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Sample records for maximally activating concentration

  1. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  3. Applications of maximally concentrating optics for solar energy collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1985-11-01

    A new family of optical concentrators based on a general nonimaging design principle for maximizing the geometric concentration, C, for radiation within a given acceptance half angle ±θα has been developed. The maximum limit exceeds by factors of 2 to 10 that attainable by systems using focusing optics. The wide acceptance angles permitted using these techniques have several unique advantages for solar concentrators including the elimination of the diurnal tracking requirement at intermediate concentrations (up to ˜10x), collection of circumsolar and some diffuse radiation, and relaxed tolerances. Because of these advantages, these types of concentrators have applications in solar energy wherever concentration is desired, e.g. for a wide variety of both thermal and photovoltaic uses. The basic principles of nonimaging optical design are reviewed. Selected configurations for thermal collector applications are discussed and the use of nonimaging elements as secondary concentrators is illustrated in the context of higher concentration applications.

  4. Potency of full-length MGF to induce maximal activation of the IGF-I R Is similar to recombinant human IGF-I at high equimolar concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); L.J. Hofland (Leo); C.J. Strasburger; E.S.R.D. Van Dungen (Elisabeth S.R. Den); M. Thevis (Mario)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin

  5. Tailored solar optics for maximal optical tolerance and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Alex [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Gordon, Jeffrey M. [Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); The Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel)

    2011-02-15

    Recently identified fundamental classes of dual-mirror double-tailored nonimaging optics have the potential to satisfy the pragmatic exigencies of concentrator photovoltaics. Via a comprehensive survey of their parameter space, including raytrace verification, we identify champion high-concentration high-efficiency designs that offer unprecedented optical tolerance (i.e., sensitivity to off-axis orientation) - a pivotal figure-of-merit with a basic bound that depends on concentration, exit angle, and effective solar angular radius. For comparison, results for the best corresponding dual-mirror aplanatic concentrators are also presented. (author)

  6. Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.

  7. Antiproliferative Activity of Phenylpropanoids Isolated from Lagotis brevituba Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuan; Jing, Zhao; Haixia, Wang; Ruitao, Yu; Huaixiu, Wen; Zenggen, Liu; Lijuan, Mei; Yiping, Wang; Yanduo, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of phenylpropanoids isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of Lagotis brevituba Maxim. The phenylpropanoids were identified as echinacoside, lagotioside, glucopyranosyl(1-6)martynoside, plantamoside, and verbascoside. Three of the compounds, lagotioside, glucopyranosyl(1-6)martynoside, and plantamoside, were isolated from L. brevituba for the first time. The antiproliferative activity of the isolates was evaluated in human gastric carcinoma (MGC-803), human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), human hepatocellar carcinoma (HepG2), and human lung cancer (HCT116) cells using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Plantamoside showed promising activity against MGC-803 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 37.09 μM. The mechanism of the pro-apoptosis effect of plantamoside was then evaluated in MGC-803 cells. Changes in cell morphology, including disorganization of the architecture of actin microfilaments and formation of apoptotic bodies, together with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phases, were observed after treatment of plantamoside. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were associated with a decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which was accompanied by the release of reactive oxygen species and Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm. Taken together, the results indicated that plantamoside promotes apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...... of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 2.0 mm, placed between first molars either on the left or the right side, and compared with the level of activity with undistrubed occlusion. Unilateral premature contact caused a significant asymmetry of action in all muscles under study with stronger activity ipsilaterally...

  9. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  10. Phenolic compounds from Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Elvira E; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Pokrovsky, Mikhail A; Petrova, Tatijana N; Pokrovsky, Andrey G; Gorovoy, Petr G

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-one phenolic compounds (1-21) including dihydrocinnamic acid, isoflavonoids, flavonoids, coumestans, pterocarpans, chalcones, isoflavan and isoflaven, were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. Phloretinic acid (1), chrysin (6), 9-methoxycoumestan (8), isoglycyrol (9), 6″-O-acetylanonin (19) and 6″-O-acetylwistin (21) were isolated from G. pallidiflora for the first time. Isoflavonoid acetylglycosides 19, 21 might be artefacts that could be produced during the EtOAc fractionation process of whole extract. Compounds 2-4, 10, 11, 19 and 21 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity with respect to model cancer cell lines (CEM-13, MT-4, U-937) using the conventional MTT assays. Isoflavonoid calycosin (4) showed the best potency against human T-cell leukaemia cells MT-4 (CTD 50 , 2.9 μM). Pterocarpans medicarpin (10) and homopterocarpin (11) exhibit anticancer activity in micromolar range with selectivity on the human monocyte cells U-937. The isoflavan (3R)-vestitol (16) was highly selective on the lymphoblastoid leukaemia cells CEM-13 and was more active than the drug doxorubicin.

  11. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  12. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  13. Diurnal variation and reliability of the urine lactate concentration after maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Sougioultzis, Michail; Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Mougios, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    The postexercise urine lactate concentration is a novel valid exercise biomarker, which has exhibited satisfactory reliability in the morning hours under controlled water intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diurnal variation of the postexercise urine lactate concentration and its reliability in the afternoon hours. Thirty-two healthy children (11 boys and 21 girls) and 23 adults (13 men and 10 women) participated in the study. All participants performed two identical sessions of eight 25 m bouts of maximal freestyle swimming executed every 2 min with passive recovery in between. These sessions were performed in the morning and afternoon and were separated by 3-4 days. Adults performed an additional afternoon session that was also separated by 3-4 days. All swimmers drank 500 mL of water before and another 500 mL after each test. Capillary blood and urine samples were collected before and after each test for lactate determination. Urine creatinine, urine density and body water content were also measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used as a reliability index between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as between the afternoon test and retest. Swimming performance and body water content exhibited excellent reliability in both children and adults. The postexercise blood lactate concentration did not show diurnal variation, showing a good reliability between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as high reliability between the afternoon test and retest. The postexercise urine density and lactate concentration were affected by time of day. However, when lactate was normalized to creatinine, it exhibited excellent reliability in children and good-to-high reliability in adults. The postexercise urine lactate concentration showed high reliability between the afternoon test and retest, independent of creatinine normalization. The postexercise blood and urine lactate concentrations were significantly correlated in all

  14. Practical Considerations for Determination of Glass Transition Temperature of a Maximally Freeze Concentrated Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Swapnil K; Patel, Sajal Manubhai

    2016-08-01

    Glass transition temperature is a unique thermal characteristic of amorphous systems and is associated with changes in physical properties such as heat capacity, viscosity, electrical resistance, and molecular mobility. Glass transition temperature for amorphous solids is referred as (T g), whereas for maximally freeze concentrated solution, the notation is (T g'). This article is focused on the factors affecting determination of T g' for application to lyophilization process design and frozen storage stability. Also, this review provides a perspective on use of various types of solutes in protein formulation and their effect on T g'. Although various analytical techniques are used for determination of T g' based on the changes in physical properties associated with glass transition, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most commonly used technique. In this article, an overview of DSC technique is provided along with brief discussion on the alternate analytical techniques for T g' determination. Additionally, challenges associated with T g' determination, using DSC for protein formulations, are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical industry perspective on determination of T g' for protein formulations as it relates to design and development of lyophilization process and/or for frozen storage; however, a comprehensive review of glass transition temperature (T g, T g'), in general, is outside the scope of this work.

  15. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim Ethanol Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Meng, Ning; Chang, Bingquan; Quan, Xianghua; Yuan, RuiYing; Li, Bin

    2018-04-05

    Epimedium brevicornu Maxim has been used as a traditional herbal drug in China. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of E. brevicornu Maxim ethanol extract (EBME) were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophages and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that EBME attenuated inflammation by decreasing the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. EBME increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The inhibitory effects of EBME on LPS-stimulated NO and PGE 2 expression were partially reversed by HO-1 inhibitor. EBME also elicited an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced peritonitis. Therefore, EBME exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory activities and toxicology of phenylethanoid glycosides from Monochasma savatieri Franch. ex Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-li; He, Wen-jun; Mo, Li; Shi, Meng-fan; Zhu, Ying-ying; Pan, Shu; Li, Xiao-ran; Xu, Qiong-ming; Yang, Shi-lin

    2013-09-16

    Monochasma savatieri Franch. ex Maxim is used for treating many diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate antibacterial, anti-inflammatory activities and toxicity of the total phenylethanoid glycosides from Monochasma savatieri Franch. ex Maxim (TPG). The antibacterial activity of TPG was checked by MIC and MBC in vitro; survival of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus infection-induced sepsis was investigated to evaluate antibacterial activity of TPG in vivo. Additionally, antibacterial activities of TPG were also investigated in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection-induced pneumonia in the mice model. Cotton pellet induced granuloma and xylene induced ear swelling in mice models were used to quantify the anti-inflammatory activity. TPG showed a significant possess bacteriostatic properties against five bacteria strains at a concentration between 0.0625 and 16 mg/ml. Moreover, TPG has bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Escherichia coli. TPG (60, 120, and 180 mg/kg) prolonged survival rate of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus infection-induced sepsis. In addition, TPG (180 mg/kg) could reduce the bacterial colony-forming units in lung tissue. Furthermore, TPG (60-180 mg/kg) had significantly reduced xylene-induced ear edema and granulomat formation induced by cotton pellet at a dose-dependent manner. In addition, administration of TPG (1.5 g/kg) for 15 days did not result in toxicities in liver, kidney, spleen and thymus tissue in rats. These results indicated that TPG might be useful for the development of a novel treatment for respiratory infections or pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  18. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    physically active in spite of shoulder pain and nine healthy matched controls were examined to determine isometric and isokinetic submaximal shoulder-abduction force steadiness at target forces corresponding to 20%, 27.5%, and 35% of the maximal shoulder abductor torque, and maximal shoulder muscle strength......We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remained...

  20. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods: Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed ...

  1. Determination of the unfrozen water content of maximally freeze-concentrated carbohydrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatley, R H; Mant, A

    1993-08-01

    The heat capacity change at T'g has been studied in freeze-concentrated carbohydrate solutions. The values obtained have been compared with those found for high concentration solutions that do not undergo freezing above Tg. The analysis has indicated that the freezing process influences the degree of stress in the glassy phase. This results in a complex power-time curve when frozen solutions are heated in a differential scanning calorimeter. The endotherm produced by the stress relaxation can cause considerable error in W'g measurement obtained by any method that relies on the integration of the power-time curve. A more reliable method for W'g determination is via the intersection of T'g with a previously prepared Tg/Wg calibration curve.

  2. Maximizing and minimizing investment concentration with constraints of budget and investment risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, as a first step in examining the properties of a feasible portfolio subset that is characterized by budget and risk constraints, we assess the maximum and minimum of the investment concentration using replica analysis. To do this, we apply an analytical approach of statistical mechanics. We note that the optimization problem considered in this paper is the dual problem of the portfolio optimization problem discussed in the literature, and we verify that these optimal solutions are also dual. We also present numerical experiments, in which we use the method of steepest descent that is based on Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers, and we compare the numerical results to those obtained by replica analysis in order to assess the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  3. The importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; Maas, Huub; Pellegrin-Friedmann, Carla; Tapia, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle plantar flexors. Methods: The effects of cutaneous plantar anaesthesia were assessed in 15 subjects and compared to 15 controls,

  4. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  5. Trainability of Muscular Activity Level during Maximal Voluntary Co-Contraction: Comparison between Bodybuilders and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  6. The effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine supplementation on upper and lower body maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Yavuz, Harley C M

    2018-03-01

    Despite the growing quantity of literature exploring the effect of caffeine on muscular strength, there is a dearth of data that directly explores differences in erogenicity between upper and lower body musculature and the dose-response effect. The present study sought to investigate the effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine on the maximal voluntary strength of the elbow flexors and knee extensors. Ten nonspecifically strength-trained, recreationally active participants (aged 21 ± 0.3 years) completed the study. Using a randomised, counterbalanced, and double-blind approach, isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength was measured at 60 and 180°/s following administration of a placebo, 3 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine, and 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine. There was no effect of caffeine on the maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric strength of the elbow flexors, or the eccentric strength of the knee extensors. Both 3 and 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine caused a significant increase in peak concentric force of the knee extensors at 180°/s. No difference was apparent between the 2 concentrations. Only 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caused an increase in peak concentric force during repeated contractions. The results infer that the effective caffeine concentration to evoke improved muscle performance may be related to muscle mass and contraction type. The present work indicates that a relatively low dose of caffeine treatment may be effective for improving lower body muscular strength, but may have little benefit for the strength of major muscular groups of the upper body.

  7. Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan U. Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM. Electromyographic (EMG activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA. Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05. Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90% and 100% for any muscle. The movement pattern in the hip joint changed with an increase in forward lean during maximal loading. Results may suggest that maximal loading during squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk.

  8. Two Light Sterile Neutrinos that Mix Maximally with Each Other and Moderately with Three Active Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 3+1 neutrino models with one light sterile neutrino turn out to be not very effective, at least two light sterile neutrinos may be needed to reconcile the solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments with the LSND result, if this is confirmed by the ongoing MiniBooNE experiment (and when the CPT invariance is assumed to hold for neutrino oscillations). We present an attractive 3+2 neutrino model, where two light sterile neutrinos mix maximally with each other, in analogy to the observed maximal mixing of muon and tauon active neutrinos. But, while the mixing of ν e and (ν μ - ν τ )/√2 is observed as large (though not maximal), the mixing of ν e with the corresponding combination of two light sterile neutrinos is expected to be only moderate because of the reported smallness of LSND oscillation amplitude. The presented model turns out, however, not to be more effective in explaining the hypothetic LSND result than the simplest 3+1 neutrino model. On the other hand, in the considered 3+2 model, the deviations from conventional oscillations of three active neutrinos appear to be minimal within a larger class of 3+2 models. (author)

  9. Subthalamic nucleus activity optimizes maximal effort motor responses in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The neural substrates that enable individuals to achieve their fastest and strongest motor responses have long been enigmatic. Importantly, characterization of such activities may inform novel therapeutic strategies for patients with hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Here, we ask whether the basal ganglia may play an important role, not only in the attainment of maximal motor responses under standard conditions but also in the setting of the performance enhancements known to be engendered by delivery of intense stimuli. To this end, we recorded local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted bilaterally in the subthalamic nuclei of 10 patients with Parkinson's disease, as they executed their fastest and strongest handgrips in response to a visual cue, which was accompanied by a brief 96-dB auditory tone on random trials. We identified a striking correlation between both theta/alpha (5-12 Hz) and high-gamma/high-frequency (55-375 Hz) subthalamic nucleus activity and force measures, which explained close to 70% of interindividual variance in maximal motor responses to the visual cue alone, when patients were ON their usual dopaminergic medication. Loud auditory stimuli were found to enhance reaction time and peak rate of development of force still further, independent of whether patients were ON or OFF l-DOPA, and were associated with increases in subthalamic nucleus power over a broad gamma range. However, the contribution of this broad gamma activity to the performance enhancements observed was only modest (≤13%). The results implicate frequency-specific subthalamic nucleus activities as substantial factors in optimizing an individual's peak motor responses at maximal effort of will, but much less so in the performance increments engendered by intense auditory stimuli.

  10. Activation of AMPK by Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Flower Extract Contributes to Protecting Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Yun; Lee, Chul Won; Park, Sang Mi; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Chung A; Cho, Il Je; Jung, Dae Hwa; An, Won G; Ku, Sae Kwang; Zhao, Rongjie; Kim, Sang Chan

    2017-01-01

    The Buddleja officinalis Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of B. officinalis Maxim. flower extract (BFE) on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H 2 O 2 production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA) and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 -) induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H 2 O 2 production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg) showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl 4 -induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders.

  11. Activation of AMPK by Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Flower Extract Contributes to Protecting Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Buddleja officinalis Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of B. officinalis Maxim. flower extract (BFE on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H2O2 production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H2O2 production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders.

  12. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2015-02-13

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  13. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  14. Optimization, characterization, and biological activity of polysaccharides from Berberis dasystachya Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijuan; Suo, Yourui; Yang, Yongjing; Meng, Jing; Hu, Na

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides (BDPs) from Berberis dasystachya Maxim using dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) was discussed. A Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology has been employed to optimize extraction parameters of DMAE. The BDPs have been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties. Antioxidant and anti-tumor activities in vitro have been studied by DPPH, ABTS, reducing power assay, and MTT assay, respectively. The results obtained showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ratio of water to raw material (X1) 25.84 mg/L, extraction power (X2) 433.13W, extraction time (X3) 35.18 min, and the maximum yield of extraction was 6.472 ± 0.384%, which was in good agreement with the predicted value. The physicochemical tests demonstrated that the BDPs mainly consist of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and lactose in a molar ratio of 1:17.3:1.33:7:2.33:1.78; the average molecular weight of the BDPs was estimated to be from 2.95×10(5) and 1.52×10(3)Da, respectively. Furthermore, the BDPs exhibited effective antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties in vitro. Such pharmaceutical activities could prove useful for potential future applications involving the berries of B. dasystachya Maxim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  16. Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdag, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk. PMID:28546738

  17. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content......, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (a1, a2, ß1, ß2, ß3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA levels were higher (P ... increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 ± 7% (P Na+,K+ pump content by 18 ± 9% (P

  18. Juglans mandshurica Maxim extracts exhibit antitumor activity on HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Hasan, Murtaza; Li, Wei; Li, Yan

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the potential application of Juglans mandshurica Maxim extracts (HT) for cancer therapy by assessing their anti‑proliferative activity, reduction of telomerase activity, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S phase in HeLa cells. From the perspective of using HT as a herbal medicine, photomicroscopy and florescent microscopy techniques were utilized to characterize the effect of the extracts on telomerase activity and cell morphology. Flow cytometry was employed to study apoptosis and cell cycle of HeLa cells, and DNA laddering was performed. The results showed that HT inhibited cell proliferation and telomerase activity, induced apoptosis and caused S phase arrest of HeLa cells in vitro. HT inhibited HeLa cell proliferation significantly, and the highest inhibition rate was 83.7%. A trap‑silver staining assay showed that HT was capable of markedly decreasing telomerase activity of HeLa cells and this inhibition was enhanced in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner. Results of a Hoechst 33258 staining assay showed that HeLa cells treated by HT induced cell death. Through DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA ladders of HeLa cells treated with HT were observed, indicating apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that HT exhibited anti‑tumor effects comprising the inhibition of growth and telomerase activity as well as apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells.

  19. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingguang; Yin, Peipei; Fan, Hang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiang; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2017-02-04

    This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration ( X ₁), material-to-liquid ratio ( X ₂), ultrasonic temperature ( X ₃) and power ( X ₄) for an optimal total phenol yield ( Y ₁) and DPPH• antioxidant activity ( Y ₂). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water ( v : v ) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What's more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta- O -galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.

  20. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  1. Maximal COX-2 and ppRb expression in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Thomas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and cell cycle proteins is suggested to contribute to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's disease (AD. The stimulus that induces COX-2 and cell cycle protein expression in AD is still elusive. Activated glia cells are shown to secrete substances that can induce expression of COX-2 and cell cycle proteins in vitro. Using post mortem brain tissue we have investigated whether activation of microglia and astrocytes in AD brain can be correlated with the expression of COX-2 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (ppRb. The highest levels of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity are observed in the first stages of AD pathology (Braak 0–II, Braak A. No significant difference in COX-2 or ppRb neuronal immunoreactivity is observed between Braak stage 0 and later Braak stages for neurofibrillary changes or amyloid plaques. The mean number of COX-2 or ppRb immunoreactive neurons is significantly decreased in Braak stage C compared to Braak stage A for amyloid deposits. Immunoreactivity for glial markers KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP appears in the later Braak stages and is significantly increased in Braak stage V-VI compared to Braak stage 0 for neurofibrillary changes. In addition, a significant negative correlation is observed between the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP immunoreactivity and the presence of neuronal immunoreactivity for COX-2 and ppRb. These data show that maximal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia. In contrast to in vitro studies, post mortem data do not support a causal relation between the activation of microglia and astrocytes and the expression of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb in the pathological cascade of AD.

  2. A comparison of maximal bioenergetic enzyme activities obtained with commonly used homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M; Fletcher, L; Powers, S K; Hughes, M; Coombes, J

    1996-12-01

    Homogenization of tissue for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activities is a common practice in studies examining metabolic properties of skeletal muscle adaptation to disease, aging, inactivity or exercise. While numerous homogenization techniques are in use today, limited information exists concerning the efficacy of specific homogenization protocols. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of four commonly used approaches to homogenizing skeletal muscle for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activity. The maximal enzyme activity (Vmax) of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured from homogenous muscle samples (N = 48 per homogenization technique) and used as indicators to determine which protocol had the highest efficacy. The homogenization techniques were: (1) glass-on-glass pestle; (2) a combination of a mechanical blender and a teflon pestle (Potter-Elvehjem); (3) a combination of the mechanical blender and a biological detergent; and (4) the combined use of a mechanical blender and a sonicator. The glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol produced significantly higher (P pestle homogenization protocol is the technique of choice for studying bioenergetic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.

  3. Maximal aerobic power in cycle ergometry in middle-aged men and women, active in sports, in relation to age and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, A M; van Baak, M A; Vrencken, J G; Wijnen, J A; Saris, W H; Verstappen, F T

    1993-02-01

    Reliable standards of maximal power output in middle-aged and physically active men and women are desirable in sports-medical practice. For this purpose maximal cycle ergometer tests were evaluated in 2038 men and 898 women over 40 years of age (46.8 +/- 6.1 years (mean +/- SD) and 47.5 +/- 6.6 years), who volunteered in a sports-medical check-up and all of whom were active in sports for at least three months in the year preceding the screening (4.3 +/- 3.1 hours/week respectively 3.6 +/- 2.5 hours/week). The range of maximal values for power output (Wmax), heart rate (HRmax), systolic blood pressure (SBPmax) and peak plasma lactate concentrations (PPLa) during progressive cycle ergometer testing are presented for males and females who were divided into groups with a 5-years age difference. Wmax varied with sex (male = 1, female = 0), age (year) and height (cm); Wmax = 65.3 x (sex) + 2.0 x (height) -1.9 x (age) - 67.9 (See = 38.2; r = 0.76). The weighing of different factors that influence performance was also studied by multiple regression analysis to provide improved precision in standards used to interpret exercise tests. In both men and women about half of the variation of Wmax could be explained by the independent variables age, body mass, body fat, smoking habits, vital capacity, heart rate, and physical activity parameters. It is concluded that active involvement in endurance sports and/or the use of the bicycle for transport, contributed substantially to cardiovascular fitness in healthy, middle-aged men and women.

  4. Antiangiogenic Activity of Acer tegmentosum Maxim Water Extract in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eok-Cheon; Kim, So Hun; Piao, Shan-Ji; Kim, Tack-Joong; Bae, Kiho; Kim, Han Sung; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Byoung Ick; Nam, Moonsuk

    2015-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, tumors themselves can lead to angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as one of the most promising strategies for the blockage of tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Acer tegmentosum maxim water extract (ATME) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of ATME by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ATME strongly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as vessel sprouting in a rat aortic ring sprouting assay. Moreover, we found that the p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis by ATME. Moreover, when we performed the in vivo matrigel plug assay, VEGF-induced angiogenesis was potently reduced when compared to that for the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that ATME exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro and that these effects are regulated by the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.

  5. Phytochemical profiles and biological activity evaluation of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed against asthma in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhuo; Xie, Qiangmin; Guan, Jian; Jin, Saihong; Zhao, Yuqing

    2014-03-28

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed (ZBMS) has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as an ingredient of polyherbal formulations for the treatment of inflammation and asthma. The aim of this study was to analyze the major composition and to evaluate the anti-asthma activity of ZBMS. Some murine models including acetylcholine/histamine-induced asthma, ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, ear edema and toe swelling measurement, citric acid-induced cough, and anti-stress abilities were investigated to fully study the anti-asthma activity of ZBMS.GC chromatography was also performed to analyze the major fatty acid composition of ZBMS. The results demonstrated that the major fatty acid composition of ZBMS includes oleic acid (20.15%), linoleic acid (26.54%), and α-linolenic acid (30.57%), which was the leading component of ZBMS, and that the total fatty acid content of ZBMS was 77.27%. The murine models demonstrated that ZBMS displays a protective effect on guinea pig sensitization, a dose-dependent inhibition of the increases in RL and decreases in Cdyn, which resulted in the relief of auricle edema and toe swelling in mice and anti-stress activity. Our results validate the traditional use of ZBMS for the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory joint disorders, and suggest that ZBMS has potential as a new therapeutic agent for asthma management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  7. Changes of glucose utilization by erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the serum and blood cells, and haematocrit value during one hour rest after maximal effort in individuals differing in physical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, M

    1982-01-01

    Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the blood and erythrocytes, and haematocrit value were determined before exercise and during one hour rest following maximal exercise in 97 individuals of either sex differing in physical efficiency. In the investigations reported by the author individuals with strikingly high physical fitness performed maximal work one-third greater than that performed by individuals with medium fitness. The serum concentration of lactic acid was in all individuals above the resting value still after 60 minutes of rest. On the other hand, this concentration returned to the normal level in the erythrocytes but only in individuals with strikingly high efficiency. Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes during the restitution period was highest immediately after the exercise in all studied individuals and showed a tendency for more rapid return to resting values again in individuals with highest efficiency. The investigation of very efficient individuals repeated twice demonstrated greater utilization of glucose by the erythrocytes at the time of greater maximal exercise. This was associated with greater lactic acid concentration in the serum and erythrocytes throughout the whole one-hour rest period. The observed facts suggest an active participation of erythrocytes in the process of adaptation of the organism to exercise.

  8. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  9. Steady-state metabolite concentrations reflect a balance between maximizing enzyme efficiency and minimizing total metabolite load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Tepper

    Full Text Available Steady-state metabolite concentrations in a microorganism typically span several orders of magnitude. The underlying principles governing these concentrations remain poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that observed variation can be explained in terms of a compromise between factors that favor minimizing metabolite pool sizes (e.g. limited solvent capacity and the need to effectively utilize existing enzymes. The latter requires adequate thermodynamic driving force in metabolic reactions so that forward flux substantially exceeds reverse flux. To test this hypothesis, we developed a method, metabolic tug-of-war (mTOW, which computes steady-state metabolite concentrations in microorganisms on a genome-scale. mTOW is shown to explain up to 55% of the observed variation in measured metabolite concentrations in E. coli and C. acetobutylicum across various growth media. Our approach, based strictly on first thermodynamic principles, is the first method that successfully predicts high-throughput metabolite concentration data in bacteria across conditions.

  10. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  11. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation...... in stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  12. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activity of Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. and Filipendula vulgaris Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžić, Stevan; Arsenijević, Jelena; Božić, Dragana; Milenković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Maksimović, Zoran

    2018-03-01

    Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.) and dropwort (Filipendula vulgaris Moench) are herbaceous perennials employed in folk medicine for their antirheumatic, antipyretic and anti-ulcer properties. To assess ethnomedicinal claims through investigation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of F. ulmaria and F. vulgaris lyophilized flower infusions (LFIs) as well as the F. vulgaris isolated flavonoids spiraeoside, kaempferol 4'-O-glucoside, astragalin 2'-O-gallate, mixture of hyperoside 2'-O-gallate and isoquercitrin 2'-O-gallate, and a tannin tellimagrandin II. Free radical scavenging activity of the tested samples was determined by examining their ability to neutralize DPPH and OH radicals in vitro, whereas reducing properties were assessed in Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied ex vivo in human platelets by monitoring the effect on eicosanoid biosynthesis. Gastroprotective action was estimated in animal model of acute gastric injury induced by ethanol. LFIs and spiraeoside exerted activities comparable to those of positive control in DPPH-radical scavenging and FRAP antioxidant assays, whereas notable hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was demonstrated only for spiraeoside (IC 50 = 5.1μg/mL). Among tested samples, astragalin 2″-O-gallate (IC 50 = 141.1μg/mL) and spiraeoside (IC 50 = 4.69μg/mL) the most markedly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E 2 and 12(S)-hydroxy-(5Z,8Z,10E,14Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid in human platelets, respectively. Examination of LFIs (100-300mg/kg, p.o.) gastroprotective action in rats revealed their capacity to preserve mucosal integrity. In addition, spiraeoside (50mg/kg, p.o.) and tellimagrandin II (40mg/kg, p.o.) showed ulcer preventive ability. Current study supports documented traditional use of investigated herbs and indicates that flavonoid and tannin components are partially responsible for the demonstrated pharmacological

  13. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  14. Nonlinear concentration gradients regulated by the width of channels for observation of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuta; Kamiya, Koki; Osaki, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Hirotaka; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-08-21

    This paper describes a simple microfluidic device that can generate nonlinear concentration gradients. We changed the "width" of channels that can drastically shorten the total microfluidic channel length and simplify the microfluidic network design rather than the "length" of channels. The logarithmic concentration gradients generated by the device were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. Using this device, we evaluated a probable IC50 value of the ABC transporter proteins by the competitive transport assays at five different logarithmic concentrations. This probable IC50 value was in good agreement with an IC50 value (0.92 μM) obtained at the diluted concentrations of seven points.

  15. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xian-Xu, E-mail: bai@hfut.edu.cn [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.

  16. Intravenous infusion of docosahexaenoic acid increases serum concentrations in a dose-dependent manner and increases seizure latency in the maximal PTZ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Kwong, Kei-Man; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2015-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) that has been shown to raise seizure thresholds in the maximal pentylenetetrazole model following acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in rats. Following s.c. administration, however, the dose-response relationship for DHA has shown an inverted U-pattern. The purposes of the present experiment were as follows: (1) to determine the pattern of serum unesterified concentrations resulting from the intravenous (i.v.) infusions of various doses of DHA, (2) to determine the time course of these concentrations following the discontinuation of the infusions, and (3) to determine whether seizure protection in the maximal PTZ model would correlate with serum unesterified DHA levels. Animals received 5-minute i.v. infusions of saline or 25, 50, 100, or 200mg/kg of DHA via a cannula inserted into one of the tail veins. Blood was collected during and after the infusions by means of a second cannula inserted into the other tail vein (Experiment 1). A separate group of animals received saline or 12.5-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 200 mg/kg DHA i.v. via a cannula inserted into one of the tail veins and were then seizure-tested in the maximal PTZ model either during infusion or after the discontinuation of the infusions. Slow infusions of DHA increased serum unesterified DHA concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with the 200-mg/kg dose increasing the concentration approximately 260-fold compared with saline-infused animals. Following discontinuation of the infusions, serum concentrations rapidly dropped toward baseline, with half-lives of approximately 40 and 11s for the 25-mg/kg dose and 100-mg/kg dose, respectively. In the seizure-tested animals, DHA significantly increased latency to seizure onset in a dose-dependent manner. Following the discontinuation of infusion, seizure latency rapidly decreased toward baseline. Overall, our study suggests that i.v. infusion of unesterified DHA results in

  17. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV 0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  18. Transgenic Restoration of Urea Transporter A1 Confers Maximal Urinary Concentration in the Absence of Urea Transporter A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Janet D; Wang, Yanhua; Mistry, Abinash; LaRocque, Lauren M; Molina, Patrick A; Rogers, Richard T; Blount, Mitsi A; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-05-01

    Urea has a critical role in urinary concentration. Mice lacking the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) and urea transporter A3 (UT-A3) have very low levels of urea permeability and are unable to concentrate urine. To investigate the role of UT-A1 in the concentration of urine, we transgenically expressed UT-A1 in knockout mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 using a construct with a UT-A1 gene that cannot be spliced to produce UT-A3. This construct was inserted behind the original UT-A promoter to yield a mouse expressing only UT-A1 (UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-)). Western blot analysis demonstrated UT-A1 in the inner medulla of UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and wild-type mice, but not in UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice, and an absence of UT-A3 in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice. Immunohistochemistry in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice also showed negative UT-A3 staining in kidney and other tissues and positive UT-A1 staining only in the IMCD. Urea permeability in isolated perfused IMCDs showed basal permeability in the UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice was similar to levels in wild-type mice, but vasopressin stimulation of urea permeability in wild-type mice was significantly greater (100% increase) than in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice (8% increase). Notably, basal urine osmolalities in both wild-type and UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice increased upon overnight water restriction. We conclude that transgenic expression of UT-A1 restores basal urea permeability to the level in wild-type mice but does not restore vasopressin-stimulated levels of urea permeability. This information suggests that transgenic expression of UT-A1 alone in mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 is sufficient to restore urine-concentrating ability. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Policy and Concentration of Activities : The Case of Dutch Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.; Werker, C.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical concentration of economic activities has been widely discussed. However, the insights into other kinds of concentration such as technological and organizational concentration have been scarce. Here, we analyze organizational, technological and geographical concentration of

  20. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)

  1. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  2. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  3. Effect of vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise on subsequent muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Porcari, John P; Scheunke, Mark D

    2004-11-01

    This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.

  4. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Palacios, M.

    2011-01-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  5. Physical Activity Targeted at Maximal Lipid Oxidation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Romain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is recognized as a part of the management of obesity and diabetes. Various protocols of exercise are proposed for the management of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. One of the strategies proposed by several authors is low intensity endurance training targeted at the level of maximal oxidation. Large series using this technique are lacking. Addressing this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the studies on anthropometric measurements. From a database of 433 articles, 15 were selected, including 279 subjects with 6 different populations. Studies duration ranged from 2 months to 12 months. Concerning weight loss, in the intervention versus control analysis, five studies with 185 participants were included with a significant effect size favors exercise (P=0.02 without significant heterogeneity (I2=0.0%, P=0.83. Further randomized controlled trials for comparing it with other exercise protocols and defining its dose effectiveness on large samples are needed.

  6. A termite symbiotic mushroom maximizing sexual activity at growing tips of vegetative hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huei-Mei; Chung, Mei-Chu; Chen, Pao-Yang; Hsu, Fei-Man; Liao, Wen-Wei; Sung, Ai-Ning; Lin, Chun-Ru; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Kao, Yu-Hsin; Fang, Mei-Jane; Lai, Chi-Yung; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Chou, Wen-Neng; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Ju, Yu-Ming

    2017-09-19

    Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during each hyphal cell division and conidial formation in the resulting heterokaryons. Surprisingly, nuclei in homokaryons also behaved similarly. To confirm if meiotic-like recombination occurred within mycelia, we constructed whole-genome sequencing libraries from mycelia of two homokaryons and a heterokaryon resulting from mating of the two homokaryons. Obtained reads were aligned to the reference genome of Termitomyces sp. J132 for haplotype reconstruction. After removal of the recombinant haplotypes shared between the heterokaryon and either homokaryons, we inferred that 5.04% of the haplotypes from the heterokaryon were the recombinants resulting from homologous recombination distributed genome-wide. With RNA transcripts of four meiosis-specific genes, including SPO11, DMC1, MSH4, and MLH1, detected from a mycelial sample by real-time quantitative PCR, the nuclear behavior in mycelia was reconfirmed meiotic-like. Unlike other basidiomycetes where sex is largely restricted to basidia, Termitomyces maximizes sexuality at somatic stage, resulting in an ever-changing genotype composed of a myriad of coexisting heterogeneous nuclei in a heterokaryon. Somatic meiotic-like recombination may endow Termitomyces with agility to cope with termite consumption by maximized genetic variability.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF ETHANOL CONCENTRATION, GLYCEROL CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS OF GRAPE-MAHUA WINE TO MAXIMIZE THE QUALITY AND OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Black grapes (Vitis vinifera and mahua (Madhuca longfolia extract was used in 90:10 grape-mahua ratio for fermentation for 15 days and subjected to clarification using bentonite and gelatin as fining agents. Ageing was allowed for three months and studies were conducted using response surface methodology to assess the effect of ethanol, glycerol and temperature on viscosity, color, specific gravity, pH and overall acceptability. Experimental designs were conducted and 20 samples were prepared containing varying concentration of ethanol (7.55%-13.44%, glycerol (6.19-18.8g/l and temperature (5.6-22.4oC respectively. The maximum desirability of 93% was obtained for wine under the optimized conditions 13.44% ethanol, 6.19g/l glycerol and 14oC temperature, having viscosity (efflux time, 12.9 s; color absorbance, 4.61; SG, 1.0012; pH, 3.34 and overall acceptability, 8.47.

