WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximal hyperclique patterns

  1. Maximally flat radiation patterns of a circular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1989-08-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problems of maximizing the area utilization coefficient and of obtaining the best approximation (on the average) of a sectorial Pi-shaped radiation pattern of an antenna with a circular aperture when Butterworth conditions are imposed on the approximating pattern with the aim of flattening it. Constraints on the choice of admissible minimum and maximum antenna dimensions are determined which make possible the synthesis of maximally flat patterns with small sidelobes.

  2. Design of optimal linear antennas with maximally flat radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problem of maximizing the aperture area utilization coefficient and obtaining the best approximation in the mean of the sectorial U-shaped radiation pattern of a linear antenna, when Butterworth flattening constraints are imposed on the approximating pattern. Constraints are established on the choice of the smallest and large antenna dimensions that make it possible to obtain maximally flat patterns, having a low sidelobe level and free from pulsations within the main lobe.

  3. Maximal translational equivalence classes of musical patterns in point-set representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Tom; Meredith, David

    2013-01-01

    Representing musical notes as points in pitch-time space causes repeated motives and themes to appear as translationally related patterns that often correspond to maximal translatable patterns (MTPs). However, an MTP is also often the union of a salient pattern with one or two temporally isolated...

  4. An Efficient Approach to Mining Maximal Contiguous Frequent Patterns from Large DNA Sequence Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining interesting patterns from DNA sequences is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. Maximal contiguous frequent patterns are preferable for expressing the function and structure of DNA sequences and hence can capture the common data characteristics among related sequences. Biologists are interested in finding frequent orderly arrangements of motifs that are responsible for similar expression of a group of genes. In order to reduce mining time and complexity, however, most existing sequence mining algorithms either focus on finding short DNA sequences or require explicit specification of sequence lengths in advance. The challenge is to find longer sequences without specifying sequence lengths in advance. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to mining maximal contiguous frequent patterns from large DNA sequence datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed approach is memory-efficient and mines maximal contiguous frequent patterns within a reasonable time.

  5. Automatic optimization of core loading patterns to maximize cycle energy production within operational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to automatically determine the core loading pattern which minimizes fuel cycle costs for a pressurized water reactor. Equating fuel cycle cost minimization with core reactivity maximization, the objective is to determine the loading pattern which maximizes core reactivity at end-of-cycle while satisfying the power peaking constraint throughout the cycle and region average discharge burnup limit. The method utilizes a two-dimensional, coarse mesh, finite difference scheme to evaluate core reactivity and fluxes for an initial reference loading pattern as a function of cycle burnup. First order perturbation theory is applied to determine the effects of assembly shuffling on reactivity, power distribution, and end-of-cycle burnup

  6. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  7. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.

  8. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Kai Peng

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.

  9. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications. PMID:26771830

  10. A Comparative Study of Frequent and Maximal Periodic Pattern Mining Algorithms in Spatiotemporal Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulesu, O.; Rama Mohan Reddy, A., Dr; Mahendra, M.

    2017-08-01

    Detecting regular and efficient cyclic models is the demanding activity for data analysts due to unstructured, vigorous and enormous raw information produced from web. Many existing approaches generate large candidate patterns in the occurrence of huge and complex databases. In this work, two novel algorithms are proposed and a comparative examination is performed by considering scalability and performance parameters. The first algorithm is, EFPMA (Extended Regular Model Detection Algorithm) used to find frequent sequential patterns from the spatiotemporal dataset and the second one is, ETMA (Enhanced Tree-based Mining Algorithm) for detecting effective cyclic models with symbolic database representation. EFPMA is an algorithm grows models from both ends (prefixes and suffixes) of detected patterns, which results in faster pattern growth because of less levels of database projection compared to existing approaches such as Prefixspan and SPADE. ETMA uses distinct notions to store and manage transactions data horizontally such as segment, sequence and individual symbols. ETMA exploits a partition-and-conquer method to find maximal patterns by using symbolic notations. Using this algorithm, we can mine cyclic models in full-series sequential patterns including subsection series also. ETMA reduces the memory consumption and makes use of the efficient symbolic operation. Furthermore, ETMA only records time-series instances dynamically, in terms of character, series and section approaches respectively. The extent of the pattern and proving efficiency of the reducing and retrieval techniques from synthetic and actual datasets is a really open & challenging mining problem. These techniques are useful in data streams, traffic risk analysis, medical diagnosis, DNA sequence Mining, Earthquake prediction applications. Extensive investigational outcomes illustrates that the algorithms outperforms well towards efficiency and scalability than ECLAT, STNR and MAFIA approaches.

