous results on scaling laws of entanglement properties in quantum many body systems. More specifically, we study the entanglement of a region with its surrounding and determine its scaling behaviour with its size for systems in the ground and thermal states of bosonic and fermionic lattice systems. A theorem connecting entanglement between a region and the rest of the lattice with the surface area of the boundary between the two regions is presented for non-critical systems in arbitrary spatial dimensions. The entanglement scaling in the field limit exhibits a peculiar difference between fermionic and bosonic systems. In one-spatial dimension a logarithmic divergence is recovered for both bosonic and fermionic systems. In two spatial dimensions in the setting of half-spaces however we observe strict area scaling for bosonic systems and a multiplicative logarithmic correction to such an area scaling in fermionic systems. Similar questions may be posed and answered in classical systems.

  5. Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case

  6. More nonlocality with less entanglement in Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt experiments using inefficient detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Daniel; Chitambar, Eric

    2018-06-01

    It is well-known that in certain scenarios weakly entangled states can generate stronger nonlocal effects than their maximally entangled counterparts. In this paper, we consider violations of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality when one party has inefficient detectors, a scenario known as an asymmetric Bell experiment. For any fixed detection efficiency, we derive a simple upper bound on the entanglement needed to violate the inequality by more than some specified amount κ ≥0 . When κ =0 , the amount of entanglement in all states violating the inequality goes to zero as the detection efficiency approaches 50 % from above. We finally consider the scenario in which detection inefficiency arises for only one choice of local measurement. In this case, it is shown that the CHSH inequality can always be violated for any nonzero detection efficiency and any choice of noncommuting measurements.

  7. Entanglement of Grassmannian Coherent States for Multi-Partite n-Level Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Najarbashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the entanglement of multi-partite Grassmannian coherent states (GCSs described by Grassmann numbers for n>2 degree of nilpotency. Choosing an appropriate weight function, we show that it is possible to construct some well-known entangled pure states, consisting of GHZ, W, Bell, cluster type and bi-separable states, which are obtained by integrating over tensor product of GCSs. It is shown that for three level systems, the Grassmann creation and annihilation operators b and b^† together with bz form a closed deformed algebra, i.e., SU_q(2 with q=e^{2πi/3}, which is useful to construct entangled qutrit-states. The same argument holds for three level squeezed states. Moreover combining the Grassmann and bosonic coherent states we construct maximal entangled super coherent states.

  8. Entanglement generation and entropy growth due to intrinsic decoherence in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.-S.F.; Hessian, Hosny A.

    2004-01-01

    We study how intrinsic decoherence leads to growing entropy and a strong degradation of the maximal generated entanglement in the multiquanta Jaynes-Cummings model. We find an exact solution of the Milburn equation in multiquanta precesses and calculate the partial entropy of the particle (atom or trapped ion) and field subsystem as well as total entropy. As the total entropy is not conserved, and it is shown to increase as time develops, one cannot use the partial field or atomic entropy as a direct measure of particle-field entanglement. For a good entropy measure, we also calculate the negativity of the eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix. We find that, at least qualitatively, the difference of the total entropy to the sum of field and atom partial entropies can be also used as an entanglement measure. Our results show that the degree of entanglement is very sensitive to any change in the intrinsic decoherence parameter

  9. Recyclable amplification for single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Chen, Ling-Quan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-01-01

    We put forward a highly efficient recyclable single-photon assisted amplification protocol, which can protect single-photon entanglement (SPE) from photon loss and decoherence. Making use of quantum nondemolition detection gates constructed with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity, our protocol has some attractive advantages. First, the parties can recover less-entangled SPE to be maximally entangled SPE, and reduce photon loss simultaneously. Second, if the protocol fails, the parties can repeat the protocol to reuse some discarded items, which can increase the success probability. Third, when the protocol is successful, they can similarly repeat the protocol to further increase the fidelity of the SPE. Thereby, our protocol provides a possible way to obtain high entanglement, high fidelity and high success probability simultaneously. In particular, our protocol shows higher success probability in the practical high photon loss channel. Based on the above features, our amplification protocol has potential for future application in long-distance quantum communication.

  10. Hybrid methods for witnessing entanglement in a microscopic-macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Vitelli, Chiara; Paternostro, Mauro; De Martini, Francesco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach to the experimental assessment of the genuine quantum features of a general system consisting of microscopic and macroscopic parts. We infer entanglement by combining dichotomic measurements on a bidimensional system and phase-space inference through the Wigner distribution associated with the macroscopic component of the state. As a benchmark, we investigate the feasibility of our proposal in a bipartite-entangled state composed of a single-photon and a multiphoton field. Our analysis shows that, under ideal conditions, maximal violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-based inequality is achievable regardless of the number of photons in the macroscopic part of the state. The difficulty in observing entanglement when losses and detection inefficiency are included can be overcome by using a hybrid entanglement witness that allows efficient correction for losses in the few-photon regime.

  11. Hybrid methods for witnessing entanglement in a microscopic-macroscopic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, Nicolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Vitelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Paternostro, Mauro [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, BT 7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom); De Martini, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, via della Lungara 10, I-00165 Roma (Italy); Sciarrino, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), largo E. Fermi 6, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    We propose a hybrid approach to the experimental assessment of the genuine quantum features of a general system consisting of microscopic and macroscopic parts. We infer entanglement by combining dichotomic measurements on a bidimensional system and phase-space inference through the Wigner distribution associated with the macroscopic component of the state. As a benchmark, we investigate the feasibility of our proposal in a bipartite-entangled state composed of a single-photon and a multiphoton field. Our analysis shows that, under ideal conditions, maximal violation of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-based inequality is achievable regardless of the number of photons in the macroscopic part of the state. The difficulty in observing entanglement when losses and detection inefficiency are included can be overcome by using a hybrid entanglement witness that allows efficient correction for losses in the few-photon regime.

  12. Estimating localizable entanglement from witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, David; Müller, Markus; Pal, Amit Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Computing localizable entanglement for noisy many-particle quantum states is difficult due to the optimization over all possible sets of local projection measurements. Therefore, it is crucial to develop lower bounds, which can provide useful information about the behaviour of localizable entanglement, and which can be determined by measuring a limited number of operators, or by performing least number of measurements on the state, preferably without performing a full state tomography. In thi...

  13. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Huangjun; Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic c...

  14. Entanglement of a class of non-Gaussian states in disordered harmonic oscillator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rahman, Houssam

    2018-03-01

    For disordered harmonic oscillator systems over the d-dimensional lattice, we consider the problem of finding the bipartite entanglement of the uniform ensemble of the energy eigenstates associated with a particular number of modes. Such an ensemble defines a class of mixed, non-Gaussian entangled states that are labeled, by the energy of the system, in an increasing order. We develop a novel approach to find the exact logarithmic negativity of this class of states. We also prove entanglement bounds and demonstrate that the low energy states follow an area law.

  15. Entanglement as a signature of quantum chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ghose, Shohini; Sanders, Barry C; Hu, Bambi

    2004-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of entanglement in classically chaotic systems by considering a multiqubit system that behaves collectively as a spin system obeying the dynamics of the quantum kicked top. In the classical limit, the kicked top exhibits both regular and chaotic dynamics depending on the strength of the chaoticity parameter kappa in the Hamiltonian. We show that the entanglement of the multiqubit system, considered for both the bipartite and the pairwise entanglement, yields a signature of quantum chaos. Whereas bipartite entanglement is enhanced in the chaotic region, pairwise entanglement is suppressed. Furthermore, we define a time-averaged entangling power and show that this entangling power changes markedly as kappa moves the system from being predominantly regular to being predominantly chaotic, thus sharply identifying the edge of chaos. When this entangling power is averaged over all states, it yields a signature of global chaos. The qualitative behavior of this global entangling power is similar to that of the classical Lyapunov exponent.