  8. Motor unit activation patterns during concentric wrist flexion in humans with different muscle fibre composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, K; Christensen, H; Fallentin, N; Mizuno, M; Quistorff, B; Sjøgaard, G

    1998-10-01

    Muscle activity was recorded from the flexor carpi radialis muscle during static and dynamic-concentric wrist flexion in six subjects, who had exhibited large differences in histochemically identified muscle fibre composition. Motor unit recruitment patterns were identified by sampling 310 motor units and counting firing rates in pulses per second (pps). During concentric wrist flexion at 30% of maximal exercise intensity the mean firing rate was 27 (SD 13) pps. This was around twice the value of 12 (SD 5) pps recorded during sustained static contraction at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction, despite a larger absolute force level during the static contraction. A similar pattern of higher firing rates during dynamic exercise was seen when concentric wrist flexion at 60% of maximal exercise intensity [30 (SD 14) pps] was compared with sustained static contraction at 60% of maximal voluntary contraction [19 (SD 8) pps]. The increase in dynamic exercise intensity was accomplished by recruitment of additional motor units rather than by increasing the firing rate as during static contractions. No difference in mean firing rates was found among subjects with different muscle fibre composition, who had previously exhibited marked differences in metabolic response during corresponding dynamic contractions. It was concluded that during submaximal dynamic contractions motor unit firing rate cannot be deduced from observations during static contractions and that muscle fibre composition may play a minor role.

  9. Evidence for a Standardized Preadmission Showering Regimen to Achieve Maximal Antiseptic Skin Surface Concentrations of Chlorhexidine Gluconate, 4%, in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Lee, Cheong J; Krepel, Candace J; Spencer, Maureen; Leaper, David; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael J; Seabrook, Gary R

    2015-11-01

    To reduce the amount of skin surface bacteria for patients undergoing elective surgery, selective health care facilities have instituted a preadmission antiseptic skin cleansing protocol using chlorhexidine gluconate. A Cochrane Collaborative review suggests that existing data do not justify preoperative skin cleansing as a strategy to reduce surgical site infection. To develop and evaluate the efficacy of a standardized preadmission showering protocol that optimizes skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate and to compare the findings with the design and methods of published studies on preoperative skin preparation. A randomized prospective analysis in 120 healthy volunteers was conducted at an academic tertiary care medical center from June 1, 2014, to September, 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from October 13, 2014, to October 27, 2014. A standardized process of dose, duration, and timing was used to maximize antiseptic skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate applied during preoperative showering. The volunteers were randomized to 2 chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, showering groups (2 vs 3 showers), containing 60 participants each, and 3 subgroups (no pause, 1-minute pause, or 2-minute pause before rinsing), containing 20 participants each. Volunteers used 118 mL of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, for each shower. Skin surface concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate were analyzed using colorimetric assay at 5 separate anatomic sites. Individual groups were analyzed using paired t test and analysis of variance. Preadmission showers using chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%. The primary outcome was to develop a standardized approach for administering the preadmission shower with chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%, resulting in maximal, persistent skin antisepsis by delineating a precise dose (volume) of chlorhexidine gluconate, 4%; duration (number of showers); and timing (pause) before rinsing. The mean (SD) composite chlorhexidine gluconate

  10. Wound-healing Activity of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim Seed Oil on Experimentally Burned Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qiang; Kang, Rong; Huo, Jun-Cheng; Xie, Yan-Hua; Wang, Si-Wang; Cao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The seed oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBSO) is considered to be rich source of fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic acids, and has been used for the treatment of burns in Chinese medicine. We evaluated the healing efficacy of ZBSO and explored its possible mechanism on scalded rats. Sprague-Dawley rat models with deep second-degree burns were set up, and ZBSO (500 and 1000 μl/wound) was topically applied twice daily for 7 days and then once daily until wound healing. The therapeutic effects of ZBSO were evaluated by observing wound closure time, decrustation time, wound-healing ratio, and pathological changes. Collagen type-III, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, phospho-nuclear factor-κB (p-NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of NF-κB subunit α p-IκBα, and inhibitor of NF-κB subunit α (IκBα) expression were determined using Western blotting. The ZBSO-treated group showed a higher wound-healing ratio and shorter decrustation and wound closure times than the untreated group. The topical application of ZBSO increased collagen synthesis as evidenced by an increase in hydroxyproline level and upregulated expression of collagen type-III on days 7, 14, and 21 posttreatment. A reduction in MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions also confirmed the collagen formation efficacy of ZBSO. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase levels and a decrease in malondialdehyde levels in ZBSO-treated wounds. ZBSO also decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1) β, and IL-6 levels in serum, upregulated IκBα, and downregulated p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα expression in vivo , indicating the anti-inflammatory action of ZBSO. ZBSO has significant potential to treat burn wounds by accelerating collagen synthesis and the anti-inflammatory cascade of the healing process. The seed oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBSO) is rich of fatty acidsThe healing efficacy of ZBSO on experimentally scalded rats was evaluatedZBSO has significant potential

  11. Effects of aerobic activity on serum IgG concentration in male physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshadi Arshadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic activity on Serum IgG concentration. Consequently, 10 male physical education students with age ranging from 21 to 24 years old and mean body mass index 22.22 kg m2 volunteered to participate in this study. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were obtained from subjects before and after aerobic activity. Changes in serum IgG concentration in pre-test and post-test were analyzed by dependent t-test using spss software. The results showed that aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. This study concludes that sub maximal aerobic activity does not affect on serum IgG concentration and there is no concern for athletes and coaches that sub maximal aerobic activity can impair immune function.

  12. Structure and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (MP-A40) was isolated and purified from Mosla chinensis Maxim. cv. Jiangxiangru for the first time, with a molecular weight of 32,600Da. MP-A40 was comprised of 68.63% galacturonic acid and 13.05% neutral sugar. In addition, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose composed the neutral sugar in a relative ratio of 4.94, 3.07, 2.13, 1.62 and 1.29% of the dry weight of MP-A40, respectively. Structural characterization of MP-A40 was investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. From the results, the structure of MP-A40 was revealed as follows: 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA and 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA6Me interspersed with rare t-Araf (0.60%), t-Rhap (1.67%) and t-GalpA (10.15%). Esterification assay showed that about 32% of the carboxylic groups in GalA residues existed as methyl ester. In addition, MP-A40 could inhibit the growth of human leukemic cell line K562 and stimulate nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 macrophages both in dose-dependent manners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Construct validity of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents (paq-a): maximal oxygen uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Alvero-Cruz, Jose Ramon; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (PAQ-A) is a cost-effective tool to assess physical activity (PA) patterns during adolescence and it has been widely used in research and field settings. Convergent validity of PAQ-A has been confirmed in several countries (Bervoets et al., 2014; Janz, Lutuchy, Wenthe, & Levy, 2008; Martinez-Gomez et al., 2009). However, the construct validity has often been overlooked. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the constr...

  14. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. and their Whitening Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Jung; Noh, Hye-Ji; Na, Chun Su; Kim, Chung Sub; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hong, Cheol Yi; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-05-01

    The half-dried leaves of Stewartia. pseudocamellia were extracted with hot water (SPE) and partitioned with n-hexane (SPEH), dichloromethane (SPED), and ethyl acetate (SPEE) successively. SPE and SPEE showed significant inhibitory effects against melanogenesis and tyrosinase activities. By bioassay-guided isolation, ten phenolic compounds were isolated by column chromatography from SPEE. The whitening effect of the isolated compounds from SPEE were tested for the inhibitory activities against melanogenesis using B16 melanoma cells, in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase, and L-3,4-dihydorxy-indole-2-carboxylic acid (L-DOPA) auto-oxidation assay. A cytotoxic activity assay was done to examine the cellular toxicity in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Of the compounds isolated, gallic acid and quercetin revealed significant inhibitory activities against melanogenesis compared to arbutin. In particular, quercetin exhibited similar inhibitory activities against tyrosinase and L-DOPA oxidation without cytotoxicity. These results suggested that SPE could be used as a potential source of natural skin-whitening material in cosmetics as well as in food products.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy activates the vocal folds maximally at therapeutic levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardesch, J.J.; Sikken, J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Aa, H.E.; Hageman, G.; Buschman, H.P.J.

    Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy can give hoarseness due to stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. For a group of VNS-therapy users this side-effect interferes severely with their daily activities. Our goal was to investigate the severity of

  16. Assessment of maximal erythrocyte Na+, K+-ATPase activity in patients with various arterial hypertensions by using 23Na NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revazov, A.V.; Knubovets, T.L.; Sibel'dina, L.A.; Sumarokov, A.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1990-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of maximal erythrocyte Na + , K + -ATPase activity in 20 patients with hypertensive disease, 20 patients with secondary hypertension and 20 healthy donors. The investigation was made by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance using sodium nuclei. A significant decrease was found in Na + , K + -ATPase activity in the patients with hypertensive disease (9.0±0.3 mg-equiv. per liter cells an hour) as compared with those with secondary hypertension (10.3±0.3 mg-equiv. per liter cells an hour) and the controls (10.5±0.3 mg-equiv. per liter cells an hour), which supports the finding of impaired membrane morphology in hypertensive disease

  17. Studies on Cytotoxic Activity against HepG-2 Cells of Naphthoquinones from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bingyou; Jiang, Yanqiu; Liu, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-08-26

    Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The results were shown that most naphthoquinones in an aglycone form exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro than naphthalenyl glucosides with IC50 values in the range of 7.33-88.23 μM. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  18. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  19. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Repeated high-speed activities during youth soccer games in relation to changes in maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, B M; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in highly-trained young soccer players whether substantial changes in either maximal sprinting speed (MSS) or maximal aerobic speed (as inferred from peak incremental test speed, V(Vam-Eval)) can affect repeated high-intensity running during games. Data from 33 players (14.5±1.3 years), who presented substantial changes in either MSS or V(Vam-Eval) throughout 2 consecutive testing periods (~3 months) were included in the final analysis. For each player, time-motion analyses were performed using a global positioning system (1-Hz) during 2-10 international club games played within 1-2 months from/to each testing period of interest (n for game analyzed=109, player-games=393, games per player per period=4±2). Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of individual MSS. Repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) were defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s of recovery. Improvements in both MSS and V(Vam-Eval) were likely associated with a decreased RSS occurrence, but in some positions only (e. g., - 24% vs. - 3% for improvements in MSS in strikers vs. midfielders, respectively). The changes in the number of sprints per RSS were less clear but also position-dependent, e. g., +7 to +12% for full-backs and wingers, - 5 to - 7% for centre-backs and midfielders. In developing soccer players, changes in repeated-sprint activity during games do not necessarily match those in physical fitness. Game tactical and strategic requirements are likely to modulate on-field players' activity patterns independently (at least partially) of players' physical capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Correlation of [14C]muscimol concentration in rat brain with anticonvulsant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, W.D.; Intoccia, A.P.; Osborne, V.L.; McCafferty, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Muscimol, an in vivo and in vitro GABA agonist, has anticonvulsant activity against bicuculline-induced seizures when given systemically to rats. To determine whether parent compound or a metabolite possessed the anticonvulsant activity, experiments were performed with [ 14 C]muscimol. Anticonvulsant activity was determined by the percent of animals protected against tonic forelimb extension induced by bicuculline. Brain and urine were analyzed for unchanged [ 14 C]muscimol by thin-layer chromatography. The time course of anticonvulsant activity and [ 14 C]muscimol concentration in brain after intravenous injection were similar. Peak brain concentration of [ 14 C]muscimol and maximal protection against bicuculline-induced seizures occurred simultaneously. These data suggest that intravenously administered [ 14 C]muscimol rapidly penetrates brain tissue and parent compound is responsible for antagonism of bicuculline-induced convulsions. (Auth.)

  2. Maximal feeding with active prey-switching: A kill-the-winner functional response and its effect on global diversity and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallina, S. M.; Ward, B. A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Follows, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Predators' switching towards the most abundant prey is a mechanism that stabilizes population dynamics and helps overcome competitive exclusion of species in food webs. Current formulations of active prey-switching, however, display non-maximal feeding in which the predators' total ingestion decays exponentially with the number prey species (i.e. the diet breadth) even though the total prey biomass stays constant. We analyse three previously published multi-species functional responses which have either active switching or maximal feeding, but not both. We identify the cause of this apparent incompatibility and describe a kill-the-winner formulation that combines active switching with maximal feeding. Active switching is shown to be a community response in which some predators become prey-selective and the formulations with maximal or non-maximal feeding are implicitly assuming different food web configurations. Global simulations using a marine ecosystem model with 64 phytoplankton species belonging to 4 major functional groups show that the species richness and biogeography of phytoplankton are very sensitive to the choice of the functional response for grazing. The phytoplankton biogeography reflects the balance between the competitive abilities for nutrient uptake and the degree of apparent competition which occurs indirectly between species that share a common predator species. The phytoplankton diversity significantly increases when active switching is combined with maximal feeding through predator-mediated coexistence.

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities in immumosuppressed mice of polysaccharides isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-En; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Huang, Dan-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Chang

    2013-10-01

    Polysaccharide MP was isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim cv. jiangxiangru. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 5.364:12.260:3.448:12.260:32.567:30.651, with 11.00%±0.24% uronic acid and 9.046%±0.04% protein. Its antioxidant activity on the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice was investigated. The spleen and the thymus indices were investigated, and the biochemical parameters were evaluated in three organs (liver, heart and kidney). MP was able to overcome the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and can significantly raise the T-AOC, CAT, SOD and GSH-PX level. It also raised the spleen and thymus indices and decreased the MDA level in mice. MP could play an important role during the prevention process of oxidative damage in immunological system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: muscle fiber-specific differences in exercise-induced changes in ion affinity and maximal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether muscle activity reduces or increases Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal in vitro activity in rat skeletal muscle, and it is not known whether muscle activity changes the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ion affinity. The present study uses quantification of ATP hydrolysis to characterize muscle fiber...... membranes of glycolytic muscle, which abolished the fiber-type difference in Na(+) affinity. K(m) for K(+) (in the presence of Na(+)) was not influenced by running. Running only increased the maximal in vitro activity (V(max)) in total membranes from soleus, whereas V(max) remained constant in the three...... other muscles tested. In conclusion, muscle activity induces fiber type-specific changes both in Na(+) affinity and maximal in vitro activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The underlying mechanisms may involve translocation of subunits and increased association between PLM units and the alphabeta complex...

  5. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite in the intercuspal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslam, A; Riise, C

    1983-05-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite, were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results show that, during maximal and submaximal bite an occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position is able to disturb the almost symmetric pattern of muscular activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles. Further, the level of muscular activity during maximal bite decreased significantly in all muscles studied. In some subjects, the decrease of muscular activity could still be observed one week after insertion of the interfering contact. After eliminating the interference, the muscular co-ordination pattern improved and the level of muscular activity increased significantly.

  6. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity with the staging of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardum, Dusko; Fabijanić, Damir; Lukić, Anita; Romić, Zeljko; Petrovecki, Mladen; Bogdanović, Zoran; Jurić, Klara; Urek-Crncević, Marija; Banić, Marko

    2012-06-01

    Increased serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity and serum concentration of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were found in liver cirrhosis. We investigated a correlation between the different stages of liver fibrosis and SACE activity and serum ET-1 concentration. Seventy patients with pathohistologically established chronic liver disease were divided in three groups according to Ishak criteria for liver fibrosis: minimal fibrosis (Ishak score 0-1, n =20), medium fibrosis (Ishak score 2-5, n=20) and cirrhosis (Ishak score 6, n=30). SACE activity and ET-1 concentration were determined using commercial ELISA kits. SACE activity and ET-1 concentrations were proportional to the severity of disease, the highest being in patients with liver cirrhosis. Maximal increase in SACE activity was found between minimal and medium fibrosis while maximal increase in ET-1 concentration was revealed between medium fibrosis and cirrhosis. The analysis of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for SACE activity suggested a cut-off value to separate minimal from medium fibrosis at 59.00 U/L (sensitivity 100%, specificity 64.7%). The cut-off value for serum ET-1 concentration to separate medium fibrosis from cirrhosis was 12.4 pg/mL (sensitivity 96.8%, specificity 94.4%). A positive correlation between SACE activity and ET-1 concentration was registered (Spearman's ñ = 0.438, p = 0.004). Both SACE activity and ET-1 concentration were increased in all stages of liver fibrosis. Cut-off points for SACE activity and ET-1 concentration could be a biochemical marker for the progression of fibrosis. Positive correlation between SACE activity and ET-1 concentration might indicate their interaction in the development of liver cirrhosis.

  7. Corydalis edulis Maxim. Promotes Insulin Secretion via the Activation of Protein Kinase Cs (PKCs) in Mice and Pancreatic β Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiao; Zhao, Yunfang; Lun, Qixing; Song, Yuelin; Shi, Shepo; Gu, Xiaopan; Pan, Bo; Qu, Changhai; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-01-16

    Corydalis edulis Maxim., a widely grown plant in China, had been proposed for the treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we found that C. edulis extract (CE) is protective against diabetes in mice. The treatment of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice with a high dose of CE reduced serum glucose by 28.84% and serum total cholesterol by 17.34% and increased insulin release. We also found that CE significantly enhanced insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in hamster pancreatic β cell (HIT-T15). Further investigation revealed that CE stimulated insulin exocytosis by a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling pathway and that CE selectively activated novel protein kinase Cs (nPKCs) and atypical PKCs (aPKCs) but not conventional PKCs (cPKCs) in HIT-T15 cells. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to identify the PKC pathway as a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic effect of CE. Given the good insulinotropic effect of this herbal medicine, CE is a promising agent for the development of new drugs for treating diabetes.

  8. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  9. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Annette; Honig, Anja; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Mueller, Andre; Marcos, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC 2 and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring α-particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes

  10. Impurity concentration limits and activation in fusion reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines waste management problems related to impurity activation in first-wall, shield, and magnet materials for fusion reactors. Definitions of low activity based on hands-on recycling, remote recycling, and shallow land burial waste management criteria are discussed. Estimates of the impurity concentration in low-activation materials (elementally substituted stainless steels and vanadium alloys) are reported. Impurity activation in first-wall materials turns out to be critical after a comparison of impurity concentration limits and estimated levels. Activation of magnet materials is then considered: Long-term activity is not a concern, while short-term activity is. In both cases, impurity activation is negligible. Magnet materials, and all other less flux-exposed materials, have no practical limitation on impurities in terms of induced radioactivity

  11. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim., and identification of their active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Na; Li, Yuwen; Wu, Yin; Xi, Miaomiao; Hur, Gangmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cui, Jia; Sun, Wenji; Wen, Aidong

    2012-12-18

    Tibetan medicine get used to use the flowers of Gentiana straminea Maxim. to cure inflammation of stomach and intestines, hepatitis, cholecystitis, etc. The flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. have been traditionally treated as an anti-inflammatory agent to clear heat in Mongolian medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. have also been used under the name "Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix" and prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. The present study evaluated the pharmacological effects of two species of "Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae" in experimental inflammation and pain models, and determined the chemical compounds that may correlate with their pharmacological activities. The comparison is needed to identify whether the two related plants can be used interchangeably. We evaluated the pharmacological effects of the flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. in experimental inflammation and pain models. An HPLC-MS method was developed to analyze the chemical composition. The effects of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. on the p65 and p50 phosphorylation were examined by immunblotting. NF-κB transcriptional activity was measured using the luciferase assay, in vitro kinase assay and Griess reaction. The extracts of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. possessed significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoids, secoiridoid glycosides and triterpines were determined in the extracts and may be the basis of the observed pharmacological effects. Nuclear translocation of p65, p50 and NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by LPS were suppressed by Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and Gentiana straminea Maxim. The results clearly demonstrated that the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the two herbs were similar, which support the interchangeability among the two herbs when using them

  12. Dependency of soil activity concentration on soil -biota concentration ratio of radionuclides for earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keum, Dong Kwon; Kim, Byeong Ho; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The transfer of radionuclides to wildlife (non-human biota) is normally quantified using an equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}), defined as the radionuclide activity concentration in the whole organism (fresh weight) divided by that in the media (dry weight for soil). The present study describes the effect of soil radionuclide activity concentration on the transfer of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn to a functionally important wildlife group, annelids, using a commonly studied experimental worm (E.andrei). Time-dependent whole body concentration ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 65}Zn for the earthworm were experimentally measured for artificially contaminated soils with three different activity concentrations for each radionuclide which were considerably higher than normal background levels. Two parameters of a first order kinetic model, the equilibrium concentration ratio (CR{sub eq}) and the effective loss rate constant (k), were estimated by comparison of experimental CR results with the model prediction

  13. Activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, H.; Kahr, G.; Oswald, K.

    1991-12-01

    We have measured the activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in pasteurized fresh milk following the Chernobyl accident. Average monthly concentrations of radiocesium are given until December 1991. Samples originated from the local dairy (Milchhof Graz, Austria) and the measured activities in milk represent a large part of the total intake in the population of Graz. Observed activities are also compared with the activity levels obtained after the earlier nuclear contaminations. From the data of our measurements for radiocesium we have estimated the internal effective dose equivalent due to the intake of contaminated milk during the first year after the fallout. Results indicate that the averaged consumer rates for milk, usually used for predictions of dose, were too high. We have also observed great differences in the activity levels of raw milk and the activities in milk consumed by the population. (authors)

  14. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC 10 , EC 25 and EC 50 in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC 10 mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC 25 mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC 50 , and weak antagonistic activity at the EC 25 level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  15. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  16. Antihyperalgesic activity of Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. and Filipendula vulgaris Moench in a rat model of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžić, Stevan; Tomić, Maja; Pecikoza, Uroš; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Maksimović, Zoran

    2016-12-04

    Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), and dropwort (Filipendula vulgaris Moench) flowers are traditionally used to treat various ailments, including inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to validate the aforementioned ethnomedicinal claim by assessing antihyperalgesic and antiedematous activities and toxicity of orally administered lyophilized flower infusions (LFIs) of F. ulmaria and F. vulgaris in experimental animals. The phytochemical analysis of LFIs was performed by HPLC-DAD. Antihyperalgesic and antiedematous activities were estimated in a rat model of inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan using Von Frey anesthesiometer and plethysmometer, respectively. Moreover, acute oral toxicity of LFIs in mice was evaluated by observing changes in animal behavior and mortality for a period of 14 days following the treatment. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in LFIs, among which spiraeoside was identified as the principal component (56.27±1.03 and 55.67±1.82mg/g of LFI in F. ulmaria and F. vulgaris, respectively). The LFIs of F. ulmaria and F. vulgaris (100-300mg/kg; p.o.) produced significant and dose-dependent antihyperalgesic effects: ED 50 ±SEM values were 164.8±15.4mg/kg (110.3-246.3mg/kg) and 172.2±6.2mg/kg (147.4-201.3mg/kg) for F. ulmaria and F. vulgaris, respectively. On the other hand, LFIs of both species (100-300mg/kg; p.o.) did not significantly reduce edema. Good safety profiles were evidenced in the toxicological study. The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of the tested extracts is likely to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The results of the present study support the use of F. ulmaria and F. vulgaris flowers in folk medicine for relieving pain in diseases with an inflammatory component. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of radon activity concentrations in air of Tuzla city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Fazlic, R.; Tresnjo, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The survey was conducted over one year in the area of Tuzla city and its surrounding. At the measuring locations there were registered Daily and seasonal variations in outdoor radon concentration were observed, with average values lying within the region of 9 - 30 Bq/m 3 . The results of the measurements will be included in the concentration map of radon activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is under preparation. (P.A.)

  18. Determination of 210Pb activity concentration in lead shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivka, J.; Mrdja, D.; Varga, E.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    210 Pb is concentrated during the separation lead from the ore and therefore it is the main pollutant of lead products. The content of this isotope limits the applicability of lead for low-level shielding of gamma spectrometers. In this paper, a new method for the determination of 210 Pb activity concentration in lead shielding from 46.5 keV gamma line intensity is presented. (author) [sr

  19. The Effects of Active Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle on Its Electromyography Activity and Maximal Isometric Contraction Force during Scapular Plane Elevation (Scaption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trigger points may result in referral pain of their close areas. Recent evidence suggests that latent trigger points although they are not sensitive enough to cause pain, can interfere with the normal muscle function. These myofascial trigger points are estimated as an electro-physiological phenomenon. However, there are a few studies which investigated the effect of these points on the muscle activity. Muscle activity is a determinant factor in injuries which may cause or worsen shoulder-neck pain. The aim of the study was to evaluate upper trapezius muscle activity and delay time at the presence of active trigger point during scapular plane elevation (scaption. Materials & Methods: In a case-control comparative study in spring 2012, Seventeen women with active trigger points (mean age 26.76 y and 17 healthy women (mean age 26.18 y in bio-mechanic laboratory of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation sciences (USWR participated in the study. Using surface EMG, the amplitude of muscle activity and the onset time of upper trapezius during scaption, were recorded and analyzed. Results: The maximum amplitude of the upper trapezius muscle activity (during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of 90°scaption in patients showed significant decrease in comparison with the healthy subjects (P=0.01.Also, the onset time of upper trapezius muscle activation time in the patient group was significantly delayed in comparison to the healthy group (P=0.04. Conclusion: At the presence of trigger points in Upper trapezius muscle, muscle activation pattern changes trigger points can change the amplitude and timing of muscle activity and may consequently lead to abnormal patterns of motion of the shoulder girdle. These findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of shoulder disorders.

  20. MAXIMAL HIP AND KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH ARE NOT RELATED TO NEUROMUSCULAR PRE-ACTIVITY DURING SIDECUTTING MANEUVER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    recorded during a sidecutting maneuver (high-risk movement) in adolescent female soccer and handball athletes. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Eighty-five adolescent (age 16.9 ± 1.2 years) female elite handball and soccer athletes were assessed for maximal hip extensor, hip abductor and knee...

  1. Controlling Active Liquid Crystal Droplets with Temperature and Surfactant Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Jake; Milas, Peker; Ross, Jennifer

    Active matter is the study of driven many-body systems that span length scales from flocking birds to molecular motors. A previously described self-propelled particle system was made from liquid crystal (LC) droplets in water with high surfactant concentration to move particles via asymmetric surface instabilities. Using a similar system, we investigate the driving activity as a function of SDS surfactant concentration and temperature. We then use an optical tweezer to trap and locally heat the droplets to cause hydrodynamic flow and coupling between multiple droplets. This system will be the basis for a triggerable assembly system to build and couple LC droplets. DOD AROMURI 67455-CH-MUR.

  2. Activation of molybdenite concentrate of KM-4 index mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, A.M.; Mitskevich, A.A.; Shuvaev, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of mechanical activation in DU-73 disintegrator on structural characteristics, dissolution rate and leaching degree of molybdenite in KM-4 concentrated. The following facts were established in experiments: high amorphization degree of basal planes (plate surfaces) ∼ 80%, increase of oxidation degree by 35% on the average. All this testify to the fact, that oxidation reaction in activated molybdenite proceeds both on plate edges and on broken basal planes

  3. Interlaboratory comparison on 137Cs activity concentration in fume dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Burda, Oleksiy; Arnold, Dirk; Sibbens, Goedele; Caro Marroyo, Belén; Gómez–Mancebo, Maria Belén; Peyrés, Virginia; Moser, Hannah; Ferreux, Laurent; Šolc, Jaroslav; Dryák, Pavel; Fazio, Aldo; Luca, Aurelian; Vodenik, Branko; Reis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was conducted, between 11 European National Metrology Institutes and EC-JRC, on measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration in fume dust. As test material an activity standard produced from real contaminated fume dust was used. The standard material consisted of 13 cylindrical samples of compressed fume dust. The material contained 137 Cs and 60 Co of reference activity concentrations of (9.72±0.10) Bq/g and (0.450±0.018) Bq/g, respectively, for the reference date of 1 June 2013, determined using the comparison results. The organization and results of the intercomparison, as well as the process of obtaining reliable reference values are presented. - Highlights: • A European comparison was conducted on measurement of 137 Cs activity in fume dust. • Participants used high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. • Efficiency calibration included Monte Carlo, numerical and experimental methods. • Reference 137 Cs and 60 Co activity concentrations in the fume dust were determined. • A new traceable activity standard of fume dust matrix is available to end-users.

  4. A concentration-independent micro/nanofluidic active diode using an asymmetric ion concentration polarization layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyekyung; Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2017-08-24

    Over the past decade, nanofluidic diodes that rectify ionic currents (i.e. greater current in one direction than in the opposite direction) have drawn significant attention in biomolecular sensing, switching and energy harvesting devices. To obtain current rectification, conventional nanofluidic diodes have utilized complex nanoscale asymmetry such as nanochannel geometry, surface charge density, and reservoir concentration. Avoiding the use of sophisticated nano-asymmetry, micro/nanofluidic diodes using microscale asymmetry have been recently introduced; however, their diodic performance is still impeded by (i) low (even absent) rectification effects at physiological concentrations over 100 mM and strong dependency on the bulk concentration, and (ii) the fact that they possess only passive predefined rectification factors. Here, we demonstrated a new class of micro/nanofluidic diode with an ideal perm-selective nanoporous membrane based on ion concentration polarization (ICP) phenomenon. Thin side-microchannels installed near a nanojunction served as mitigators of the amplified electrokinetic flows generated by ICP and induced convective salt transfer to the nanoporous membrane, leading to actively controlled micro-scale asymmetry. Using this device, current rectifications were successfully demonstrated in a wide range of electrolytic concentrations (10 -5 M to 3 M) as a function of the fluidic resistance of the side-microchannels. Noteworthily, it was confirmed that the rectification factors were independent from the bulk concentration due to the ideal perm-selectivity. Moreover, the rectification of the presenting diode was actively controlled by adjusting the external convective flows, while that of the previous diode was passively determined by invariant nanoscale asymmetry.

  5. Chromatographic decontamination of medium-activity waste concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Menzler, P.M.; Sameh, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The chromatographic decontamination of a MAW concentrate was carried out in a laboratory plant in 1-l-batches in the following way: In order to purify the nitric MAW concentrate from its solid and organic contamination products, it is passed through a filter and an absorber (SM7) for organic species. Subsequently the purified solution runs on-line through all following columns. First the main activity carrier cesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) is transferred to ammonium molybdate phosphate (AMP-1) by means of a newly developed fluidized bed process. In the further course, 125 Sb is separated on metal oxides (Sb 2 O 5 , MnO 2 ) and the three-valued actinides/lanthanides on an extraction-chromatographic CMPO column. Finally the remaining 106 Ru and 60 Co activities are separated on dimethylglyoximes (DMG) coated on active carbon. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Solution Behavior and Activity of a Halophilic Esterase under High Salt Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Zhao, Xiubo; Pan, Fang; Li, Yin; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe; Lu, Jian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Halophiles are extremophiles that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt. Although the salt reliance and physiology of these extremophiles have been widely investigated, the molecular working mechanisms of their enzymes under salty conditions have been little explored. Methodology/Principal Findings A halophilic esterolytic enzyme LipC derived from archeaon Haloarcula marismortui was overexpressed from Escherichia coli BL21. The purified enzyme showed a range of hydrolytic activity towards the substrates of p-nitrophenyl esters with different alkyl chains (n = 2−16), with the highest activity being observed for p-nitrophenyl acetate, consistent with the basic character of an esterase. The optimal esterase activities were found to be at pH 9.5 and [NaCl] = 3.4 M or [KCl] = 3.0 M and at around 45°C. Interestingly, the hydrolysis activity showed a clear reversibility against changes in salt concentration. At the ambient temperature of 22°C, enzyme systems working under the optimal salt concentrations were very stable against time. Increase in temperature increased the activity but reduced its stability. Circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) were deployed to determine the physical states of LipC in solution. As the salt concentration increased, DLS revealed substantial increase in aggregate sizes, but CD measurements revealed the maximal retention of the α-helical structure at the salt concentration matching the optimal activity. These observations were supported by SANS analysis that revealed the highest proportion of unimers and dimers around the optimal salt concentration, although the coexistent larger aggregates showed a trend of increasing size with salt concentration, consistent with the DLS data. Conclusions/Significance The solution α-helical structure and activity relation also matched the highest proportion of enzyme unimers and dimers. Given that

  7. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a 252 Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.)

  8. Determination of thorium concentration in seawater by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, C.A.; Bacon, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive neutron activation analysis method has been successfully developed to determine 232 Th concentration in seawater. The method involves both preirradiation and postirradiation radiochemical separations. The isotopes were separated from the samples and purified during the preirradiation chemistry. 233 Pa was extracted and counted after the irradiation. Yields were monitored with 230 Th and 231 Pa tracers. The separation and purification schemes include ion exchange chromatography and solvent extraction. By this method the authors have measured 232 Th concentrations in some seawater samples that are 1 order of magnitude lower than most previously reported values. 21 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  9. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  10. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  11. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  12. Washout and non-washout solutions of a system describing microbial fermentation process under the influence of growth inhibitions and maximal concentration of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbawati; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Sidarto, Kuntjoro Adjie

    2017-07-01

    An unstructured model for the growth of yeast cell on glucose due to growth inhibitions by substrate, products, and cell density is discussed. The proposed model describes the dynamical behavior of fermentation system that shows multiple steady states for a certain regime of operating parameters such as inlet glucose and dilution rate. Two types of steady state solutions are found, namely washout and non-washout solutions. Furthermore, different numerical impositions to the two parameters put in evidence three results regarding non-washout solution: a unique locally stable non-washout solution, a unique locally stable non-washout solution towards which other nearby solutions exhibit damped oscillations, and multiple non-washout solutions where one is locally stable while the other is unstable. It is also found an optimal inlet glucose which produces the highest cell and ethanol concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  14. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  15. Distribution of the active liquid waste discharge concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.H.C.

    1985-03-01

    In assessing the proposal for removing the on-line liquid effluent monitor (LEM) from the Darlington NGS-A design, it was required to estimate the probability that the concentration of β-y emitters in the active liquid waste (ALW) tank discharges exceeds a specified level. To achieve this, it was necessary to know the underlying distribution of the ALW discharge concentration. Since the distribution could only be estimated from the historical data, it was also important to provide the confidence interval for the estimated probability. Using the ALW discharge records of Pickering and Bruce NGS-A, it was found that the log-normal distribution provided the best fit for the data. The frequency of the tank concentration exceeding the specified level of 24000μCi/m 3 was estimated to be 1 in 200,000 years at Bruce NGS-A and 1 in 100,000 years at Pickering. The 99% upper confidence limits are 1 in 2777 years and 1 in 77 years, respectively

  16. 210Po activity concentrations in mussels at Aegean Turkish Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekkin, F.; Tanbay, A.; Vener, V.