  11. Patterned brain stimulation, what a framework with rhythmic and noisy components might tell us about recovery maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein eSchmidt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain stimulation is having remarkable impact on clinical neurology. Brain stimulation can modulate neuronal activity in functionally segregated circumscribed regions of the human brain. Polarity-, frequency and noise specific stimulation can induce specific manipulations on neural activity.. In contrast to neocortical stimulation, deep-brain stimulation has become a tool that can dramatically improve the impact clinicians can possibly have on movement disorders. In contrast, neocortical brain stimulation is proving to be remarkably susceptible to intrinsic brain-states. Although evidence is accumulating that brain stimulation can facilitate recovery processes in patients with cerebral stroke, the high variability of results impedes successful clinical implementation. Interestingly, recent data in healthy subjects suggests that brain-state dependent patterned stimulation might help resolve some of the intrinsic variability found in previous studies. In parallel, other studies suggest that noisy stochastic resonance -like processes are a non-negligible component in NBS studies.The hypothesis developed in this manuscript is that stimulation patterning with noisy and oscillatory components will help patients recover from stroke related deficits more reliably. To address this hypothesis we focus on two factors common to both neural computation (intrinsic variables as well as brain stimulation (extrinsic variables: noise and oscillation. We review diverse theoretical and experimental evidence that demonstrates that subject-function specific brain-states are associated with specific oscillatory activity patterns. These states are transient and can be maintained by noisy processes. The resulting control procedures can resemble homeostatic or stochastic resonance processes. In this context we try to extend awareness for inter-individual differences and the use of individualized stimulation in the recovery maximization of stroke patients.

  12. Automatic determination of pressurized water reactor core loading patterns that maximize beginning-of-cycle reactivity within power-peaking and burnup constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to automatically determine a good estimate of the core loading pattern, which minimizes fuel cycle costs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Equating fuel cycle cost minimization with core reactivity maximization, the objective is to determine the loading pattern that maximizes core reactivity while satisfying power peaking, discharge burnup, and other constraints. The method utilizes a two-dimensional, coarse-mesh, finite difference scheme to evaluate core reactivity and fluxes for an initial reference loading pattern. First-order perturbation theory is applied to determine the effects of assembly shuffling on reactivity, power distribution, end-of-cycle burnup. Monte Carlo integer programming is then used to determine a near-optimal loading pattern within a range of loading patterns near the reference pattern. The process then repeats with the new loading pattern as the reference loading pattern and terminates when no better loading pattern can be determined. The process was applied with both reactivity maximization and radial power-peaking minimization as objectives. Results on a typical large PWR indicate that the cost of obtaining an 8% improvement in radial power-peaking margin is ≅2% in fuel cycle costs, for the reload core loaded without burnable poisons that was studied

  13. Automatic determination of pressurized water reactor core loading patterns which maximize end-of-cycle reactivity within power peaking and burnup constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    An automated procedure for determining the optimal core loading pattern for a pressurized water reactor which maximizes end-of-cycle k/sub eff/ while satisfying constraints on power peaking and discharge burnup has been developed. The optimization algorithm combines a two energy group, two-dimensional coarse-mesh finite difference diffusion theory neutronics model to simulate core conditions, a perturbation theory approach to determine reactivity, flux, power and burnup changes as a function of assembly shuffling, and Monte Carlo integer programming to select the optimal loading pattern solution. The core examined was a typical Cycle 2 reload with no burnable poisons. Results indicate that the core loading pattern that maximizes end-of-cycle k/sub eff/ results in a 5.4% decrease in fuel cycle costs compared with the core loading pattern that minimizes the maximum relative radial power peak