  16. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  17. Quantum entanglement of identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yu

    2003-01-01

    We consider entanglement in a system with a fixed number of identical particles. Since any operation should be symmetrized over all the identical particles and there is the precondition that the spatial wave functions overlap, the meaning of identical-particle entanglement is fundamentally different from that of distinguishable particles. The identical-particle counterpart of the Schmidt basis is shown to be the single-particle basis in which the one-particle reduced density matrix is diagonal. But it does not play a special role in the issue of entanglement, which depends on the single-particle basis chosen. The nonfactorization due to (anti)symmetrization is naturally excluded by using the (anti)symmetrized basis or, equivalently, the particle number representation. The natural degrees of freedom in quantifying the identical-particle entanglement in a chosen single-particle basis are occupation numbers of different single-particle basis states. The entanglement between effectively distinguishable spins is shown to be a special case of the occupation-number entanglement

  18. Thermodynamic entanglement of magnonic condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H. Y.; Yung, Man-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved to create Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of magnetic excitations, i.e., magnons, at room temperature, which is a novel quantum many-body system with a strong spin-spin correlation, and contains potential applications in magnonic spintronics. For quantum information science, the magnonic condensates can become an attractive source of quantum entanglement, which plays a central role in most of the quantum information processing tasks. Here we theoretically study the entanglement properties of a magnon gas above and below the condensation temperature. We show that the thermodynamic entanglement of the spins is a manifestation of the off-diagonal long-range order; the entanglement of the condensate does not vanish, even if the spins are separated by an infinitely long distance, which is fundamentally distinct from the normal magnetic ordering below the Curie temperature. In addition, the phase-transition point occurs when the derivative of the entanglement changes abruptly. These results provide a theoretical foundation for a future investigation of the magnon BEC in terms of quantum entanglement.

  19. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  20. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  1. Multipartite geometric entanglement in finite size XY model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Giampaolo, Salvatore Marco; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the behavior of the multipartite entanglement in the finite size XY model by means of the hierarchical geometric measure of entanglement. By selecting specific components of the hierarchy, we study both global entanglement and genuinely multipartite entanglement.

  2. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-11-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states—and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions—where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly.

  3. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states--and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions--where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly

  4. Tripartite entanglement versus tripartite nonlocality in three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-class states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S; Sinclair, N; Debnath, S; Rungta, P; Stock, R

    2009-06-26

    We analyze the relationship between tripartite entanglement and genuine tripartite nonlocality for three-qubit pure states in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger class. We consider a family of states known as the generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and derive an analytical expression relating the three-tangle, which quantifies tripartite entanglement, to the Svetlichny inequality, which is a Bell-type inequality that is violated only when all three qubits are nonlocally correlated. We show that states with three-tangle less than 1/2 do not violate the Svetlichny inequality. On the other hand, a set of states known as the maximal slice states does violate the Svetlichny inequality, and exactly analogous to the two-qubit case, the amount of violation is directly related to the degree of tripartite entanglement. We discuss further interesting properties of the generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and maximal slice states.

  5. A class of symmetric Bell diagonal entanglement witnesses—a geometric perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chruściński, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    We provide a class of Bell diagonal entanglement witnesses displaying an additional local symmetry—a maximal commutative subgroup of the unitary group U(n). Remarkably, this class of witnesses is parameterized by a torus being a maximal commutative subgroup of an orthogonal group SO(n−1). It is shown that a generic element from the class defines an indecomposable entanglement witness. The paper provides a geometric perspective for some aspects of the entanglement theory and an interesting interplay between group theory and block-positive operators in C n ⊗C n . This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  6. Dynamical evolution of entanglement of a three-qubit system driven by a classical environmental colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fouokeng, Georges Collince; Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2018-04-01

    The effects of 1/f^{α } (α =1,2) noise stemming from one or a collection of random bistable fluctuators (RBFs), on the evolution of entanglement, of three non-interacting qubits are investigated. Three different initial configurations of the qubits are analyzed in detail: the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-type states, W-type states and mixed states composed of a GHZ state and a W state (GHZ-W). For each initial configuration, the evolution of entanglement is investigated for three different qubit-environment (Q-E) coupling setups, namely independent environments, mixed environments and common environment coupling. With the help of tripartite negativity and suitable entanglement witnesses, we show that the evolution of entanglement is extremely influenced not only by the initial configuration of the qubits, the spectrum of the environment and the Q-E coupling setup considered, but also by the number of RBF modeling the environment. Indeed, we find that the decay of entanglement is accelerated when the number of fluctuators modeling the environment is increased. Furthermore, we find that entanglement can survive indefinitely to the detrimental effects of noise even for increasingly larger numbers of RBFs. On the other hand, we find that the proficiency of the tripartite entanglement witnesses to detect entanglement is weaker than that of the tripartite negativity and that the symmetry of the initial states is broken when the qubits are coupled to the noise in mixed environments. Finally, we find that the 1 / f noise is more harmful to the survival of entanglement than the 1/f2 noise and that the mixed GHZ-W states followed by the GHZ-type states preserve better entanglement than the W-type ones.

  7. Detecting quantum entanglement. Entanglement witnesses and uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guehne, O.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with methods of the detection of entanglement. After recalling some facts and definitions concerning entanglement and separability, we investigate two methods of the detection of entanglement. In the first part of this thesis we consider so-called entanglement witnesses, mainly in view of the detection of multipartite entanglement. Entanglement witnesses are observables for which a negative expectation value indicates entanglement. We first present a simple method to construct these witnesses. Since witnesses are nonlocal observables, they are not easy to measure in a real experiment. However, as we will show, one can circumvent this problem by decomposing the witness into several local observables which can be measured separately. We calculate the local decompositions for several interesting witnesses for two, three and four qubits. Local decompositions can be optimized in the number of measurement settings which are needed for an experimental implementation. We present a method to prove that a given local decomposition is optimal and discuss with this the optimality of our decompositions. Then we present another method of designing witnesses which are by construction measurable with local measurements. Finally, we shortly report on experiments where some of the witnesses derived in this part have been used to detect three- and four-partite entanglement of polarized photons. The second part of this thesis deals with separability criteria which are written in terms of uncertainty relations. There are two different formulations of uncertainty relations since one can measure the uncertainty of an observable by its variance as well as by entropic quantities. We show that both formulations are useful tools for the derivation of separability criteria for finite-dimensional systems and investigate the resulting criteria. Our results in this part exhibit also some more fundamental properties of entanglement: We show how known separability criteria for

  8. Efficient quantum repeater with respect to both entanglement-concentration rate and complexity of local operations and classical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaofeng; Guan, Ji; Li, Lvzhou

    2018-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is an indispensable resource for many significant quantum information processing tasks. However, in practice, it is difficult to distribute quantum entanglement over a long distance, due to the absorption and noise in quantum channels. A solution to this challenge is a quantum repeater, which can extend the distance of entanglement distribution. In this scheme, the time consumption of classical communication and local operations takes an important place with respect to time efficiency. Motivated by this observation, we consider a basic quantum repeater scheme that focuses on not only the optimal rate of entanglement concentration but also the complexity of local operations and classical communication. First, we consider the case where two different two-qubit pure states are initially distributed in the scenario. We construct a protocol with the optimal entanglement-concentration rate and less consumption of local operations and classical communication. We also find a criterion for the projective measurements to achieve the optimal probability of creating a maximally entangled state between the two ends. Second, we consider the case in which two general pure states are prepared and general measurements are allowed. We get an upper bound on the probability for a successful measurement operation to produce a maximally entangled state without any further local operations.

  9. Entangled states in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruža, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.

  10. Entanglement detection from interference fringes in atom-photon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Nemoto, Kae; Miniatura, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A measurement scheme of atomic qubits pinned at given positions is studied by analyzing the interference pattern obtained when they emit photons spontaneously. In the case of two qubits, a well-known relation is revisited in which the interference visibility is equal to the concurrence of the state in the infinite spatial separation limit of the qubits. By taking into account the superradiant and subradiant effects, it is shown that a state tomography is possible when the qubit spatial separation is comparable to the wavelength of the atomic transition. In the case of three qubits, the relations between various entanglement measures and the interference visibility are studied, where the visibility is defined from the two-qubit case. A qualitative correspondence among these entanglement relations is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the interference visibility is directly related to the maximal bipartite negativity.