    2000-01-01

    In Turkey mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are consumed in relatively large quantities. Therefore, analyses of mussel samples from different sampling sites in Aegean Sea were performed in order to evaluate the ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb by the Turkey population. Polonium analyses were performed with a complete dissolution of the sample in mineral acids. Polonium isotopes were plated onto a copper discs in 0.5 M HCl solution in the presence of ascorbic acid using a technique modified from Flynn (1968). The alpha activity measurements of polonium isotopes plated on copper discs were performed with ZnS(Ag) detector. The highest concentrations was found in Karaburun mussels as 254 Bq.kg -1 and the lowest one was at Inciralti as 18 Bq.kg -1 . Based on these 210 Po activity concentrations, annual dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in mussels would vary widely, from 136 to 10 mSv.y -1 . It is concluded that in mussels living in the Aegean Sea a wide range of internal radiation dose exists and it is essentially sustained by 210 Po food-chain transfer. (author)

  17. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  18. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  19. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  20. Rapid determination of radionuclide activity concentrations in contaminated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, P.; Ryan, B.; Bollhofer, A.; Martin, P.; International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

    2007-01-01

    As a result of an incident at the Ranger Uranium mine in which drinking water was contaminated with process water, it was necessary to perform quick analysis for naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclide activity concentrations, including 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, U and Th isotopes. The methods which were subsequently used are presented here. The techniques used were high-resolution gamma spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Routine methods were modified to allow for rapid analyses on priority samples in 1-2 days, with some results for highest priority samples available in less than 1 day. Comparison of initial results obtained through standard procedures, is discussed. An emphasis is placed on high-resolution alpha spectrometry of major alpha-emitting nuclides, specifically 226Ra, 230Th and 238U. The range of uranium concentrations in the samples investigated was from background levels to 6.6ppm. Implications for radiological dose assessment in contamination incidents involving process water are presented. The worst-case scenario for the incident at Ranger Uranium Mine indicates that the maximum committed effective dose to workers was well below the ICRP limit for worker-related dose and below the dose limit for a member of the public, with 230Th being the highest contributor

  1. Incorporation monitoring by measurements of activity concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukelmann, G.; Dalheimer, A.; Dilger, H.; Henrichs, K.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively. (author)

  2. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  3. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly…

  4. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  5. Utility-maximizing model of household time use for independent, shared, and allocated activities incorporating group decision mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Borgers, A.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Existing activity-based models of transport demand typically assume an individual decision-making process. The focus on theories of individual decision making may be partially due to the lack of behaviorally oriented modeling methodologies for group decision making. Therefore, an attempt has been

  6. Effects of Acupuncture Therapy on the EMG Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior during Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se In Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been increasingly used in the treatment of muscle damage associated with sports activities. However, studies on the immediate effects of one-time acupuncture on the muscles of athletes are clearly lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effects of acupuncture therapy on the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC electromyography (EMG of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. This study was conducted among 20 healthy male college students who had no musculoskeletal disease. The participants were subjected to 3 different experimental conditions and subsequently grouped based on these conditions: real acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and control. A 7-day washout period was implemented to avoid any transient effects on the physiological and psychological conditions of the participants. Subsequently, an electromyogram patch was attached on the most developed area in the middle of the origin and insertion of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. The percent MVIC, which was used to standardize the signal from the electromyogram, was determined, and the maximal value from the MVIC of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles was measured. The MVIC EMG activities of both femoris (F = 6.633, p = 0.003 and tibialis anterior (F = 5.216, p = 0.008 muscles were significantly different among all groups. Accordingly, the results of a posthoc test showed that the real acupuncture group had higher MVIC EMG activities in the femoris (p = 0.002 and tibialis anterior (p = 0.006 muscles compared with the control group. These results suggest that treatment with real acupuncture resulted in significantly higher MVIC EMG activities of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles than the other treatments. Hence, acupuncture may be helpful in the improvement of muscle strength among athletes in the physical fitness field.

  7. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  8. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  9. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  10. Direct interaction of TFIIB and the IE protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is required for maximal trans-activation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Randy A.; Jang, Hyung K.; Kim, Seong K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we reported that the immediate-early (IE) protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) associates with transcription factor TFIIB [J. Virol. 75 (2001), 10219]. In the current study, the IE protein purified as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein was shown to interact directly with purified TFIIB in GST-pulldown assays. A panel of TFIIB mutants employed in protein-binding assays revealed that residues 125 to 174 within the first direct repeat of TFIIB mediate its interaction with the IE protein. This interaction is physiologically relevant as transient transfection assays demonstrated that (1) exogenous native TFIIB did not perturb IE protein function, and (2) ectopic expression of a TFIIB mutant that lacked the IE protein interactive domain significantly diminished the ability of the IE protein to trans-activate EHV-1 promoters. These results suggest that an interaction of the IE protein with TFIIB is an important aspect of the regulatory role of the IE protein in the trans-activation of EHV-1 promoters

  11. Nuclease Target Site Selection for Maximizing On-target Activity and Minimizing Off-target Effects in Genome Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ciaran M; Cradick, Thomas J; Fine, Eli J; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The rapid advancement in targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems has resulted in a suite of powerful methods that allows researchers to target any genomic locus of interest. A complementary set of design tools has been developed to aid researchers with nuclease design, target site selection, and experimental validation. Here, we review the various tools available for target selection in designing engineered nucleases, and for quantifying nuclease activity and specificity, including web-based search tools and experimental methods. We also elucidate challenges in target selection, especially in predicting off-target effects, and discuss future directions in precision genome editing and its applications. PMID:26750397

  12. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  13. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  14. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  15. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  16. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...

  17. Reduction of activity concentration of radiocesium in meat by preparation of heat-pressure bowling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V.

    2006-01-01

    The meat (Sus stroma) was salted (5 g NaCl to 100 g meat) before preparation by heat pressure bowling - 15 minutes. There was reached drop of activity concentration of radiocesium about 50 % (from 42.7 % to 58.3 %). The meat had activity concentration of radiocesium 106 Bq · kg -1 . The activity concentration of radiocesium was reduced on average to 53 Bq · kg -1 . The activity concentration of 137 Cs was measured by gamma-spectrometry. (authors)

  18. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  19. Noninvasive transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes lessens behavioral seizure activity of recurrent pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Rogel-Salazar, Gabriela; Liu, Xiang; Besio, Walter G

    2013-05-01

    Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We have been developing a noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation with our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes as an alternative/complementary therapy for seizure control. In this study we demonstrate the effect of focal stimulation on behavioral seizure activity induced by two successive pentylenetetrazole administrations in rats. Seizure onset latency, time of the first behavioral change, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score were studied and compared for focal stimulation treated (n = 9) and control groups (n = 10). First, we demonstrate that no significant difference was found in behavioral activity for focal stimulation treated and control groups after the first pentylenetetrazole administration. Next, comparing first and second pentylenetetrazole administrations, we demonstrate there was a significant change in behavioral activity (time of the first behavioral change) in both groups that was not related to focal stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate focal stimulation provoking a significant change in seizure onset latency, duration of seizure, and maximal seizure severity score. We believe that these results, combined with our previous reports, suggest that transcranial focal stimulation may have an anticonvulsant effect.

  20. Dicranostiga leptopodu (Maxim.) Fedde extracts attenuated CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deping; Wang, Fang; Tang, Jinzhou; Mao, Aihong; Liao, Shiqi; Wang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Dicranostiga Leptodu (Maxim.) fedde (DLF), a poppy plant, has been reported have many benefits and medicinal properties, including free radicals scavenging and detoxifying. However, the protective effect of DLF extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced damage in mice liver has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced liver damage in mice through increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity to improve mitochondrial function. In this study, the mice liver damage evoked by CCl 4 was marked by morphology changes, significant rise in lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations of mitochondrial respiratory function. Interestingly, pretreatment with DLF extracts attenuated CCl 4 -induced morphological damage and increasing of lipid peroxidation in mice liver. Additionally, DLF extracts improved mitochondrial function by preventing the disruption of respiratory chain and suppression of mitochondrial Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Furthermore, administration with DLF extracts elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels and maintained the balance of redox status. This results showed that toxic protection effect of DLF extracts on mice liver is mediated by improving mitochondrial respiratory function and keeping the balance of redox status, which suggesting that DLF extracts could be used as potential toxic protection agent for the liver against hepatotoxic agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  2. Maximal Strength Performance and Muscle Activation for the Bench Press and Triceps Extension Exercises Adopting Dumbbell, Barbell, and Machine Modalities Over Multiple Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Déborah de Araújo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Bezerra, Ewertton de S; Miranda, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Farias, DdA, Willardson, JM, Paz, GA, Bezerra, EdS, and Miranda, H. Maximal strength performance and muscle activation for the bench press and triceps extension exercises adopting dumbbell, barbell and machine modalities over multiple sets. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1879-1887, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation, total repetitions, and training volume for 3 bench press (BP) exercise modes (Smith machine [SMBP], barbell [BBP], and dumbbell [DBP]) that were followed by a triceps extension (TE) exercise. Nineteen trained men performed 3 testing protocols in random order, which included: (P1) SMBP + TE; (P2) BBP + TE; and (P3) DBP + TE. Each protocol involved 4 sets with a 10-repetition maximum (RM) load, immediately followed by a TE exercise that was also performed for 4 sets with a 10RM load. A 2-minute rest interval was adopted between sets and exercises. Surface electromyographic activity was assessed for the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). The results indicated that significantly higher total repetitions were achieved for the DBP (31.2 ± 3.2) vs. the BBP (27.8 ± 4.8). For the TE, significantly greater volume was achieved when this exercise was performed after the BBP (1,204.4 ± 249.4 kg) and DBP (1,216.8 ± 287.5 kg) vs. the SMBP (1,097.5 ± 193 kg). The DBP elicited significantly greater PM activity vs. the BBP. The SMBP elicited significantly greater AD activity vs. the BBP and DBP. During the different BP modes, the SMBP and BBP elicited significantly greater TB activity vs. the DBP. However, the DBP elicited significantly greater BB activity vs. the SMBP and BBP, respectively. During the succeeding TE exercise, significantly greater activity of the TB was observed when this exercise was performed after the BBP vs. the SMBP and DBP. Therefore, it seems that the variation in BP modes does influence both repetition performance and muscle activation patterns during the

  3. Synthesis of MOF having hydroxyl functional side groups and optimization of activation process for the maximization of its BET surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsik; Kim, Dong Ok; Kim, Dong Wook; Sagong, Kil

    2013-01-01

    To accomplish the postsynthetic modification of MOF with organic-metal precursors (OMPs) described in our previous researches more efficiently, synthesis of MOF (HCC-2) possessing relatively larger pore size as well as higher number of hydroxyl functional side groups per its base unit than those of HCC-1 has been successfully conducted via adopting 1,4-di-(4-carboxy-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)benzene as an organic ligand and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O as a metal source, respectively. Also, optimization about the Activation process of HCC-2 was performed to maximize its BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) surface area which was proved to be proportional to the number of exposed active sites on which its postsynthetic modification occurred. However, Activation process having been validated to be so effective with the acquirement of highly-purified HCC-1 (CO 2 supercritical drying step followed by vacuum drying step) was less satisfactory with the case of HCC-2. This might be attributed to relatively higher hydrophilicity and bulkier molecular structure of organic ligand of HCC-2. However, it was readily settled by simple modification of above Activation process. Moreover, indispensable residues composed of both DMF and its thermally degraded derivatives which were chemically attached via coordination bond with hydroxyl functionalities even after Activation process III might enable their H 2 adsorption properties to be seriously debased compared to that of IRMOF-16 having no hydroxyl functionalities. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of new-structured MOF (HCC-2) simultaneously possessing relatively larger pore size as well as higher number of hydroxyl functional side groups per its base unit at the same time than those of HCC-1 has been performed via adopting 1,4-di-(4-carboxy-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)benzene as an organic ligand and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O as a metal source, respectively. Also, the optimization of activation process for HCC-2 was conducted to maximize its BET surface area

  4. Determination of platinum concentration in gold matrix by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Spiridon, S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the neutron activation technique and atomic absorption spectrometry applied for the analysis of high purity Bi 2 O 3 and PbCl 2 . The study showed that in most cases NAA is sensitive enough to give reliable results. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was preferable for some elements which cannot be determined by NAA due to high matrice activity. So the combination of the two methods proved very successful and permits the determination of more than 20 elements. Additionally this approach enabled to control the accuracy of the method by comparison of the results obtained

  5. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  6. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  7. The activity concentration of radiocesium in mushrooms from locality Stare Ransko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunova, V.; Dvorak, P.; Benova, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from Stare Ransko (Czech Republic) in the years 2003 - 2004 are presented. The highest activity concentrations of 137 Cs measured by gamma-spectrometry was 6 040 Bq/kg (on a dry mass basis) in Xerocomus badius. The lowest activity concentration of 137 Cs was < 2.4 Bq/kg in Lycoperdon perlatum. (authors)

  8. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  10. Class 1-Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Enhance HIV Latency Reversal while Preserving the Activity of HDAC Isoforms Necessary for Maximal HIV Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikos, Thomas D; Painter, Mark M; Sebastian Kettinger, Nadia T; Terry, Valeri H; Collins, Kathleen L

    2018-03-15

    Combinations of drugs that affect distinct mechanisms of HIV latency aim to induce robust latency reversal leading to cytopathicity and elimination of the persistent HIV reservoir. Thus far, attempts have focused on combinations of protein kinase C (PKC) agonists and pan-histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) despite the knowledge that HIV gene expression is regulated by class 1 histone deacetylases. We hypothesized that class 1-selective HDIs would promote more robust HIV latency reversal in combination with a PKC agonist than pan-HDIs because they preserve the activity of proviral factors regulated by non-class 1 histone deacetylases. Here, we show that class 1-selective agents used alone or with the PKC agonist bryostatin-1 induced more HIV protein expression per infected cell. In addition, the combination of entinostat and bryostatin-1 induced viral outgrowth, whereas bryostatin-1 combinations with pan-HDIs did not. When class 1-selective HDIs were used in combination with pan-HDIs, the amount of viral protein expression and virus outgrowth resembled that of pan-HDIs alone, suggesting that pan-HDIs inhibit robust gene expression induced by class 1-selective HDIs. Consistent with this, pan-HDI-containing combinations reduced the activity of NF-κB and Hsp90, two cellular factors necessary for potent HIV protein expression, but did not significantly reduce overall cell viability. An assessment of viral clearance from in vitro cultures indicated that maximal protein expression induced by class 1-selective HDI treatment was crucial for reservoir clearance. These findings elucidate the limitations of current approaches and provide a path toward more effective strategies to eliminate the HIV reservoir. IMPORTANCE Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV evades eradication in a latent form that is not affected by currently available drug regimens. Pharmacologic latency reversal that leads to death of cellular reservoirs has been proposed as a strategy for

  11. Enhancement of antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of yogurt enriched with concentrated strawberry pulp obtained by block freeze concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Henrique; Arend, Giordana Demaman; Rezzadori, Katia; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Petrus, José Carlos Cunha

    2018-02-01

    Strawberry juice was concentrated using block freeze concentration process. The concentrate was used to produce two yogurts with different concentrations of cryoconcentrated strawberry pulp (15% and 30%). Total lactic acid bacteria count, physicochemical and rheological properties was evaluated during storage (7days) for all yogurts. Also, the beverages produced were compared with two commercial trademarks. It was observed that the total lactic acid bacteria count remained higher than 10 8 CFU·mL -1 during the storage time for all beverages studied. The viscosity of the yogurts decreased when the ratio of strawberry cryoconcentrate was increased. The Power Law model was successfully applied to describe the flow of the yogurts, which had a thixotropic behaviour. The incorporation of the cryoconcentrated strawberry pulp in the yogurt resulted in a product with 3-fold more anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The enrichment of natural yogurt with strawberry cryoconcentrated pulp proved to be effective in the production of a beverage with higher nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of pillow size preference on extensor digitorum communis muscle strength and electromyographic activity during maximal contraction in healthy individuals: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chi Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that anatomical body measurements are not good predictors of optimal pillow height. As EDC muscle strength is affected by pillow height preference, maximal EDC muscle strength may be a useful complement for selecting the optimal pillow size.

  13. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  14. The reduction of the activity concentration of radiocesium in meat by heat-pressure boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V.

    2006-01-01

    Boar meat (Sus scrofa) was salted (5 g NaCl to 100 g meat) before preparation by heat pressure boiling - fifteen minutes. A reduction in activity concentration of radiocesium or about 50 % (from 42.7 % to 58.3 % ) was achieved. The meat had an activity citraconate of radiocesium 106 Bq·kg -1 . An activity concentration of radiocesium was reduced on average to 53 Bq·kg -1 . An activity concentration of 137 Cs was measured by gamma-spectrometry. (authors)

  15. A rapid method of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in sheep from activity levels in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.; Keatinge, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of faecal samples taken from sheep flocks as a means of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in live animals was studied. Radiocaesium levels in 1726 sheep from 29 flocks were measured using in vivo techniques and a single faecal sample taken from each flock was also analysed. A highly significant relationship was found to exist between mean flock activity and activity in the corresponding faecal samples. Least-square regression yielded a simple model for predicting mean flock radiocaesium concentrations based on activity levels in faecal samples. A similar analysis of flock maxima and activity levels in faeces provides an alternative model for predicting the expected within-flock maximum radiocaesium concentration. (Author)

  16. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  17. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  18. Maximal Voluntary Activation of the Elbow Flexors Is under Predicted by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Compared to Motor Point Stimulation Prior to and Following Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. J. Cadigan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic (TMS and motor point stimulation have been used to determine voluntary activation (VA. However, very few studies have directly compared the two stimulation techniques for assessing VA of the elbow flexors. The purpose of this study was to compare TMS and motor point stimulation for assessing VA in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Participants performed a fatigue protocol that included twelve, 15 s isometric elbow flexor contractions. Participants completed a set of isometric elbow flexion contractions at 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC prior to and following fatigue contractions 3, 6, 9, and 12 and 5 and 10 min post-fatigue. Force and EMG of the bicep and triceps brachii were measured for each contraction. Force responses to TMS and motor point stimulation and EMG responses to TMS (motor evoked potentials, MEPs and Erb's point stimulation (maximal M-waves, Mmax were also recorded. VA was estimated using the equation: VA% = (1−SITforce/PTforce × 100. The resting twitch was measured directly for motor point stimulation and estimated for both motor point stimulation and TMS by extrapolation of the linear regression between the superimposed twitch force and voluntary force. MVC force, potentiated twitch force and VA significantly (p < 0.05 decreased throughout the elbow flexor fatigue protocol and partially recovered 10 min post fatigue. VA was significantly (p < 0.05 underestimated when using TMS compared to motor point stimulation in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Motor point stimulation compared to TMS superimposed twitch forces were significantly (p < 0.05 higher at 50% MVC but similar at 75 and 100% MVC. The linear relationship between TMS superimposed twitch force and voluntary force significantly (p < 0.05 decreased with fatigue. There was no change in triceps/biceps electromyography, biceps/triceps MEP amplitudes, or bicep MEP amplitudes throughout the fatigue protocol at

  19. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A study on 210Po activity concentration in soil at different depths along coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primal D'Cunha; Sathyanarayana Bhat, P.; Narayana, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents systematic studies on the vertical profiles of 210 Po, an important decay product of 238 U, in soils along coastal Kerala. Soil samples collected from different depth intervals 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm were analyzed for 210 Po activity concentration by radiochemical methods. The activity 210 Po in soil samples were counted using a ZnS(Ag) alpha scintillation counting system. The mean values of activity concentrations of 210 Po in soil of various depths were found to be 8.66, 5.63 and 4.95 Bq kg -1 for depth intervals of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, respectively. The overall activity concentration of 210 Po in soil was found to vary from 2.26 ± 0.19 to 14.02 ± 0.12 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 6.43 Bq kg -1 . Maximum activity concentration was found in soil samples of Kollam region with the mean value of 10.08 ± 0.92 Bq kg -1 . The activity of 210 Po was found to be comparatively high in surface soil. The variation of 210 Po activity concentration with organic matter contents was studied. 210 Polonium activity concentration was found to increase with increasing organic matter content. (author)

  2. DNA scanning mechanism of T4 endonuclease V. Effect of NaCl concentration on processive nicking activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. A model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease V on DNA by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. The modulation of the processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on superhelical covalently closed circular DNA (form I) which contains pyrimidine dimers has been investigated as a function of the ionic strength of the reaction. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the three topological forms of the DNA which were generated in time course reactions of endonuclease V with dimer-containing form I DNA in the absence of NaCl, and in 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The degree of processivity was evaluated in terms of the mass fraction of form III (linear) DNA which was produced as a function of the fraction of form I DNA remaining. Processivity is maximal in the absence of NaCl and decreases as the NaCl concentration is increased. At 100 mM NaCl, processivity is abolished and endonuclease V generates incisions in DNA at the site of dimers by a distributive reaction mechanism. The change from the distributive to a processive reaction mechanism occurs at NaCl concentrations slightly below 50 mM. The high degree of processivity which is observed in the absence of NaCl is reversible to the distributive mechanism, as demonstrated by experiments in which the NaCl concentration was increased during the time course reaction. In addition, unirradiated DNA inhibited the incision of irradiated DNA only at NaCl concentrations at which processivity was observed

  3. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation; Mesure de concentration en matiere fissile dans les liquides par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-12-31

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a {sup 252} Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.). 6 refs.

  4. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Cui, Yuqiang; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen; Jin, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiangsheng; Du, Yifan; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extracted compound JMM6 were studied in BEL-7402 cells by MTT, Cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). After treatment with the JMM6, the growth of BEL-7402 cells was inhibited and cells displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. Further investigations revealed that treatment with JMM6 mainly caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. To evaluate the alteration of mitochondria in JMM6 induced apoptosis. The data showed that JMM6 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Our results show that the JMM6 will have a potential advantage of anti-tumor, less harmful to normal cells. This paper not only summarized the JMM6 pick-up technology from Juglans mandshurica Maxim and biological characteristic, but also may provide further evidence to exploit the potential medicine compounds from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

  5. Trace element concentrations in human bone using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amri, F.A.; El-Kabroun, M.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to analyze 23 bone samples obtained from Libyan patient aged (3-80) years for the study of the concentration levels of trace elements Ba, Br, Ca, Fe, Sr and Zn and their concentration patterns regarding to the age and sex of the patients. (author)

  6. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, A A; Dekker, M; de Jager, A; Jongen, W M

    2001-08-01

    Consumers' increasing interest in the relationship between diet and health is a sign for food producers to pay more attention to potential health-protecting compounds in new product development and food processing. From a production chain perspective the choice of the raw material that is used is important for the health-protecting potential of the end product. Four apple cultivars (Jonagold, Golden Delicious, Cox's Orange, and Elstar), which can be used as fresh apples or in processed apple products, were compared with regard to flavonol, catechins, phloridzin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations and antioxidant activity. Jonagold apples possessed the highest flavonoid concentration and the highest antioxidant activity. To study seasonal differences, apples from three different harvest years were analyzed, but in three cultivars no effect on flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity was observed. Long-term storage, both at refrigerator temperature and under controlled atmosphere conditions, was found not to influence flavonoid concentration or antioxidant activity.

  7. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitro evaluation was performed by using rat intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivo evaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC(50) values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarbose used as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on α-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  8. Investigation of the Radium Activity Concentration in Drinking Water of central Region Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zovko, E.; Sirbubalo, M.; Catovic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary investigation of the 226 Ra activity concentration in drinking water in central region of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been performed. The results show that the activity concentrations of the samples vary between 33.3 - 48.8 Bq m -3 . According to the legal stipulation as given by the Official Bulletin of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2/.92), it can be concluded that the results are within given regulations. (author)

  9. Passivation of phosphorus diffused silicon surfaces with Al2O3: Influence of surface doping concentration and thermal activation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Armin; Benick, Jan; Kimmerle, Achim; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of Al 2 O 3 are well known for the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si surfaces including highly doped p + emitters, due to a high density of fixed negative charges. Recent results indicate that Al 2 O 3 can also provide a good passivation of certain phosphorus-diffused n + c-Si surfaces. In this work, we studied the recombination at Al 2 O 3 passivated n + surfaces theoretically with device simulations and experimentally for Al 2 O 3 deposited with atomic layer deposition. The simulation results indicate that there is a certain surface doping concentration, where the recombination is maximal due to depletion or weak inversion of the charge carriers at the c-Si/Al 2 O 3 interface. This pronounced maximum was also observed experimentally for n + surfaces passivated either with Al 2 O 3 single layers or stacks of Al 2 O 3 capped by SiN x , when activated with a low temperature anneal (425 °C). In contrast, for Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks activated with a short high-temperature firing process (800 °C) a significant lower surface recombination was observed for most n + diffusion profiles without such a pronounced maximum. Based on experimentally determined interface properties and simulation results, we attribute this superior passivation quality after firing to a better chemical surface passivation, quantified by a lower interface defect density, in combination with a lower density of negative fixed charges. These experimental results reveal that Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks can provide not only excellent passivation on p + surfaces but also on n + surfaces for a wide range of surface doping concentrations when activated with short high-temperature treatments

  10. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  11. Soil radon concentration and volcanic activity of Mt. Etna before and after the 2002 eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon investigation, using a continuous measurement device, has been performed on Mt. Etna in order to observe possible anomalies due to seismic and/or volcanic activity. In October 2002 an eruptive event occurred. Measurements, performed on the NE flank, have shown a possible correlation between eruptive activity of the volcano and soil radon concentration anomaly. The study of the seismic activity recorded in the same flank has, also, allowed to characterize the volcano dynamics and to correlate it with the variations of radon. The obtained results seem to indicate a possible dependence on volcanic activity of the radon concentration

  12. Investigations of 90 SR activity concentrations in animal bones in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G. [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes investigations of 90 Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs and lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. These investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia. Bone is a critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90 Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemicalaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones. As the decrease of activity concentrations can be generally described by the exponential function, by fitting the measured data to the theoretical curve was estimated the ecological half-life of 90 Sr in bones of respective species. In addition was investigated the relation between 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones and fallout. The transient increases and decreases in 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical factors that naturally fluctuate. (authors)

  13. Investigations of 90 SR activity concentrations in animal bones in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes investigations of 90 Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs and lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. These investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia. Bone is a critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90 Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemical behaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones. As the decrease of activity concentrations can be generally described by the exponential function, by fitting the measured data to the theoretical curve was estimated the ecological half-life of 90 Sr in bones of respective species. In addition was investigated the relation between 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones and fallout. The transient increases and decreases in 90 Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical factors that naturally fluctuate. (authors)

  14. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  15. Analysis of gold and silver concentration on gold mining tailings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.I.; Sadykova, Z.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis without radiochemical separation is one of most applicable and often used methods to analyze the concentration of gold, silver and other rare and noble metals in gold ores. This method is not suitable for analyzing low concentration of gold and silver in gold mining tailings due to rather high concentration of some elements. Samples are dissolved by boiling in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to extract gold and silver into the solution. Chemical yield of gold and silver after dissolution of the sample and further chromatographic separation is between 92 and 95 percent respectively

  16. The fruit of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms improves insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation by modulation of liver adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and lipogenic gene expression in high-fat diet-fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tetsuo; Nishida, Miyako; Saito, Masafumi; Tanabe, Akari; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Yuan, Shi-Hua; Ikekawa, Nobuo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major risk factor for most metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (Goka) root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of diabetes and other conditions; however, little is known about the effects of Goka fruit (GF). Goka fruit is rich in anthocyanin, which has beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that GF can improve obesity-associated insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GF improves insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. High-fat diet mice treated with GF (500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 12 weeks showed an improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced plasma insulin and liver lipid accumulation. Moreover, GF administration to HFD mice resulted in down-regulation of fatty acid synthase expression and up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase expression in the liver. Notably, AMPK phosphorylation in the liver increased after GF administration. In summary, GF supplementation improved obesity-associated insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation through modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism-associated gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non-diabetic...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF...

  18. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  19. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  20. Relationship among Phosphorus Circulation Activity, Bacterial Biomass, pH, and Mineral Concentration in Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Adhikari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of phosphorus circulation in the soil is necessary to enhance phosphorus availability to plants. Phosphorus circulation activity is an index of soil’s ability to supply soluble phosphorus from organic phosphorus in the soil solution. To understand the relationship among phosphorus circulation activity; bacterial biomass; pH; and Fe, Al, and Ca concentrations (described as mineral concentration in this paper in agricultural soil, 232 soil samples from various agricultural fields were collected and analyzed. A weak relationship between phosphorus circulation activity and bacterial biomass was observed in all soil samples (R2 = 0.25, and this relationship became significantly stronger at near-neutral pH (6.0–7.3; R2 = 0.67. No relationship between phosphorus circulation activity and bacterial biomass was observed at acidic (pH < 6.0 or alkaline (pH > 7.3 pH. A negative correlation between Fe and Al concentrations and phosphorus circulation activity was observed at acidic pH (R2 = 0.72 and 0.73, respectively, as well as for Ca at alkaline pH (R2 = 0.64. Therefore, bacterial biomass, pH, and mineral concentration should be considered together for activation of phosphorus circulation activity in the soil. A relationship model was proposed based on the effects of bacterial biomass and mineral concentration on phosphorus circulation activity. The suitable conditions of bacterial biomass, pH, and mineral concentration for phosphorus circulation activity could be estimated from the relationship model.

  1. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid decreases in preoptic aromatase activity and brain monoamine concentrations after engaging in male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, C A; Dalla, C; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Baillien, M; Dejace, C; Ball, G F; Balthazart, J

    2005-09-01

    In Japanese quail, as in rats, the expression of male sexual behavior over relatively long time periods (days to weeks) is dependent on the local production of estradiol in the preoptic area via the aromatization of testosterone. On a short-term basis (minutes to hours), central actions of dopamine as well as locally produced estrogens modulate behavioral expression. In rats, a view of and sexual interaction with a female increase dopamine release in the preoptic area. In quail, in vitro brain aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylations that are likely to occur in vivo as a result of changes in neurotransmitter activity. Furthermore, an acute estradiol injection rapidly stimulates copulation in quail, whereas a single injection of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole rapidly inhibits this behavior. We hypothesized that brain aromatase and dopaminergic activities are regulated in quail in association with the expression of male sexual behavior. Visual access as well as sexual interactions with a female produced a significant decrease in brain AA, which was maximal after 5 min. This expression of sexual behavior also resulted in a significant decrease in dopaminergic as well as serotonergic activity after 1 min, which returned to basal levels after 5 min. These results demonstrate for the first time that AA is rapidly modulated in vivo in parallel with changes in dopamine activity. Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior.

  3. Activity concentration and AACED due to 40K in some selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The activity concentrations in soil and medicinal plants, soil to plant transfer factors (TF), and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) of 40 K in prominent medicinal plants of Malnad Kerala were estimated. The range of activity concentrations were 144.15 - 558.99 and 405.87 - 2990.75 Bq kg -1 in soil and medicinal plants respectively. The TF was found to vary from 2.34 to 14.84, whereas AACED varied in the range 2.51 - 18.54 mSv y -1 . The study may help to form the database and safety regulations connected with 40 K activity in medicinal plants. (author)

  4. Biochemical characterisation of LigN, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii that displays maximal in vitro activity at high salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poidevin, L.; MacNeill, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic...

  5. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.K.; Rolle, R.; Winkler, R.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  6. The effects of different uranium concentrations on soil microbial populations and enzymatic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagherifam, S.; Lakziyan, A.; Ahmadi, S. J.; Fotovvat, A.; Rahimi, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium is an ubiquitous constituent of natural environment with an average concentration of 4 mg/kg in earth crust. However, in local areas it may exceed the normal concentration due to human activities resulting in radionuclide contamination in groundwater and surface soil. The effect of six levels of uranium concentration (0, 50, 100,250. 500 and 1000 mg kg -1 ) on soil phosphatase activities and microbial populations were studied in a completely randomized design as a factorial experiment with three replications. The results showed a significant decrease in phosphatase activity. The result of the experiment suggests that soil microbial populations (bacteria, funji and actinomycetes) decrease by increasing the uranium levels in the soil. Therefore, assessment of soil enzymatic activities and microbial populations can be helpful as a useful index for a better management of uranium and radioactive contaminated soils.

  7. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik

    2016-01-01

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of 40 K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept

  9. Airborne particulate concentrations and fluxes at an active uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particulate concentrations and fluxes of transported mill tailing materials were measured at an active mill tailings site. Experimental measurement equipment consisted of meteorological instrumentation to automatically activate total particulate air samplers as a function of wind speed increments and direction, as well as particle cascade impactors to measure airborne respirable concentrations as a function of particle size. In addition, an inertial impaction device measured nonrespirable fluxes of airborne particles. Caclulated results are presented in terms of the airborne solid concentration in g/m 3 , the horizontal airborne mass flux in g/(m 2 -day) for total collected nonrespirable particles and the radionuclide concentrations in dpm/g as a function of particle diameter for respirable and nonrespirable particles

  10. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  11. Determination of uranium and thorium activity concentrations using activation analysis in beach sands from extreme south Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Oliveira, Arno H.; Silva, Mario R.S.; Penna, Rodrigo; Santos, Talita O.; Pereira, Claubia; Rocha, Zildete; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of natural radioactivity are the major cause of external exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, the determination of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides, such as 238 U and 232 Th, in soils, sand and rock is of basic importance to estimate the radiation levels to which man is directly or indirectly exposed. In order to study the process of specific activity of 238 U and 232 Th, beaches sands samples were collected from eight different locations in extreme south of Bahia state from Brazil. The samples have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses and for determination of thorium concentrations and delayed neutrons analysis for determination of uranium. The mean specific activity for 238 U and 232 Th was higher in Cumuruxatiba than in others locations studied. Alcobaca and Caraiva also presented high values. The concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with typical world values and Cumuruxatiba have specific activity higher than the others locations, 2,984 Bq/kg maximum value for 238 U and 1,8450 Bq/kg maximum value for 232 Th and activity concentrations in Cumuruxatiba are higher in black sand than in no black sand, suggesting presence of monazite.(author)

  12. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  13. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  14. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  15. Determination of selenium in Ni + Co concentrates applying epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Sayaz, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Moreno Bermudez, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Arribere, M.A.; Molina Insfran, J.

    1996-01-01

    Concentration of Se in Ni + Co concentrates obtained in nickel industry has to be determined as that is a quality control requirement for its commercialization. At present, analysis of Se, specially at a minor and trace levels is relatively complicated and destructive procedures are frequently required. In this work determination of Se by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in 17 samples of nickel industry was investigated. Application of ENAA allowed nondestructive determination of Se concentration down to ppm level in spite of presence of high Co, Fe, Ni, and Cr contents in the samples

  16. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  17. Investigation of the fluctuation range of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Daily and seasonal concentration fluctuations of short-lived Rn fission products observed and the seasonal and long-term concentration fluctuations of Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra-228, K-40 and Be-7 are discussed; the frequency distributions of the concentration values are illustrated. For a period of several years, the following mean values of activity concentrations were found (μBq/m 3 ): Pb-210: 600 Ra-226: 1.3 K-40: 13, Po-210: 33 Ra-228: 0.5 Be-7: 3700. In accordance with the origin from the soil, there is a significant correlation between the respective activity concentration and air-borne dust concentration for Ra-226, Ra-228, and K-40. The investigation revealed a most significant correlation between the Pb-210 concentration and the stagnancy index, the latter being a measure for the degree of blending of the surface layer of air. The resuspension factors found for Ra-226 and Pb-210 are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Emanovic, D.; Simpraga, M.; Nejedli, S.; Stojevic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32 P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32 P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  19. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  20. Activation of PKA in cell requires higher concentration of cAMP than in vitro: implications for compartmentalization of cAMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-10-26

    cAMP is a ubiquitous second messenger responsible for the cellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters via activation of its main effector, protein kinase A (PKA). Multiple studies have shown that the basal concentration of cAMP in several cell types is about 1 μM. This value is well above the reported concentration of cAMP required to half-maximally activate PKA, which measures in the 100-300 nM range. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this apparent discrepancy including inaccurate measurements of intracellular free cAMP, inaccurate measurement of the apparent activation constant of PKA or shielding of PKA from bulk cytosolic cAMP via localization of the enzyme to microdomains with lower basal cAMP concentration. However, direct experimental evidence in support of any of these models is limited and a firm conclusion is missing. In this study we use multiple FRET-based reporters for the detection of cAMP and PKA activity in intact cells and we establish that the sensitivity of PKA to cAMP is almost twenty times lower when measured in cell than when measured in vitro. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of compartmentalized cAMP signalling.