  14. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  15. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  16. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  17. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  18. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  19. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  20. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  1. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  2. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  3. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  4. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P Derryberry

    Full Text Available Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively, so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency

  5. Patterns of Song across Natural and Anthropogenic Soundscapes Suggest That White-Crowned Sparrows Minimize Acoustic Masking and Maximize Signal Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Lipshutz, Sara E; Gentry, Katherine; Luther, David A

    2016-01-01

    Soundscapes pose both evolutionarily recent and long-standing sources of selection on acoustic communication. We currently know more about the impact of evolutionarily recent human-generated noise on communication than we do about how natural sounds such as pounding surf have shaped communication signals over evolutionary time. Based on signal detection theory, we hypothesized that acoustic phenotypes will vary with both anthropogenic and natural background noise levels and that similar mechanisms of cultural evolution and/or behavioral flexibility may underlie this variation. We studied song characteristics of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) across a noise gradient that includes both anthropogenic and natural sources of noise in San Francisco and Marin counties, California, USA. Both anthropogenic and natural soundscapes contain high amplitude low frequency noise (traffic or surf, respectively), so we predicted that birds would produce songs with higher minimum frequencies in areas with higher amplitude background noise to avoid auditory masking. We also anticipated that song minimum frequencies would be higher than the projected lower frequency limit of hearing based on site-specific masking profiles. Background noise was a strong predictor of song minimum frequency, both within a local noise gradient of three urban sites with the same song dialect and cultural evolutionary history, and across the regional noise gradient, which encompasses 11 urban and rural sites, several dialects, and several anthropogenic and natural sources of noise. Among rural sites alone, background noise tended to predict song minimum frequency, indicating that urban sites were not solely responsible for driving the regional pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that songs vary with local and regional soundscapes regardless of the source of noise. Song minimum frequency from five core study sites was also higher than the lower frequency limit of hearing

  6. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  7. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  8. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  9. Patterns of stress responses shift during seasonal life-history transitions: An analysis comparing baseline, maximal and integrated corticosterone in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2017-05-15

    Glucocorticoids often rise and fall with a variety of external and internal cues and frequently vary among life-history stages. This suggests that changing glucocorticoids may coordinate life-history transitions. To explore this hypothesis, we asked if the time-course of stress-induced glucocorticoid levels differ between two life-history transitions (i.e., spring and fall migration) in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). We collected non-migratory females from a communal den and migratory females from a road along the migration route and treated them with 4h of capture stress; plasma corticosterone was measured before, during and after capture stress. During the spring, den-collected females exhibited a stress-induced peak in corticosterone at an earlier sampling time than migrating, road-collected females. Because the pattern of corticosterone responses varied with migratory state, negative feedback on and/or sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis may be linked to spring migration. During the fall, capture stress elicited an increase in corticosterone in den-collected females but not in migrating, road-collected females. Baseline corticosterone was higher and both maximal and integrated corticosterone responses were lower during the fall compared to spring, indicating that stress responses are smaller when baseline corticosterone is elevated, perhaps due to a "ceiling effect". These data suggest that HPA axis regulation changes during seasonal migration, possibly via altering negative feedback, HPA axis sensitivity, or some other mechanism. This study supports the hypothesis that glucocorticoids coordinate life-history events and suggests that examining a suite of stress response characteristics is most informative for understanding the function of HPA modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  11. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  12. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  13. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  14. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  15. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  16. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  17. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  18. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  19. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  20. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  1. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  2. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  3. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  4. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  5. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  6. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  7. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  8. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  9. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  10. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  11. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  12. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  13. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  14. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  15. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  16. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  17. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  18. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  19. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  20. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  2. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  3. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  4. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  5. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  7. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  8. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  9. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  11. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  13. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  14. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  15. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  16. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  17. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  18. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  19. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  20. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  1. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  2. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  3. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  4. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  5. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  6. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  7. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  8. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  9. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  10. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  11. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbert, Florian; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  12. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebbert, Florian [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sieg, Christoph [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Yang, Gang [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-19