  11. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  12. Proof of the insecurity of quantum secret sharing based on the Smolin bound entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Fei, Yu; Zhi-Ming, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reconsiders carefully the possibility of using the Smolin bound entangled states as the carrier for sharing quantum secret. It finds that the process of quantum secret sharing based on Smolin states has insecurity though the Smolin state was reported to violate maximally the two-setting Bell-inequality. The general proof is given. (general)

  13. Entangled spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberger, Olof; Korepin, Vladimir

    We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interactions of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the controlled swap gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the model presented by Peter Shor and Ramis Movassagh to half-integer spins. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half plane of a square lattice (Dyck walks). Each Dyck path can be mapped on a wave function of spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks (instead of Motzkin walks). We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct a model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct a SU(k) symmetric model (where k is the number of colors). The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice (like in the Shor-Movassagh model). The gap closes as a high power of the length of the lattice [5, 11].

  14. Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.

  15. From entanglement witness to generalized Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.; Hansen, T.; Itzhaki, N.

    2016-07-01

    Being extremely important resources in quantum information and computation, it is vital to efficiently detect and properly characterize entangled states. We analyze in this work the problem of entanglement detection for arbitrary spin systems. It is demonstrated how a single measurement of the squared total spin can probabilistically discern separable from entangled many-particle states. For achieving this goal, we construct a tripartite analogy between the degeneracy of entanglement witness eigenstates, tensor products of SO(3) representations and classical lattice walks with special constraints. Within this framework, degeneracies are naturally given by generalized Catalan numbers and determine the fraction of states that are decidedly entangled and also known to be somewhat protected against decoherence. In addition, we introduce the concept of a “sterile entanglement witness”, which for large enough systems detects entanglement without affecting much the system’s state. We discuss when our proposed entanglement witness can be regarded as a sterile one.

  16. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  17. Separability criteria for genuine multiparticle entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guhne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847399

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  18. Separability Criteria for Genuine Multiparticle Entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guehne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  20. Relay entanglement and clusters of correlated spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, S. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2018-06-01

    Considering a spin-1/2 chain, we suppose that the entanglement passes from a given pair of particles to another one, thus establishing the relay transfer of entanglement along the chain. Therefore, we introduce the relay entanglement as a sum of all pairwise entanglements in a spin chain. For more detailed studying the effects of remote pairwise entanglements, we use the partial sums collecting entanglements between the spins separated by up to a certain number of nodes. The problem of entangled cluster formation is considered, and the geometric mean entanglement is introduced as a characteristic of quantum correlations in a cluster. Generally, the lifetime of a cluster decreases with an increase in its size.

  1. Quantum entanglement and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshihisa

    2008-01-01

    Quantum entanglement was suggested by Einstein to indicate that quantum mechanics was incomplete. However, against Einstein's expectation, the phenomenon due to quantum entanglement has been verified by experiments. Recently, in quantum information theory, it has been also treated as a resource for quantum teleportation and so on. In around 2000, it is recognized that quantum correlations between two particles of one pair state in an entangled spin-state are affected by the non-trivial effect due to the successive Lorentz transformation. This relativistic effect is called the Wigner rotation. The Wigner rotation has to been taken into account when we observe spin-correlation of moving particles in a different coordinate frame. In this paper, first, we explain quantum entanglement and its modification due to the Wigner rotation. After that, we introduce an extended model instead of one pair state model. In the extended model, quantum entanglement state is prepared as a superposition state of various pair states. We have computed the von Neumann entropy and the Shannon entropy to see the global behavior of variation for the spin correlation due to the relativistic effect. We also discuss distinguishability between the two particles of the pair. (author)

  2. Communication cost of entanglement transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    We study the amount of communication needed for two parties to transform some given joint pure state into another one, either exactly or with some fidelity. Specifically, we present a method to lower bound this communication cost even when the amount of entanglement does not increase. Moreover, the bound applies even if the initial state is supplemented with unlimited entanglement in the form of EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) pairs and the communication is allowed to be quantum mechanical. We then apply the method to the determination of the communication cost of asymptotic entanglement concentration and dilution. While concentration is known to require no communication whatsoever, the best known protocol for dilution, discovered by H.-K. Lo and S. Popescu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1459 (1999)], requires exchange of a number of bits that is of the order of the square root of the number of EPR pairs. Here we prove a matching lower bound of the same asymptotic order, demonstrating the optimality of the Lo-Popescu protocol up to a constant factor and establishing the existence of a fundamental asymmetry between the concentration and dilution tasks. We also discuss states for which the minimal communication cost is proportional to their entanglement, such as the states recently introduced in the context of 'embezzling entanglement' (W. van Dam and P. Hayden, e-print quant-ph/0201041)

  3. Entanglement in mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesniak, M; Zeilinger, A [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Paterek, T, E-mail: tomasz.paterek@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-05-15

    One of the essential features of quantum mechanics is that most pairs of observables cannot be measured simultaneously. This phenomenon manifests itself most strongly when observables are related to mutually unbiased bases. In this paper, we shed some light on the connection between mutually unbiased bases and another essential feature of quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement. It is shown that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases of a bipartite system contains a fixed amount of entanglement, independent of the choice of the set. This has implications for entanglement distribution among the states of a complete set. In prime-squared dimensions we present an explicit experiment-friendly construction of a complete set with a particularly simple entanglement distribution. Finally, we describe the basic properties of mutually unbiased bases composed of product states only. The constructions are illustrated with explicit examples in low dimensions. We believe that the properties of entanglement in mutually unbiased bases may be one of the ingredients to be taken into account to settle the question of the existence of complete sets. We also expect that they will be relevant to applications of bases in the experimental realization of quantum protocols in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces.

  4. Energy entanglement relation for quantum energy teleportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, Masahiro, E-mail: hotta@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.j [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2010-07-26

    Protocols of quantum energy teleportation (QET), while retaining causality and local energy conservation, enable the transportation of energy from a subsystem of a many-body quantum system to a distant subsystem by local operations and classical communication through ground-state entanglement. We prove two energy-entanglement inequalities for a minimal QET model. These relations help us to gain a profound understanding of entanglement itself as a physical resource by relating entanglement to energy as an evident physical resource.

  5. The minimal entanglement of bipartite decompositions as a witness of strong entanglement in a quantum system

    OpenAIRE

    Zenchuk, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    We {characterize the multipartite entanglement in a quantum system by the quantity} which vanishes if only the quantum system may be decomposed into two weakly entangled subsystems, unlike measures of multipartite entanglement introduced before. We refer to this {quantity} as the minimal entanglement of bipartite decompositions (MEBD). Big MEBD means that the system may not be decomposed into two weakly entangled subsystems. MEBD allows one to define, for instance, whether the given quantum s...

  6. Entropy-driven phase transitions of entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2013-05-01

    We study the behavior of bipartite entanglement at fixed von Neumann entropy. We look at the distribution of the entanglement spectrum, that is, the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix of a quantum system in a pure state. We report the presence of two continuous phase transitions, characterized by different entanglement spectra, which are deformations of classical eigenvalue distributions.

  7. Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...

  8. Quantum teleportation of entangled squeezed vacuum states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡新华

    2003-01-01

    An optical scheme for probabilistic teleporting entangled squeezed vacuum states (SVS) is proposed. In this scheme,the teleported state is a bipartite entangled SVS,and the quantum channel is a tripartite entangled SVS.The process of the teleportation is achieved by using a 50/50 symmetric beamsplitter and photon detectors with the help of classical information.