  1. Activity concentrations of 137Cs in meat of broiler chicken after single and continuous application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Previously we examined the transfer, distribution and half-live of radiocaesium in broiler chicken after the application of artificially contaminated feed mixture or wheat wheat contaminated from the Chernobyl accident. Our results pointed to a different dynamics of radiocaesium in breast meat compared to leg meat in the chicken after short-time application (3 oral applications in 1 day). The aim of the present study was to find if the results are similar also after single and repeated (long-time) applications of an artificially contaminated feed mixture. Two experiments were carried out with broiler chickens (White Leghorn hybrid, race ISA VEDETTE). In experiment 1, one artificially contaminated oral dose of 5160 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 1664 Bq/g) was administered to 18-day-old chickens. In experiment 2, artificially contaminated oral doses of 500 Bq of 137 Cs (activity concentration 161.3 Bq/g) were administered to 14-day-old chickens twice a day (at 8:00 and 20:00 h.) for 10 days. In either experiment, four chickens were slaughtered for activity determination in meat (breast and leg muscles) 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and 2, 4, 8, 10 days, respectively, after the first application of 137 Cs. The uptake of the single oral 137 Cs was rapid and the maximum 137 Cs activity concentrations were found in breast meat (0.783 Bq/g) 24 hours and in leg meat (1.005 Bq/g) 6 hours after 137 Cs application. From the 24th hour of the experiment, radiocaesium activity concentrations in breast and leg meat decreased with the biological half-life (T 1/2b ) of 84 and 66 hours, respectively. During a 10-day application of continuous doses of 137 Cs, the Cs activity concentrations increased and were 3.988 Bq/g in breast meat and 5.610 Bq/g in leg meat on day 2, and 7.427 Bq/g and 7.698 Bq/g, respectively, on day 10. Immediately after the administration of radiocaesium was stopped, the 137 Cs activity concentrations decreased rapidly with T 1/2b = 4.5 and 3.8 days in

  2. Simulating Osmotic Equilibria: A New Tool for Calculating Activity Coefficients in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Michael; Duvail, Magali; Guilbaud, Philippe; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2017-10-19

    Herein, a new theoretical method is presented for predicting osmotic equilibria and activities, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapor phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarization. Calculated time-averaged number density profiles provide the amount of evaporated molecules present in the vapor phase and consequently the vapor-phase density. The activity of the solvent and the corresponding osmotic coefficient are determined by the vapor density at different solute concentrations with respect to the reference vapor density of the pure solvent. With the extended Debye-Hückel equation for the activity coefficient along with the corresponding Gibbs-Duhem relation, the activity coefficients of the solutes are calculated by fitting the osmotic coefficients. A simple model based on the combination of Poisson processes and Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distributions is introduced to interpret statistical phenomena observed during the simulations, which are related to evaporation and recondensation. This method is applied to aqueous dysprosium nitrate [Dy(NO 3 ) 3 ] solutions at different concentrations. The obtained densities of the liquid bulk and the osmotic and activity coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental results for concentrated and saturated solutions. Density profiles of the liquid-vapor interface at different concentrations provide detailed insight into the spatial distributions of all compounds.

  3. Relationship between leptin concentrations and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batún-Garrido, José Antonio de Jesús; Salas-Magaña, Marisol; Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; Hernández-Núñez, Eúfrates; Olán, Francisco

    2018-05-11

    Multiple studies have found a direct relationship between leptin concentrations and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 77 patients with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis; the leptin determination was through an enzyme immunoassay. Disease activity was assessed by the DAS-28 CRP. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between significant variables and leptin concentrations. 40.3% of the patients were in remission, 41.6% were mildly active, 11.7% were moderately active and 6.5% were severely active. The results show an independent association between higher concentrations of leptin and disease activity (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-3.2; p .03), the number of swollen joints (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.7-8.3; p .000), the number of painful joints (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-4.6; p .000), and the presence of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.3; 95% IC 1.2-1,9; p .045). The data suggest that serum leptin is elevated in patients with active RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  5. Preparation of factor VII concentrate using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Hosseini, Kamran; Nasiri, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Factor VII concentrates are used in patients with congenital or acquired factor VII deficiency or treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this research, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify factor VII from prothrombin complex (Prothrombin- Proconvertin-Stuart Factor-Antihemophilic Factor B or PPSB) which contains coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The aim of this study was to improve purity, safety and tolerability as a highly purified factor VII concentrate. PPSB was prepared using DEAE-Sephadex and was used as the starting material for purification of coagulation factor VII. Prothrombin complex was treated by solvent/detergent at 24°C for 6 h with constant stirring. The mixture of PPSB in the PBS buffer was filtered and then chromatographed using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with specific antibody. Factors II, IX, VII, X and VIIa were assayed on the fractions. Fractions of 48-50 were pooled and lyophilized as a factor VII concentrate. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed and Tween 80 was measured in the factor VII concentrate. Specific activity of factor VII concentrate increased from 0.16 to 55.6 with a purificationfold of 347.5 and the amount of activated factor VII (FVIIa) was found higher than PPSB (4.4-fold). RESULTS of electrophoresis on agarose gel indicated higher purity of Factor VII compared to PPSB; these finding revealed that factor VII migrated as alpha-2 proteins. In order to improve viral safety, solvent-detergent treatment was applied prior to further purification and nearly complete elimination of tween 80 (2 μg/ml). It was concluded that immuonoaffinity chromatography using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B can be a suitable choice for large-scale production of factor VII concentrate with higher purity, safety and activated factor VII.

  6. Specific activity and concentration model applied to 137Cs movement in a eutrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.; Clark, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A linear systems-analysis model which simulates time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radiocesium in lake ecosystems was applied to a shallow, eutrophic lake that had received a pulse input of 137 Cs. Best estimates of transfer coefficients for abiotic compartments (sediment, interstitial water and lake water) and the macrophyte compartment which controlled the mass balance of cesium in water were determined by ''tuning'' our initial estimates of the transfer coefficients to observed data on 137 Cs concentrations and contents of these compartments. In most cases, the optimized transfer coefficients for the abiotic compartments were not greatly different from our independently derived initial estimates, and the simulations for optimized coefficients were close to those based on initial estimates. The 137 Cs concentrations in water as predicted by the optimized transfer coefficients were then used to calculate 137 Cs kinetics in biota other than macrophytes. In general, model simulations were close to concentrations observed in the biota. The agreement between 137 Cs concentrations and simulations in bottom invertebrates supported our assumption that bottom sediments are not a major source of Cs to the biota. Our specific activity and concentration model was compared to the radionuclide content model, the model used in terrestrial ecosystems. For biotic components of aquatic ecosystems, values of α/sub ij/, the transfer coefficients of our model, are easily estimated from turnover rates of radiocesium in individual organisms in the laboratory

  7. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations.A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days.Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively.Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  8. Distribution of 210Pb activity concentrations in marine surface sediments within East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A sampling expedition into the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was carried in June 2008. Marine surface sediment samples were taken and the activity concentrations of 210 Pb have been determined. Its distribution was plotted and the findings show that the activity concentrations decline from north to south. On the other hand, the activity concentrations are increasing from west to east right to the edge of the EEZ. The highest activity concentrations were found to be near offshore oil platforms. The 210 Pb activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.3 - 123.1 Bq/ kg. (author)

  9. Arsenic, gold and mercury concentration levels in freshwater fish by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiokwere, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of arsenic, gold and mercury have been determined in flesh tissues of freshwater fish species from some Nigerian rivers. The technique of neutron activation followed by radiochemical separation of the isotopes of interest has been applied. The concentrations of 0.04 to 0.87 μg g -1 and 0.4 to 1.33 μg g -1 obtained for gold and mercury, respectively, in the samples are much higher than the values reported in the literature for freshwater fish. The arsenic concentration range of 0.07 to 0.42 μg g -1 is within the reported range. The high concentration levels of these heavy metals can be attributed to local contamination of the rivers. (author)

  10. The Effect of Kaffir Lime Leaves Distillation Residue Oleoresin Concentration on Active Paper Packaging Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiji; Utami, R.; Ulum, S.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-03-01

    Oleoresin of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue still contains some active compounds such as Citronellal, β-Citronellol, and Linalool which potential to incorporated on the active paper packaging. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin concentration on the physical characteristics, sensory characteristics, and antimicrobial activity of the active paper packaging incorporated with kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin and to determine the functional groups of active paper packaging. The concentration of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin were varied at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%. The result showed that the addition of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin increased the thickness and moisture content of the paper and decreased the tensile strengths and folding endurances of active paper packaging. The microbial inhibition tends to increase along with the higher oleoresin concentration addition. Aromatic CH group were found at a wavelength of 897.90 cm-1 of on paper packaging with 2% oleoresin indicated as functional aromatic functional group allegedly obtained from the kaffir lime leaves oleoresin.

  11. Specific-activity and concentration model applied to cesium movement in an oligotrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.; Clark, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    A linear systems-analysis model was derived to simulate the time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radionuclides in aquatic systems. Transfer coefficients were determined for movement of 137 Cs in the components of an oligotrophic lake. These coefficients were defined in terms of basic environmental and ecological data so that the model can be applied to a wide variety of sites. Simulations with a model that ignored sediment--water interactions predicted much higher 137 Cs specific activities in the lake water and biota than did those with the complete model. Comparing 137 Cs concentrations predicted by the model with concentrations reported for the biota of an experimentally contaminated oligotrophic lake indicated that the transfer coefficients derived for the biota are adequate

  12. Measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in human tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Omer; Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Kuecuekoender, Erdal; Zorer, Ozlem Selcuk; Dogru, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were measured in human tooth taken from 3 to 6 age-groups to 40 and over ones. Accumulated teeth samples are investigated in two groups as under and above 18 years. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of human tooth samples was measured by using a gas-flow proportional counter (PIC-MPC 9604-α/β counter). In tooth samples, for female age-groups, the obtained results show that the mean gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations varied between 0.534-0.203 and 0.010-0.453 Bq g -1 and the same concentrations for male age-groups varied between 0.009-1.168 and 0.071-0.204 Bq g -1 , respectively.

  13. Causes of seasonal variations of Cs-134/137 activity concentrations in surface air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1993-01-01

    In winter months maxima of Cs-134/137 activity concentrations in air are observed at several locations in Europe. To clarify this phenomenon, from October 1991 to November 1992 we performed a program for aerosol collection on a short-term scale based on collecting intervals of 48-72 hours. The local meteorological parameters were determined simultaneously. Statistical analysis of these observations reveiled a highly significant positive correlation between Cs-137 activity concentration and the so-called 'Stagnationsindex'. Based on this relationship the seasonal variations of Cs-134/137 concentrations in ground-level air can be explained by atmospheric inversion conditions frequently occurring during fall- and wintermonths. (orig.) [de

  14. Estimation of long-term trends in the tropospheric 14CO2 activity concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlík, Ivo; Povinec, P. P.; Molnár, M.; Meinhardt, F.; Michálek, V.; Simon, J.; Svingor, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2-3 (2010), s. 815-822 ISSN 0033-8222. [International Radiocarbon Conference /20./. Big Island, Hawai, 31.05.2009-05.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14CO2 * activity concentration * greenhouse gasses * fossil fuel combustion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.703, year: 2010

  15. Activity concentrations of K, Th, Ra and radiation exposure levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJEST ... average absorbed dose rate for the five quarries was found to be 541.4 nGyh-1 1m above the ground level while .... conversion factors for converting the activity concentrations of.

  16. Fabrication Processes to Generate Concentration Gradients in Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shusei; Vohra, Varun

    2017-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor. In this review, we relate processes to generate active layers with ED–EA vertical concentration gradients. After summarizing the formation of such concentration gradients in single layer active layers through processes such as annealing or additives, we will verify that sequential deposition of multilayered active layers can be an efficient approach to remarkably increase the fill factor and PCE of PSCs. In fact, applying this challenging approach to fabricate inverted architecture PSCs has the potential to generate low-cost, high efficiency and stable devices, which may revolutionize worldwide energy demand and/or help develop next generation devices such as semi-transparent photovoltaic windows. PMID:28772878

  17. Investigations of 90Sr Activity Concentrations in Animal Bones in Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of 90Sr activity concentrations in long bones of some domestic animals (cows, pigs, lambs) collected over the last ten years in the Republic of Croatia. The investigations are a part of an extended and still ongoing monitoring programme of radioactive contamination of human environment of Croatia. Bone is critical organ for the accumulation of many radionuclides, including 90Sr, a highly toxic radionuclide, similar to calcium in its chemical behaviour and metabolic processes. It has been found that the 90Sr activity concentrations in bones differ between respective animal species, the highest activity concentrations being found in lamb bones in year 2005 (472.61 mBqgCa -1 or 2.14 Bqkg -1 ). In cow bones highest value being found was in 1998, being 611.42 mBqgCa -1 or 69.09 Bqkg -1 90Sr. The transient increases and decreases in 90Sr activity concentrations in bones can be partially explained by a variety of environmental physical and biochemical factors that naturally fluctuate. As the levels of stable strontium in bone tissue is strongly correlated to calcium content of bone, 90Sr can be used as efficient radiotracer of stable strontium, which is itself important since it positively affects bone metabolism promoting bone formation and decreasing bone resorption, leading to normalized bone density.(author)

  18. Assessment of 137Cs Activity Concentration in Soil from Tea Plantation Areas in Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Seh Datul Riduan; Che Yasmin Amirudin

    2012-01-01

    137 Cs is well known man-made radionuclide produced from nuclear industry. Nuclear weapon tests and nuclear accidents had contributed to presence of 137 Cs into the worldwide environment including Malaysia. It has spread out to the entire world through the air and water current. Since Cameron Highlands is located at high altitude, there is a better chance of the 137 Cs to settle down on the trees and later the soil underneath. In this study, the soil samples were taken at the slopes of two different tea plantation areas namely A and B. The soil samples were oven dried, ground, sieved and packed and sealed properly in plastic containers before measurement. Each plastic container contains around 450 g of sample. The measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration was done using HPGe detector gamma spectrometer. The spectrum was analyzed using Gamma Vision software to calculate the activity concentration of 137 Cs with energy peak of 661.66 keV. The activity concentration of 137 Cs found in the samples ranged from 0.23 to 1.90 and 0.11 to 3.01 Bq/ kg for tea plantation A and tea plantation B, respectively. From the activity concentration of 137 Cs result, it was comparable to the others research regarding to 137 Cs in the soil around Asian. (Author)

  19. Activity concentrations of 239+240 Pu in sediment at Sabah and Sarawak coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Hidayah Shahar

    2009-01-01

    The coastal sediment sampling was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal areas of Sabah and Sarawak was by the alpha spectrometry counting system. Prior to counting, the radionuclides were isolated from the samples using radiochemical separation technique and mounted on a stainless steel disc by using electro-deposition. The results show that the distribution of 239+240 Pu activity concentration in coastal sediment is consistent, ranging from BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.84 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Lubok Sabanan, SB 15, in Sabah and Sungai Similajau, SR 13, in Sarawak were sampling stations that gave highest 239+240 Pu activity concentration. Overall, the 239+240 Pu activity concentration of Sabah and Sarawak are slightly higher in comparison the West Coast coastal stations of Peninsular Malaysia, and can be used as database. (Author)

  20. Determination of gross-β and γ-ray activity concentrations of human tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hayun Ja [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Dental Hygene, Silla University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The γ-ray concentration and gross-β activity by age group were measured in the teeth of males and females of the domestic residents. They were divided into 7 age groups from 10s to the age of 70s. The gross-β activity concentration was measured by using the Tennelec XLB measuring instrument filled with P10 gas (argon 90%, methane 10%). The γ-ray was measured through the γ-ray spectroscopic analytical method by using the high purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detector. The range of gross-β activity concentration was measured 0.089 to 0.32 Bq/kg in females and 0.13 to 0.26 Bq/kg in males. From the γ-ray spectroscopic analysis of the teeth, the natural radioactive isotopes of '4{sup 0}K, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 234}Th were detected and their measured γ-ray activity concentrations were found to be 20.7, 21.9, 3.88 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively.

  1. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  2. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode.

  3. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  4. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  5. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... translate into high levels of muscle pre-activity during movements like the sidecutting maneuver. Thus, other exercise modalities (i.e. neuromuscular training) are needed to optimize hamstring muscle pre-activity during movements associated with non-contact ACL injury....

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of {sup 40}K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.

  7. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  8. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  9. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  10. Gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables of Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Jun, J.S.; Oh, H.P. (Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Republic of Korea))

    1984-06-01

    The measurement of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables such as Brassica Campestris, Raphanus Sativus and Lactuca Sativa grown in Daejeon area was carried out during the period of April through August 1983. The observed levels of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the levels of the vegetables were, on average, 189.2+-51.8pCi/g-ash (2372+-827pCi/kg-fresh) and 44.4+-11.5sup(90)Sr pCi/g-Ca(2.5+-0.5sup(90) pCi/g-ash or 31.6+-8.6 sup(90)Sr pCi/kg-fresh), respectively, while the mean level of the gross beta activity in roots was 158.6+-19.4pCi/g-ash(2121+-899pCi/kg-fresh). On the basis of the ICRP recommendations, an estimative evaluation was made for the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables, and it was turned out to be far below the permissible level. An attempt was also made to look for any existing difference in the gross beta, activities of the vegetables grown in vinyl house and in open field, taking seasonal variation of airborne radioactivity into account for normalizing the activity deposited during the course of discrepant farming period.

  11. Large-scale production and properties of human plasma-derived activated Factor VII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, K; Yano, H; Imamura, M; Nakano, Y; Nakagaki, T; Ogata, Y; Terano, T; Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, A

    2003-01-01

    An activated Factor VII (FVIIa) concentrate, prepared from human plasma on a large scale, has to date not been available for clinical use for haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII and FIX. In the present study, we attempted to establish a large-scale manufacturing process to obtain plasma-derived FVIIa concentrate with high recovery and safety, and to characterize its biochemical and biological properties. FVII was purified from human cryoprecipitate-poor plasma, by a combination of anion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, using Ca2+-dependent anti-FVII monoclonal antibody. To activate FVII, a FVII preparation that was nanofiltered using a Bemberg Microporous Membrane-15 nm was partially converted to FVIIa by autoactivation on an anion-exchange resin. The residual FVII in the FVII and FVIIa mixture was completely activated by further incubating the mixture in the presence of Ca2+ for 18 h at 10 degrees C, without any additional activators. For preparation of the FVIIa concentrate, after dialysis of FVIIa against 20 mm citrate, pH 6.9, containing 13 mm glycine and 240 mm NaCl, the FVIIa preparation was supplemented with 2.5% human albumin (which was first pasteurized at 60 degrees C for 10 h) and lyophilized in vials. To inactivate viruses contaminating the FVIIa concentrate, the lyophilized product was further heated at 65 degrees C for 96 h in a water bath. Total recovery of FVII from 15 000 l of plasma was approximately 40%, and the FVII preparation was fully converted to FVIIa with trace amounts of degraded products (FVIIabeta and FVIIagamma). The specific activity of the FVIIa was approximately 40 U/ micro g. Furthermore, virus-spiking tests demonstrated that immunoaffinity chromatography, nanofiltration and dry-heating effectively removed and inactivated the spiked viruses in the FVIIa. These results indicated that the FVIIa concentrate had both high specific activity and safety. We established a large-scale manufacturing process of human plasma

  12. Hydrogen evolution activity and electrochemical stability of selected transition metal carbides in concentrated phosphoric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás García, Antonio Luis; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    phosphoric acid were investigated in a temperature range from 80 to 170°C. A significant dependence of the activities on temperature was observed for all five carbide samples. Through the entire temperature range Group 6 metal carbides showed higher activity than that of the Group 5 metal carbides......Alternative catalysts based on carbides of Group 5 (niobium and tantalum) and 6 (chromium, molybdenum and tungsten) metals were prepared as films on the metallic substrates. The electrochemical activities of these carbide electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in concentrated...

  13. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  14. Selecting university undergraduate student activities via compromised-analytical hierarchy process and 0-1 integer programming to maximize SETARA points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Engku Muhammad; Yusof, Nur Ai'Syah; Ahmad, Norazura; Shariffuddin, Mohd Dino Khairri; Khan, Shazida Jan Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Prioritizing and making decisions on what student activities to be selected and conducted to fulfill the aspiration of a university as translated in its strategic plan must be executed with transparency and accountability. It is becoming even more crucial, particularly for universities in Malaysia with the recent budget cut imposed by the Malaysian government. In this paper, we illustrated how 0-1 integer programming (0-1 IP) model was implemented to select which activities among the forty activities proposed by the student body of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) to be implemented for the 2017/2018 academic year. Two different models were constructed. The first model was developed to determine the minimum total budget that should be given to the student body by the UUM management to conduct all the activities that can fulfill the minimum targeted number of activities as stated in its strategic plan. On the other hand, the second model was developed to determine which activities to be selected based on the total budget already allocated beforehand by the UUM management towards fulfilling the requirements as set in its strategic plan. The selection of activities for the second model, was also based on the preference of the members of the student body whereby the preference value for each activity was determined using Compromised-Analytical Hierarchy Process. The outputs from both models were compared and discussed. The technique used in this study will be useful and suitable to be implemented by organizations with key performance indicator-oriented programs and having limited budget allocation issues.

  15. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134

  16. 210Po and 210Pb activity concentration in the coral bands of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jen Nie; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Zaharuddin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in each layers of coral banding of coral skeletons. Concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in massive corals (i.e. Porites, Favites, Platygyra and Goniostrea) from Pulau Tuba, Langkawi were measured using the Alpha-Spectrometry. The concentrations of 210 Po were higher than the concentrations of 210 Pb. This may due to continuing source of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Highest concentration on 210 Po in coral banding was 48.30 ± 28.53 Bq/ kg, meanwhile for 210 Pb was 12.86 ± 5.80 Bq/ kg. The ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb were in the range of 2.21 to 5.49. The variation activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the coral bands are important to consider in using coral as retrospective study of environmental changes. The coral can represent the total of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the surrounding water for the past few years. (author)

  17. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Marquèze-Pouey

    Full Text Available Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer. In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  18. Physiological epidermal growth factor concentrations activate high affinity receptors to elicit calcium oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquèze-Pouey, Béatrice; Mailfert, Sébastien; Rouger, Vincent; Goaillard, Jean-Marc; Marguet, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is crucial in tissue development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. EGF is mitogenic at picomolar concentrations and is known to bind its receptor on high affinity binding sites depending of the oligomerization state of the receptor (monomer or dimer). In spite of these observations, the cellular response induced by EGF has been mainly characterized for nanomolar concentrations of the growth factor, and a clear definition of the cellular response to circulating (picomolar) concentrations is still lacking. We investigated Ca2+ signaling, an early event in EGF responses, in response to picomolar doses in COS-7 cells where the monomer/dimer equilibrium is unaltered by the synthesis of exogenous EGFR. Using the fluo5F Ca2+ indicator, we found that picomolar concentrations of EGF induced in 50% of the cells a robust oscillatory Ca2+ signal quantitatively similar to the Ca2+ signal induced by nanomolar concentrations. However, responses to nanomolar and picomolar concentrations differed in their underlying mechanisms as the picomolar EGF response involved essentially plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are not activated by internal Ca2+ store depletion, while the nanomolar EGF response involved internal Ca2+ release. Moreover, while the picomolar EGF response was modulated by charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channels, the nanomolar response was insensitive to the blockade of these ion channels.

  19. Vitamin E concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinoseki Kaio, Daniella J Itinoseki; Rondó, Patricia Helen C; Luzia, Liania Alves; Souza, José Maria P; Firmino, Aline Vale; Santos, Sigrid Sousa

    2014-09-15

    HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  20. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  1. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  2. [Activity of alpha-amylase and concentration of protein in saliva of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejak, Magdalena; Olszewska, Maria; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Zebiełowicz, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    One of the hypothetical reasons of the increased incidence of caries in women during the pregnancy may be the increased activity of alpha-amylase, which can be found in their saliva. The enzyme takes part in the process of decomposition of simple sugars, which make basic substrate for caries-causing bacteria. The aim of the paper was the evaluation of the influence of pregnancy and gestational age on the activity of alpha-amylase and the concentration of protein in women's saliva. The examined group consisted of 64 pregnant women at age 17-39, between 21st and 40th week of pregnancy. The control group consisted of 44 healthy women at age 20-35, who were not pregnant. In saliva, which was taken before morning meal, without stimulation, protein concentration was determined by Bradford method and the activity of amylase was determined by kinetic method. The activity of amylase correlated strongly and positively with protein concentration in saliva of both the pregnant (RS = +0.65; p women. There were no significant differences between examined parameters in the examined and the control group. It has been observed in the examined group, that there is the significant negative correlation between protein concentration in saliva and the week of pregnancy (RS = -0.35; p increased caries incidence of pregnant women. However, the observed changes of total protein concentration in saliva during pregnancy, suggest that the exact cognition of proteins in pregnant women's saliva may reveal new mechanisms, which lead to an increase of caries risk.

  3. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  4. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  5. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  6. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  7. Photorefractive keratectomy: measuring the matrix metalloproteinase activity and chondroitin sulfate concentration in tear fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Mutoh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Masaya Nishio, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Kiyomi Arai, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We herein report the case of a 20-year-old man who underwent a photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. We measured matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity and chondroitin 4 sulfate and chondroitin 6 sulfate concentrations in tear fluid. Tear fluid was collected preoperatively via microcapillary tube, and was collected postoperatively on the first and fourth days, and after one week, one month, three months, and six months. Samples were formulated by dilution with 200 µL of saline. MMP-9 activity was analyzed by an enzyme immunocapture activity assay, and the concentrations of chondroitin sulfate were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No complications were observed after surgery, except for a minimal subepithelial haze. Although MMP-9 activity changed on the fourth postoperative day, the activity changed only minimally at this time. Chondroitin 4 sulfate concentrations in tear fluid increased dramatically from one week to one month, decreased transiently at three months, and increased by six months. The chondroitin 6 sulfate concentration did not normalize within one week, and decreased from one week to three months compared with the preoperative score, and was close to the preoperative score at six months. We conclude that corneal wound healing was still incomplete six months after PRK, and chondroitin 4 sulfate appears to be critical in this process.Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase, chondroitin sulfate, human tear fluid, photorefractive keratectomy, corneal wound healing

  8. Association between maximal hamstring muscle strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M. K.; Sorensen, R. S.; Thorborg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reduced hamstring pre-activity during sidecutting increases the risk for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part ofACLinjury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a stro...

  9. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations inside the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m -3 . The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 μSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr -1 limit

  10. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations insidc the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m(-3). The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 microSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr(-1) limit.

  11. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations inside the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m{sup -3}. The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 {mu}Sv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr{sup -1} limit.

  12. Habitat influence on antioxidant activity and tannin concentrations of Spondias tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Araújo, Thiago Antônio; de Almeida e Castro, Valerium Thijan Nobre; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-06-01

    Different habitat conditions can be responsible for the production of secondary metabolites and for the antioxidant properties of plant products. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antioxidant activity and tannin concentrations in the stem bark of Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae) varied with collection site. The bark was collected from 25 individual trees, distributed in five different landscape units, as follows: agroforestry gardens, areas of pastures, maize cultivation areas, mountain areas and mountain bases, with the former 3 being considered as anthropogenic habitats, and the latter 2 considered as habitats with native coverage. The study was conducted in the rural area of the city of Altinho, Pernambuco State (Northeast Brazil). The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method was used to measure the antioxidant activity and tannin concentrations were evaluated by using the radial diffusion method. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences among the tannin concentrations of the individuals from the native (6.27% ± 1.75) or anthropogenic areas (4.63% ± 2.55), (H = 2.24; p > 0.05). In contrast, there were significant differences (H = 5.1723; p 0.05) or in the anthropogenic areas (r = 0.38; p > 0.05). Because the variation of the antioxidant capacity of S. tuberosa bark was not accompanied by a variation in the tannin concentration, this property may be related to the presence of other metabolite(s).

  13. Prostasin-dependent activation of epithelial Na+ channels by low plasmin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Uhrenholt, Torben R; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2009-01-01

    by which plasmin stimulates ENaC activity. Cy3-labeled plasmin was found to bind to the surface of the mouse cortical collecting duct cell line, M-1. Binding depended on a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Biotin-label transfer showed that plasmin interacted with the GPI-anchored protein...... plasmin-stimulated ENaC current in monolayers of M-1 cells at low plasmin concentration (1-4 microg/ml). At a high plasmin concentration of 30 microg/ml, there was no difference between cell layers treated with or without PI-PLC. Knockdown of prostasin attenuated binding of plasmin to M1 cells and blocked...... labeling of M-1 cells. Pretreatment with plasmin abolished labeling of M-1 cells in a prostasin-dependent way. We conclude that, at low concentrations, plasmin interacts with GPI-anchored prostasin, which leads to cleavage of the gamma-subunit and activation of ENaC, while at higher concentrations, plasmin...

  14. Comprehensive Approach for Monitoring and Analyzing the Activity Concentration Level of PET Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Paran, J.; Ankry, N.; Vulasky, E.; Ashkenazi, B.; Tal, N.; Dolev, E.; Gonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive approach for measuring and analyzing low concentration levels of positron emitter isotopes is introduced. The solution is based on a Continuous Air Monitoring Sampler (CAMS), Stack Monitoring System (SMS) and software package. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a major tool for both, biochemical research and non-invasive diagnostics for medicine imaging. The PET method utilizes short half life β + radioisotopes that are produced in cyclotron sites built especially for this purpose. The growing need for β + isotopes brought about a commonly wide use of cyclotrons next to populated areas. Isotopes production involves two possible radiation hazards deriving from the activity concentration; one refers to the nearby population by the activity released through the ventilation system and the other refers to the personnel working in the nuclear facility. A comprehensive system providing solution for both radiation hazards is introduced in this work

  15. Activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in mosses from spas in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of detecting the presence of radionuclides in moss samples in eastern Serbia, 129 samples of mosses were collected from 2000 to 2010 in the region of the spas: Sokobanja, Banja Jošanica and Gamzigradska banja. The data obtained show that 137Cs was present in all of the 129 samples from 3 sampling areas and 15 sampling localities and in 20 moss taxa. This indicates that pollution with this radionuclide resulting from the Chernobyl accident still exists. Changes in the average activity concentrations of 40K are within measurement error limits, while for 137Cs changes in the average activity concentrations are more noticeable, i.e. they have decreased with time. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, project code III 43009.

  16. The use of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic concentrations in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, B.A.; Hopke, Ph.K.

    1975-01-01

    There has been recent public concern over the use of organic arsenicals as medicaments and growth stimulators for poultry. In early studies, there was a correlation shown between the intake of arsenic and carcinogenisis. Several investigators have stronly disputed these results. The purpose of this study was not to verify or discredit this carcinogenic theory but simply to determine if the arsenic levels in poultry could be measured using instrumental activation analysis. These analyses indicate that arsenic concentrations in poultry can be measured at levels below the mandatory maximum levels of arsenic in poultry, in the investigated cases it varied between 0.3 and 0.03 ppm. Nondestructive, instrumental neutron activation analysis with a simple comparative evaluation was used: arsenic concentrations were determined by comparing the sample gamma-ray peak area to the standard peak area. (T.G.)

  17. Active/passive microwave sensor comparison of MIZ-ice concentration estimates. [Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B. A.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Keller, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Active and passive microwave data collected during the 1984 summer Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait (MIZEX 84) are used to compare ice concentration estimates derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to those obtained from passive microwave imagery at several frequencies. The comparison is carried out to evaluate SAR performance against the more established passive microwave technique, and to investigate discrepancies in terms of how ice surface conditions, imaging geometry, and choice of algorithm parameters affect each sensor. Active and passive estimates of ice concentration agree on average to within 12%. Estimates from the multichannel passive microwave data show best agreement with the SAR estimates because the multichannel algorithm effectively accounts for the range in ice floe brightness temperatures observed in the MIZ.

  18. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  19. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  20. Specific activity and concentration model applied to cesium-137 movement in a eutrophic lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.; Clark, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    A linear systems-analysis model which simulates time-dependent dynamics of specific activity and concentration of radiocesium in lake ecosystems was applied to a shallow, eutrophic lake that had received a pulse input of 137 Cs. Best estimates of transfer coefficients for abiotic compartments (sediment, interstitial water, and water) and macrophyte compartment which control mass balance of cesium in water were determined by tuning our initial estimates of the transfer coefficients to observed data on 137 Cs concentrations and contents of these compartments. In most cases, the optimized transfer coefficients of the abiotic compartments were not greatly different from our independently-derived initial estimates, and the simulations for optimized coefficients were close to those based on initial estimates. The simulations of 137 Cs concentration in water predicted by the optimized transfer coefficients were used to derive 137 Cs kinetics in biota other than macrophytes. In general, model simulations were close to concentrations observed in the biota. The agreement between 137 Cs concentrations and simulations in bottom invertebrates supported our assumption that bottom sediments are not a major source of Cs to the biota. (U.S.)

  1. Effect of solar activity on the concentration of Be-7 in air and precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1993-01-01

    The time course of the activity concentration of the cosmogenic Be-7, measured in surface air and deposition since 1971, reflects a cyclic pattern of two frequency components. The well-known seasonal period with maxima in early summer is superimposed by a long-term period of about 11 years, which is obviously related to the effect of solar activity. By means of time series analysis using Fast-Fourier-Transformation and crosscorrelation, respectively, this relationship could be confirmed on a statistical basis for a period of two sun spot cycles (1971-1992). (orig.) [de

  2. [Relation between physical activity, muscle function and IGF-1, testosterone and DHEAS concentrations in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M; Patricot, M C; Lacour, J R; Rahmani, A; Berthouze, S; Kostka, T

    2002-10-01

    Lower amounts of circulating anabolic hormones are thought to accelerate the age related decline in muscle mass and function. Replacement therapies are promising interventions but there are problems with these therapies. Thus alternative strategies should be developed. The age related changes in hormonal status may be probably influenced by exercise. The purpose of this study was: a) to confirm with other methods, more adapted for elderly people, the results of a previous study that has shown relationship between physical activity (PA) and quadriceps muscle function with dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Quadriceps muscle power (Pmax) is measured in this new work with a recently developed leg extensor machine and, b) to complete the results of the first study examining simultaneously the relationship between PA, Pmax and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) with DHEAS, IGF-1 and testosterone in a group of healthy elderly people. Fifty independent, community dwelling elderly subjects (25 mens and 25 womens) aged from 66 to 84 volunteered to participate in the study. PA was evaluated by the questionnaire and expressed using two activity indices: mean habitual daily energy expenditure (MHDEE) and the daily energy expenditure corresponding to leisure time sports activities (Sports Activity). Pmax and optimal shortening velocity (vopt) were measured on a Ergopower dynamometer. The Pmax was expressed relative to body mass, Pmax/kg (W kg-1), and relative to the mass of the two quadriceps muscles, Pmax/Quadr (W.kgQuadr-1). VO2max has been measured during a maximal treadmill exercise. In women, IGF-1 correlated significantly with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Pmax/kg (r = 0.54, P = 0.004) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), whereas DHEAS with MHDEE (r = 0.54, P = 0.004), Sports Activity (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), VO2max (r = 0.46, P = 0.02), Pmax/kg (r = 0.46, P = 0.02) and Pmax/Quadr (r = 0.55, P = 0.004). No such correlation was

  3. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  4. Activity concentrations of [sup 137]Cs in moose and their forage plants in mid-Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K.J. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Radioecology); Bergstroem, Roger (Swedish Hunters' Association, Uppsala (Sweden). Research Unit); Eriksson, Olof (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany); Erixon, Allan (Hunters' Association of Vaesternorrland, Haernoesand (Sweden))

    1994-01-01

    The [sup 137]s activity concentrations in moose and their principal fodder plants as well as the botanical composition of the rumen content in moose were studied in three areas of the county of Vaesternorrland in Sweden. The mean [sup 137]Cs activity concentration in moose muscle samples from the three areas with a ground deposition from 20 to 60 kBq m[sup -2] varied between 540 and 915 Bq kg[sup -1]. During the period July to October, three plant species - fireweed, birch and bilberry - constitute more than 70% of the rumen content. Estimation of the daily [sup 137]Cs intake was performed based on the botanical analysis of rumen content and the [sup 137]Cs activity concentrations found in samples of fodder plants. A mean F[sub f] of 0.19 day kg[sup -1] was calculated. A mean aggregated transfer factor of 0.016 m[sup 2] kg[sup -1] was found for the three areas. (author).