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  13. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  14. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  15. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  16. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  17. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  18. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  19. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  20. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  1. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  2. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  3. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  4. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  5. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  6. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  7. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  8. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  9. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  10. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  11. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  12. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  13. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  14. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  15. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  16. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  17. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  18. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  20. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses $m_0$ specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses $m_{1/2}$, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalization between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to $m_{1/2}$ and generation-independent. In this case, the input scalar masses $m_0$ may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity.

  1. Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Olive, Keith A. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Velasco-Sevilla, L. [University of Bergen, Department of Physics and Technology, PO Box 7803, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m{sub 0} specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m{sub 1/2} and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m{sub 0} may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity. (orig.)

  2. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  3. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  4. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  5. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  6. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  7. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  8. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  9. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  10. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  11. Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize the growth of cyanobacterial filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Aidan I; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns. As external fixed-nitrogen is increased, the spacing distribution for our local placement strategy retains the same shape, while the average spacing between heterocysts continuously increases. (paper)

  12. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  14. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  15. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  16. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  17. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  18. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  19. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  20. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  1. Maximizing the benefits of a dewatering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.; Iverson, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of dewatering systems in the mining, industrial sludge and sewage waste treatment industries is discussed, also describing some of the problems that have been encountered while using drilling fluid dewatering technology. The technology is an acceptable drilling waste handling alternative but it has had problems associated with recycled fluid incompatibility, high chemical costs and system inefficiencies. This paper discussed the following five action areas that can maximize the benefits and help reduce costs of a dewatering project: (1) co-ordinate all services, (2) choose equipment that fits the drilling program, (3) match the chemical treatment with the drilling fluid types, (4) determine recycled fluid compatibility requirements, and (5) determine the disposal requirements before project start-up. 2 refs., 5 figs

  2. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  3. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

    2009-07-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  4. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  5. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral m...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  6. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  7. A Note of Caution on Maximizing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Neapolitan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Entropy is often used to update probabilities due to evidence instead of performing Bayesian updating using Bayes’ Theorem, and its use often has efficacious results. However, in some circumstances the results seem unacceptable and unintuitive. This paper discusses some of these cases, and discusses how to identify some of the situations in which this principle should not be used. The paper starts by reviewing three approaches to probability, namely the classical approach, the limiting frequency approach, and the Bayesian approach. It then introduces maximum entropy and shows its relationship to the three approaches. Next, through examples, it shows that maximizing entropy sometimes can stand in direct opposition to Bayesian updating based on reasonable prior beliefs. The paper concludes that if we take the Bayesian approach that probability is about reasonable belief based on all available information, then we can resolve the conflict between the maximum entropy approach and the Bayesian approach that is demonstrated in the examples.

  8. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  9. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  10. Designing a Profit-Maximizing Critical Peak Pricing Scheme Considering the Payback Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chan Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Critical peak pricing (CPP is a demand response program that can be used to maximize profits for a load serving entity in a deregulated market environment. Like other such programs, however, CPP is not free from the payback phenomenon: a rise in consumption after a critical event. This payback has a negative effect on profits and thus must be appropriately considered when designing a CPP scheme. However, few studies have examined CPP scheme design considering payback. This study thus characterizes payback using three parameters (duration, amount, and pattern and examines payback effects on the optimal schedule of critical events and on the optimal peak rate for two specific payback patterns. This analysis is verified through numerical simulations. The results demonstrate the need to properly consider payback parameters when designing a profit-maximizing CPP scheme.