  9. Structural entanglements in protein complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yani; Chwastyk, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2017-06-01

    We consider multi-chain protein native structures and propose a criterion that determines whether two chains in the system are entangled or not. The criterion is based on the behavior observed by pulling at both termini of each chain simultaneously in the two chains. We have identified about 900 entangled systems in the Protein Data Bank and provided a more detailed analysis for several of them. We argue that entanglement enhances the thermodynamic stability of the system but it may have other functions: burying the hydrophobic residues at the interface and increasing the DNA or RNA binding area. We also study the folding and stretching properties of the knotted dimeric proteins MJ0366, YibK, and bacteriophytochrome. These proteins have been studied theoretically in their monomeric versions so far. The dimers are seen to separate on stretching through the tensile mechanism and the characteristic unraveling force depends on the pulling direction.

  10. Entanglement in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isar, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states

  11. Global entanglement in XXZ chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canosa, N.; Rossignoli, R.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the thermal entanglement of XXZ-type Heisenberg chains in the presence of a uniform magnetic field along the z axes through the evaluation of the negativity associated with bipartitions of the whole system and subsystems. Limit temperatures for nonzero global negativities are shown to depend on the asymmetry Δ, but not on the uniform field, and can be much higher than those limiting pairwise entanglement. It is also shown that global bipartite entanglement may exist for T>0 even for Δ≥1, i.e., when the system is fully aligned (and hence separable) at T=0, and that the bipartition leading to the highest limit temperature depends on Δ

  12. Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli

    2017-07-01

    Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.

  13. Quantum Entanglements: Selected Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetto, E

    2005-01-01

    This book is a sort of tribute to Rob Clifton (1964-2002), Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, philosopher of physics and editor of the journal Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, who tragically died of cancer. It contains fourteen papers by Clifton, for the most part written in collaboration with other authors (Jeffrey Bub (2), Sheldon Goldstein, Michael Dickson, Hans Halvorson (6), Adrian Kent (2)), published between 1995 and 2002. The choice of papers made by the editors is very impressive. They concern the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Among the issues discussed are the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, the problems of hidden variables theories, non-locality, Bell's inequality, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Lorentz invariance, de-coherence, non-contextuality, complementarity, entanglement and quantum information. A consequence of such investigations is that non-separability is a more complex issue than violation of Bell's inequality. Apart from the perspective one can follow-whether one agrees or not with Clifton-these papers are effective contributions to an understanding of the problems involved in the foundations of quantum mechanics. The most interesting parts, in my opinion, are related to the extension of the discussion of foundational problems to quantum field theory: on the algebraic approach, and on the twin concepts of particle and vacuum. Non-locality appears to be 'worse' in relativistic quantum field theory than in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. All the papers deal with relevant epistemological and even historical aspects of quantum mechanics interpretations, but all the issues are discussed from a technical, logical and mathematical approach. A complete bibliography of Clifton's papers is given at the end of the volume. (book review)

  14. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  15. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; De Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  16. Holographic entanglement for Chern-Simons terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Loganayagam, R.; Ng, Gim Seng

    2017-01-01

    We derive the holographic entanglement entropy contribution from pure and mixed gravitational Chern-Simons(CS) terms in AdS 2k+1 . This is done through two different methods: first, by a direct evaluation of CS action in a holographic replica geometry and second by a descent of Dong’s derivation applied to the corresponding anomaly polynomial. In lower dimensions (k=1,2), the formula coincides with the Tachikawa formula for black hole entropy from gravitational CS terms. New extrinsic curvature corrections appear for k≥3: we give explicit and concise expressions for the two pure gravitational CS terms in AdS 7 and present various consistency checks, including agreements with the black hole entropy formula when evaluated at the bifurcation surface.

  17. Holographic entanglement for Chern-Simons terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo [Département de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS,24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Loganayagam, R. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Ng, Gim Seng [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We derive the holographic entanglement entropy contribution from pure and mixed gravitational Chern-Simons(CS) terms in AdS{sub 2k+1}. This is done through two different methods: first, by a direct evaluation of CS action in a holographic replica geometry and second by a descent of Dong’s derivation applied to the corresponding anomaly polynomial. In lower dimensions (k=1,2), the formula coincides with the Tachikawa formula for black hole entropy from gravitational CS terms. New extrinsic curvature corrections appear for k≥3: we give explicit and concise expressions for the two pure gravitational CS terms in AdS{sub 7} and present various consistency checks, including agreements with the black hole entropy formula when evaluated at the bifurcation surface.

  18. Holographic entanglement for Chern-Simons terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeyanagi, Tatsuo; Loganayagam, R.; Ng, Gim Seng

    2017-02-01

    We derive the holographic entanglement entropy contribution from pure and mixed gravitational Chern-Simons(CS) terms in AdS2 k+1. This is done through two different methods: first, by a direct evaluation of CS action in a holographic replica geometry and second by a descent of Dong's derivation applied to the corresponding anomaly polynomial. In lower dimensions ( k = 1 , 2), the formula coincides with the Tachikawa formula for black hole entropy from gravitational CS terms. New extrinsic curvature corrections appear for k ≥ 3: we give explicit and concise expressions for the two pure gravitational CS terms in AdS7 and present various consistency checks, including agreements with the black hole entropy formula when evaluated at the bifurcation surface.

  19. Quantum control on entangled bipartite qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Ising interactions between qubits can produce distortion on entangled pairs generated for engineering purposes (e.g., for quantum computation or quantum cryptography). The presence of parasite magnetic fields destroys or alters the expected behavior for which it was intended. In addition, these pairs are generated with some dispersion in their original configuration, so their discrimination is necessary for applications. Nevertheless, discrimination should be made after Ising distortion. Quantum control helps in both problems; making some projective measurements upon the pair to decide the original state to replace it, or just trying to reconstruct it using some procedures which do not alter their quantum nature. Results about the performance of these procedures are reported. First, we will work with pure systems studying restrictions and advantages. Then, we will extend these operations for mixed states generated with uncertainty in the time of distortion, correcting them by assuming the control prescriptions for the most probable one.

  20. Dimensional reduction from entanglement in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Yarom, Amos

    2005-01-01

    Using a quantum field theoretic setting, we present evidence for dimensional reduction of any sub-volume of Minkowksi space. First, we show that correlation functions of a class of operators restricted to a sub-volume of D-dimensional Minkowski space scale as its surface area. A simple example of such area scaling is provided by the energy fluctuations of a free massless quantum field in its vacuum state. This is reminiscent of area scaling of entanglement entropy but applies to quantum expectation values in a pure state, rather than to statistical averages over a mixed state. We then show, in a specific case, that fluctuations in the bulk have a lower-dimensional representation in terms of a boundary theory at high temperature. (author)

  1. Entanglement evolution for quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, S; Spehner, D

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information. It can be destroyed or sometimes created by interactions with a reservoir. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and sudden birth, i.e., the sudden disappearance or revival of entanglement at finite times resulting from a coupling of the quantum system to its environment. We investigate the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. Because of these measurements, the qubits remain at all times in a pure state, which evolves randomly. To each measurement result (or 'realization') corresponds a quantum trajectory in the Hilbert space of the qubits. We show that for two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, the average of the qubits' concurrence over all quantum trajectories is either constant or decays exponentially. The corresponding decay rate depends on the measurement scheme only. This result contrasts with the entanglement sudden death phenomenon exhibited by the qubits' density matrix in the absence of measurements. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump dynamics (photon counting) as well as to quantum state diffusion (homodyne or heterodyne detections) in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect the entanglement of the qubits. We also analyze the case of two qubits coupled to a common bath. Then, the average concurrence can vanish at discrete times and may coincide with the concurrence of the density matrix. The results explained in this article have been presented during the 'Fifth International Workshop DICE2010' by the first author and have been the subject of a prior publication.