  5. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  6. Study on elements concentrations on seabird feathers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theophilo, Carolina Y.S.; Moreira, Edson G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Colabuono, Fernanda I., E-mail: carolina.theophilo@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: ficolabuono@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanográfico

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds are very sensitive to environmental changes and because of their large longevity they are also sensitive to cumulative impacts. These birds usually occupy the higher trophic levels. White-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) are Procellariiformes, which is a seabird order, composed of 4 families. In the last years, researches are being done and actions are being taken to reduce the mortality of albatrosses and petrels caused by human activities. Due to the great ecological importance of these birds and the developed work with Procellariiformes, this study purpose is to quantify the Br, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V elements in white-chinned petrel and black-browed albatross feathers. Bird specimens were killed accidentally by pelagic longline fisheries operating off southern Brazil. Feathers were cleaned with acetone and then milled in a cryogenic mill. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for quantification of the element concentrations and measurements of induced activities were performed in a HPGe detector for gamma ray spectrometry. The obtained results on feathers showed that concentrations in these birds are not higher than others studies with the same species and, with exception of Br, there are no significant differences between elements mean concentrations in the two seabirds. (author)

  7. Concentration of enteric virus indicator from seawater using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Gutierrez, Miguel; Goodridge, Lawrence; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Fecal contamination of shellfish growing seawater with enteric viruses is often associated with human outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Male specific bacteriophage MS2 is correlated with those of enteric viruses in a wide range of water environments and has been used widely as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses. Since viruses in contaminated water are usually at low levels, the development of methods to concentrate viruses from water is crucial for detection purposes. In the present study, granular activated carbon was evaluated for concentration of MS2 from artificial seawater, and different parameters of the seawater were also compared. Recovery of MS2 from warm seawater (37°C) was found to be significantly greater than from cold seawater (4 and 20°C), and even greater than from fresh water (4, 20 and 37°C); the difference between seawater and fresh water became less profound when the temperatures of both were below 37°C. Although not of statistical significance, recovery of MS2 from low salinity seawater (10 and 20 parts per thousand, ppt) was greater than from high salinity seawater (30 and 40ppt). One gram of granular activated carbon was able to extract 6-log plaque forming units (PFU) of MS2 from 500ml seawater at 37°C. This study demonstrated that granular activated carbon can concentrate an enteric virus indicator from shellfish growing seawater effectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Feng

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.

  9. Study on elements concentrations on seabird feathers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theophilo, Carolina Y.S.; Moreira, Edson G.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Colabuono, Fernanda I.

    2017-01-01

    Seabirds are very sensitive to environmental changes and because of their large longevity they are also sensitive to cumulative impacts. These birds usually occupy the higher trophic levels. White-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) are Procellariiformes, which is a seabird order, composed of 4 families. In the last years, researches are being done and actions are being taken to reduce the mortality of albatrosses and petrels caused by human activities. Due to the great ecological importance of these birds and the developed work with Procellariiformes, this study purpose is to quantify the Br, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V elements in white-chinned petrel and black-browed albatross feathers. Bird specimens were killed accidentally by pelagic longline fisheries operating off southern Brazil. Feathers were cleaned with acetone and then milled in a cryogenic mill. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for quantification of the element concentrations and measurements of induced activities were performed in a HPGe detector for gamma ray spectrometry. The obtained results on feathers showed that concentrations in these birds are not higher than others studies with the same species and, with exception of Br, there are no significant differences between elements mean concentrations in the two seabirds. (author)

  10. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  11. What is the IAEA? Programmes and activities that maximize the contribution of nuclear technology to society, while verifying its peaceful use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) serves as the world's foremost international governmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology. Established as an autonomous organization under the United Nations (UN) in 1957, the IAEA represents the culmination of international efforts to make a reality of US President Eisenhower's proposal in his 'Atoms for Peace' speech to the UN General Assembly in 1953. He envisioned the creation of an international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy. Today, the Agency's broad spectrum of services, programmes, and activities is based on the needs of its 130 Member States

  12. Drivers of Concentration of Economic Activity in Russia’s Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolaevna Rastvortseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The uneven distribution of economic activity in Russia promotes the differentiation of its constituent entities by level of development. Regions are independent participants of economic relations, and they often act as competitors rather than partners. Agglomeration effects arise in more successful regions and contribute to the concentration of resources, manufacturing enterprises, service providers, skilled workers, and scientific and technological knowledge. The aim of the study, the results of which are reflected in the paper, is to identify the factors and assess their impact on the concentration (dispersion of economic activity on the basis of Russia’s regions. The paper describes the benefits of agglomeration processes from the standpoint of economic geography, allocation theory and international trade theory. The concentration of economic activity in Russia’s regions is estimated by the Herfindahl–Hirschman index of industrial production taking into consideration the volume of investments in fixed capital and the number of people employed in the economy in Russia’s regions in 1990–2013. It is determined that fixed capital investments have the propensity to concentrate, but react strongly to economic crises. Labor resources, by contrast, are distributed relatively evenly, and their concentration in certain regions is increasing steadily. The article considers key factors such as wage growth, distance to large cities, direct foreign investment, road network density, the degree of development of the services sector in the region. The factor model is constructed using the least squares method. The authors conclude that the growth of wages in the region (relative to national average has a negative effect on the concentration of economic activity. There is a positive correlation between the growth of direct foreign investment and the density of hard surface roads. The development of services has the greatest positive impact on

  13. Physiological responses of biomass allocation, root architecture, and invertase activity to copper stress in young seedlings from two populations of Kummerowia stipulacea (maxim.) Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luan; Pan, Yuxue; Lv, Wei; Xiong, Zhi-ting

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, we hypothesize that mine (metallicolous) populations of metallophytes form a trade-off between the roots and shoots when under copper (Cu) stress to adapt themselves to heavy metal contaminated habitats, and thus, differ from normal (non-metallicolous) populations in biomass allocation. To test the hypothesis, two populations of the metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea, one from an ancient Cu mine (MP) and the other from a non-contaminated site (NMP), were treated with Cu(2+) in hydroponic conditions. The results showed that MP plants had higher root/shoot biomass allocation and more complicated root system architecture compared to those of the NMP plants when under Cu stress. The net photosynthetic capacity was more inhibited in the NMP plants than in the MP plants when under Cu stress. The sugar (sucrose and hexose) contents and acid invertase activities of MP plants were elevated while those in NMP plants were inhibited after Cu treatment. The neutral/alkaline invertase activities and sucrose synthase level showed no significant differences between the two populations when under Cu stress. The results showed that acid invertase played an important role in biomass allocation and that the physiological responses were beneficial for the high root/shoot biomass allocation, which were advantageous during adaptive evolution to Cu-enriched mine soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Coordinated-Bilateral Physical Activities on Attention and Concentration in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Buchele Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the effects of 4-week, daily 6-minute coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA breaks in classroom on attention and concentration in school-aged children. Methods. Participants (n=116 in fifth grade from two elementary schools were assigned to three groups: two intervention groups (n= 60 and one control group (n = 56. All three groups were pre- and post-tested with the d2 Test of Attention (d2 test. One intervention group (n = 31 took part in six minutes of daily classroom-based coordinated-bilateral physical activity (CBPA break for four weeks. Another intervention group (n = 29, the Fitbit Only (Fitbit-O, wore Fitbits per day during a school, five days per week for four weeks without CBPA breaks. A 2 × 3 ANOVA was conducted, followed by the post hoc comparisons. Results. The CBPA showed significant increases in processing speed (F1 = 6.876, p = .010, focused attention (F1 = 10.688, p = .002, concentration performance (F1 = 26.46, p = .000, and attention span (F1 = 14.090, p = .000 over the control, but not in accuracy (Error %. The CBPA showed significant improvement in concentration performance (F1 = 24.162, p = .000 and attention span (F1 = 6.891, p = .011, compared to the Fitbit-O. No significant changes in all five attention parameters were found between the Fitbit-O and the control. Conclusion. It was concluded that daily brief coordinated-bilateral activities can improve attention and concentration in fifth-grade students over the course of four weeks.

  15. Effect of low potassium concentration on cadmium induced epileptiform activity of leech retzius neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Nebojša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies have a large significance and require detailed investigation of cellular mechanisms that lead to this disorder. Environmental, especially industrial, toxins are having increasingly more prominent role in these investigations. The aim of our research was to investigate the significance of Cd2+ in generation of epileptiform electrical activity of neurons, and the role of Na+/K+ pump in mechanisms that lead to cessation of this activity. Experiments were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga. Intracellularly placed microelectrodes were used to measure membrane potential changes upon administration of Cd2+ (100 µmol/l, and the same concentration of Cd2+ in low K+ (1 mmol/l solution. In our experiments Cd2+ led to generation of rhythmic repetitive oscillatory activity. This activity closely resembles paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDS which represent the cellular basis of epilepsy. Cd2+ induced epileptiform activity had the following characteristics: frequency of 3.9±0.8 PDS/minute, PDS duration of 4.0±0.3 s, and PDS amplitude of 8.1±0.7 mV. Cd2+ induces effects similar to those of Ni2+ and Co2+, but in 30 times smaller concentration. Application of Cd2+ in low K+ solution led to a significant reduction of PDS frequency (by 2.34±0.55 PDS/minute, p<0.05, Student's t-test, highly significant increase in PDS duration (by 2.84±0.23 s, p<0.01, Student's t-test and highly significant reduction in PDS amplitude (by 1.91±0.33 mV, p=0.01, Student's t-test. Our results show that Cd2+ is a potent initiator of epileptiform activity, and that Na+/K+ pump significantly affects this activity and has a potentially important role in mechanisms that lead to its cessation.

  16. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  17. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  18. Colostral whey concentrate supplement increases complement activity in the sera of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, S; Korhonen, B H; Nousiainen, J; Marnila, P

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of a commercial bovine colostral whey on the complement-mediated immune responses of calves. Two groups of neonatal calves were fed, in addition to whole milk (WM) and pooled colostrum (PC), different amounts of a commercial immunoglobulin concentrate made from pooled colostral whey (Ig-C) for the first two feedings post natum. The control group was fed WM and PC only. Serum samples were obtained at the ages of 2, 7, 14 and 30 d. Bacteriolytic activity against complement-sensitive Escherichia coli JM103 and opsonic activity against complement-lysis-resistant E. coli IH3080 strains were studied, as well as the levels of C3 complement component and E. coli JM103 specific antibodies in the sera. Groups fed Ig-C had 2-3 times higher bacteriolytic activity than the control group of both the classic (P complement activities of serum can be increased substantially by feeding colostral whey concentrate to calves during their first days of life.

  19. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Prather, Aric A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems. PMID:28183031

  1. Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Nosaka, Kazunori; Muthalib, Makii; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    We compared changes in markers of muscle damage and systemic inflammation after submaximal and maximal lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flexors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10% maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a maximal trial (10 sets of three lengthening contractions at 100% maximum isometric strength, 3 min rest between sets). Lengthening contractions were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. Opposite arms were used for the submaximal and maximal trials, and the trials were separated by a minimum of two weeks. Blood was sampled before, immediately after, 1 h, 3 h, and 1-4 d after each trial. Total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, and the serum concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 were elevated after both trials (P < 0.01), but there were no differences between the trials. Serum IL-6 concentration was elevated 3 h after the submaximal contractions (P < 0.01). The concentrations of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and plasma C-reactive protein remained unchanged following both trials. Maximum isometric strength and range of motion decreased significantly (P < 0.001) after both trials, and were lower from 1-4 days after the maximal contractions compared to the submaximal contractions. Plasma myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness and upper arm circumference all increased after both trials (P < 0.01), but were not significantly different between the trials. Therefore, there were no differences in markers of systemic inflammation, despite evidence of greater muscle damage following maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

  2. Determination of elemental concentrations in environmental plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of leafy vegetables in daily diet is very important to meet our nutritional needs. Vegetables provide the essential elements which are necessary and recommended for human growth. However, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization our environment becomes polluted and this affects the normal growth of agricultural products and composition of environmental species. The elemental concentrations present in the environmental samples are good indicators to assess the toxicological levels due to pollution affects. In the present work we have analysed several vegetable plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the elemental concentrations at major, minor and trace levels. The leafy vegetables like spinach, red leafy vegetable, pui, gourd leaf, lettuce and katoua were chosen as these are extensively consumed by local people in eastern part of India. We have determined 15 elements in the above mentioned vegetable samples and some of these are essential elements and some are toxic elements. It was found that Na and K were present as major elements, Fe and Zn as minor elements and As, Ce, Cr, Co, La, Mo, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr as trace elements. The concentration level of Cr was found to be higher than that of recommended value certified by WHO and National environment quality control for human consumption. The validation of our analytical results have been performed by the Z-score tests through the determination of concentrations of the elements of interest in certified reference materials. (author)

  3. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  4. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Plyometric training improves voluntary activation and strength during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Mueller, Karoline; Heise, Sandra; Gube, Martin; Beuster, Nico; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated effects of plyometric training (6 weeks, 3 sessions/week) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and neural activation of the knee extensors during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Maximum voluntary torques (MVT) during the different types of contraction were measured at 110° knee flexion (180°=full extension). The interpolated twitch technique was applied at the same knee joint angle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to measure voluntary activation. In addition, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal at MVT was calculated. The twitch torque signal induced by electrical nerve stimulation at rest was used to evaluate training-related changes at the muscle level. In addition, jump height in countermovement jump was measured. After training, MVT increased by 20Nm (95% CI: 5-36Nm, P=0.012), 24Nm (95% CI: 9-40Nm, P=0.004) and 27Nm (95% CI: 7-48Nm, P=0.013) for isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs compared to controls, respectively. The strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs by 7.8% (95% CI: 1.8-13.9%, P=0.013), 7.0% (95% CI: 0.4-13.5%, P=0.039) and 8.6% (95% CI: 3.0-14.2%, P=0.005), respectively. Changes in the twitch torque signal of the resting muscle, induced by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, were not observed, indicating no alterations at the muscle level, whereas jump height was increased. Given the fact that the training exercises consisted of eccentric muscle actions followed by concentric contractions, it is in particular relevant that the plyometric training increased MVC strength and neural activation of the quadriceps muscle regardless of the contraction mode. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation/Inhibition of mast cells by supra-optimal antigen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael

    2013-01-22

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident cells of hemopoietic origin and are critically involved in allergic diseases. MCs bind IgE by means of their high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI). The FcεRI belongs to a family of multi-chain immune recognition receptors and is activated by cross-linking in response to multivalent antigens (Ags)/allergens. Activation of the FcεRI results in immediate release of preformed granular substances (e.g. histamine, heparin, and proteases), generation of arachidonic acid metabolites, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The FcεRI shows a remarkable, bell-shaped dose-response behavior with weak induction of effector responses at both low and high (so-called supra-optimal) Ag concentrations. This is significantly different from many other receptors, which reach a plateau phase in response to high ligand concentrations. To explain this unusual dose-response behavior of the FcεRI, scientists in the past have drawn parallels to so-called precipitin curves resulting from titration of Ag against a fixed concentration of antibody (Ab) in solution (a.k.a. Heidelberger curves). Thus, for high, supra-optimal Ag concentrations one could assume that every IgE-bound FcεRI formed a monovalent complex with "its own Ag", thus resulting in marginal induction of effector functions due to absence of receptor cross-linking. However, this was never proven to be the case. More recently, careful studies of FcεRI activation and signaling events in MCs in response to supra-optimal Ag concentrations have suggested a molecular explanation for the descending part of this bell-shaped curve. It is obvious now that extensive FcεRI/IgE/Ag clusters are formed and inhibitory molecules and signalosomes are engaged in response to supra-optimal cross-linking (amongst them the Src family kinase Lyn and the inositol-5'-phosphatase SHIP1) and they actively down-regulate MC effector responses. Thus, the analysis of MC signaling triggered by supra

  7. Adsorption of SO{sub 2} on activated carbon for low gas concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Wanko, H.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adsorption experiments of SO{sub 2} on activated carbon has been carried out for low concentrations (about 100 ppm) at room temperature (15 to 33 C) with varying humidity in the air. The breakthrough curves show that at high relative humidity or relative higher SO{sub 2} concentration, the load capacity increases with respect to temperature. The humidity of the air is also of benefit to the load capacity of SO{sub 2}. When an adsorption process is interrupted and the activated carbon is kept closed for a while, the SO{sub 2} concentration at the exit of a fixed-bed adsorber is similar to that of the fresh activated carbon and begins at a very low value. It appears that the sorption potential has been refreshed after the storage period. Analysis of desorption experiments by simultaneous thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry (MS) after loading, shows that the physisorbed SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are desorbed at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, the MS peak of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O occur at the same time. Compared with desorption immediately after loading, after one day, the desorption peak due to the physisorbed SO{sub 2} disappears. From this, it can be concluded that the refreshment of the loading capacity of the activated carbon after storage is mainly due to a change in the nature of the SO{sub 2} from a physisorbed state to a chemisorbed form. The same mechanism leads to a continuous refreshment of the sorption potential by means of a chemical reaction during the adsorption process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  9. HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil at the historical atmospheric HT release site (Chalk River Laboratories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Bredlaw, M.; Korolevych, V.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Tritium is routinely released by the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear facilities. Three International HT release experiments have been conducted at the CRL site in the past. The site has not been disturbed since the last historical atmospheric testing in 1994 and presents an opportunity to assess the retention of tritium in soil. This study is devoted to the measurement of HTO and OBT activity concentration profiles in the subsurface 25 cm of soil. In terms of soil HTO, there is no evidence from the past HT release experiments that HTO was retained. The HTO activity concentration in the soil pore water appears similar to concentrations found in background areas in Ontario. In contrast, OBT activity concentrations in soil at the same site were significantly higher than HTO activity concentrations in soil. Elevated OBT appears to reside in the top layer of the soil (0–5 cm). In addition, OBT activity concentrations in the top soil layer did not fluctuate much with season, again, quite in contrast with soil HTO. This result suggests that OBT activity concentrations retained the signature of the historical tritium releases. Highlights: ► At the historical HT release site, HTO and OBT activity concentrations in soil depths were investigated. ► Most organically bound tritium exists in the top layer of the soil. ► The results indicated that OBT activity concentrations can be reflective of historical tritium releases into the environment.

  10. Relationship between Structural Characteristics of Activated Carbons and Their Concentrating Efficiency with Respect to Nitroorganics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, R.; Gun'ko, V. M.; Tomaszewski, W.; Trznadel, B. J.

    2001-07-15

    The relationships between structural properties of activated microporous, micro-mesoporous, mesoporous, and graphitized carbons determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption at 77.4 K and the efficiency of concentrating (solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique) several nitroorganic compounds from polar solvents were investigated. Microporosity, mesoporosity, fractality, and other characteristics of adsorbents were analyzed to evaluate the dependence of the effectiveness of the SPE technique with respect to nitrate esters, cyclic nitroamines, and nitroaromatics on the origin and texture of carbons. The values of the free energy of solvation and dipole moment of nitroorganic compounds in polar liquids computed with the SM5.42/PM3 method with consideration of geometry relaxation in solution were utilized to elucidate features of their concentration of carbon adsorbents. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  12. Activity concentration of various radionuclides in tubificids living in the biobeds of a sewage treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, A.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1988-04-01

    Oligochaeta belonging to the family Tubificidae are used in the biobeds of waste water treatment plants in the decomposition process of organic matter. Waste water treatment plants also receive radionuclides in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The most commonly used radionuclides are 131 I and 99 Tc m . In this investigation the role of the Tubificids in the accumulation of these radionuclides has been studied. The activity concentration of 131 I in Tubificids was found to be 1-20 times higher than in the incoming waste water which is only 5-20% of the concentration factor between incoming water and outgoing sludge. Sludge is thus a more sensitive bioindicator, but Tubificids respond faster. (authors)

  13. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  14. Increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the chemokine CXCL13 in active MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Börnsen, L; Khademi, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports a major role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. How B cells are recruited to the CNS is incompletely understood. Our objective was to study B-cell chemokine concentrations in MS, their relationship with disease activity, and how treatment...... the chemokine receptor CXCR5 to the CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS), and may be a useful biomarker for treatment effects in MS. Furthermore, CXCL13 or its receptor CXCR5 should be considered as therapeutic targets in MS....... with methylprednisolone and natalizumab affected the concentration in CSF. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, CSF and blood samples were obtained from cohorts of patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), or secondary progressive MS (SPMS...

  15. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  16. Measuring low radium activity concentration in water with RAD7 by means of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Marussig, Camila G.T.; Paschuk, Sergei; Zambianchi Junior, Pedro; Correa, Janine N.; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Martin, Aline

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary activity measurements of low radium concentration in mineral water by using RAD7 equipment showed high values of statistical errors. Therefore, the need to develop a new protocol for measuring and proofing the evaporation test for radium measurements in water is in place. This study evaluates the possibility of using RAD7 equipment to measure Ra-226 activity in equilibrium with Rn-222 present in water samples. The technique involves evaporation process so as to increase the Ra-226 concentration in the sample in a controlled manner and thus reduce statistical errors. Two samples were compared, 10 L sample of distilled water and a 7.75 L sample of known concentration (0.1 Bq/L). The evaporation was carried out starting with different initial volumes for both samples: 500 mL, 1000 mL, 2000 mL, 4000 mL and a 250 mL sample not subject to evaporation. All samples reached a final volume of approximately 250 mL. After evaporation, the samples were stored for 30 days until secular equilibrium was achieved between Ra-226 and Rn-222. The values obtained, by using RAD7 detector, for distilled water, as expected, are near zero averaging 0.021 ± 0.016 Bq/L. The average value found in the water of known concentration was 0.099 ± 0.011 Bq/L, also close to the expected 0.1 Bq/L. The conclusion is that the application of an evaporation process is efficient and the proposed methodology is a proven alternative to decrease the statistical errors. (author)

  17. Influence of nitric acid concentration on the characteristics of active carbons obtained from a mineral coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, A.; Temdrara, L.; Addoun, A. [Laboratoire d' Etude Physicochimique des Materiaux et Application a l' Environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB, BP. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Almazan-Almazan, M.C.; Perez-Mendoza, M.; Domingo-Garcia, M.; Lopez-Garzon, F.J [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Domingo, F.J. [Departamento de CCIA, ETS de Ingenieria Informatica y Telecomunicacion, Granada, 18071 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper deals with the effect of the concentration of nitric acid solutions on the properties of activated carbons obtained by the oxidation of a parent activated carbon. For this purpose a mineral coal from Algeria has been used as raw material to prepare the parent active carbon AC. This was further treated with nitric acid solutions. The analysis of the samples includes the chemical and textural characterization. The former was carried out by selective titrations and FTIR spectroscopy. The latter, by nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption at 77 and 273 K, respectively, and by adsorption of organic probes (benzene, dichloromethane, cyclohexane and 2,2-dimethyl butane) at 303 K. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms have been analysed by using the BET equation, {alpha}{sub s}-method and molecular simulation. The Dubinin-Radushkevich approach has been applied to the carbon dioxide and vapours adsorption data. The results show that the treatment with 2 N nitric acid solution is very appropriate because it introduces a large amount of oxygen containing groups with a small change of the textural characteristics of the parent AC. More concentrated nitric acid solutions change in large extent the textural properties although they also introduce large amount of chemical groups. (author)

  18. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  19. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  20. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  1. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  2. Active renin mass concentration to determine aldosterone-to-renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available François Corbin1, Pierre Douville2, Marcel Lebel3 1Division of Biochemistry, l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 2Division of Biochemistry; 3Division of Nephrology, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital and l'Université Laval, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Active renin mass concentration (ARC is independent of the endogenous level of angiotensinogen, and less variable and more reproducible than plasma renin activity. Reference values for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR using ARC are still undefined. The objective of the present study was to determine the threshold of ARR using ARC measurement to screen for primary aldosteronism.Methods: A total of 211 subjects were included in the study, comprising 78 healthy normotensive controls, 95 patients with essential hypertension, and 38 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (20 with surgery-confirmed aldosterone-producing adenoma and 18 with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Blood samples were drawn from ambulatory patients and volunteers in the mid-morning without specific dietary restriction for measuring plasma aldosterone concentration, ARC, and serum potassium.Results: Most normotensive controls and essential hypertension patients had ARR results below 100 pmol/ng, a value which corresponded to 3.3 times the median of these two groups.Conclusion: Patients with ARR values above this level should be considered for further investigation (confirmatory tests or for repeat testing should ARR values be borderline. This study indicates that ARC can be used reliably in determining ARR for primary aldosteronism screening.Keywords: primary aldosteronism, active renin mass concentration, aldosterone-to-renin ratio

  3. The concentration of radon in a town where radium-activated paints were used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffenburger, T.; Auf der Maur, A.

    1984-01-01

    In a particular town in the Swiss Jura, important for its watch industry, probably 20 workshops existed between 1920 and 1963, where dials and faces were painted with radium-activated paints. Some workshops produced even their own paints. After removal of the radium and complete decontamination of such workshops, which presents its own problems, one sometimes still finds a high radon concentration in the cellar of such a workshop. Similar high values are sometimes found also in adjacent houses. In that particular town, however, a larger area was concerned. (orig.)

  4. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Adsorption of ultra-low concentration malodorous substances using coal-derived granular activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, K.; Maeda, T.; Yamashita, H.; Hagio, S.; Arioka, A.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental adsorption is reported of diosmin and 2-methylisoborneol using two types of coal-derived granular activated carbon and one derived from coconut husk. It was discovered that carbons with more pores below 15 angstroms in size gave a higher equilibrium adsorption of malodorous substances at mg/l concentrations. It was also found that the coal-derived materials, which contained more pores larger than 15 angstroms, gave faster adsorption. Given that the coal-derived carbons have a longer service life, it is concluded that they are suitable for use in full-scale adsorption plant where contact times are short. 3 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Improvements of neutron activation techniques for the determination of fissile material concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    Certain experimental improvements, as variable sample size and irradiation position, automation and flexibility in radiation detection, broaden the measurable concentration range, increase the possible rate and accuracy of analysis and enlarge the application range of home-made nuclear analyzer for fissile material analysis by delayed fission neutron counting and for short-lived multielement analysis by neutron activation gamma-ray spectrometry. Intercomparisons of results by various methods and laboratories show the need for regular checks of techniques to ensure reliable measurements. (author)

  7. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-12-15

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied.

  8. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-12-01

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied

  9. Effects of Low Phytanic Acid-Concentrated DHA on Activated Microglial Cells: Comparison with a Standard Phytanic Acid-Concentrated DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, María Belén; Olivares-Álvaro, Elena; Quintela, José Carlos; Ballesteros, Sandra; Espinosa-Parrilla, Juan F; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz

    2018-05-30

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) is an essential omega-3 (ω-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of neuronal membranes involved in normal growth, development, and function. DHA has been proposed to reduce deleterious effects in neurodegenerative processes. Even though, some inconsistencies in findings from clinical and pre-clinical studies with DHA could be attributed to the presence of phytanic acid (PhA) in standard DHA treatments. Thus, the aim of our study was to analyze and compare the effects of a low PhA-concentrated DHA with a standard PhA-concentrated DHA under different neurotoxic conditions in BV-2 activated microglial cells. To this end, mouse microglial BV-2 cells were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and co-incubated with DHA 50 ppm of PhA (DHA (PhA:50)) or DHA 500 ppm of PhA (DHA (PhA:500)). Cell viability, superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production, Interleukin 6 (L-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase (GtPx), glutathione reductase (GtRd), Caspase-3, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression were explored. Low PhA-concentrated DHA protected against LPS or H 2 O 2 -induced cell viability reduction in BV-2 activated cells and O 2 - production reduction compared to DHA (PhA:500). Low PhA-concentrated DHA also decreased COX-2, IL-6, iNOS, GtPx, GtRd, and SOD-1 protein expression when compared to DHA (PhA:500). Furthermore, low PhA-concentrated DHA increased BDNF protein expression in comparison to DHA (PhA:500). The study provides data supporting the beneficial effect of low PhA-concentrated DHA in neurotoxic injury when compared to a standard PhA-concentrated DHA in activated microglia.

  10. The effect of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased levels of certain markers like fibrinogen and Homocysteine are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Considering the numerous favorable effects of healthful nutrition and physical activity on reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, in this study we intend to take into account fasting and physical activity during the month of Ramadan and their impacts on Homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this experiment, 22 overweight and obese women with a body mass index (BMI of greater than 25 kg/m2 aging from 20 to 45 years were enrolled into two groups by means of targeted-sampling method. One group involved fasting accompanied with regular physical activity (12 subjects and the other group involved only fasting (10 subjects. The protocol for the physical activity group consisted of three 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise per week with a 50%- 65% heart rate reserved. Towards the end of Ramadan, the anthropometric and blood levels of Homocysteine and fibrinogen were closely measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures and the significance level of P≤0 /05 was considered. Findings: A month of fasting along with regular physical activity did not prove to have any noticeable effects on the level of fibrinogen while a significant increase in the Homocysteine levels was discovered (P

  11. Activities concentration of 239+240Pu in sediment in Sabah and Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Yii Mei Wo; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Norfaizal Mohamed; Kamarozaman Ishak; Zulkifli Daud

    2008-08-01

    The determination of plutonium, 239+240 Pu activity concentration and their distributions along the coastal area of the Sabah and Sarawak have been performed using alpha spectrometry counting system. The sampling coastal sediment for this study was carried out in July 2004 as part of the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. This results show that the distribution of Plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides in coastal sediment is consistent, their activities are depending on the sampling locations. Generally, the 239+240 Pu activities measured in Sabah and Sarawak coastal sediment are in the range of BDL - 1.83 Bq/kg and 0.11 - 0.841 Bq/kg dry weights, respectively. The sampling stations, Persisiran Lubok Sabanan, SB 15 and Sungai Similajau, SR 13 showed the highest plutonium, 239+240 Pu radionuclides isotopes activity in Sabah and Sarawak. Meanwhile, these two stations shows higher activity compare to West Coast of Peninsular of Malaysia station for the Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project for Malaysia. (Author)

  12. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak by 2-APB depends on the luminal calcium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Aparicio, Daniel; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that 2-APB is a nonspecific modulator of ion channel activity, while most of the channels are inhibited by this compound, there are few examples of channels that are activated by 2-APB. Additionally, it has been shown that, 2-APB leads to a reduction in the luminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ level ([Ca 2+ ] ER ) and we have carried out simultaneous recordings of both [Ca 2+ ] i and the [Ca 2+ ] ER in HeLa cell suspensions to assess the mechanism involved in this effect. This approach allowed us to determine that 2-APB induces a reduction in the [Ca 2+ ] ER by activating an ER-resident Ca 2+ permeable channel more than by inhibiting the activity of SERCA pumps. Interestingly, this effect of 2-APB of reducing the [Ca 2+ ] ER is auto-limited because depends on a replete ER Ca 2+ store; a condition that thapsigargin does not require to decrease the [Ca 2+ ] ER . Additionally, our data indicate that the ER Ca 2+ permeable channel activated by 2-APB does not seem to participate in the ER Ca 2+ leak revealed by inhibiting SERCA pump with thapsigargin. This work suggests that, prolonged incubations with even low concentrations of 2-APB (5μM) would lead to the reduction in the [Ca 2+ ] ER that might explain the inhibitory effect of this compound on those signals that require Ca 2+ release from the ER store. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic properties of iron-based catalysts activated by various CO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jung Tae; Kim, Chul Sung [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Dong Hyun; Park, Ji Chan [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Fresh catalyst samples of 100Fe/5.26Cu/4.76K/18.2SiO{sub 2} in part per weight were synthesized by using a combination of a co-precipitation technique and spray-drying method and were activated in situ by using syngas (H{sub 2}/CO/xCO{sub 2}) with different amounts of CO{sub 2} (x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0). All activated catalyst samples showed similar XRD patterns, a combination of ferrihydrite, magnetite, χ-carbide, and ε'-carbide, regardless of the CO{sub 2} contents. From the Moessbauer spectra, we also observed a combination of ferrihydrite, magnetite, χ-carbide, and ε'-carbide in all activated catalyst samples. The main compound of the activated catalyst sample activated by using CO{sub 2}-free syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) was magnetic χ-carbide, and the main compound changed from χ-carbide to ferrihydrite with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration, confirmed by both, Moessbauer spectra and XRD pattern.

  14. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  15. Activity Concentration for Surface Soil Samples Collected from Arrant, Qena, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Moustafa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from four regions from Armant area. Qena, Upper Egypt for measure their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Thirty-Four surface soil samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric analysis. The average activity concentration for Ra-226 in (Bq/kg) in the collected soil samples were found to be 27.3 ±3.2, 11.4±1.09, 10.6±1.2, and 11.4±1.02 while the average value for Th-232 were 15.1±1.4, 11.1±0.77, 10.8 ± 0.72 and 11.1 ± 0.8 (Bq/kg) for soil samples from North, South, West and East. The corresponding average values for K-40 were 521.4±16.8, 463±14.8, 488.9±15.6 and 344.5±10.7 (Bq/kg), respectively. Based on radionuclides concentration in surface soil samples the radiological effects can be assessed

  16. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur; Karthikeyan, B.

    2013-01-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A u and B u modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes

  17. Metallic Concentration in Karnaphuly Estuary Sediment Using Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.K.M.R.; Chakroborty, S.R.; Roy, P.K.; Dev, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of tonnes of liquid waste, dirt and garbage from different mills and factories from Kaptai to Chittagong are dumped unhindered into the Karnaphuli River. Pollutants enter the river directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges. Ships pollute waterways in many ways. All theses can contribute to the heavy and other metals of the water bodies. To find out concentration of different metallic elements and make a comparison with the world reference values twenty one surface sediment samples were collected from the different locations of Karnaphuly River near Chittagong city drainage outlet. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used for detecting the concentration qualitatively and quantitatively using the 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. Pearson correlation among the elements obtained using SPSS software. Three transitional metals Fe, Cr and Co, two alkali metals Rb and Na, two lanthanides La and Ce, and two metalloids As and Sb were determined. The concentrations of elements were compared with the world reference values. Some elements are found in elevated level. (author)

  18. Waste activated sludge fermentation: effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory scale, room temperature, semi-continuous reactors were set-up to investigate the effect of solids retention time (SRT, equal to HRT hydraulic retention time) and biomass concentration on generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the non-methanogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) originating from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. It was found that VFA yields increased with SRT. At the longest SRT (10d), improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield from the influent COD (0.14g VFA-COD/g TCOD). It was also observed that under the same SRT, VFA yields increased when the biomass concentration decreased. At a 10d SRT the VFA yield increased by 46%, when the biomass concentration decreased from 13g/L to 4.8g/L. Relatively high nutrient release was observed during fermentation. The average phosphorus release was 17.3mg PO(4)-P/g TCOD and nitrogen release was 25.8mg NH(4)-N/g TCOD.

  19. 40K activities and potassium concentrations in tobacco samples of Mexican cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramos, A.; Vazquez, K.; Juarez, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nine brands of tobacco cigarettes manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market were analyzed by γ-spectrometry to certify their nonartificial radioactive contamination. Since natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) 40 K, 232 Th, 235 U, and 239 U (and decay products from the latter three nuclides) are the main sources for human radiation exposure, the aim of this work was to determine the activity of 40 K and potassium concentration. Averages of 40 K and potassium concentration were of 1.29 ± 0.18 Bq x g -1 , and 4.0 ± 0.57%. The annual dose equivalents to the whole body from ingestion and inhalation of 26 Bq 40 K were 0.23 μSv and 15.8 μSv, respectively. The corresponding 50 years committed dose equivalents was 0.23 μSv. The total committed dose to the lungs due to inhalation of 40 K in tobacco was 16 μSv. Potassium concentrations obtained in this work were in the same range of those obtained by INAA, so showing that the used technique is acute, reproducible, and accessible to laboratories equipped with low background scintillation detectors. (author)

  20. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur [Department of Marine Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 (India); Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: balkarin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India)

    2013-05-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A{sub u} and B{sub u} modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes.