  11. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  12. Shared temptations: An fMRI study of dishonest profit maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmank, Fabian

    2017-12-01

    A single case of a tempting-decision task involving financial gain is reported. The subject showed a prosocial Social Value Orientation and applied a profit-maximizing strategy. Differential brain activation patterns for self-serving and other-serving decisions were observed. Results provide new insight into the design of paradigms on bounded ethicality and self- and group-serving behavior. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  14. Computerized detection of masses on mammograms by entropy maximization thresholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kom, Guillaume; Tiedeu, Alain; Feudjio, Cyrille; Ngundam, J.

    2010-03-01

    In many cases, masses in X-ray mammograms are subtle and their detection can benefit from an automated system serving as a diagnostic aid. It is to this end that the authors propose in this paper, a new computer aided mass detection for breast cancer diagnosis. The first step focuses on wavelet filters enhancement which removes bright background due to dense breast tissues and some film artifacts while preserving features and patterns related to the masses. In the second step, enhanced image is computed by Entropy Maximization Thresholding (EMT) to obtain segmented masses. The efficiency of 98,181% is achieved by analyzing a database of 84 mammograms previously marked by radiologists and digitized at a pixel size of 343μmm x 343μ mm. The segmentation results, in terms of size of detected masses, give a relative error on mass area that is less than 8%. The performance of the proposed method has also been evaluated by means of the receiver operating-characteristics (ROC) analysis. This yielded respectively, an area (Az) of 0.9224 and 0.9295 under the ROC curve whether enhancement step is applied or not. Furthermore, we observe that the EMT yields excellent segmentation results compared to those found in literature. (author)

  15. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  16. Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...

  17. Natural maximal νμ-ντ mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1999-01-01

    The naturalness of maximal mixing between myon- and tau-neutrinos is investigated. A spontaneously broken nonabelian generation symmetry can explain a small parameter which governs the deviation from maximal mixing. In many cases all three neutrino masses are almost degenerate. Maximal ν μ -ν τ -mixing suggests that the leading contribution to the light neutrino masses arises from the expectation value of a heavy weak triplet rather than from the seesaw mechanism. In this scenario the deviation from maximal mixing is predicted to be less than about 1%. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. On the way towards a generalized entropy maximization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized entropy maximization procedure, which takes into account the generalized averaging procedures and information gain definitions underlying the generalized entropies. This novel generalized procedure is then applied to Renyi and Tsallis entropies. The generalized entropy maximization procedure for Renyi entropies results in the exponential stationary distribution asymptotically for q element of (0,1] in contrast to the stationary distribution of the inverse power law obtained through the ordinary entropy maximization procedure. Another result of the generalized entropy maximization procedure is that one can naturally obtain all the possible stationary distributions associated with the Tsallis entropies by employing either ordinary or q-generalized Fourier transforms in the averaging procedure.

  19. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  20. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitro evaluation was performed by using rat intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivo evaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC(50) values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarbose used as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on α-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  1. Alternative approaches to maximally supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this work is the exploration and application of alternative possibilities to describe maximally supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions: N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and N=8 supergravity. While twistor string theory has been proven very useful in the context of N=4 SYM, no analogous formulation for N=8 supergravity is available. In addition to the part describing N=4 SYM theory, twistor string theory contains vertex operators corresponding to the states of N=4 conformal supergravity. Those vertex operators have to be altered in order to describe (non-conformal) Einstein supergravity. A modified version of the known open twistor string theory, including a term which breaks the conformal symmetry for the gravitational vertex operators, has been proposed recently. In a first part of the thesis structural aspects and consistency of the modified theory are discussed. Unfortunately, the majority of amplitudes can not be constructed, which can be traced back to the fact that the dimension of the moduli space of algebraic curves in twistor space is reduced in an inconsistent manner. The issue of a possible finiteness of N=8 supergravity is closely related to the question of the existence of valid counterterms in the perturbation expansion of the theory. In particular, the coefficient in front of the so-called R 4 counterterm candidate has been shown to vanish by explicit calculation. This behavior points into the direction of a symmetry not taken into account, for which the hidden on-shell E 7(7) symmetry is the prime candidate. The validity of the so-called double-soft scalar limit relation is a necessary condition for a theory exhibiting E 7(7) symmetry. By calculating the double-soft scalar limit for amplitudes derived from an N=8 supergravity action modified by an additional R 4 counterterm, one can test for possible constraints originating in the E 7(7) symmetry. In a second part of the thesis, the appropriate amplitudes are calculated