  2. Dissipative entanglement swapping in the presence of detuning and Kerr medium: Bell state measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Nourmandipour, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility of entanglement swapping between two independent nonperfect cavities consisting of an atom with finite lifetime of atomic levels (as two independent sources of dissipation), which interacts with a quantized electromagnetic field in the presence of detuning and Kerr medium. In fact, there is no direct interaction between the two atoms, therefore, no entanglement exists between them. We use the Bell state measurement performed on the photons leaving the cavities to swap the entanglement stored between the atom-fields in each cavity into atom-atom. Our motivation comes from the fact that two-qubit entangled states are of great interest for quantum information science and technologies. We discuss the effect of the initial state of the system, the detuning parameter, the Kerr medium and the two dissipation sources on the swapped entanglement to atom-atom. We interestingly find that when the atomic decay rates and photonic leakages from the cavities are equal, our system behaves as an ideal system with no dissipation. Our results show that it is possible to create a long-living atom-atom maximally entangled state in the presence of Kerr effect and dissipation; we determine these conditions in detail and also establish the final atom-atom Bell state.

  3. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  4. Deterministic chaos in entangled eigenstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, K. G.; Förster, S.

    2008-05-01

    We investigate the problem of deterministic chaos in connection with entangled states using the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. We show for a two particle system in a harmonic oscillator potential, that in a case of entanglement and three energy eigen-values the maximum Lyapunov-parameters of a representative ensemble of trajectories for large times develops to a narrow positive distribution, which indicates nearly complete chaotic dynamics. We also present in short results from two time-dependent systems, the anisotropic and the Rabi oscillator.

  5. Deterministic chaos in entangled eigenstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, K.G. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)], E-mail: guenter.schlegel@arcor.de; Foerster, S. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2008-05-12

    We investigate the problem of deterministic chaos in connection with entangled states using the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. We show for a two particle system in a harmonic oscillator potential, that in a case of entanglement and three energy eigen-values the maximum Lyapunov-parameters of a representative ensemble of trajectories for large times develops to a narrow positive distribution, which indicates nearly complete chaotic dynamics. We also present in short results from two time-dependent systems, the anisotropic and the Rabi oscillator.

  6. Deterministic chaos in entangled eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.G.; Foerster, S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the problem of deterministic chaos in connection with entangled states using the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. We show for a two particle system in a harmonic oscillator potential, that in a case of entanglement and three energy eigen-values the maximum Lyapunov-parameters of a representative ensemble of trajectories for large times develops to a narrow positive distribution, which indicates nearly complete chaotic dynamics. We also present in short results from two time-dependent systems, the anisotropic and the Rabi oscillator

  7. Quantum entanglement: theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, N.

    2007-10-10

    This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum

  8. Quantum entanglement: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with various questions concerning the quantification, the creation, and the application of quantum entanglement. Entanglement arises due to the restriction to local operations and classical communication. We investigate how the notion of entanglement changes if additional restrictions in form of a superselection rule are imposed and show that they give rise to a new resource. We characterize this resource and demonstrate that it can be used to overcome the restrictions, very much as entanglement can overcome the restriction to local operations by teleportation. We next turn towards the optimal generation of resources. We show how squeezing can be generated as efficiently as possible from noisy squeezing operations supplemented by noiseless passive operations, and discuss the implications of this result to the optimal generation of entanglement. The difficulty in describing the behaviour of correlated quantum many-body systems is ultimately due to the complicated entanglement structure of multipartite states. Using quantum information techniques, we investigate the ground state properties of lattices of harmonic oscillators. We derive an exponential decay of correlations for gapped systems, compute the dependence of correlation length and gap, and investigate the notion of criticality by relating a vanishing energy gap to an algebraic decay of correlations. Recently, ideas from entanglement theory have been applied to the description of many-body systems. Matrix Product States (MPS), which have a particularly simple interpretation from the point of quantum information, perform extremely well in approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians. It is generally believed that this is due to the fact that both ground states and MPS obey an entropic area law. We clarify the relation between entropy scaling laws and approximability by MPS, and in particular find that an area law does not necessarily imply approximability. Using the quantum

  9. Multipartite entanglement gambling: The power of asymptotic state transformations assisted by a sublinear amount of quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Reversible state transformations under entanglement nonincreasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely, LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis) have been considered in the literature. In this paper we show that LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations for multipartite pure states. The basic tool we use is multipartite entanglement gambling: Any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair shared by some pair of parties and any irreducible m-party pure state (m≥2) can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed) using LOCC. We consider applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. We briefly consider generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of cat-distillable states, i.e., states from which cat states (vertical bar 0 xm >+vertical bar 1 xm >) may be distilled

  10. Phase diagram and re-entrant fermionic entanglement in a hybrid Ising-Hubbard ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, H. S.; Pereira, M. S. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Strečka, J.; Lyra, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    The degree of fermionic entanglement is examined in an exactly solvable Ising-Hubbard ladder, which involves interacting electrons on the ladder's rungs described by Hubbard dimers at half-filling on each rung, accounting for intrarung hopping and Coulomb terms. The coupling between neighboring Hubbard dimers is assumed to have an Ising-like nature. The ground-state phase diagram consists of four distinct regions corresponding to the saturated paramagnetic, the classical antiferromagnetic, the quantum antiferromagnetic, and the mixed classical-quantum phase. We have exactly computed the fermionic concurrence, which measures the degree of quantum entanglement between the pair of electrons on the ladder rungs. The effects of the hopping amplitude, the Coulomb term, temperature, and magnetic fields on the fermionic entanglement are explored in detail. It is shown that the fermionic concurrence displays a re-entrant behavior when quantum entanglement is being generated at moderate temperatures above the classical saturated paramagnetic ground state.

  11. Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement

  12. Considerable improvement of entanglement swapping by considering multiphoton transitions via cavity quantum electrodynamics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakniat, R.; Soltani, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Recently we studied the effect of photon addition in the initial coherent field on the entanglement swapping which causes some improvements in the process [Soltani et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 31, 1750198 (2017)]. In this paper, we investigate the influence of multiphoton transitions in the atom-field interaction based on the cavity quantum electrodynamics on the entanglement swapping and show its considerable constructive effect on this process. The presented model consists of two two-level atoms namely A1 and A2 and two distinct cavity fields F1 and F2. Initially, the atoms are prepared in a maximally entangled state and the fields in the cavities are prepared in hybrid entangled state of number and coherent states, separately. Making the atom A2 to interact with the field F1 (via the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model which allows m-photon transitions between atomic levels in the emission and absorption processes) followed by their detection allows us to arrive at the entanglement swapping from the two atoms A1, A2 and the two fields F1, F2 to the atom-field A1-F2 system. Then, we pay our attention to the time evolution of success probability of detecting processes and fidelity. Also, to determine the amount of entanglement of the generated entangled state in the swapping process, the linear entropy is evaluated and the effect of parameter m concerning the multiphoton transitions on these quantities is investigated, numerically. It is observed that, by increasing the number of photons in the transition process, one may obtain considerable improvement in the relevant quantities of the entanglement swapping. In detail, the satisfactorily acceptable values 1 and 0.5 corresponding to success probability and fidelity are obtained for most of the times during observing of the above-mentioned procedure. We concluded that the presented formalism in this paper is much more advantageous than our presentation model in our earlier work mentioned above.

  13. Continuous variable polarization entanglement, experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Warwick P; Treps, Nicolas; Schnabel, Roman; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2003-01-01

    We generate and characterize continuous variable polarization entanglement between two optical beams. We first produce quadrature entanglement, and by performing local operations we transform it into a polarization basis. We extend two entanglement criteria, the inseparability criteria proposed by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox criteria proposed by Reid and Drummond (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 2731), to Stokes operators; and use them to characterize the entanglement. Our results for the EPR paradox criteria are visualized in terms of uncertainty balls on the Poincare sphere. We demonstrate theoretically that using two quadrature entangled pairs it is possible to entangle three orthogonal Stokes operators between a pair of beams, although with a bound √3 times more stringent than for the quadrature entanglement

  14. Continuous variable polarization entanglement, experiment and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Warwick P [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Treps, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Schnabel, Roman [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Ralph, Timothy C [Department of Physics, Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Lam, Ping Koy [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2003-08-01

    We generate and characterize continuous variable polarization entanglement between two optical beams. We first produce quadrature entanglement, and by performing local operations we transform it into a polarization basis. We extend two entanglement criteria, the inseparability criteria proposed by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722) and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox criteria proposed by Reid and Drummond (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 2731), to Stokes operators; and use them to characterize the entanglement. Our results for the EPR paradox criteria are visualized in terms of uncertainty balls on the Poincare sphere. We demonstrate theoretically that using two quadrature entangled pairs it is possible to entangle three orthogonal Stokes operators between a pair of beams, although with a bound {radical}3 times more stringent than for the quadrature entanglement.