  2. Inhibition of tryptophan - pyrrolase activity and elevation of brain tryptophan concentration by fluoxetine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, S.; Sherkheli, M.A

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-vitro as well as in-vivo effects of various doses of fluoxetine (SSRI) on tryptophan metabolism in rates. Results: In in-vitro (10 - 1000 mM) as well in-vivo (0.5 - 30 mg/kg body wt.) studies, fluoxetine showed a statistically significant inhibition of rat liver tryptophan pyrrolase (tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase; EC 1.13.11.11) activity. Significant increases were noted at 10 and 30 mg/kg doses in brain, serum (total and free) and liver L-tryptophan concentrations. Similarly, serum non-esterified free fatty acids showed a significant increase at both doses. There was no effect on serum glucose and albumin concentrations. Conclusion: It is suggested that major mechanism of action of fluoxetine is that of elevating brain tryptophan concentration and hence 5-HT synthesis by increasing the availability of circulating tryptophan to the brain secondarily to inhibition of major tryptophan degrading enzyme, hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase. It is assumed that fluoxetine inhibits the binding of apoenzyme form of tryptophan pyrrolase with its cofactor haem. The results are discussed in relation to possible involvement of disturbed hepatic tryptophan metabolism in depressive illness. (author)

  3. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and 210 Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer

  4. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ( 227 Ac, 40 K, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 238 U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Improve Microbicidal Activity of Ibuprofen against Common Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Muñoz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen (IBU-H, a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes. In short time periods, where neither IBU-Na nor controls with 1 M NaCl show activity, the combination of both leads to a reduction in the bacterial load. We also analyzed whether the changes caused by salt on the bacterial membrane also promoted the activity of other microbicide compounds used in cystic fibrosis like gentamicin, tobramycin and phosphomycin. The results show that the presence of ionic strength only enhanced the bactericidal activity of the amphipathic molecule of IBU-Na. In this respect, the effect of saline concentration was also reflected in the surface properties of IBU-Na, where, in addition to the clear differences observed between 145 mM and 1 M, singular behaviors were also found, different in each condition. The combination of anti-inflammatory activity and this improved bactericidal effect of Na-IBU in hypertonic solution provides a new alternative for the treatment of respiratory infections of fibrotic patients based on known and widely used compounds.

  6. Simultaneous analysis of Zn, Cu, Mn, In, As and Sb in Zinc concentrates by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, F.; Mendoza, P.; Espinosa, R.

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for simultaneous analysis by neutronic activation of Zn, Cu, As, Mn, In and Sb in concentrated minerals of Zn. The method is based entirely on the use of instruments as it does not comprise any chemical treatments. Samples and models are submitted to irradiation for 60 minutes in a flux of thermal neutrons of 1.5x10 n/cm 2 s in the reactor RP-0 of IPEN. The induced activities are measured by gamma spectrometry of high resolution using an intrinsic detector of germanium. One measurement is made immediately after the irradiation of 2000s and another 24 hours after the 3600s irradiation. The interference, the reproductibility, and the limits of detection of each element are discussed. The analytic results of 5 zinc concentrates are compared with the ones obtained by atomic absorption showing excellent concordance. The method is particularly adaptable to portable radioisotope sources of neutrons making it possible to use it in sites such as industrial plants

  7. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  8. Variations in 137Cs activity concentrations in individual fruitbodies in clusters of Cantharellus tubaeformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    Fruitbodies of Cantharellus tubaeformis grown in clusters were collected from a normal Swedish coniferous forest. In the laboratory, individual fruitbodies were transferred into plastic vials and the 137 Cs activity concentrations were determined and expressed as Bq kg -1 fresh weight. After drying at 55 o , the 137 CS levels were recalculated and expressed as Bq kg -1 dry weight. Large variations of 137 Cs activity concentrations between individual fruitbodies within the clusters were observed. In 1995, the range in the 137 CS levels of individual fruitbodies in one cluster were from 9,194 to 164,811 and in another cluster from 2,338 to 38,377 Bq kg -1 . The mean values for these two clusters were 90,294 and 13,556 Bq kg -1 respectively. In 1998, the mean value for eight clusters showed a range from 26,373 to 67,281 Bq kg -1 . The largest variations between individual fruitbodies within a cluster were from 11,875 to 107,160 Bq kg -1 . Refs. 10 (author)

  9. Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com; Abd El-Aziz, Nawal S. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Sewaidan, Hamed A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Chaouachi, Kamal [DIU Tobaccology, University of Paris XI-XII (France)

    2008-12-15

    Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, 'water-pipe') smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044) Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for {sup 210}Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed.

  10. Assessment of Activity Concentration of Ilmenite and its Contribution to Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa Syed Mohd Ghazi; Ismail Sulaiman; Mohd Rodzi Ali; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noraisyah Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2014-01-01

    Ferum Titanium Oxide (FeTiO 3 ) is the Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). This mineral contains radionuclides from uranium decay series like Radium-226 ( 226 Ra) and from thorium decay series nuclide like Radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and also from Potassium-40 ( 40 K). This radionuclide in large quantities will increase the radiation exposure risk to mankind and environment. In-situ measurement using scintillation survey meter show that external dose rate at 1 and 0.05 meter from soil surface was 97.0 ± 23.3 and 117 ± 26 nSv/ hour. This figure nearly the same with the average dose rate for Malaysia but higher than world average (UNSCEAR 2000). Monitoring of U and Th concentration from the air show that the result was below detection limit of < 0.0001 Bq/ m 3 . It show that's no radionuclide transfer or migrate to environment. Activity concentration of natural radionuclide of 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U from the soil was 573 ± 184 Bqkg -1 , 30.6 ± 10.2 Bqkg -1 , 18.8 ± 6.4 Bqkg -1 , and 64.0 ± 34.3 Bqkg -1 . For ilmenite, the activity concentration was 39.0 ± 10.0 Bqkg -1 , 28.0 ± 6.7 Bqkg -1 , 84.0 ± 6.9 Bqkg -1 dan 50.0 ± 7.4 Bqkg -1 for the same natural radionuclide. Effective dose for the public show that the value of 0.17 mSv/ year was lower than the world average effective dose from the natural radioactivity. Radium equivalent for ilmenite and soil was 173 ± 77 and 42.7 ± 0.4 respectively. External Hazard Index is 0.47 ± 0.21 dan 0.36 ± 0.12 for ilmenite and soil. The external radiation hazard index is less than 1, which means it is safe for human to carry out their activities in the area. The estimated cancer risk value was 4.25 x 10 -4 . The probability of increase of cancer risk from the industry is a minor fraction of ICRP values. Event though the result show that the activity from the industry was insignificant to increase the radiation exposure, but all the safety precautions must be follow as per standards and the legislation

  11. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  12. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  13. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  14. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  15. Do culinary preparations influence 210Po activity concentration in fin fishes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Pole, R.P.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Rajan, M.P

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210, a member of the 238 U series, is a major source of internal radiation dose to marine organisms and human beings. This naturally occurring radionuclide is responsible for a considerable proportion of radiation exposure of humans, in particular, through consumption of seafood. Considering all these facts, many countries and various international agencies have carried out studies for assessing the levels of 210 Po globally. The volatile nature of 210 Po at high temperatures would significantly reduce its activity concentration in various culinary preparations of seafood. Some studies of fishes have shown no measurable reduction in 210 Po activity in culinary preparations and some authors have reported measurable increase. Based on this scenario, the present study was aimed at estimating 210 Po activity concentrations in different culinary preparations of fishes traditionally prevalent in the coastal region of southern Tamil Nadu. The commonly available fish species (Sardinella sp., Leiognathus sp., Katsuwonus sp., Stolephorus sp. and Chirocentrus sp.) consumed more by the people of this region were collected from nearby fish-landing centre (Kanyakumari and Manakudi). The samples were washed thoroughly with tap water and eviscerated. The fillets were divided into four groups. Fresh fillets analysed as such; A portion of the sample was subjected to oil-frying (with commonly used spices and salt); One portion of the sample was salt-dried; Another portion of the sample was boiled (curry) along with common spices and salt. Ten to twenty grams of each sample was subjected to wet-digestion using 70% conc. HNO 3 followed by the addition of 40% H 2 O 2

  16. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-α1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (α se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidrataci

  17. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  18. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  19. Effects of Platelets on Platelet Concentrate Product on the Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadat Razavi Hoseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monocytes can interact with platelets due to their surface molecules such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, and form monocyte-platelet complex. In the present study, the effects of platelets interaction of platelet concentrates (PCs and peripheral blood monocytes were investigated in vitro as a model to predict the probable interactions of these cells and consequently activation of monocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, units of whole blood and PCs were prepared from Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. After isolation of monocytes from the whole blood, these cells were treated with PC- derived platelets. The activation of monocytes was assessed before and after treatment by the analysis of the respiratory burst of monocytes using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123. The study data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. Results: The purity of monocytes was determined as 86.1±2 using NycoPrep method. The respiratory burst of monocytes was increased after exposure with platelets. In fact, the difference was significant when platelets were used on the 5th day of storage (P=0.001. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that platelets have an efficient capacity to stimulate and activate monocytes. The possible involvement of molecules in the interaction of platelet-monocyte demand to be further studied in future.

  20. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  1. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  2. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  3. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  4. Tritium activity concentration along the Western shore of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Varlam; Faurescu, I.; Irina Vagner; Denisa Faurescu; Patrascu, V.; Margineanu, R.M.; Duliu, O.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Black Sea tritium level was investigated in 33 places southward the Danube Delta covering about 360 km of the Black Sea Western Shore. Both surface (10 cm depth) and bottom (up to 20 m depth) water samples were collected. In the close vicinity of Danube Delta, the tritium activity concentration in the surface water was around 28 TU, which is almost the same as that of the Danube River waters, but it decreased to about 5 TU in the bottom water. This discrepancy slowly diminished wherein at about 120 km southward, the tritium content in both surface and bottom water reached almost the same constant value of 6.5 ± 2.3 TU. This value, about two and a half times smaller than that reported 17 years ago, remained almost unchanged for the last 240 km of shore up to the Turkish border. (author)

  5. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  6. Preparation of a highly concentrated, completely monomeric, active sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdi, H; Hasselbach, W

    1985-11-21

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from fast skeletal muscle were partially delipidated with sodium cholate at high ionic strength and sedimented in a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Phospholipid content was reduced from 0.777 mumol/mg protein to 0.242 mumol/mg protein. As judged from gel electrophoresis and high pressure liquid gel chromatography, accessory proteins were removed during centrifugation and the Ca2+-ATPase was obtained in an almost pure form. Addition of myristoylglycerophosphocholine (1 mg/mg protein) reactivates ATPase and dinitrophenylphosphatase activity to the same degree obtained with native vesicles. Using the analytical ultracentrifuge it could be demonstrated that the reactivated Ca2+-ATPase was present exclusively in a monomeric state. These results were obtained at high and low ionic strength and up to a protein concentration of 10 mg/ml. Therefore this preparation should be very useful to investigate differences between oligomeric and monomeric Ca2+-ATPase.

  7. Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenchuan Kuo; Shuying Lai; Chingchung Huang; Yuming Lin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226 Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226 Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226 Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226 Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq 1 -1 . The 226 Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg -1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg -1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226 Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 μSv. (author)

  8. Critical concentrations of cadmium in human liver and kidney measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Few data exist on Cd metabolism in human beings. In particular, data are needed on the role of parameters such as age, sex, weight, diet, smoking habits, and state of health. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) provides the only currently available means for measuring in vivo levels of liver and kidney Cd. The method employs an 85 Ci, 235 Pu,Be neutron source and a gamma ray detection system consisting of two Ge(Li) detector. The dose delivered to the liver and left kidney is 666 mrem (detection limit is 1.4 μg/g Cd in the liver and 2.0 mg Cd for one kidney). Absolute levels of Cd in the kidney and concentrations of Cd in the liver were measured in vivo in twenty healthy adult males using 238 Pu,Be neutron sources. Organ Cd levels of smokers were significantly elevated above those of nonsmokers. Biological half-time for Cd in the body was estimated to be 15.7 yr. Cigarette smoking was estimated to result in the absorption of 1.9 μg of Cd per pack. No relationship was bound between body stores of Cd (liver and kidney) and Cd or β-microglobulin levels in urine and blood. Currently the above neutron activation facility is being mounted on a 34-ft mobile trailer unit. This unit will be used to monitor levels of Cd in industrial workers. It is anticipated that critically important data, particularly on industrially exposed workers, will provide a better basis for determining critical concentrations and for the setting or revision of standards for industrial and environmental Cd pollution

  9. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S; O'Dwyer, T; Freguia, S; Pikaar, I; Clarke, W P

    2016-10-01

    Reported methane oxidation activity (MOA) varies widely for common landfill cover materials. Variation is expected due to differences in surface area, the composition of the substratum and culturing conditions. MOA per methanotrophic cell has been calculated in the study of natural systems such as lake sediments to examine the inherent conditions for methanotrophic activity. In this study, biomass normalised MOA (i.e., MOA per methanotophic cell) was measured on stabilised compost, a commonly used cover in landfills, and on graphite granules, an inert substratum widely used in microbial electrosynthesis studies. After initially enriching methanotrophs on both substrata, biomass normalised MOA was quantified under excess oxygen and limiting methane conditions in 160ml serum vials on both substrata and blends of the substrata. Biomass concentration was measured using the bicinchoninic acid assay for microbial protein. The biomass normalised MOA was consistent across all compost-to-graphite granules blends, but varied with time, reflecting the growth phase of the microorganisms. The biomass normalised MOA ranged from 0.069±0.006μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h during active growth, to 0.024±0.001μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h for established biofilms regardless of the substrata employed, indicating the substrata were equally effective in terms of inherent composition. The correlation of MOA with biomass is consistent with studies on methanotrophic activity in natural systems, but biomass normalised MOA varies by over 5 orders of magnitude between studies. This is partially due to different methods being used to quantify biomass, such as pmoA gene quantification and the culture dependent Most Probable Number method, but also indicates that long term exposure of materials to a supply of methane in an aerobic environment, as can occur in natural systems, leads to the enrichment and adaptation of types suitable for those conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  12. Study on the Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Essential Oils of Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V.N.Srujan and M.Sravanthi

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon were estimated by using various bacterial pathogens. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oil of garlic, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be highly sensitive followed by E.coli. L.monocytogenes and S.pyogenes were found to be less sensitive. The essential oil of clove was found to be most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli. B.cereus and C. jejuni. The essential oil of cinnamon was also most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli and C.jejuni. Essential oil of cinnamon was found to be active against all the bacterial pathogens tested, when compared to garlic and clove oils. However Staph. aureus, E. coli and C.jejuni were found to be most sensitive to the action of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oils of spices to know the MIC by agar diffusion method, C.jejuni was found to be most sensitive to the essential oil of garlic followed by E.coli, S. typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. L. monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus were found to be comparatively less sensitive. Essential oil of clove was also found to be highly effective against C.jejuni followed by E.coli, S.typhimurium and S.aureus. Again L.monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant S.aureus were comparatively less sensitive to the action of essential oil of clove. All most all the bacterial pathogens tested were found to be sensitive to the essential oil of cinnamon. However C.jejuni and E.coli were found to be most sensitive followed by S.typhimurium, Staph. aureus and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus . [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 311-316

  13. Fabrication, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity, Evaluation of Low Silver Concentrations in Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of (Ca10-xAgx(PO46(OH2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years as a major public health problem worldwide. In this paper, we report a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of low concentrations silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. The as-prepared Ag:Hap nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, FT-IR, and FT-Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies demonstrate that powders obtained by coprecipitation at 100°C exhibit the apatite characteristics with good crystal structure, without any new phase or impurities found. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of the various vibrational modes corresponding to phosphates and hydroxyl groups and the absence of any band characteristic to silver. The specific microbiological assays demonstrated that Ag:HAp-NPs exhibited antimicrobial features, but interacted differently with the Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal tested strains.

  14. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  15. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  16. Blood concentrations of ions and metals in amateur and elite runners using neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luciana Kovacs dos

    2012-01-01

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, I, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn concentration were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes (endurance) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateur athletes (AR) and male and female elite athletes (ER), ranging from 18 to 36 year old. The blood samples were collected at the LABEX/UNICAMP and they were irradiated in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The range (at rest) established for AR and ER were compared with the control group (CG), subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities, and showed significant differences for Ca (51 - 439 mgL -1 for CG, 162 - 410 mgL -1 for AR and 64 - 152 mgL -1 for ER) and Br (7.4 - 30.6 mgL -1 for CG, 4.0 - 9.6 mgL -1 for AR and 1.9 - 3.5 mgL -1 for ER), suggesting that a strong dependency of these limits in function of adopted physical training exists. We also performed a systematic investigation for the AR before, during and after the exercise program. These data can be considered for the preparation of a balanced diet, for evaluating the performance of the athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation not reported in the literature yet. (author)

  17. Correlation of Endothelin-1 Concentration and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Activity with the Staging of Liver Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kardum, Duško; Fabijanić, Damir; Lukić, Anita; Romić, Željko; Petrovečki, Mladen; Bogdanović, Zoran; Jurić, Klara; Urek-Crnčević, Marija; Banić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Increased serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) activity and serum concentration of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were found in liver cirrhosis. We investigated a correlation between the different stages of liver fibrosis and SACE activity and serum ET-1 concentration. Seventy patients with pathohistologically established chronic liver disease were divided in three groups according to Ishak criteria for liver fibrosis: minimal fibrosis (Ishak score 0–1, n=20), medium fibrosis (Ishak sc...

  18. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  19. Predicting the activity coefficients of free-solvent for concentrated globular protein solutions using independently determined physical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin W McBride

    Full Text Available The activity coefficient is largely considered an empirical parameter that was traditionally introduced to correct the non-ideality observed in thermodynamic systems such as osmotic pressure. Here, the activity coefficient of free-solvent is related to physically realistic parameters and a mathematical expression is developed to directly predict the activity coefficients of free-solvent, for aqueous protein solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. The model is based on the free-solvent model, which has previously been shown to provide excellent prediction of the osmotic pressure of concentrated and crowded globular proteins in aqueous solutions up to near-saturation concentrations. Thus, this model uses only the independently determined, physically realizable quantities: mole fraction, solvent accessible surface area, and ion binding, in its prediction. Predictions are presented for the activity coefficients of free-solvent for near-saturated protein solutions containing either bovine serum albumin or hemoglobin. As a verification step, the predictability of the model for the activity coefficient of sucrose solutions was evaluated. The predicted activity coefficients of free-solvent are compared to the calculated activity coefficients of free-solvent based on osmotic pressure data. It is observed that the predicted activity coefficients are increasingly dependent on the solute-solvent parameters as the protein concentration increases to near-saturation concentrations.

  20. A fractional optimal control problem for maximizing advertising efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Bykadorov; Andrea Ellero; Stefania Funari; Elena Moretti

    2007-01-01

    We propose an optimal control problem to model the dynamics of the communication activity of a firm with the aim of maximizing its efficiency. We assume that the advertising effort undertaken by the firm contributes to increase the firm's goodwill and that the goodwill affects the firm's sales. The aim is to find the advertising policies in order to maximize the firm's efficiency index which is computed as the ratio between "outputs" and "inputs" properly weighted; the outputs are represented...

  1. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  2. PRE-CONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON IN REAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous pre-concentration of nutritionally important minerals in real samples has been reported. The method is based on the formation of metal complexes by N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2, 6-di (aminomethyl phenol (DBDP loaded on activated carbon. The metals content on the complexes are then eluted using 6mL 4M HNO3, which are detected by AAS at resonance line. In this procedure, minerals such as Ni, Cu, Co, Pb Zn and Cd can be analyzed in one run by caring out the simultaneous separation and quantification of them. At optimum condition the response are linear over concentration range of for 0.03-1.1 µg mL-1 for Ni2+ , 0.03-1.0 µg mL-1 for Cu2+, 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Pb2+ , 0.02-1.0 µg mL-1 for  Co2+,0.02-1.1 µg mL-1 Zn2+ and 0.05-1.3 µg mL-1for Cd2+. The detection limits of each element are expressed as the amount of analytes in µg mL-1 giving a signal to noise ratio of 3 are equal to 2.5, 2.4, 1.6, 2.4, 1.9 and 2.1 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The ability of method for repeatable recovery of trace ion are 99.9, 98.7, 99.2 , 98.7, 98.5and 95.6 with R.S.D of 1.3, 1.4, 1.2, 1.4, 1.7 and 1.4 for Ni2+ , Cu2+, Pb2+ , Co2+,Zn2+ and Cd2+. The method has been successfully applied for these metals content evaluation in some real samples including natural water and vegetable.     Keywords: Heavy Metals, N, N'-diacetyl-4-bromo-2,6-di(aminomethyl phenol (DBDP, Activated Carbon

  3. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  4. Mechanism of bactericidal activity of Silver Nitrate - a concentration dependent bi-functional molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshbabu Ram Kumar Pandian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate imparts different functions on bacteria depending upon its concentration. At lower concentration it induced synthesis of nanoparticles, whereas at higher concentrations it induced cell death. Bacillus licheniformis was used as model system. The MIC was 5 mM, and it induced catalase production, apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation.

  5. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, G.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 ± 277 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg -1 dry weight), and 45 ± 19 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg -1 dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 ± 75 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Po and 10 ± 4 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of 210 Po

  6. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  7. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  8. Evaluation of optimal dual axis concentrated photovoltaic thermal system with active ventilation using Frog Leap algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, H.; Sarwat, A.I.; Hosseinian, H.; Khalilnejad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electro-thermal performance of open-loop controlled dual axis CPVT is investigated. • For using the absorbed heat, active ventilation with a heat storage tank is used. • Economic optimization of the system is performed, using Frog Leap algorithm. • Detailed model of all sections is simulated with their characteristics evaluation. • Triple-junction photovoltaic cells, which are the most recent technology, are used. - Abstract: In this study, design and optimization of a concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) system considering electrical, mechanical, and economical aspects is investigated. For this purpose, each section of the system is simulated in MATLAB, in detail. Triple-junction photovoltaic cells, which are the most recent technology, are used in this study. They are more efficient in comparison to conventional photovoltaic cells. Unlike ordinary procedures, in this work active ventilation is used for absorbing the thermal power of radiation, using heat storage tanks, which not only results in increasing the electrical efficiency of the system through decreasing the temperature, but also leads to storing and managing produced thermal energy and increasing the total efficiency of the system up to 85 percent. The operation of the CPVT system is investigated for total hours of the year, considering the needed thermal load, meteorological conditions, and hourly radiation of Khuznin, a city in Qazvin province, Iran. Finally, the collector used for this system is optimized economically, using frog leap algorithm, which resulted in the cost of 13.4 $/m"2 for a collector with the optimal distance between tubes of 6.34 cm.

  9. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  10. Application of Lime Additive on Cementation of Concentrated Low Activities Liquid Radwaste Containing Boric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahdir-Johan

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lime additive on the waste form containing boric acid and the activity 1 μCi/ml have been studied. The studying parameter was the optimum lime additive in concentrate. The sample was made by cement slurry containing boric acid. The cement slurry composition are water/cement ratio (W/C) was 0.35, sand/cement ratio (S/C) was 0.75 and boric (B) was 15000 ppm. On this condition into cement slurry was added the lime additive (K/C) 0.05 -0.8 by weigh. The quality test included density, compressive strength and leaching rate. The density was determination by weighing and measuring sample volume, compressive strength determination using Paul Weber apparatus and leaching rate tested using aquadest. The result of this research are the lime/cement ratio (K/C) 0.30; the density (ρ) 2.449 ± 0.008 g.cm -3 , the compressive strength (Γ) 44.005 ± 0.012 N.mm -2 and the leaching rate (Rn) 7.20x10 -4 -0.90x10 -4 g.cm -2 day -1 . According to this research the quality of the waste form has been complied the IAEA quality standard. (author)

  11. Enzyme activity, hormone concentration in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the seasonal adaptation of body mass and thermogenesis in wild small mammals. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, is a unique species of small mammals which is origin of island in the Oriental realm. The present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake, metabolism, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT, and other biochemical characters of T. belangeri during cold exposure about 21 days. Our data demonstrate that cold acclimation induced a remarkable increase in body mass, a significant increase in energy intake and metabolic rate, and high expression of UCP1 in BAT of T. belangeri. Cold acclimation induced an increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX and Thyroidhormones (T3/T4. These data supported that T. belangeri increased the body mass and increased energy intake and expenditure under cold acclimation. Increased expression of UCP1 was potentially involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and thermogenic capacity following cold acclimation. And it through changes in enzyme activity and hormone concentration under cold acclimation, and suggested temperature changes play an important role in the regulation of thermogenic capacity in tree shrew.

  12. Intraspecific variation in 137Cs activity concentration in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in seven Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, Anders; Nikolova, Ivanka; Johanson, K.-J.

    1997-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in Sweden showed a large amount of individual variation in concentration of 137 Cs activity. Our aim was to determine the degrees to which this variability in sporocarp 137 Cs levels could be explained by differences between (i) local populations, (ii) fungal genets and (iii) locations within genets. Five populations in a 100-yr-old Scots pine forest, located within a 1 km 2 area, and two populations in Scots pine/Norway spruce forest, located 40 km north-west of Uppsala, were investigated. In total, 154 sporocarps were analysed to determine their 137 Cs content. Of these, the genetic affiliations of 86 were successfully characterized using somatic incompatibility reactions. Twenty-six genets were found which, on average, consisted of 6.5 sporocarps. The genets averaged 7.5 m in size, measured as the length between the most distant sporocarps. The mean sporocarp 137 Cs level was 67.1 ± 2.8 kBq kgsup(-1) D.W. (range between 13.6 and 182). According to analyses of variance, within-population variation accounted for 60% of the total variation in 137 Cs levels, while 40% was ascribed to variation among populations. Within a population, 137 Cs levels did not generally differ significantly between genets. Plausible reasons for intraspecific variation in radiocaesium content in sporocarps are discussed. (author)

  13. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de

    2009-01-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 μg-g -1 ) is lower than in the uterus (118 μg-g -1 ), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  14. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de, E-mail: framosc@oi.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Ferreira, Claudia R.C.; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: claudia@medicina.ufmg.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 mug-g{sup -1}) is lower than in the uterus (118 mug-g{sup -1}), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  15. Does low protein concentration of tissue-type plasminogen activator predict a low risk of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J

    1995-01-01

    activity (p Reasonable separation could be obtained for t-PA with a cut-off point of 5...... interval 70%-94%). We observed a significantly negative association between concentration of t-PA and fibrinolytic activity (rs = -0.47; p WORDS)...

  16. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  17. Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S

    1996-01-01

    subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... for all three clamp steps used (P maximal activity of glycogen synthase was identical in the two thighs for all clamp steps. 3. The glucose infusion rate (GIR......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P maximal...

  18. Generation of Platelet Microparticles after Cryopreservation of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates Contributes to Hemostatic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Eker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the last decade, substantial evidence has accumulated about the use of cryopreserved platelet concentrates, especially in trauma. However, little reference has been made in these studies to the morphological and functional changes of platelets. Recently platelets have been shown to be activated by cryopreservation processes and to undergo procoagulant membrane changes resulting in the generation of platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs, platelet degranulation, and release of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs. We assessed the viabilities and the PMP and PDGF levels of cryopreserved platelets, and their relation with thrombin generation. Materials and Methods: Apheresis platelet concentrates (APCs from 20 donors were stored for 1 day and cryopreserved with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide. Cryopreserved APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. Thawed APCs (100 mL were diluted with 20 mL of autologous plasma and specimens were analyzed for viabilities and PMPs by flow cytometry, for thrombin generation by calibrated automated thrombogram, and for PDGFs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. Results: The mean PMP and PDGF levels in freeze-thawed APCs were significantly higher (2763±399.4/μL vs. 319.9±80.5/μL, p<0.001 and 550.9±73.6 pg/mL vs. 96.5±49 pg/mL, p<0.001, respectively, but the viability rates were significantly lower (68.2±13.7% vs. 94±7.5%, p<0.001 than those of fresh APCs. The mean endogenous thrombin potential (ETP of freeze-thawed APCs was significantly higher than that of the fresh APCs (3406.1±430.4 nM.min vs. 2757.6±485.7 nM.min, p<0.001. Moreover, there was a significant positive poor correlation between ETP levels and PMP levels (r=0.192, p=0.014. Conclusion: Our results showed that, after cryopreservation, while levels of PMPs were increasing, significantly higher and earlier thrombin formation was occurring in the samples analyzed despite the significant decrease in viability. Considering the damage caused

  19. Treatment of AVN Using Autologous BM Stem Cells and Activated Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandeesh, Nagaraj H; Janardhan, Kiranmayee; Subramanian, Vignesh; Ashtekar, Abhishek Bhushan; Srikruthi, Nandagiri; Koka, Prasad S; Deb, Kaushik

    Avascular Necrosis (AVN) of hip is a devastating condition seen in younger individuals. It is the ischemic death of the constituents of the bone cartilage of the hip. The femoral head (FH) is the most common site for AVN. It results from interruption of the normal blood flow to the FH that fits into the hip socket. Earlier studies using autologous bone marrow stem cell concentrate injections have shown encouraging results with average success rates. The current study was designed to improve significantly the cartilage regeneration and clinical outcome. Total of 48 patients underwent autologous bone marrow stem cell and activated platelet-rich plasma derived growth factor concentrate (PRP-GFC) therapy for early and advanced stages AVN of femoral head in a single multi-specialty center. The total treatment was divided into three phases. In the phase I, all the clinical diagnostic measurements such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) etc. with respect to the AVN patients and bone marrow aspiration from posterior iliac spine from the patients were carried out. In the phase II, isolation of stem cells and preparation from the patients were performed. Subsequently, in phase III, the stem cells and PRP- GFCs were transplanted in the enrolled patients. Ninety three percent of the enrolled AVN patients showed marked enhancement in the hip bone joint space (more than 3mm) after combined stem cells and PRP-GFC treatment as evidenced by comparison of the pre- and post-treatment MRI data thus indicative of regeneration of cartilage. The treated patients showed significant improvement in their motor function, cartilage regrowth (3 to 10mm), and high satisfaction in the two-year follow-up. Combination of stem cell and PRP-GFC therapy has shown promising cartilage regeneration in 45 out of 48 patients of AVN. This study clearly demonstrates the safety and efficacy of this treatment. Larger numbers of patients need to be evaluated to better understand the

  20. Relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity and cellular concentration of 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Ahrens, Lutz; le Godec, Théo; Lundqvist, Johan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2018-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay. Cellular uptake of the PFASs was low (0.04-4.1%) with absolute cellular concentrations in the range 4-2500 ng mg -1 protein. Cellular concentration of PFCAs increased with perfluorocarbon chain length up to perfluorododecanoate. PPARα activity of PFCAs increased with chain length up to perfluorooctanoate. The maximum induction of PPARα activity was similar for short-chain (perfluorobutanoate and perfluoropentanoate) and long-chain PFCAs (perfluorododecanoate and perfluorotetradecanoate) (approximately twofold). However, PPARα activities were induced at lower cellular concentrations for the short-chain homologs compared to the long-chain homologs. Perfluorohexanoate, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate induced PPARα activities >2.5-fold compared to controls. The concentration-response relationships were positive for all the tested compounds, except perfluorooctane sulfonate PFOS and FOSA, and were compound-specific, as demonstrated by differences in the estimated slopes. The relationships were steeper for PFCAs with chain lengths up to and including PFNA than for the other studied PFASs. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing relationships between PPARα activity and cellular concentration of a broad range of PFASs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N. N.; Fasae, K. P.

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of 40 K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ±416.9 to 5089.3 ±111.3 Bq kg -1 , 9.9 ±7.3 to 450.6 ±14.3 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, while for 232 Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ±2.8 Bq kg -1 . The activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of 226 Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F and C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except 40 K. (authors)

  2. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  3. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  4. Spatial concentration of economic activity and competitiveness of Central European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Majewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with a still somewhat underdeveloped aspect of regional competiveness which regards to spillover effects stemming from spatial proximity of highly competitive neighbors. Although spillover effects are well recognized in the literature, we focus more on inter-regional concentration of business activity when enterprises are located in a particular district which is not far from the agglomeration center but not the center itself. We check for statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation measures (local Moran’s Ii statistic in order to identify spillovers between districts in Central European countries (Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. We use variables indicating Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS, in particular hi-tech KIS and information and communication services (including computer science. We compare 2009 with 2015 to notice agglomeration dynamics. We observe statistically significant spillover effects in Central European countries in urbanization-type clusters as well as strengthening of the effect over time. Taking into consideration more detailed data for Poland we conclude that while hi-tech KIS mostly spill over to neighboring districts, the reverse pattern may be observed for computer science (programming and consultancy. One explanation is that this subsector relies on highly demanded workforce and a prestigious localization (in the agglomeration centers works as a bargaining chip to attract programmers. In order to measure the spillover effects more precisely it is recommended to define and measure the neighborhood of agglomeration centers using localization of firms based on GPS coordinates instead of centroids (geometric means of districts – as shown in example of Poland.

  5. Instruments to measure radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. Interlaboratory comparison 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2011-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by BfS. A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organizational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the website www.bfs.de/de/ion/radon/fachinfomessung/vergleichspruefungen.html and from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (eptis) available in the internet. (orig.)

  6. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2014-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  7. The effect of microbial activity and adsorption processes on groundwater dissolved organic carbon character and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, K.; McDonough, L.; Oudone, P.; Rutlidge, H.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Balancing the terrestrial global carbon budget has proven to be a significant challenge. Whilst the movement of carbon in the atmosphere, rivers and oceans has been extensively studied, the potential for groundwater to act as a carbon source or sink through both microbial activity and sorption to and from mineral surfaces, is poorly understood. To investigate the biodegradable component of groundwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC), groundwater samples were collected from multiple coastal and inland sites. Water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. Samples were analysed and characterised for their biodegradable DOC content using spectrofluorometric and Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) techniques at set intervals within a 28 day period. Further to this, we performed laboratory sorption experiments on our groundwater samples using different minerals to examine the effect of adsorption processes on DOC character and concentration. Calcium carbonate, quartz and iron coated quartz were heated to 400ºC to remove potential carbon contamination, and then added at various known masses (0 mg to 10 g) to 50 mL of groundwater. Samples were then rotated for two hours, filtered at 0.2 μm and analysed by LC-OCD. This research forms part of an ongoing project which will assist in identifying the factors affecting the mobilisation, transport and removal of DOC in uncontaminated groundwater. By quantifying the relative importance of these processes, we can then determine whether the groundwater is a carbon source or sink. Importantly, this information will help guide policy and identify the need to include groundwater resources as part of the carbon economy.

  8. Behaviour of 7Be air concentration observed during a period of 13 years and comparison with sun activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannizzaro, F.; Greco, G.; Raneli, M.; Spitale, M.C.; Tomarchio, E.