  2. Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)

  3. IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries

  4. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  5. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  6. Maximization Network Throughput Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm and Network Coding for Optical Multicast Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengying; Xiong, Cuilian; Liu, Huanlin

    2017-12-01

    Maximal multicast stream algorithm based on network coding (NC) can improve the network's throughput for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks, which however is far less than the network's maximal throughput in terms of theory. And the existing multicast stream algorithms do not give the information distribution pattern and routing in the meantime. In the paper, an improved genetic algorithm is brought forward to maximize the optical multicast throughput by NC and to determine the multicast stream distribution by hybrid chromosomes construction for multicast with single source and multiple destinations. The proposed hybrid chromosomes are constructed by the binary chromosomes and integer chromosomes, while the binary chromosomes represent optical multicast routing and the integer chromosomes indicate the multicast stream distribution. A fitness function is designed to guarantee that each destination can receive the maximum number of decoding multicast streams. The simulation results showed that the proposed method is far superior over the typical maximal multicast stream algorithms based on NC in terms of network throughput in WDM networks.

  7. Intracyclic Velocity Variation of the Center of Mass and Hip in Breaststroke Swimming With Maximal Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Koulexidis, Stylianos; Gketzenis, Panagiotis; Tzouras, Grigoris

    2018-03-01

    Gourgoulis, V, Koulexidis, S, Gketzenis, P, and Tzouras, G. Intra-cyclic velocity variation of the center of mass and hip in breaststroke swimming with maximal intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 830-840, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the center of mass (CM) and hip (HIP) intracyclic velocity variation in breaststroke swimming using 3-dimensional kinematic analysis. Nine male breaststrokes, of moderate performance level, swam 25-m breaststroke with maximal intensity, and their movements were recorded, both under and above the water surface, using 8 digital cameras. Their CM and HIP velocities and their intracyclic variations were estimated after manual digitization of 28 selected points on the body in a complete arm and leg breaststroke cycle. Paired sample t-tests or Wilcoxon tests, when the assumption of normality was broken, were used for statistical analyses. In both, CM and HIP velocity-time curves, the results revealed a similar pattern of 2 clear peaks associated with the leg and arm propulsive phases and 2 minimal velocities that corresponded to the arm and leg recovery phase and the lag time between the leg and arm propulsive phases, respectively. However, despite this similar general pattern, the HIP minimum resultant velocity was significantly lower, whereas its maximal value was significantly greater, than the corresponding CM values. Consequently, the HIP intracyclic swimming velocity fluctuation significantly overestimates the actual variation of the swimmer's velocity in breaststroke swimming.

  8. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  9. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  10. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  11. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  12. Breakdown of maximality conjecture in continuous phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukamel, D.; Jaric, M.V.

    1983-04-01

    A Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model associated with a single irreducible representation which exhibits an ordered phase whose symmetry group is not a maximal isotropy subgroup of the symmetry group of the disordered phase is constructed. This example disproves the maximality conjecture suggested in numerous previous studies. Below the (continuous) transition, the order parameter points along a direction which varies with the temperature and with the other parameters which define the model. An extension of the maximality conjecture to reducible representations was postulated in the context of Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. Our model can also be extended to provide a counter example in these cases. (author)

  13. The tyranny of choice: a cross-cultural investigation of maximizing-satisfising effects on well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Roets