  15. Entanglement and decoherence in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of entanglement occurs in very heavy quantum systems of particle physics. We find analogies but also differences to the entangled spin-1/2 or photon systems. In particular we discuss the features of entangled 'strangeness', the K-meson system, where a Bell inequality exists which has a remarkable connection to CP (charge conjugation and parity) and its violation. Stability of entangled quantum states is studied by allowing the system to interact with an environment. We consider possible decoherence of entangled 'beauty', the B-meson system, produced at the particle colliders at very high energies (10 GeV). Finally, we discuss a criterion for detecting entangled/separable states, a generalized Bell inequality and entanglement witness. We illustrate its geometric features by the two-spin example Alice and Bob. (author)

  16. Entanglement in Gaussian matrix-product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Gaussian matrix-product states are obtained as the outputs of projection operations from an ancillary space of M infinitely entangled bonds connecting neighboring sites, applied at each of N sites of a harmonic chain. Replacing the projections by associated Gaussian states, the building blocks, we show that the entanglement range in translationally invariant Gaussian matrix-product states depends on how entangled the building blocks are. In particular, infinite entanglement in the building blocks produces fully symmetric Gaussian states with maximum entanglement range. From their peculiar properties of entanglement sharing, a basic difference with spin chains is revealed: Gaussian matrix-product states can possess unlimited, long-range entanglement even with minimum number of ancillary bonds (M=1). Finally we discuss how these states can be experimentally engineered from N copies of a three-mode building block and N two-mode finitely squeezed states

  17. Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.

  18. Overcoming a limitation of deterministic dense coding with a nonmaximally entangled initial state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, P. S.; Gerjuoy, E.

    2010-01-01

    Under two-party deterministic dense coding, Alice communicates (perfectly distinguishable) messages to Bob via a qudit from a pair of entangled qudits in pure state |Ψ>. If |Ψ> represents a maximally entangled state (i.e., each of its Schmidt coefficients is √(1/d)), then Alice can convey to Bob one of d 2 distinct messages. If |Ψ> is not maximally entangled, then Ji et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 034307 (2006)] have shown that under the original deterministic dense-coding protocol, in which messages are encoded by unitary operations performed on Alice's qudit, it is impossible to encode d 2 -1 messages. Encoding d 2 -2 messages is possible; see, for example, the numerical studies by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 012311 (2005)]. Answering a question raised by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042311 (2006)], we show that when |Ψ> is not maximally entangled, the communications limit of d 2 -2 messages persists even when the requirement that Alice encode by unitary operations on her qudit is weakened to allow encoding by more general quantum operators. We then describe a dense-coding protocol that can overcome this limitation with high probability, assuming the largest Schmidt coefficient of |Ψ> is sufficiently close to √(1/d). In this protocol, d 2 -2 of the messages are encoded via unitary operations on Alice's qudit, and the final (d 2 -1)-th message is encoded via a non-trace-preserving quantum operation.

  19. Linear optics and projective measurements alone suffice to create large-photon-number path entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a method for preparing maximal path entanglement with a definite photon-number N, larger than two, using projective measurements. In contrast with the previously known schemes, our method uses only linear optics. Specifically, we exhibit a way of generating four-photon, path-entangled states of the form vertical bar 4,0>+ vertical bar 0,4>, using only four beam splitters and two detectors. These states are of major interest as a resource for quantum interferometric sensors as well as for optical quantum lithography and quantum holography

  20. Probabilistic teleportation via multi-parameter measurements and partially entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiahua; Shi, Lei; Han, Chen; Xu, Zhiyan; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gang; Wu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel scheme for probabilistic teleportation is presented with multi-parameter measurements via a non-maximally entangled state. This is in contrast to the fact that the measurement kinds for quantum teleportation are usually particular in most previous schemes. The detail implementation producers for our proposal are given by using of appropriate local unitary operations. Moreover, the total success probability and classical information of this proposal are calculated. It is demonstrated that the success probability and classical cost would be changed with the multi-measurement parameters and the entanglement factor of quantum channel. Our scheme could enlarge the research range of probabilistic teleportation.

  1. Vacuum state of the Dirac field in de Sitter space and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science,University of the Basque Country,48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science,Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Center for Gravitational Physics,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-13

    We compute the entanglement entropy of a free massive Dirac field between two causally disconnected open charts in de Sitter space. We first derive the Bunch-Davies vacuum mode functions of the Dirac field. We find there exists no supercurvature mode for the Dirac field. We then give the Bogoliubov transformation between the Bunch-Davies vacuum and the open chart vacua that makes the reduced density matrix diagonal. We find that the Dirac field becomes more entangled than a scalar field as m{sup 2}/H{sup 2} becomes small, and the difference is maximal in the massless limit.

  2. Information loss in effective field theory: Entanglement and thermal entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Integrating out high energy degrees of freedom to yield a low energy effective field theory leads to a loss of information with a concomitant increase in entropy. We obtain the effective field theory of a light scalar field interacting with heavy fields after tracing out the heavy degrees of freedom from the time evolved density matrix. The initial density matrix describes the light field in its ground state and the heavy fields in equilibrium at a common temperature T . For T =0 , we obtain the reduced density matrix in a perturbative expansion; it reveals an emergent mixed state as a consequence of the entanglement between light and heavy fields. We obtain the effective action that determines the time evolution of the reduced density matrix for the light field in a nonperturbative Dyson resummation of one-loop correlations of the heavy fields. The Von-Neumann entanglement entropy associated with the reduced density matrix is obtained for the nonresonant and resonant cases in the asymptotic long time limit. In the nonresonant case the reduced density matrix displays an incipient thermalization albeit with a wave-vector, time and coupling dependent effective temperature as a consequence of memory of initial conditions. The entanglement entropy is time independent and is the thermal entropy for this effective, nonequilibrium temperature. In the resonant case the light field fully thermalizes with the heavy fields, the reduced density matrix loses memory of the initial conditions and the entanglement entropy becomes the thermal entropy of the light field. We discuss the relation between the entanglement entropy ultraviolet divergences and renormalization.

  3. Bessel-Gaussian entanglement; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mclaren, M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available mode Hologram Page 9 Violation of Bell’s inequality demonstrates entanglement © CSIR 2013 www.csir.co.za P ro b ab il it y Classical Quantum mechanical M. McLaren et al.,2012, Opt. Express, 20, 23589 Page 10 Comparison...

  4. Basic logic and quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizzi, P A

    2007-01-01

    As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing

  5. Basic logic and quantum entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.

  6. Transitivity of an entangled choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    We describe a quantum model of a simple choice game (constructed upon the entangled state of two qubits), which involves the fundamental problem of transitive-intransitive preferences. We compare attainability of optimal intransitive strategies in both classical and quantum models with the use of geometrical interpretation.