    1995-01-01

    The study reported in this work is addressed to review the time variations of the air-borne concentration of cosmogenic 7 Be obtained in the period January 1982-December 1994. Among other things, the observation of a long-term modulation present in the average monthly concentrations led us to perform a comparison with the behaviour in the same period of solar activity owing to its important influence on cosmic rays, from which the 7 Be production originates. (author)

  9. Activity concentration of some anthropogenic radionuclides in the surface marine sediments near the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A.S.; Shabana, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Activity concentrations of some anthropogenic radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am) have been measured in the surface of marine sediments along the Saudi coast of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf. The samples were collected at different locations and water depths. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of the measured radionuclides showed a heterogeneous pattern and is independent of location or water depth. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  10. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  11. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Predictive value of pretreatment metabolic activity measured by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in patients with metastatic advanced gastric cancer: the maximal SUV of the stomach is a prognostic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Chul; Cheoi, Kungseok; Chung, Hyunsoo; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Few studies have evaluated metabolic activity by {sup 18}F-FDG PET as a prognostic factor in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We investigated its prognostic role in metastatic AGC. We enrolled 82 patients with metastatic AGC, who were treatment-naive and underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning. In each patient, the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured in each target lesion. Stomach{sub SUVmax} was defined as SUVmax in the stomach, while Total{sub SUVmax} was defined as the highest SUVmax among all the target lesions. The stomach was the organ most frequently displaying the highest SUVmax among all the target lesions (in 67.1 % of patients). A Total{sub SUVmax} value of 11.5 was the value with the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity from receiver-operating characteristic curves for progression-free survival (PFS). PFS was significantly longer in patients with a Total{sub SUVmax} value <11.5 than in those with a Total{sub SUVmax} value {>=}11.5 (P = 0.023); however, overall survival (OS) was not (P = 0.055). A Stomach{sub SUVmax} value of 6.0 was derived by similar methods. PFS and OS were significantly longer in those with a Stomach{sub SUVmax} value <6.0 than in those with a Stomach{sub SUVmax} value {>=}6.0 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, those with a low Total{sub SUVmax} and those with a low Stomach{sub SUVmax} showed better chemotherapeutic responses (P = 0.016 and P = 0.034, respectively). Among patients with histologically undifferentiated carcinomas, those with lower Total{sub SUVmax} and those with lower Stomach{sub SUVmax} showed longer median PFS (P = 0.027 and P = 0.005, respectively) and OS (P = 0.009 and P <0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated Stomach{sub SUVmax} as an independent predictor of PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.038). Pretreatment metabolic activity may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with metastatic AGC undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Notably

  13. Effect of HCl Loading and Ethanol Concentration over HCl-Activated Clay Catalysts for Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2017-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay (MMT) is one of materials that can be "green material" due to its environmental safety. In this work, acid-activated MMT catalysts were prepared for the dehydration reaction of ethanol. To be the green process, the reaction with bioethanol was also studied. Ethanol concentrations in feed were varied in the range of 10-99.95 wt%. Moreover, the concentrations of hydrochloric acid activated MMT were investigated in range of 0.05-4 M. From the experiment, it reveals that different acid concentrations to activate MMT affect the catalytic activity of catalysts. The 0.3 M of HCl activated MMT exhibits the highest activity (under the best condition of 30 ml HCl aging for 1 h) with the Si/Al ratio of 7.4. It can reach the ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity up to 95% and 98% at reaction temperature of 400°C, respectively. For the several ethanol feed concentrations, it does not remarkably affect in ethanol conversion. However, it has some different effect on ethylene selectivity between lower and higher reaction temperatures. It was found that at lower temperature reaction, ethylene selectivity is high due to the behavior of water in feed. In addition, the 0.3 M-MMT can be carried out under the hydrothermal effect.

  14. Activated endothelial interleukin-1beta, -6, and -8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression are attenuated by lidocaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, Wei

    2012-02-03

    Endothelial cells play a key role in ischemia reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. HUVECs were pretreated with different concentrations of lidocaine (0 to 0.5 mg\\/mL) for 60 min, thereafter tumor necrosis factor-alpha was added at a concentration of 2.5 ng\\/mL and the cells incubated for 4 h. Supernatants were harvested, and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial ICAM-1 expression was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Differences were assessed using analysis of variance and post hoc unpaired Student\\'s t-test where appropriate. Lidocaine (0.5 mg\\/mL) decreased IL-1beta (1.89 +\\/- 0.11 versus 4.16 +\\/- 1.27 pg\\/mL; P = 0.009), IL-6 (65.5 +\\/- 5.14 versus 162 +\\/- 11.5 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001), and IL-8 (3869 +\\/- 785 versus 14,961 +\\/- 406 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001) concentrations compared with the control. IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations in HUVECs treated with clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine (0.005 mg\\/mL) were similar to control. ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine-treated (0.05 mg\\/mL) HUVECs was less than on controls (198 +\\/- 52.7 versus 298 +\\/- 50.3; Mean Channel Fluorescence; P < 0.001). Activated endothelial IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and ICAM-1 expression are attenuated only by lidocaine at concentrations larger than clinically relevant concentrations.

  15. Assessment of metal and trace element concentrations in the Cananeia estuary, Brazil, by neutron activation and atomic absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Berbel, G.B.B.; Braga, E.S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty six bottom sediment samples were collected from the Cananeia estuary in summer and winter of 2005. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption. As, Cr, Hg and Zn concentrations were compared to the Canadian oriented values (TEL and PEL). Sample points 4 and 9 presented higher concentration for most elements and As and Cr exceeded the TEL values. Organic matter (>10%) associated with siltic and clay sediments was observed. Climatic conditions, hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes promote differences in seasonal concentrations of elements at some points, which contribute to special distributions. (author)

  16. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  17. Circadian rhythm of elemental concentration in Japanese morning-glory revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, N.I.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Elemental concentration in each tissue of Japanese morning-glory (Pharbitis nil) during the growth was analyzed by INAA. Plants were grown in water culture for 4 days under 12-hour light and 12-hour dark condition. During the growth, 10 plants in the same developmental stage were periodically harvested. Then the plants were separated into 9 tissues to determine elemental concentration and water content. There was an elemental specific profile within the plant tissue, for example, Na and K concentrations were high in root whereas Mg and Ca concentrations were high at the upper part of the plants. Among the elements studied, Ca and Mg showed rhythmical change in concentration, increased during the day and decreased during the night. This tendency was especially noted at shoot apex. However, water content in all of the tissue was increased about 6 hours prior to the light period and showed maximum in the middle of the light period. About 6 hour difference of water content movement to those of Ca and Mg concentration suggested that water movement drives more dynamic change of each elemental concentration within a plant. (author)

  18. Effects of the multi-step activation process on the carrier concentration of p-type GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Kwan [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong-Ran [LED Research and Business Division, Korea Photonics Technology Institute, Gwanju 500-779 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji-Myon, E-mail: jimlee@sunchon.ac.kr [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Chonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • Hole concentration of p-GaN was enhanced by multi-step activation process. • The O{sub 2} plasma treatment is attributed to the enhanced hole concentration of p-GaN. • PL peak intensity was also enhanced by MS activation process. - Abstract: A multi-step activation method, which include an oxygen plasma treatment, chemical treatment, and post annealing in N{sub 2} was proposed to enhance the hole concentration of a p-type GaN epitaxial layer. This process was found to effectively activate p-GaN by increasing the hole concentration compared to that of the conventionally annealed sample. After the optimal oxygen plasma treatment (10 min at a source and table power of 500 W and 100 W, respectively), followed by a HCl and buffered oxide etchant treatment, and then by a post-RTA process in a N{sub 2} environment, the hole concentration was increased from 4.0 × 10{sup 17} to 2.0 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. The oxygen plasma was found to effectively remove the remaining H atoms and subsequent wet treatment can effectively remove the GaO{sub x} that had formed during O plasma treatment, resulting in the higher intensity of photoluminescence.

  19. Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Using Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Zhu, T.

    2017-12-01

    In this abstract, a decision-level fusion method by utilizing SAR and passive microwave remote sensing data for sea ice concentration estimation is investigated. Sea ice concentration product from passive microwave concentration retrieval methods has large uncertainty within thin ice zone. Passive microwave data including SSM/I, AMSR-E, and AMSR-2 provide daily and long time series observations covering whole polar sea ice scene, and SAR images provide rich sea ice details with high spatial resolution including deformation and polarimetric features. In the proposed method, the merits from passive microwave data and SAR data are considered. Sea ice concentration products from ASI and sea ice category label derived from CRF framework in SAR imagery are calibrated under least distance protocol. For SAR imagery, incident angle and azimuth angle were used to correct backscattering values from slant range to ground range in order to improve geocoding accuracy. The posterior probability distribution between category label from SAR imagery and passive microwave sea ice concentration product is modeled and integrated under Bayesian network, where Gaussian statistical distribution from ASI sea ice concentration products serves as the prior term, which represented as an uncertainty of sea ice concentration. Empirical model based likelihood term is constructed under Bernoulli theory, which meets the non-negative and monotonically increasing conditions. In the posterior probability estimation procedure, final sea ice concentration is obtained using MAP criterion, which equals to minimize the cost function and it can be calculated with nonlinear iteration method. The proposed algorithm is tested on multiple satellite SAR data sets including GF-3, Sentinel-1A, RADARSAT-2 and Envisat ASAR. Results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of ASI sea ice concentration products and reduce the uncertainty along the ice edge.

  20. Influence of variable resistance loading on subsequent free weight maximal back squat performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Minas A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Giakas, Giannis; Kay, Anthony D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the potentiating effects of variable resistance (VR) exercise during a warm-up on subsequent free-weight resistance (FWR) maximal squat performance. In the first session, 16 recreationally active men (age = 26.0 ± 7.8 years; height = 1.7 ± 0.2 m; mass = 82.6 ± 12.7 kg) were familiarized with the experimental protocols and tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat lift. The subjects then visited the laboratory on 2 further occasions under either control or experimental conditions. During these conditions, 2 sets of 3 repetitions of either FWR (control) or VR (experimental) squat lifts at 85% of 1RM were performed; during the experimental condition, 35% of the load was generated from band tension. After a 5-minute rest, 1RM, 3D knee joint kinematics, and vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus electromyogram (EMG) signals were recorded simultaneously. No subject increased 1RM after FWR, however, 13 of 16 (81%) subjects increased 1RM after VR (mean = 7.7%; p 0.05) or EMG amplitudes (mean = 5.9%; p > 0.05) occurred. Preconditioning using VR significantly increased 1RM without detectable changes in knee extensor muscle activity or knee flexion angle, although eccentric and concentric velocities were reduced. Thus, VR seems to potentiate the neuromuscular system to enhance subsequent maximal lifting performance. Athletes could thus use VR during warm-up routines to maximize squat performance.

  1. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  2. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  3. Critical Concentration of Lecithin Enhances the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G.; Davidson, P. Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lecithin is a natural emulsifier used in a wide range of food and nonfood applications to improve physical stability, with no known bioactive effects. In this study, the effect of lecithin on the antimicrobial performance of a constant eugenol concentration was tested against three Escherichia coli strains (C600, 0.1229, and O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728). This is the first study, to our knowledge, focusing on lecithin at concentrations below those commonly used in foods to improve the stability of oil in water emulsions (≤10 mg/100 ml). For all three cultures, significant synergistic antimicrobial effects were observed when E. coli cultures were exposed to a constant eugenol concentration (ranging from 0.043 to 0.050% [wt/wt]) together with critical lecithin concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1 mg/100 ml. Increasing the concentration of lecithin above 1 mg/100 ml (up to 10 mg/100 ml lecithin) diminished the antibacterial effect to values similar to those with eugenol-only treatments. The formation of aggregates (lecithin concentration was observed using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), together with a reduction in light absorbance at 284 nm. At critically low concentrations of lecithin, the formation of nanoscale aggregates is responsible for improving eugenol antimicrobial effects. IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are effective natural antimicrobials. However, their hydrophobicity and strong aromatic character limit the use of essential oils in food systems. Emulsifiers (e.g., lecithin) increase the stability of EOs in water-based systems but fail to consistently improve antimicrobial effects. We demonstrate that lecithin, within a narrow critical concentration window, can enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. This study highlights the potential bioactivity of lecithin when utilized to effectively control foodborne pathogens. PMID:28213539

  4. Critical Concentration of Lecithin Enhances the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G; Davidson, P Michael; Harte, Federico

    2017-04-15

    Lecithin is a natural emulsifier used in a wide range of food and nonfood applications to improve physical stability, with no known bioactive effects. In this study, the effect of lecithin on the antimicrobial performance of a constant eugenol concentration was tested against three Escherichia coli strains (C600, 0.1229, and O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728). This is the first study, to our knowledge, focusing on lecithin at concentrations below those commonly used in foods to improve the stability of oil in water emulsions (≤10 mg/100 ml). For all three cultures, significant synergistic antimicrobial effects were observed when E. coli cultures were exposed to a constant eugenol concentration (ranging from 0.043 to 0.050% [wt/wt]) together with critical lecithin concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1 mg/100 ml. Increasing the concentration of lecithin above 1 mg/100 ml (up to 10 mg/100 ml lecithin) diminished the antibacterial effect to values similar to those with eugenol-only treatments. The formation of aggregates (lecithin concentration was observed using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), together with a reduction in light absorbance at 284 nm. At critically low concentrations of lecithin, the formation of nanoscale aggregates is responsible for improving eugenol antimicrobial effects. IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are effective natural antimicrobials. However, their hydrophobicity and strong aromatic character limit the use of essential oils in food systems. Emulsifiers (e.g., lecithin) increase the stability of EOs in water-based systems but fail to consistently improve antimicrobial effects. We demonstrate that lecithin, within a narrow critical concentration window, can enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. This study highlights the potential bioactivity of lecithin when utilized to effectively control foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Enhancing Protease Activity Assay in Droplet-Based Microfluidics Using a Biomolecule Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Song, Yong-Ak; Miller, Miles A.; Kim, Sung Jae; Griffith, Linda G.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Han, Jongyoon

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a biomolecule concentrator and a microdroplet generator, which enhances the limited sensitivity of low-abundance enzyme assays by concentrating biomolecules before encapsulating them into droplet microreactors. We used this platform to detect ultra low levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from diluted cellular supernatant and showed that it significantly (∼10-fold) reduced the time required to complete the assay and the sample volume used. PMID:21671557

  6. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using 20F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakakura, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate 20 F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the 20 F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm 2 ·s for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of 20 F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author)

  7. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  8. Effects of fulvic acid concentration and origin on photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution: Importance of active oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xinghui; Li Gongchen; Yang Zhifeng; Chen Yumin; Huang, Gordon H.

    2009-01-01

    With an Xe arc lamp house as simulated sunlight, the influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration and origins on photodegradation of acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene in aqueous solution have been studied. Similar effects of FAs, collected from five places around China, on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) photodegradation have been observed. Active oxygen was of significance in PAH photodegradation with the presence of FAs. For systems with 1.25 mg L -1 FAs, the contributions of ·OH to PAH photodegradation rates were from 33% to 69%. FAs had two opposite effects, i.e., stimulating the generation of active oxygen and advancing PAH photodegradation; competing with PAHs for energy and photons and restraining PAH photodegradation. Generally, photodegradation rates of the 5 PAHs decreased with the increase of FAs concentration; except fluoranthene and pyrene were advanced in solutions with low FA concentration. The influences of FA concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin. - Influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin, and active oxygen played an important role in PAH photodegradation

  9. Examination of SUV of regional activity concentration for simultaneous emission/transmission acquisition using the mask technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji; Nishino, Masanari; Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To achieve quantitative accuracy of simultaneous emission/transmission (SET) acquisition using the mask technique, we determined the factor of expression that derives the true transmission data from the measured transmission and emission data. We then evaluated the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the regional activity concentration derived respectively from the SET scans and conventional scans. First, to determine the attenuation factor for the transmission source when the photons of the cylindrical phantom filled with 18 F solution reached emission memory, SET scans were performed with a dummy transmission source and under the blank status of the transmission source. Second, to evaluate the SUV, we used a hollow-sphere phantom filled with 18 F solution whose activity concentrations were approximately 3 and 5 times that of the background. Then we performed conventional and SET scans of the phantom for solutions ranging from the higher concentration to the lower concentration. All of the data were reconstructed with the decay correction, and the SUV of each sphere was derived. The results demonstrated that, when the conventional factor was used, SUV was underestimated according to the increasing activity concentration of the solution. However, when a new factor that took into account the attenuation of the transmission source was used, there was no significant difference in the SUV. We estimated the SUV derived from the SET scans was within 3% for the large spheres and within 16% for the small spheres. (author)

  10. Comparison of the effect of activated or non-activated PRP in various concentrations on osteoblast and fibroblast cell line proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Yadegari, Zahra; Mohammad-Rahimi, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors which positively affect cell proliferation, cell differentiation, chemotaxis and intracellular matrix synthesis. All these processes are involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration; thus, PRP as a source of growth factors can be used in periodontal regenerative therapies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of various concentrations of activated and non-activated PRP on proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts in vitro. PRP was obtained from three healthy volunteers. 75, 50, 25, and 10% concentrations of f PRP were prepared by dilution in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. In activated PRP groups, PRP concentrations were activated by adding calcium gluconate. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell line and MG-63 (osteosarcoma) human osteoblast-like cell line were used in the study. The MTT proliferation assay was used to assess the effect of different types of PRP concentrates on proliferation of HGF and MG-63 cells, in 24, 48 and 72 h. After 24, 48, and 72 h, the proliferation rate of both cell lines was higher in the positive control group, except in 72 h in HGF cell lines, that 10% non-activated PRP group and 10 and 25% activated PRP groups has higher proliferation rate than the positive control group, which it was not significant. Proliferation rate in cells with 10% activated PRP was highest among samples containing PRP. The current study failed to show the significant effect of activated or non-activated PRP on proliferation of HGFs or MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. However, our results showed that activated PRP had a greater effect than non-activated PRP.

  11. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  12. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  13. Study of some modern carbonated marine organisms, using U234/U238 activities and its uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnolatto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Several types of alive carbonated organisms of marine fluvial or mixed environment origin were analized in its concentrations of Uranium and about its activity ratio U 234 /U 238 . In the same way measurements were made from the water of these three types of environments. The results indicate that the mollusks shells show a very low concentration compared with corals. Its concentration varies from 0.04 to 0.33 ppm. Inside the limit of errors we can say that the several types of carbonated organisms show the same disequilibrium U 234 /U 238 which was found in associated waters. An analysis of a piece of wood from long time immersed in the sea water was made. The result indicates that there was a marked high in concentration of Uranium due to chelatation with organic matter. (C.D.G.) [pt

  14. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  15. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  16. Use of neutron activation analysis to measure the variation in trace element concentrations in a coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; Swaine, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were measured by neutron activation on 57 run-of-mine coal samples from several locations in seven mines located in the Lithgow seam in the Western Coalfield, Sydney Basin. Results were tabulated as ratios of the highest to the lowest variance for each element

  17. The influence of concentration/meditation on autonomic nervous system activity and the innate immune response: a case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Stoffels, M.; Smeekens, S.P.; Alfen, N. van; Gomes, M.E.R.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Netea, M.G.; Pickkers, P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this case study, we describe the effects of a particular individual's concentration/meditation technique on autonomic nervous system activity and the innate immune response. The study participant holds several world records with regard to tolerating extreme cold and claims that he can

  18. Distribution of 137Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Holiaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of 137Cs selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of 137Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research, detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of 137Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of 137Cs: d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.55 (Am(ω = 0.63 ± 0.08; 0.55 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.95 (Am(ω = 1.01 ± 0.04; 0.95 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 1.0 (Am(ω = 2.1 ± 0.5.

  19. Platelet activation during preparation of platelet concentrates: a comparison of the platelet-rich plasma and the buffy coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, R.; Pietersz, R. N.; de Korte, D.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Dekker, W. J.; Reesink, H. W.; Roos, D.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of platelets during the preparation of platelet concentrates (PCs) by two methods was compared. To eliminate interdonor differences, 2 units of whole blood were pooled and subsequently divided into two batches. From one batch, the platelets were harvested as pelleted platelets from

  20. Comparing the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of phenanthrene sorbed to activated carbon, biochar and compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Rein, Arno

    2013-01-01

    can be degraded at all, the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of 14C-labelled phenanthrene (⩽5μgL−1) freshly sorbed to suspensions of the pure soil amendments activated carbon (AC), biochar (charcoal) and compost were compared. Firstly, the maximum abiotic desorption of phenanthrene...

  1. Sulforhodamine 101, a widely used astrocyte marker, can induce cortical seizure-like activity at concentrations commonly used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Nedergaard, Maiken; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2016-01-01

    Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) is a preferential astrocyte marker widely used in 2-photon microscopy experiments. Here we show, that topical loading of two commonly used SR101 concentrations, 100 μM and 250 μM when incubated for 10 min, can induce seizure-like local field potential (LFP) activity in ...

  2. Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M = 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period

  3. Determination of selenium in samples of concentrated of nickel plus cobalt using the analysis through activation with epi thermic neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Moreno Bermudez, G.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Arribere, M.A.; Molina Insfran, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the concentration of selenium and other elements was determined. Seventeen samples of sulfides plus cobalt were used. Among the employed methods for such purpose, the analysis was made through neutronic activation, in its instrumental variants, and by means of the application of radiochemical separation. (author) [es

  4. Activity concentration of radionuclides in plants in the environment of western Ghats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    A field study on the transfer of primordial radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and fallout radionuclides 210 Po in different plant species in tropical forest of western Ghats environment is presented. Material and Methods: The Top storey, Second storey, Shrubs and epiphytic plant species were chosen and concentration of these radionuclides in plant and soil were measured by employing gamma ray spectrometer and alpha counter. Results: The concentration ratio shows the variation in different species while a wild plant Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. Conclusion: The dust trapped in the root system of. epiphytic plants could be used as bio indicator to monitor fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. The concentration of 232 Th and 40 K in leaves depends on the age of the leaves.

  5. Effects of potassium concentration on firing patterns of low-calcium epileptiform activity in anesthetized rat hippocampus: inducing of persistent spike activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhouyan; Durand, Dominique M

    2006-04-01

    It has been shown that a low-calcium high-potassium solution can generate ictal-like epileptiform activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, during status epileptiform activity, the concentration of [K+]o increases, and the concentration of [Ca2+]o decreases in brain tissue. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that long-lasting persistent spike activity, similar to one of the patterns of status epilepticus, could be generated by a high-potassium, low-calcium solution in the hippocampus in vivo. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused over the surface of the exposed left dorsal hippocampus of anesthetized rats. A stimulating electrode and a recording probe were placed in the CA1 region. By elevating K+ concentration from 6 to 12 mM in the perfusate solution, the typical firing pattern of low-calcium ictal bursts was transformed into persistent spike activity in the CA1 region with synaptic transmission being suppressed by calcium chelator EGTA. The activity was characterized by double spikes repeated at a frequency approximately 4 Hz that could last for >1 h. The analysis of multiple unit activity showed that both elevating [K+]o and lowering [Ca2+]o decreased the inhibition period after the response of paired-pulse stimulation, indicating a suppression of the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) activity. These results suggest that persistent status epilepticus-like spike activity can be induced by nonsynaptic mechanisms when synaptic transmission is blocked. The unique double-spike pattern of this activity is presumably caused by higher K+ concentration augmenting the frequency of typical low-calcium nonsynaptic burst activity.

  6. Dredging effects on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity in two drainage ditch sediments in the lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drainage ditches are conduits between production acreage and receiving aquatic systems. Often overlooked for their mitigation capabilities, agricultural drainage ditches provide an important role for nutrient transformation via microbial metabolism. Variations in ecoenzyme activities have been used to elucidate microbial metabolism and resource demand of microbial communities to better understand the relationship between altered nutrient ratios and microbial activity in aquatic ecosystems. Two agricultural drainage ditches, one in the northeast portion of the Arkansas Delta and the other in the lower Mississippi Delta, were monitored for a year. Sediment samples were collected prior to each ditch being dredged (cleaned, and subsequent post-dredging samples occurred as soon as access was available. Seasonal samples were then collected throughout a year to examine effects of dredging on selected nutrient concentrations and ecoenzymatic activity recovery in drainage ditch sediments. Phosphorus concentrations in sediments after dredging decreased 33–66%, depending on ditch and phosphorus extraction methodology. Additionally, ecoenzymatic activity was significantly decreased in most sediment samples after dredging. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity, an estimate of total microbial activity, decreased 56–67% after dredging in one of the two ditches. Many sample sites also had significant phosphorus and ecoenzymatic activity differences between the post-dredge samples and the year-long follow-up samples. Results indicate microbial metabolism in dredged drainage ditches may take up to a year or more to recover to pre-dredged levels. Likewise, while sediment nutrient concentrations may be decreased through dredging and removal, runoff and erosion events over time tend to quickly replenish nutrient concentrations in replaced sediments. Understanding nutrient dynamics and microbial metabolism within agricultural drainage ditches is

  7. A Specific Melon Concentrate Exhibits Photoprotective Effects from Antioxidant Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Egoumenides

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest body organ and the first barrier to exogenous threats. This organ is constantly exposed to external factors such as ultraviolet radiation, which induces many adverse effects including sunburn, depigmentation, photo aging, photo immune suppression, and even skin cancer. Antioxidants seem to be good candidates in order to reduce ultraviolet-mediated damages and to prevent the health consequences of ultraviolet exposure. The present investigation aims to further characterize the potential skin photoprotective effects of a food supplementation and a topical administration of a melon concentrate alone or in combination. A clinical study assessing the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED was first set up to evaluate photoprotection. Afterward, an independent in vitro study was performed on human skin explants from a donor to evaluate the effect of the melon concentrate at different levels including on the sunburn cells formation and on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and its influence on melanin. Clinical study results demonstrate that melon concentrate application and/or supplementation increased MED. It also increased the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced sunburn cells and melanin level on irradiated skin explants. Therefore, it is suggested that melon concentrate administration (oral and/or topical could be a useful strategy for photoprotection due to its antioxidant properties.

  8. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  9. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Akata, Naofumi

    2015-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The 3 H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l -1 ) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l -1 ), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The 3 H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether 3 H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the 3 H concentrations observed in this study. (authors)

  10. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Tritium ((3)H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The (3)H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l(-1)) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l(-1)), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The (3)H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether (3)H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the (3)H concentrations observed in this study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. More efficient reversal of dabigatran inhibition of coagulation by activated prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant factor VIIa than by four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Wallstedt, Maria; Gustafsson, Kerstin M; Persson, Egon; Hillarp, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    The number of patients on antithrombotic treatment due to atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism is increasing fast due to an aging population. A growing proportion will be treated with novel oral anticoagulants, the first in clinical use was the direct oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran (Pradaxa®). A small percentage of the patients on dabigatran will experience serious bleeding or be in need of urgent surgery. The aim of this study was to test the effects of different hemostatic agents in potentially reversing the anticoagulant effects in vitro in blood or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) spiked with dabigatran. Whole blood or PRP was spiked with the active substance dabigatran, 200 μg/L. We measured clotting time being induced by 1.4 pmol/L tissue factor using the instrument ReoRox2™ and initial clot growth velocity from a tissue factor covered surface using the instrument Thrombodynamics Analyzer T-2™. Dabigatran prolonged clotting time 5-fold but reduced clot growth velocity only slightly. The reversing effects of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), activated PCC (APCC) and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) were then tested. APCC (1.8 U/mL) reduced the prolonged clotting time by 1/3, rFVIIa (2 μg/L) only slightly (n = 10-20). The reduction was not significant using Mann-Whitney test but significant using t-test with Bonferronis' correction for multiple comparisons, whereas PCC (0.56 U/mL) had no effect on clotting time. APCC doubled initial clot growth velocity, although even more in the absence of dabigatran. In conclusion, APCC and rFVIIa, but not PCC, seem to reverse, at least partially, some effects of dabigatran on coagulation parameters. Systematic evaluation of case reports, registries and, ultimately, randomized clinical trials are needed to elucidate potential benefit for patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical Synergistic Concentration of Lecithin Phospholipids Improves the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of individual lecithin phospholipids on the antimicrobial properties of eugenol against Escherichia coli C600 was investigated. We tested five major phospholipids common in soy or egg lecithin (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC], 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [DPPE], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate [sodium salt] [DPPA], and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine [DPPS]) and one synthetic cationic phospholipid (1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine [18:0 EPC]). Among the six phospholipids, DPPC, DSPC, DPPE, DPPA, and the cationic 18:0 EPC showed critical synergistic concentrations that significantly improved the inactivation effect of eugenol against E. coli after 30 min of exposure. At the critical synergistic concentration, an additional ca. 0.4 to 1.9 log reduction (ca. 0.66 to 2.17 log CFU/ml reduction) in the microbial population was observed compared to eugenol-only (control) treatments (ca. 0.25 log reduction). In all cases, increasing the phospholipid amount above the critical synergistic concentration (which was different for each phospholipid) resulted in antimicrobial properties similar to those seen with the eugenol-only (control) treatments. DPPS did not affect the antimicrobial properties of eugenol at the tested concentrations. The critical synergistic concentration of phospholipids was correlated with their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are naturally occurring antimicrobials, with limited use in food due to their hydrophobicity and strong aroma. Lecithin is used as a natural emulsifier to stabilize EOs in aqueous systems. We previously demonstrated that, within a narrow critical-concentration window, lecithin can synergistically enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. Since lecithin is a mixture of different phospholipids, we aimed to

  13. Critical Synergistic Concentration of Lecithin Phospholipids Improves the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G; Harte, Federico

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the effect of individual lecithin phospholipids on the antimicrobial properties of eugenol against Escherichia coli C600 was investigated. We tested five major phospholipids common in soy or egg lecithin (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC], 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [DPPE], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate [sodium salt] [DPPA], and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine [DPPS]) and one synthetic cationic phospholipid (1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine [18:0 EPC]). Among the six phospholipids, DPPC, DSPC, DPPE, DPPA, and the cationic 18:0 EPC showed critical synergistic concentrations that significantly improved the inactivation effect of eugenol against E. coli after 30 min of exposure. At the critical synergistic concentration, an additional ca. 0.4 to 1.9 log reduction (ca. 0.66 to 2.17 log CFU/ml reduction) in the microbial population was observed compared to eugenol-only (control) treatments (ca. 0.25 log reduction). In all cases, increasing the phospholipid amount above the critical synergistic concentration (which was different for each phospholipid) resulted in antimicrobial properties similar to those seen with the eugenol-only (control) treatments. DPPS did not affect the antimicrobial properties of eugenol at the tested concentrations. The critical synergistic concentration of phospholipids was correlated with their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are naturally occurring antimicrobials, with limited use in food due to their hydrophobicity and strong aroma. Lecithin is used as a natural emulsifier to stabilize EOs in aqueous systems. We previously demonstrated that, within a narrow critical-concentration window, lecithin can synergistically enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. Since lecithin is a mixture of different phospholipids, we aimed to identify

  14. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  15. The gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables of Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Jun, J.S.; Oh, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables such as Brassica Campestris, Raphanus Sativus and Lactuca Sativa grown in Daejeon area was carried out during the period of April through August 1983. The observed levels of gross beta activity and the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the levels of the vegetables were, on average, 189.2+-51.8pCi/g-ash (2372+-827pCi/kg-fresh) and 44.4+-11.5sup(90)Sr pCi/g-Ca(2.5+-0.5sup(90) pCi/g-ash or 31.6+-8.6 sup(90)Sr pCi/kg-fresh), respectively, while the mean level of the gross beta activity in roots was 158.6+-19.4pCi/g-ash(2121+-899pCi/kg-fresh). On the basis of the ICRP recommendations, an estimative evaluation was made for the concentration of sup(90)Sr in the vegetables, and it was turned out to be far below the permissible level. An attempt was also made to look for any existing difference in the gross beta, activities of the vegetables grown in vinyl house and in open field, taking seasonal variation of airborne radioactivity into account for normalizing the activity deposited during the course of discrepant farming period. (Author)

  16. Activity Concentrations of radionuclides in sea water in some Coastal Egyptian Regions and Their Public Health Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefien, S.M.; Abdel Malik, W.E.Y.; Ibrahim, A.S.; Yousef, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been carried out monthly for one year period in order to find out the average activity concentrations of the natural radionuclide in some Egyptian coastal aquatic environment and to assess the annual radiation doses likely to be received by population near by. The determinations were mainly for the measurement of gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples and some of its constituents. It has been found that; the average gross α, β and γ activities in sea water samples for the different studied locations ranged from (0-52) x 10 -3 ,(3-68) x10 -3 and (13-283) x10 -3 Bq.l -1 respectively but still below the recommended permissible limits in most locations. It was found that Rashid area posses the highest concentrations of uranium and thorium. The present results have shown that the radio activities of most of the locations are mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclide. No regular tendency increase was observed in activity concentrations of any particular radionuclide in the studied period. Calculations have shown that, the average external dose from the γ- emitting radionuclide is ranged over (0.5-177)x10 -3 nGy/hr with annual exposure dose ranged from (1.04-29)x10 -3 nGy in most locations except Rashid. This exposure dose does not present radiological injuries to the population

  17. The Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at PSI; Das Referenzlabor fuer Radongas-Konzentrationsmessungen am PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Christoph

    1998-09-01

    Active or passive radon gas measuring instruments are exposed during intercomparison exercises in the radon chamber of the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut: The traceability of radon gas measurements to nationally and internationally acknowledged standards is inspected in the reference atmosphere of the chamber with calibrated {sup 222}Rn activity concentration. The use of secondary standards guarantees the traceability of the radon chamber reference atmosphere. Besides the principal secondary standard, a radon gas standard (secondary standard I), a {sup 226}Ra standard solution (secondary standard II) and a {sup 222}Rn emanation standard (secondary standard III) are used. The {sup 222}Rn activity delivered by one of these standards is quantitatively transferred into a reference volume and hence converted to an activity concentration serving for the calibration of a measuring instrument transfer standard consisting of scintillation cell and counter. By this way, the transfer standard calibration is related and traceable to the internationally acknowledged primary standard laboratories National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (U.S.A.) or National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (UK). The calibrated transfer standard is then used to calibrate the radon gas activity concentration in the radon chamber. For a single grab sampling determination of the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in the radon chamber with the transfer standard, the estimation of Type A and Type B uncertainties yields a relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) of minimum 3% for high concentration levels (10 kBqm{sup -3}) and maximum 30% for low concentration levels (0.2 kBqm{sup -3}). Extended evaluations of the reproducibility of calibration factor measurements obtained by calibration of the transfer standard with the secondary standards I, II and III show a very good reproducibility quality

  18. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Ingestion on Malondialdehyde Concentration and the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride intoxication has been shown to produce diverse deleterious metabolic alterations within the cell. To determine the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF treatment on malondialdehyde (MDA levels and on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rat erythrocytes, Male Wistar rats were treated with 50 ppm of NaF or were untreated as controls. Erythrocytes were obtained from rats sacrificed weekly for up to eight weeks and the concentration of MDA in erythrocyte membrane was determined. In addition, the activity of the enzymes superoxide, dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Treatment with NaF produces an increase in the concentration of malondialdehyde in the erythrocyte membrane only after the eight weeks of treatment. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme activity was observed to increase after the fourth week of NaF treatment. In conclusion, intake of NaF produces alterations in the erythrocyte of the male rat, which indicates induction of oxidative stress.

  19. Iron Quadrangle, Brazil. Elemental concentration determined by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis. Part 2. Kale samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Palmieri, H.E.L.; Leonel, L.V.; Nalini, H.A.Jr.; Jacimovic, R.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of mining activity on elemental concentrations in kale grown around a mining area. Two sites studied are in the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil, considered one of the richest mineral-bearing regions in the world. One site is near mineral exploration activity and the other is an ecological area. A comparator site outside the Iron Quadrangle was also analyzed. This work focused on the determination of the elemental concentrations in kale applying the k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis. As the Brazilian legislation specifies values for soil only, the results for kale were compared to the literature values and it was found that the vegetable does not present any health risks. (author)

  20. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  1. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  2. Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M. T. E.; Zwarts, M. J.; Leer, J. W. H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-efficacy

  3. Optimization of moistening solution concentration on xylanase activity in solid state fermentation from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardawati, Efri; Parlan; Rialita, Tita; Nurhadi, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Xylanase is an enzyme used in the industrial world, including food industry. Xylanase can be utilized as a 1,4-β-xylosidic endo-hydrolysis catalyst of xylanase, a hemicellulose component for obtaining a xylose monomer. This study aims to determine the optimum concentration of the fermentation medium using Response Surface Method (RSM) in the production of xylanase enzyme from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) through solid state fermentation process. The variables varied in this study used factor A (ammonium sulphate concentration 1.0-2.0 g/L), B (concentration of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.5-2.5 g/L) and C (urea concentration 0.2 – 0.5 g/L). The data was analysed by using Design Expert version 10.0.1.0 especially CCD with total 17 running including 3 times replicated of canter point. Trichoderma viride was used for the process production of xylanase enzyme. The ratio between substrate and moistening solution used was 0.63 g / mL with temperature of 32.80C, 60 h incubation time. The analysis of enzyme activity was done by DNS method with 1% xylan as substrate. Analysis of protein content in enzyme was done by Bradford method. The optimum of moistening solution concentration in this fermentation was obtained. They are, the ammonium sulphate concentration of 1.5 g/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2.0 g/L and urea 0.35 g/L with activity of 684.70 U/mL, specific activity enzyme xylanase 6261.58 U/mg, protein content 0.1093 U/mg, the model was validated using experiment design with perfect reliability value 0.96.