  7. Entangling light in high dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pors, Jan Bardeus

    2011-01-01

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental trait of quantum mechanics that causes the information about the properties of two (or more) objects to be inextricably linked. When a measurement on one of the objects is performed, the state of the other object is immediately altered, even when these objects

  8. Computational complexity in entanglement transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric A.

    In physics, systems having three parts are typically much more difficult to analyze than those having just two. Even in classical mechanics, predicting the motion of three interacting celestial bodies remains an insurmountable challenge while the analogous two-body problem has an elementary solution. It is as if just by adding a third party, a fundamental change occurs in the structure of the problem that renders it unsolvable. In this thesis, we demonstrate how such an effect is likewise present in the theory of quantum entanglement. In fact, the complexity differences between two-party and three-party entanglement become quite conspicuous when comparing the difficulty in deciding what state changes are possible for these systems when no additional entanglement is consumed in the transformation process. We examine this entanglement transformation question and its variants in the language of computational complexity theory, a powerful subject that formalizes the concept of problem difficulty. Since deciding feasibility of a specified bipartite transformation is relatively easy, this task belongs to the complexity class P. On the other hand, for tripartite systems, we find the problem to be NP-Hard, meaning that its solution is at least as hard as the solution to some of the most difficult problems humans have encountered. One can then rigorously defend the assertion that a fundamental complexity difference exists between bipartite and tripartite entanglement since unlike the former, the full range of forms realizable by the latter is incalculable (assuming P≠NP). However, similar to the three-body celestial problem, when one examines a special subclass of the problem---invertible transformations on systems having at least one qubit subsystem---we prove that the problem can be solved efficiently. As a hybrid of the two questions, we find that the question of tripartite to bipartite transformations can be solved by an efficient randomized algorithm. Our results are

  9. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  10. Upper bounds on entangling rates of bipartite Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    We discuss upper bounds on the rate at which unitary evolution governed by a nonlocal Hamiltonian can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. Given a bipartite Hamiltonian H coupling two finite dimensional particles A and B, the entangling rate is shown to be upper bounded by c log(d) parallel H parallel, where d is the smallest dimension of the interacting particles parallel H parallel is the operator norm of H, and c is a constant close to 1. Under certain restrictions on the initial state we prove an analogous upper bound for the ancilla-assisted entangling rate with a constant c that does not depend upon dimensions of local ancillas. The restriction is that the initial state has at most two distinct Schmidt coefficients (each coefficient may have arbitrarily large multiplicity). Our proof is based on analysis of a mixing rate - a functional measuring how fast entropy can be produced if one mixes a time-independent state with a state evolving unitarily

  11. Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...

  12. Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu; Li Chunyan; Wang Yan; Li Yansong

    2005-01-01

    We present a way for symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entangled state based on Bell-basis measurements by using two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, i.e., a sender transmits an arbitrary two-particle entangled state to a distant receiver, an arbitrary one of the n+1 agents, via the control of the others in a network. It will be shown that the outcomes in the cases that n is odd or is even are different in principle as the receiver has to perform a controlled-NOT operation on his particles for reconstructing the original arbitrary entangled state in addition to some local unitary operations in the former. Also we discuss the applications of this controlled teleporation for quantum secret sharing of classical and quantum information. As all the instances can be used to carry useful information, its efficiency for qubit approaches the maximal value

  13. Two Schemes for Generation of Entanglement for Vibronic Collective States of Multiple Trapped Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenxing; Li Jiahua; Zheng Anshou

    2007-01-01

    We propose two schemes to prepare entanglement for the vibronic collective states of multiple trapped ions. The first scheme aims to generating multipartite entanglement for vibrational modes of trapped ions, which only requires a single laser beam tuned to the ionic carrier frequency. Our scheme works in the mediated excitation regime, in which the corresponding Rabi frequency is equal to the trap frequency. Beyond their fundamental importance, these states may be of interest for experimental studies on decoherence since the present scheme operates in a fast way. The second scheme aims to preparing the continuous variable multimode maximally Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The distinct advantage is that the operation time is only limited by the available laser intensity, not by the inherent mechanisms such as off-resonant excitations. This makes it promising to obtain entanglement of multiple coherent and squeezing states with desired amplitudes in a reasonable time.

  14. Electronic Entanglement Concentration for the Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shang-Ping; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes many physical qubits in a logic qubit will have important applications in both quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we will describe an entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for electronic C-GHZ state, by exploiting the electronic polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and charge detection. This protocol has several advantages. First, the parties do not need to know the exact coefficients of the initial less-entangled C-GHZ state, which makes this protocol feasible. Second, with the help of charge detection, the distilled maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for future application. Third, this protocol can be repeated to obtain a higher success probability. We hope that this protocol can be useful in future quantum computation based on electrons.

  15. Bipartite entangled stabilizer mutually unbiased bases as maximum cliques of Cayley graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Wim; Howard, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We examine the existence and structure of particular sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in bipartite qudit systems. In contrast to well-known power-of-prime MUB constructions, we restrict ourselves to using maximally entangled stabilizer states as MUB vectors. Consequently, these bipartite entangled stabilizer MUBs (BES MUBs) provide no local information, but are sufficient and minimal for decomposing a wide variety of interesting operators including (mixtures of) Jamiołkowski states, entanglement witnesses, and more. The problem of finding such BES MUBs can be mapped, in a natural way, to that of finding maximum cliques in a family of Cayley graphs. Some relationships with known power-of-prime MUB constructions are discussed, and observables for BES MUBs are given explicitly in terms of Pauli operators.

  16. Bipartite entangled stabilizer mutually unbiased bases as maximum cliques of Cayley graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Wim van; Howard, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We examine the existence and structure of particular sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in bipartite qudit systems. In contrast to well-known power-of-prime MUB constructions, we restrict ourselves to using maximally entangled stabilizer states as MUB vectors. Consequently, these bipartite entangled stabilizer MUBs (BES MUBs) provide no local information, but are sufficient and minimal for decomposing a wide variety of interesting operators including (mixtures of) Jamiolkowski states, entanglement witnesses, and more. The problem of finding such BES MUBs can be mapped, in a natural way, to that of finding maximum cliques in a family of Cayley graphs. Some relationships with known power-of-prime MUB constructions are discussed, and observables for BES MUBs are given explicitly in terms of Pauli operators.

  17. Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, T.S.

    2007-03-29

    This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more

  18. Entanglement dynamics in quantum information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubitt, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement dynamics, that is, the behaviour of entanglement in systems that are evolving with time. Progressively more complex multipartite systems are considered, starting with low-dimensional tripartite systems, whose entanglement dynamics can nonetheless display surprising properties, progressing through larger networks of interacting particles, and finishing with infinitely large lattice models. Firstly, what is perhaps the most basic question in entanglement dynamics is considered: what resources are necessary in order to create entanglement between distant particles? The answer is surprising: sending separable states between the parties is sufficient; entanglement can be created without it being carried by a ''messenger'' particle. The analogous result also holds in the continuous-time case: two particles interacting indirectly via a common ancilla particle can be entangled without the ancilla ever itself becoming entangled. The latter result appears to discount any notion of entanglement flow. However, for pure states, this intuitive idea can be recovered, and even made quantitative. A ''bottleneck'' inequality is derived that relates the entanglement rate of the end particles in a tripartite chain to the entanglement of the middle one. In particular, no entanglement can be created if the middle particle is not entangled. However, although this result can be applied to general interaction networks, it does not capture the full entanglement dynamics of these more complex systems. This is remedied by the derivation of entanglement rate equations, loosely analogous to the rate equations describing a chemical reaction. A complete set of rate equations for a system reflects the full structure of its interaction network, and can be used to prove a lower bound on the scaling with chain length of the time required to entangle the ends of a chain. Finally, in contrast with these more abstract results, the entanglement and

  19. Entanglement Length in Miscible Blends of cis-Polyisoprene and Poly(ptert-butylstyrene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumiya, Yumi

    In miscible polymer blends, the entanglement length is common for the components, but its changes with the composition w remain unclear. For this problem, this study analyzed viscoelastic data for miscible blends of cis-polyisoprene (PI) and poly(ptert-butylstyrene) (PtBS), considering the basic feature that the local relaxation is determined only by wPI. On the basis of this feature, a series of unentangled low- M PI/PtBS blends having various M and a given wPI were utilized as references for well-entangled high- M PI/PtBS blends having the same wPI, and the modulus data of the references were subtracted from the high- M blend data. For an optimally chosen reference, the storage modulus Ge'of the high- M blends obtained after the subtraction exhibited a clear entanglement plateau GN and the corresponding Ge' ' decreased in proportion to 1/ ω at high frequencies ω. Thus, the onset of entanglement relaxation was detected. The GN values were well described by a linear mixing rule of the entanglement length with the number fraction of Kuhn segments of the components being utilized as the averaging weight. This result, not explained by a mean-field picture of entanglement, is discussed in relation to local packing of bulky PtBS chains and skinny PI chains.