  4. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  6. Alteration of natural "3"7Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    High "3"7Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of "3"7Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict "3"7Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating "3"7Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for "3"7Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural "3"7Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of "3"7Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on "3"7Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while "3"7Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI. - Highlights: • "3"7Ar in the subsurface as a key evidence to detect underground nuclear explosions. • Numerical modeling of "3"7Ar production and transport in variably saturated soil. • Large uncertainty on predicting "3"7Ar activity concentration in soil gas. • Control of subsurface "3"7Ar temporal variability by water infiltration events. • Limited influence of soil water content on "3"7Ar production.

  7. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 1 Effect of existing production methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that

  8. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  9. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  11. Sympathetic nervous activity and renal and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhosis: plasma norepinephrine concentration, hepatic extraction, and renal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Hesse, B; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1982-01-01

    as previously reported in healthy controls. The right kidney released NE into the systemic circulation. Renal venous plasma NE exceeded arterial concentration by 34% (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity is enhanced in patients with cirrhosis, and that this hyperactivity may...... in patients than controls (82 vs. 95 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) but did not change during the tilt. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration was significantly higher in another eight patients with cirrhosis than in eight healthy controls (mean: 0.45 vs. 0.21 ng per ml in recumbency, p less than 0.02). Following...

  12. Preparation of factor VII concentrate using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi Hosseini, Kamran; Nasiri, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factor VII concentrates are used in patients with congenital or acquired factor VII deficiency or treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this research, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify factor VII from prothrombin complex (Prothrombin- Proconvertin-Stuart Factor-Antihemophilic Factor B or PPSB) which contains coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The aim of this study was to improve purity, safety and tolerability as a highly purified factor VII conce...

  13. Proposal of limits for the concentration of radionuclides activity in drinking water for Polish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipiak, B.; Haratym, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discussed the influence of the radionuclides contents in drinking water on the exposure of the population. The way of transformation of the limits of effective dose into the relevant concentration of radionuclides in drinking water is presented together with the results of these calculations. We propose to approve these limits for particular radionuclides. The suggestion for the methodology and organization of measurements are also given. (author)

  14. Elevated CO2 concentration affects vertical distribution of photosynthetic activity in Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Holub, Petr; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 1-2 (2017), s. 67-74 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : chlorophyll * CO2 assimilation * elevated CO2 * concentration * transpiration * vertical gradient * water-use efficiency Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) https://beskydy.mendelu.cz/10/1/0067/

  15. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  16. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose of foodstuffs on the island of Tenerife (Spain))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez-Aldecoa, J. C.; Landeras, M. I.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 26 different food types and 12 elaborated diets were analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry to measure their content of 238 U( 234 Th), 228 Ra( 228 Ac), 226 Ra( 214 Pb), 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K. The concentrations of these radionuclides measured in some imported foodstuffs were compared with those measured in some locally produced ones. Moreover, the concentrations found in the analysed foodstuffs and composite diets were compared with the data available in literature from other locations, such as Egypt (Brazil)) (Poland)) and Hong Kong. 40 K contributed highest to the daily dose produced by the intake of comestibles. The largest 40 K concentrations were measured in the chickpeas and beans with 380 ± 30 and 380 ± 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weights, respectively. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured only above detection limits in the potatoes and sweet potatoes. A mean annual effective dose of 362 μSv with a standard deviation of 110 μSv was calculated from the composite diets. (authors)

  17. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  19. Maximizing PTH Anabolic Osteoporosis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2 MSPC uti - lizing a sensitive polymerase chain reaction- (PCR) based ELISA detection method (29). Consistently, higher levels of telomerase activity...A.H. (1989) Pitfalls of spinal deformities associated with neurofibromatosis in children . Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 245, 29–42. 12. Sbihi, A... children . Rev. Stomatol. Chir. Maxillofac., 103, 105–113. 19. Bilezekian, J., Raisz, L. and Rodan, G. (2002) Principles of Bone Biology, Academic Press

  20. Effect of ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity on plasma adiponectin concentrations among malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Koo Hui; Sathyasurya, Daniel Robert; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

    2013-01-01

    The Malaysian Health and morbidity Survey (2006) reported the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the Indian population compared to the Malay and Chinese populations. Many studies have supported the important role of adiponectin in insulin-sensitizing, which is associated with T2DM. These studies have raised a research question whether the variation in prevalence is related to the adiponectin concentrations or the lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the adiponectin concentrations differ between the Malay, Chinese and the Indian populations with T2DM. It is to investigate the association of adiponectin concentrations with ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity too. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 210 T2DM patients with mean (SD) age of 56.73 (10.23) years were recruited from Penang, Malaysia. Data on demographic background, medical history, anthropometry (weight, height, visceral fat, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), dietary intake (3 days 24 hours diet recall) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were obtained accordingly. Plasma adiponectin and routine laboratory tests (fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride) were performed according to standard procedure. After adjustment for physical activity and dietary intakes, the Indian population had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.003) when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations, The Indian population also had significantly higher value of HbA1c (P = 0.017) and significantly lower HDL (P = 0.013). Plasma adiponectin concentrations was significantly associated with ethnicity (P = 0.011), dietary carbohydrate (P = 0.003) and physical activity total MET score (P = 0.026), after medical history, age, sex, total cholesterol and visceral fat adjusted. However, dietary carbohydrate and physical activity did not show significantly

  1. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  2. Evaluation of the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrates from municipal wastewater reclamation by coagulation and granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Xue; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Tao; Shi, Na; Tian, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from municipal wastewater reclamation reverse osmosis (mWRRO) contains elevated concentrations of contaminants which pose potential risks to aquatic environment. The treatment of ROC from an mWRRO using granular activated carbon (GAC) combined pretreatment of coagulation was optimized and evaluated. Among the three coagulants tested, ferric chloride (FeCl3) presented relatively higher DOC removal efficiency than polyaluminium chloride and lime at the same dosage and coagulation conditions. The removal efficiency of DOC, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity concentration of the ROC could achieve 16.9, 18.9, and 39.7 %, respectively, by FeCl3 coagulation (with FeCl3 dosage of 180.22 mg/L), which can hardly reduce UV254 and genotoxicity normalized by DOC of the DOM with MW activity were completely eliminated by the GAC adsorption. The results suggest that GAC adsorption combined pretreatment of FeCl3 coagulation as an efficient method to control organics, genotoxicity, and antiestrogenic activity in the ROC from mWRRO system.

  3. Reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione reductase activity in various rat tissues after the administration of some radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulpanova, J.; Kovarova, H.; Ledvina, M.

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of glutathione reductase were investigated in rat liver, kidney and spleen after intraperitoneal administration of cystamine (50 mg/kg), mexamine (10 mg/kg), or a mixture of cystamine with mexamine (20 + 10 mg/kg). The GSH concentration increased after the administration of cystamine in the liver (maximum between the 20th and 30th min), in the kidney and spleen (maximum after 60 min). The cystamine + mexamine mixture also caused a significant increase of the GSH concentration in all the organs investigated; however, the values increased at earlier intervals as after the cystamine administration. No substantial effect was shown in the case of the mexamine administration, only 30 min after the administration the values were higher. The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly lower over the entire period examined. This was found in the liver and kidney as after the administration of cystamine, as after the radioprotective mixture. There was also a less pronounced inhibition of the enzyme activity in the spleen. Mexamine as a single radioprotector had practically no influence on the activity. (author)

  4. Plackett-Burman Design for rGILCC1 Laccase Activity Enhancement in Pichia pastoris: Concentrated Enzyme Kinetic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin D. Morales-Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are multicopper oxidases that catalyze aromatic and nonaromatic compounds with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to water. They are of great interest due to their potential biotechnological applications. In this work we statistically improved culture media for recombinant GILCC1 (rGILCC1 laccase production at low scale from Ganoderma lucidum containing the construct pGAPZαA-GlucPost-Stop in Pichia pastoris. Temperature, pH stability, and kinetic parameter characterizations were determined by monitoring concentrate enzyme oxidation at different ABTS substrate concentrations. Plackett-Burman Design allowed improving enzyme activity from previous work 36.08-fold, with a laccase activity of 4.69 ± 0.39 UL−1 at 168 h of culture in a 500 mL shake-flask. Concentrated rGILCC1 remained stable between 10 and 50°C and retained a residual enzymatic activity greater than 70% at 60°C and 50% at 70°C. In regard to pH stability, concentrated enzyme was more stable at pH 4.0 ± 0.2 with a residual activity greater than 90%. The lowest residual activity greater than 55% was obtained at pH 10.0 ± 0.2. Furthermore, calculated apparent enzyme kinetic parameters were a Vmax of 6.87 × 10−5 mM s−1, with an apparent Km of 5.36 × 10−2 mM. Collectively, these important stability findings open possibilities for applications involving a wide pH and temperature ranges.

  5. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  6. BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATIONS OF BIFENTHRIN CORRELATE WITH DECREASED MOTOR ACTIVITY INDEPENDENT OF TIME OF EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides used in a variety of agricultural and household activities. Due to the phase-out of organophosphate pesticides, the use of pyrethroids has increased. The potential for human exposure to pyrethroids has prompted pharmacodynamic and pharmac...

  7. Tunneling and activity of reticulitermes flavipes (isoptera: rhinotermitidae) exposed to low concentrations of nonrepellent termiticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Mulrooney; P.D. Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Tunneling and activity bioassays of chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and imidaclopridtreated sand were conducted in the laboratory using Reticulitermes flavipes(Kollar). Termites tunneled significantly less through sand treated with 1.0

  8. Changes in calmodulin concentration and cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in skeletal muscle of hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, T; Iwase, K; Yoshimochi, I; Sawai, Y; Oda, N; Nishida, Y; Mokuno, T; Kotake, M; Nakai, A; Hayakawa, N

    1995-08-01

    Hyper- and hypothyroid states occasionally induce skeletal muscle dysfunction i.e. periodic paralysis and thyroid myopathy. The etiology of these diseases remains unclear, but several findings suggest that the catecholamine-beta-receptor-cAMP system or other messenger systems are disturbed in these diseases. In this context, we evaluated changes in the cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide metabolic enzyme, cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and calmodulin concentrations in skeletal muscles of hyper- and hypothyroid rats. Activities of cyclic AMP-PDE were low in skeletal muscle both from hyper- and hypothyroid rats, and calmodulin concentration was high in hyperthyroid and low in hypothyroid rats, as compared with normal rats. DE-52 column chromatographic analysis showed that the cGMP hydrolytic activity in peak I and the cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak II were decreased in hypothyroid rats, whereas cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was unchanged. The cAMP hydrolytic activity in peak III was decreased in hyperthyroid rats, but the activities in peaks I and II were unchanged. These findings indicate that cAMP and calmodulin may have some role in skeletal muscle function in the hyperthyroid state, and that cAMP and calmodulin-dependent metabolism may be suppressed in the hypothyroid state.

  9. Impact of human activities on the concentration of indoor air particles in an antarctic research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Coelho Pagel

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main characteristics of Antarctic buildings is the fact that they are designed mostly with a focus on energy efficiency. Although human activity is a major source of pollution, indoor air quality is not a matter of significant concern during building planning. This study examines the relationship between indoor activities in an Antarctic Research Station and the size distribution of particulate matter. Real-time particle size distribution data is used in conjunction with time-activity data. The activity number ratio is calculated using the mean number of particles found in each size range during each activity divided by the average number of particles found during a period characterized by the absence of human activities. Cooking, the use of cosmetics, waste incineration and exhaust from light vehicles were responsible for significant deterioration of indoor air related to the presence of fine and ultrafine particles. Cleaning, physical exercise and the movement of people were responsible for the emission of coarse particles. This article emphasizes the importance of post-occupancy evaluation of buildings, generating results relevant to the planning and layout of new buildings, especially regarding better indoor air quality.

  10. Activity concentration of uranium in groundwater from uranium mineralized areas and its neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, S.A.; Funtua, I.I.; Dewu, B.B.M.; Alagbe, S.A.; Garba, M.L.; Kwaya, M.Y.; Baloga, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in parts of northeastern Nigeria necessitated its exploration during early eighties by the Nigeria Uranium Mining Company (NUMCO) which was later abandoned. During their course of decay, uranium isotopes pass through radioactive decay stage and eventually into stable isotope of lead. The course of concern for soluble uranium in groundwater especially from the mineralized areas include ionizing radiation, chemical toxicity and reproductive defects for which ingested uranium has been implicated to have caused. This study is aimed at assessing the levels of concentration of uranium in groundwater to ascertain its compliance with the World Health Organization's (WHO) and the United State Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guideline for uranium in drinking water. Thirty five groundwater samples were collected using EPA's groundwater sampling protocol and analyzed at the Department of Geology, University of Cape Town using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric (ICP-MS) technique. Significant finding of this work was that there is radiological contamination of groundwater in the area. There is also an indication that the extent of radiological contamination is not much within the mineralized zones, therefore, there is likelihood that groundwater has acted as a medium of transporting and enhancing uranium in groundwater in an environment away from that of origin. About 5.7 % of the samples studied had uranium concentration above WHO and EPA's maximum contaminant level of 30 μg/L which is a major concern for inhabitants of the area. It was also apparent that radiological contamination at the southwestern part of the study area extends into the adjacent sheet (sheet 152). Uranium concentration above set standards in those areas might have originated from rocks around established mineralized zones but was transported to those contaminated areas by groundwater that leaches across the host rock and subsequently mobilizing soluble uranium

  11. Anti-Toxoplasma activity of various molecular weights and concentrations of chitosan nanoparticles on tachyzoites of RH strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Aref; Azami, Sanaz Jafarpour; Keshavarz, Hossein; Esmaeili, Fariba; Alimi, Rasoul; Mavi, Sara Ayazian; Shojaee, Saeedeh

    2018-01-01

    Natural polysaccharides such as chitosan (CS) are widely used as antimicrobial agents. In recent years, and considering that CS has a strong antimicrobial potential, interest has been focused on antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs). The main factors affecting the antibacterial activity of chitosan include molecular weight (MW) and concentration. In this regard, the aim of this study was to produce various MWs and concentrations of CS NPs, through the ionic gelation method, and investigate their potential anti-parasitic activity against tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain. The MWs and degree of deacetylation of the CS were characterized using viscometric and acid-base titration methods, respectively. The efficacy of various MWs and concentrations of NPs was assessed by performing in vitro experiments for tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, such as MTT assay, scanning electron microscopy, bioassay in mice and PCR. In vivo experiment was carried out in BALB/c mice which were inoculated with tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and treated with various MWs of CS NPs. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that anti- Toxoplasma activity strengthened as the CS NPs concentration increased and the MW decreased. In vitro experiment showed 100% mortality of tachyzoites at 500 and 1,000 ppm concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) CS NPs after 180 min and at 2,000 ppm after 120 min. Furthermore, a 100% mortality of tachyzoites was observed at 1,000 and 2,000 ppm concentrations of medium molecular weight (MMW) CS NPs and at 2,000 ppm concentration of high molecular weight (HMW) CS NPs after 180 min. Growth inhibition rates of tachyzoites in peritoneal exudates of mice receiving low, medium and high MWs of CS NPs were found to be 86%, 84% and 79% respectively, compared to those of mice in sulfadiazine treatment group (positive control). Various MWs of CS NPs exhibited great anti- Toxoplasma efficiency against tachyzoites of RH

  12. Antigenic activity of concentrated purified cultural rabies vaciine inactivated by gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morogova, V M; Krutilina, D.V.; Latypova, R G; Dulina, A V; Nigamov, F N; Pogrebnyak, E M [Ufimskij Inst. Vaktsin i Syvorotok; Sanitarno-Ehpidemiologicheskaya Stantsiya, Ufimskaya Gorodskaya [USSR

    1978-12-01

    The ability to stimulate the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies and the reactivity of concentrated, purified and gamma-inactivated cultural antirabic vaccine from the Vnukovo-32 strain (35-38th passages) were studied in experiments with humans and animals. After two intramuscular immunizations (2 ml) at 21- or 23-day intervals, this preparation of the vaccine yielded antibody titers (both in humans and in animals) not lower than those obtained after a full course of immunization with the cultural or cerebral antirabic vaccine.

  13. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides activity concentration in East Malaysian marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yii, M.W. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)], E-mail: yii@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zaharudin, A.; Abdul-Kadir, I. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2009-04-15

    Studies of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in East Malaysia were carried out as part of a marine coastal environment project. The results of measurements will serve as baseline data and background reference level for Malaysia coastlines. Sediments from 21 coastal locations and 10 near shore locations were collected for analyses. The samples were dried, finely ground, sealed in a container and stored for a minimum of 30 days to establish secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra and their respective radioactive progenies. They were counted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer covering the respective progeny energy peak. For {sup 40}K, the presence of this was measured directly via its 1460 keV energy peak. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples obtained from coastal Sarawak ranged between 23 and 41 (mean 30{+-}2) Bq/kg, 27 and 45 (mean 39{+-}4) Bq/kg and 142 and 680 (mean 462{+-}59) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from coastal Sabah ranged between 16 and 30 (mean 23{+-}2) Bq/kg, 23 and 45 (mean 35{+-}4) Bq/kg and 402 and 842 (mean 577{+-}75) Bq/kg, respectively. For the Sarawak near shore stations, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K ranged between 11 and 36 (mean 22{+-}2) Bq/kg, 21 and 65 (mean 39{+-}5) Bq/kg and 149 and 517 (mean 309{+-}41) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from Sabah ranged between 9 and 31 (mean 14{+-}2) Bq/kg, 10 and 48 (mean 21{+-}3) Bq/kg and 140 and 580 (mean 269{+-}36) Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated external hazard values of between 0.17 and 0.33 (less than unity) showed that there is little risk of external hazard to the workers handling the sediments.

  14. Metal concentrations in scleractinean corals determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Saunders, M.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Castellon Insua, L.; Gonzalez Labrada, K.; Lopez Reyes, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Five species of scleractinean corals, extracted from the Northern Havana reef, were studied by INAA and AAS. Selected specimens were sectioned in 'foot', 'enter' and 'head' parts before pulverization procedure. INAA for different irradiation and decay time regimes in a reactor allowed the determination of: Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Sc, Cr, Co, Th, Lu, Eu, Ce, Hf, La and Sr. AAS was performed in a Pye Unicam Model 929 spectrometer. Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Fe were detected. Ca concentration in all species was also established. Obtained Metal-Calcium ratios for Sr, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni and Sc are compared with reported values. (author)

  15. Studies on Thorium Adsorption Characteristics upon Activated Titanium Hydroxide Prepared from Rosetta Ilmenite Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M; Zaki, S

    2016-01-01

    The titanium hydroxide prepared from Rosetta ilmenite concentrate has been applied for Th (IV) adsorption from its acid aqueous solutions. The prepared hydroxide is first characterized by both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis. The relevant factors affecting the adsorption process have been studied. The obtained equilibrium data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm, while the adsorption kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order model. The different thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated and indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous

  16. Activity of microemulsion-based nanoparticles at the human bio-nano interface: concentration-dependent effects on thrombosis and hemolysis in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morey, Timothy E.; Varshney, Manoj; Flint, Jason A.; Seubert, Christoph N.; Smith, W. Brit; Bjoraker, David G.; Shah, Dinesh O.; Dennis, Donn M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although microemulsion-based nanoparticles (MEs) may be useful for drug delivery or scavenging, these benefits must be balanced against potential nanotoxicological effects in biological tissue (bio-nano interface). We investigated the actions of assembled MEs and their individual components at the bio-nano interface of thrombosis and hemolysis in human blood.Methods: Oil-in-water MEs were synthesized using ethylbutyrate, sodium caprylate, and pluronic F-68 (ME4) or F-127 (ME6) in 0.9% NaCl w/v . The effects of MEs or components on thrombosis were determined using thrombo-elastography, platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus, and platelet counting. For hemolysis, ME or components were incubated with erythrocytes, centrifuged, and washed for measurement of free hemoglobin by spectroscopy.Results and conclusions: The mean particle diameters (polydispersity index) for ME6 and ME4 were 23.6 ± 2.5 nm (0.362) and 14.0 ± 1.0 nm (0.008), respectively. MEs (0, 0.03, 0.3, 3 mM) markedly reduced the thromboelastograph maximal amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (49.0 ± 4.2, 39.0 ± 5.6, 15.0 ± 8.7, 3.8 ± 1.3 mm, respectively), an effect highly correlated (r2 = 0.94) with similar changes caused by pluronic surfactants (48.7 ± 10.9, 30.7 ± 15.8, 20.0 ± 11.3, 2.0 ± 0.5) alone. Neither oil nor sodium caprylate alone affected the thromboelastograph. The clot contractile force was reduced by ME (27.3 ± 11.1-6.7 ± 3.4 kdynes/cm 2 , P = 0.02, n = 5) whereas the platelet population not affected (175 ± 28-182 ± 23 10 6 /ml, P = 0.12, n = 6). This data suggests that MEs reduced platelet activity due to associated pluronic surfactants, but caused minimal changes in protein function necessary for coagulation. Although pharmacological concentrations of sodium caprylate caused hemolysis (EC 50 = 213 mM), MEs and pluronic surfactants did not disrupt erythrocytes. Knowledge of nanoparticle activity and potential associated nanotoxicity at this bio

  17. Activity of microemulsion-based nanoparticles at the human bio-nano interface: concentration-dependent effects on thrombosis and hemolysis in whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, Timothy E.; Varshney, Manoj; Flint, Jason A.; Seubert, Christoph N.; Smith, W. Brit; Bjoraker, David G.; Shah, Dinesh O.; Dennis, Donn M. [University of Florida, Departments of Anesthesiology, Chemical Engineering, and Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Engineering Research Center for Particle Science and Technology (United States)], E-mail: DDennis@ufl.edu

    2004-06-15

    Background: Although microemulsion-based nanoparticles (MEs) may be useful for drug delivery or scavenging, these benefits must be balanced against potential nanotoxicological effects in biological tissue (bio-nano interface). We investigated the actions of assembled MEs and their individual components at the bio-nano interface of thrombosis and hemolysis in human blood.Methods: Oil-in-water MEs were synthesized using ethylbutyrate, sodium caprylate, and pluronic F-68 (ME4) or F-127 (ME6) in 0.9% NaCl{sub w/v}. The effects of MEs or components on thrombosis were determined using thrombo-elastography, platelet contractile force, clot elastic modulus, and platelet counting. For hemolysis, ME or components were incubated with erythrocytes, centrifuged, and washed for measurement of free hemoglobin by spectroscopy.Results and conclusions: The mean particle diameters (polydispersity index) for ME6 and ME4 were 23.6 {+-} 2.5 nm (0.362) and 14.0 {+-} 1.0 nm (0.008), respectively. MEs (0, 0.03, 0.3, 3 mM) markedly reduced the thromboelastograph maximal amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner (49.0 {+-} 4.2, 39.0 {+-} 5.6, 15.0 {+-} 8.7, 3.8 {+-} 1.3 mm, respectively), an effect highly correlated (r2 = 0.94) with similar changes caused by pluronic surfactants (48.7 {+-} 10.9, 30.7 {+-} 15.8, 20.0 {+-} 11.3, 2.0 {+-} 0.5) alone. Neither oil nor sodium caprylate alone affected the thromboelastograph. The clot contractile force was reduced by ME (27.3 {+-} 11.1-6.7 {+-} 3.4 kdynes/cm{sup 2}, P = 0.02, n = 5) whereas the platelet population not affected (175 {+-} 28-182 {+-} 23 10{sup 6}/ml, P = 0.12, n = 6). This data suggests that MEs reduced platelet activity due to associated pluronic surfactants, but caused minimal changes in protein function necessary for coagulation. Although pharmacological concentrations of sodium caprylate caused hemolysis (EC{sub 50} = 213 mM), MEs and pluronic surfactants did not disrupt erythrocytes. Knowledge of nanoparticle activity and

  18. The Tolerance and Accumulation of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus (maxim.) Benth., an Energy Plant Species, to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Huang, Yongjie; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. is a metallophyte suitable for the phytoremediation of mine wastes. The tolerance and accumulation of M. sacchariflorus to cadmium was studied by pot experiments. The results showed that O2·- generation rate, plasma membrane permeability and MDA content of M. sacchariflorus leaves increased with increasing Cd concentrations in soil, but significant effect was only observed when Cd concentrations were ≥50 mg·kg(-1). SOD and POD activities increased initially but decreased later on, whereas CAT activity only increased significantly at higher Cd concentrations, 50-100 mg·kg(-1). The content of photosynthetic pigment and growth of M. sacchariflorus were both not significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≤25 mg·kg(-1). In contrast, both parameters were significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≥50 mg·kg(-1). M. sacchariflorus could accumulate much Cd, but most of the Cd assimilated was retained in the belowground part, suggesting that M. sacchariflorus has poor ability to translocate Cd to the aboveground part. Our results suggested that although M. sacchariflorus was not a hyper-accumulator, it has a strong capacity to tolerate and stabilize the Cd. Therefore, M. sacchariflorus has a certain potential in the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soils.

  19. Application of PAH concentration profiles in lake sediments as indicators for smelting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wiebke; Ruppert, Hans; Licha, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The ability of lake sediment cores to store long-term anthropogenic pollution establishes them as natural archives. In this study, we focus on the influence of copper shale mining and smelting in the Mansfeld area of Germany, using the depth profiles of two sediment cores from Lake Süßer See. The sediment cores provide a detailed chronological deposition history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the studied area. Theisen sludge, a fine-grained residue from copper shale smelting, reaches the lake via deflation by wind or through riverine input; it is assumed to be the main source of pollution. To achieve the comparability of absolute contaminant concentrations, we calculated the influx of contaminants based on the sedimentation rate. Compared to the natural background concentrations, PAHs are significantly more enriched than heavy metals. They are therefore more sensitive and selective for source apportionment. We suggest two diagnostic ratios of PAHs to distinguish between Theisen sludge and its leachate: the ratio fluoranthene to pyrene ~2 and the ratio of PAH with logKOW5.7 converging to an even lower value than 2.3 (the characteristic of Theisen sludge) to identify the particulate input in lake environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentrated energy addition for active drag reduction in hypersonic flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin Ganesh, M.; John, Bibin

    2018-01-01

    Numerical optimization of hypersonic drag reduction technique based on concentrated energy addition is presented in this study. A reduction in wave drag is realized through concentrated energy addition in the hypersonic flowfield upstream of the blunt body. For the exhaustive optimization presented in this study, an in-house high precision inviscid flow solver has been developed. Studies focused on the identification of "optimum energy addition location" have revealed the existence of multiple minimum drag points. The wave drag coefficient is observed to drop from 0.85 to 0.45 when 50 Watts of energy is added to an energy bubble of 1 mm radius located at 74.7 mm upstream of the stagnation point. A direct proportionality has been identified between energy bubble size and wave drag coefficient. Dependence of drag coefficient on the upstream added energy magnitude is also revealed. Of the observed multiple minimum drag points, the energy deposition point (EDP) that offers minimum wave drag just after a sharp drop in drag is proposed as the most optimum energy addition location.

  1. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr_3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A small-sized UAV airborne sensor system was developed. • Three radioactive models were chosen to simulate the Fukushima accident. • Both the air and ground radiation were considered in the models. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values were given. • The sensor system is able to monitor in serious nuclear accidents.

  2. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variability of the groundwater sulfate concentration in fractured rock slopes: a tool to identify active unstable areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Water chemical analysis of 100 springs from the Orco and the Tinée valleys (Western Italy and Southern France and a 7 year groundwater chemistry monitoring of the 5 main springs were performed. All these springs drain from crystalline rock slopes. Some of these drain from currently active gravitational slope deformations.

    All groundwaters flowing through presently unstable slopes show anomalies in the sulfate concentrations compared to stable aquifers. Particularly, an increase of sulfate concentrations was observed repeatedly after each of five consecutive landslides on the La Clapière slope, thus attesting to the mechanical deformations are at the origin of this concentration change. Significant changes in the water chemistry are produced even from slow (mm/year and low magnitude deformations of the geological settings.

    Pyrite nuclei in open fractures were found to be coated by iron oxides. This suggests that the increase of dissolved sulfate relates to oxidative dissolution of Pyrite. Speciation calculations of Pyrite versus Gypsum confirmed that observed changes in the sulfate concentrations is predominantly provided from Pyrite. Calculated amounts of dissolved minerals in the springs water was obtained through inverse modelling of the major ion water analysis data. It is shown that the concentration ratio of calculated dissolved Pyrite versus calculated dissolved gneiss rock allows us to unambiguously distinguish water from stable and unstable areas. This result opens an interesting perspective for the follow-up of sliding or friction dynamic in landslides or in (a seismic faults.

  4. Compact DD generator based in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to determine sodium concentrations in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Mychaela Dawn; Neumann, Colby R; Zhang, Xinxin; Byrne, Patrick; Liu, Yingzi; Weaver, Connie M; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2018-04-16

    This study presents the development of a non-invasive method for monitoring Na in human bone. Many diseases, such as hypertension and osteoporosis, are closely associated with sodium (Na) retention in the human body. Na retention is generally evaluated by calculating the difference between dietary intake and excretion. There is currently no method to directly quantify Na retained in the body. Bone is a storage for many elements, including Na, which renders bone Na an ideal biomarker to study Na metabolism and retention. Approach: A customized compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator was used to produce neutrons for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA), with a moderator/ reflector/ shielding assembly optimized for human hand irradiation in order to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave and to limit radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. Main Results: The experimental results show that the system is able to detect sodium levels in the bone as low as 12 g Na/g dry bone with an effective dose to the body of about 27 μSv. The simulation results agree with the numbers estimated from the experiment. Significance: This is expected to be a feasible method for measuring the change of Na in bone. The low detection limit indicates this will be a useful system to study the association between Na retention and related diseases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  5. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part C. Trace element concentrations in granite and their impact on thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Huber, Thomas; Nolte, Eckehart; Kato, Kazuo; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements such as Li, B, Sm, and Gd can, despite their low elemental concentration in mineral materials, influence thermal neutron activation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki samples, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross sections. This was demonstrated for a granite core, where the addition of those trace elements to the elemental composition of granite reduces the production of 152 Eu by some 25% at a depth of 25 cm from the surface. If typical concentrations of those trace elements are added to DS02 reference soil, however, the production of 152 Eu one meter above ground is not changed significantly, because of the high water content of the soil. This indicates that DS02 soil represents a reasonable reference material for the air-over-ground transport calculations. It must be kept in mind, however, that the local environment of any sample investigated for thermal neutron activation might be characterized by other elemental compositions. In particular, trace element and hydrogen concentrations could be considerably different from those used for DS02 reference soil. As an example it was demonstrated that in a granite gravestone thermal neutron activation of 36 Cl close to the surface might be, in the worst case, reduced by some 30%, due to increased local granite concentration in this type of environment. Beside other parameters such as, for example, individual sample geometry, the variability of trace elements in soil might be one reason for the variability that is observed in the individual thermal neutron activation measurements (Gold 1995). It is necessary, therefore, to carefully model the exposure geometry of the exposed material, its chemical composition, and the surrounding interface materials in order to obtain the best possible agreement in comparisons between calculated and measured data for thermal neutrons. (author)

  6. Seasonal changes of Rubisco content and activity in Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies affected by elevated CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrstka, M.; Urban, Otmar; Babák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 836-841 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600870701; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Rubisco content * Rubisco activity * seasonal changes * elevated CO2 concentrations * Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  7. Blood elements concentration in cyclists investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Kovacs, L.; Metairon, S.; Azevedo, M.R.A.; Furholz, C.F.; Uchida, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn levels in blood samples of cyclists were investigated using neutron activation analysis technique. The results were compared to individuals of the same age and gender, but not involved with physical activities (control group), which showed considerable differences. A decrease mainly in Br (91 %) and Ca (78 %) and an increase in Fe (26 %), S (82 %) and Zn (22 %) levels were evidenced. These results emphasize the importance of blood monitoring for the maintenance of endurance athletes performance, particularly for Br, Ca and S. (author)

  8. Oesophageal cancer in the Transkei. Determination of trace element concentrations in selected plant material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renan, M.J.; Drennan, B.D.; Keddy, R.J.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analysis by instrumental neutron activation for the concentration of trace elements in plant materials from certain areas in the Transkei region of southern Africa are presented. These areas are selected for their characteristic high or low incidence of carcinoma of the oesophagus. To broaden the suite of elements for which analysed and to overcome some of the limitations of neutron activation analysis, certain other nuclear analyses and methods are suggested which, if utilized, would increase the number of elements determined, and so improve the information available. (author)

  9. Collection/concentration of trace uranium for spectrophotometric detection using activated carbon and first-derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.; Hamed, M.M.; El-Reefy, S.; Hmmad, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The need exists for preconcentration of trace and ultratrace amounts of uranium from environmental, geological and biological samples. The adsorption of uranium on various solids is important from the purification, environmental, and radioactivity waste disposal points of view. A method is described for the determination of traces of uranium using first-derivative spectrophotometry after adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon. Various parameters that influence the adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon, viz., pH, amounts of activated carbon and time of stirring and interference of metals have been studied. First-derivative spectrophotometry in conjunction with adsorptive preconcentration of uranium on activated carbon is used for determining uranium at concentration levels down to 20 ppb (w/v). (orig.)

  10. Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-05-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38-A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC(50) values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted.

  11. [Activity of antioxidative enzymes and concentration of malondialdehyde as oxidative status markers in women with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybus-Kalinowska, Barbara; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Kalinowski, Mariusz; Kukla, Michał; Birkner, Ewa; Jochem, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The recent investigations point out the significant role of oxidative stress in the development of thyroid gland disease. The present study was designed to investigate the variation of oxidative stae in women with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism. The study was conducted on 20 females with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism and 15 healthy women. Manganase-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) plasma activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) plasma concentration were measured. EC-SOD plasma activity was significantly higher in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism when compared with the control group (13.3 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.9 +/- 1.4 NU/ml; p < 0.05), unlike Mn-SOD (4.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.0 NU/ml). MDA plasma concentration increased significantly in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (3.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.6 micromol/l; p < 0.05). The increased EC-SOD plasma activity may reflect disturbances of oxidative state in subclinical hyperthyroidism. Parallel increase of MDA plasma concentration may indicate enhancement of lipid peroxidationin in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  12. Investigation on the Metabolic Regulation of pgi gene knockout Escherichia coli by Enzyme Activities and Intracellular Metabolite Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor ‘Aini, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated analysis of the cell growth characteristics, enzyme activities, intracellular metabolite concentrations was made to investigate the metabolic regulation of pgi gene knockout Escherichia coli based on batch culture and continuous culture which was performed at the dilution rate of 0.2h-1. The enzymatic study identified that pathways of pentose phosphate, ED pathway and glyoxylate shunt were all active in pgi mutant. The glycolysis enzymes i.e glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose diphosphatase, pyruvate kinase, triose phosphate isomerase were down regulated implying that the inactivation of pgi gene reduced the carbon flux through glycolytic pathway. Meanwhile, the pentose phosphate pathway was active as a major route for intermediary carbohydrate metabolism instead of glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway generates most of the major reducing co-factor NADPH as shown by the increased of NADPH/NADP+ ratio in the mutant when compared with the parent strain. The fermentative enzymes such as acetate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were down regulated in the mutant. Knockout of pgi gene results in the significant increase in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate and decrease in the concentration of oxaloacetate. The slow growth rate of the mutant was assumed to be affected by the accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate and imbalance of NADPH reoxidation.

  13. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is