  20. Quantum Entanglement and Projective Ring Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the basic geometrical properties of the observables characterizing two-qubit systems by employing a novel projective ring geometric approach. After introducing the basic facts about quantum complementarity and maximal quantum entanglement in such systems, we demonstrate that the 15 × 15 multiplication table of the associated four-dimensional matrices exhibits a so-far-unnoticed geometrical structure that can be regarded as three pencils of lines in the projective plane of order two. In one of the pencils, which we call the kernel, the observables on two lines share a base of Bell states. In the complement of the kernel, the eight vertices/observables are joined by twelve lines which form the edges of a cube. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to showing that the nature of this geometry has much to do with the structure of the projective lines defined over the rings that are the direct product of n copies of the Galois field GF(2, with n = 2, 3 and 4.

  1. Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Roychowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.

  2. Entanglement between two spatially separated atomic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karsten; Peise, Jan; Lücke, Bernd; Kruse, Ilka; Vitagliano, Giuseppe; Apellaniz, Iagoba; Kleinmann, Matthias; Tóth, Géza; Klempt, Carsten

    2018-04-01

    Modern quantum technologies in the fields of quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology require the creation and control of large ensembles of entangled particles. In ultracold ensembles of neutral atoms, nonclassical states have been generated with mutual entanglement among thousands of particles. The entanglement generation relies on the fundamental particle-exchange symmetry in ensembles of identical particles, which lacks the standard notion of entanglement between clearly definable subsystems. Here, we present the generation of entanglement between two spatially separated clouds by splitting an ensemble of ultracold identical particles prepared in a twin Fock state. Because the clouds can be addressed individually, our experiments open a path to exploit the available entangled states of indistinguishable particles for quantum information applications.

  3. Entanglement rules for holographic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar, E-mail: dibakarphys@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality, we explore the laws of entanglement thermodynamics for most generic classes of Quantum Field Theories with hyperscaling violation. In our analysis, we note that for Quantum Field Theories with compressible quark like excitation, the first law of entanglement thermodynamics gets modified due to the presence of an additional term that could be identified as the entanglement chemical potential associated with hidden Fermi surfaces of the boundary theory. Most notably, we find that the so called entanglement chemical potential does not depend on the size of the entangling region and is purely determined by the quark d.o.f. encoded within the entangling region.

  4. Entanglement criteria for microscopic-macroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnolo, Nicolo; Vitelli, Chiara; Sciarrino, Fabio; De Martini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the conclusions that can be drawn on a recent experimental micro-macro entanglement test [De Martini, Sciarrino, and Vitelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253601 (2008)]. The system under investigation is generated through optical parametric amplification of one photon belonging to an entangled pair. The adopted entanglement criterion makes it possible to infer the presence of entanglement before losses that occur on the macrostate under a specific assumption. In particular, an a priori knowledge of the system that generates the micro-macro pair is necessary to exclude a class of separable states that can reproduce the obtained experimental results. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of a micro-macro ''genuine'' entanglement test on the analyzed system by considering different strategies, which show that in principle a fraction ε, proportional to the number of photons that survive the lossy process, of the original entanglement persists in any loss regime.

  5. Entangled photons and quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Zhensheng, E-mail: yuanzs@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bao Xiaohui [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan Jianwei, E-mail: pan@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.

  6. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  7. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  8. Entangled photons and quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhensheng; Bao Xiaohui; Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi; Pan Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.

  9. Quantum entanglement at negative temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L

    2013-01-01

    An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)

  10. Increasing Entanglement between Gaussian States by Coherent Photon Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Tualle Brouri, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states...

  11. Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.

  12. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-08-29

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  13. Entanglement and inhibited quantum evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschek, P E; Balzer, Chr; Hannemann, Th; Wunderlich, Ch; Neuhauser, W

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of a quantum system is impeded by the system's state being observed. A test on an ensemble neither proves the causal nexus nor discloses the nature of the inhibition. Two recent experiments that make use of sequential optical or microwave-optical double resonance on an individual trapped ion disprove a dynamical effect of back action by meter or environment. They rather indicate the ionic states involved in the evolution being entangled with the potentially recorded bivalued scattered-light signal

  14. Spin entanglement, decoherence and Bohm's EPR paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; Drummond, P. D.; Bachor, H. A.; Reid, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain criteria for entanglement and the EPR paradox for spin-entangled particles and analyse the effects of decoherence caused by absorption and state purity errors. For a two qubit photonic state, entanglement can occur for all transmission efficiencies. In this case, the state preparation purity must be above a threshold value. However, Bohm's spin EPR paradox can be achieved only above a critical level of loss. We calculate a required efficiency of 58%, which appears achievable with cu...

  15. Variation of entanglement entropy in scattering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shigenori, E-mail: sigenori@hanyang.ac.kr [Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, I.Y., E-mail: inyongpark05@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Philander Smith College, Little Rock, AR 72223 (United States); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: sjsin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-09

    In a scattering process, the final state is determined by an initial state and an S-matrix. We focus on two-particle scattering processes and consider the entanglement between these particles. For two types initial states, i.e., an unentangled state and an entangled one, we calculate perturbatively the change of entanglement entropy from the initial state to the final one. Then we show a few examples in a field theory and in quantum mechanics.

  16. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....

  17. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiang; Zhi Qijun; Zhang Xiaoping; Ren Zhongzhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qutrit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth. (authors)

  18. Time evolution of the Wigner function in the entangled-state representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi

    2002-01-01

    For quantum-mechanical entangled states we introduce the entangled Wigner operator in the entangled-state representation. We derive the time evolution equation of the entangled Wigner operator . The trace product rule for entangled Wigner functions is also obtained

  19. Entanglement dynamics in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N. F.; Zarro, C. A. D.

    2017-12-01

    We study how the entanglement dynamics between two-level atoms is impacted by random fluctuations of the light cone. In our model the two-atom system is envisaged as an open system coupled with an electromagnetic field in the vacuum state. We employ the quantum master equation in the Born-Markov approximation in order to describe the completely positive time evolution of the atomic system. We restrict our investigations to the situation in which the atoms are coupled individually to two spatially separated cavities, one of which displays the emergence of light-cone fluctuations. In such a disordered cavity, we assume that the coefficients of the Klein-Gordon equation are random functions of the spatial coordinates. The disordered medium is modeled by a centered, stationary, and Gaussian process. We demonstrate that disorder has the effect of slowing down the entanglement decay. We conjecture that in a strong-disorder environment the mean life of entangled states can be enhanced in such a way as to almost completely suppress quantum nonlocal decoherence.

  20. Minimal tomography with entanglement witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huangjun; Teo Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    We introduce informationally complete measurements whose outcomes are entanglement witnesses and so answer the question of how many witnesses need to be measured to decide whether an arbitrary state is entangled or not: as many as the dimension of the state space. The witnesses can be measured successively; if all of them give an inconclusive result, one exploits their tomographic completeness for a reconstruction of the quantum state and can then determine its entanglement properties by data processing. There are witnesses that are optimal for this purpose. The optimized witness-based measurement can provide exponential improvement with respect to witness efficiency in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces, at the price of a reduction in the tomographic efficiency. We describe a systematic construction and illustrate the matter with the example of two qubits. For the case of two polarization qubits of photons, we show how existing technology can be used to implement the optimized witnesses in a very efficient way. Owing to the details of the implementation, which actually measures the eigenstate basis of the witness rather than solely determining the expectation value of the witness, one does not need to measure more than six witnesses in this example of a 16-dimensional state space.