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the relationship between individual differences in maximizing versus satisficing (i.e., seeking to make the single best choice, rather than a choice that is merely good enough and well-being, in interaction with the society in which an individual lives. Data from three distinct cultural groups (adults, drawn respectively from the U.S. (N=307, Western Europe (N=263, and China (N=218, were analyzed. The results showed that, in societies where choice is abundant (i.e., U.S. and Western Europe, maximizers reported less well-being than satisficers, and this difference was mediated by experienced regret. However, in the non-western society (China, maximizing was unrelated to well-being. Although in China maximizing was associated with more experiences of regret, regret had no substantial relationship to well-being. These patterns also emerged for the individual facets of the maximizing scale, although with a notable difference between the U.S. and Europe for the High Standards facet. It is argued that, in societies where abundant individual choice is highly valued and considered the ultimate route to personal happiness, maximizers' dissatisfaction and regret over imperfect choices is a detrimental factor in well-being, whereas it is a much less crucial determinant of well-being in societies that place less emphasis on choice as the way to happiness.

  14. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  15. Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.

  16. Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments. (GR)

  17. Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S

    1996-01-01

    subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... for all three clamp steps used (P maximal activity of glycogen synthase was identical in the two thighs for all clamp steps. 3. The glucose infusion rate (GIR......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P maximal...

  18. Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

  19. ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for Economic Development ... the use of ICTs in micro enterprises and their role in reducing poverty. ... in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to.

  20. Real-time topic-aware influence maximization using preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lin, Tian; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Influence maximization is the task of finding a set of seed nodes in a social network such that the influence spread of these seed nodes based on certain influence diffusion model is maximized. Topic-aware influence diffusion models have been recently proposed to address the issue that influence between a pair of users are often topic-dependent and information, ideas, innovations etc. being propagated in networks are typically mixtures of topics. In this paper, we focus on the topic-aware influence maximization task. In particular, we study preprocessing methods to avoid redoing influence maximization for each mixture from scratch. We explore two preprocessing algorithms with theoretical justifications. Our empirical results on data obtained in a couple of existing studies demonstrate that one of our algorithms stands out as a strong candidate providing microsecond online response time and competitive influence spread, with reasonable preprocessing effort.

  1. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  2. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  3. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  4. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  5. No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, P. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Scott, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.

  6. A fractional optimal control problem for maximizing advertising efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Bykadorov; Andrea Ellero; Stefania Funari; Elena Moretti

    2007-01-01

    We propose an optimal control problem to model the dynamics of the communication activity of a firm with the aim of maximizing its efficiency. We assume that the advertising effort undertaken by the firm contributes to increase the firm's goodwill and that the goodwill affects the firm's sales. The aim is to find the advertising policies in order to maximize the firm's efficiency index which is computed as the ratio between "outputs" and "inputs" properly weighted; the outputs are represented...

  7. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  8. On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...

  9. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  10. Softly Broken Lepton Numbers: an Approach to Maximal Neutrino Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss models where the U(1) symmetries of lepton numbers are responsible for maximal neutrino mixing. We pay particular attention to an extension of the Standard Model (SM) with three right-handed neutrino singlets in which we require that the three lepton numbers L e , L μ , and L τ be separately conserved in the Yukawa couplings, but assume that they are softly broken by the Majorana mass matrix M R of the neutrino singlets. In this framework, where lepton-number breaking occurs at a scale much higher than the electroweak scale, deviations from family lepton number conservation are calculable, i.e., finite, and lepton mixing stems exclusively from M R . We show that in this framework either maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing or maximal solar neutrino mixing or both can be imposed by invoking symmetries. In this way those maximal mixings are stable against radiative corrections. The model which achieves maximal (or nearly maximal) solar neutrino mixing assumes that there are two different scales in M R and that the lepton number (dash)L=L e -L μ -L τ 1 is conserved in between them. We work out the difference between this model and the conventional scenario where (approximate) (dash)L invariance is imposed directly on the mass matrix of the light neutrinos. (author)

  11. Maximizing Academic Library Collections: Measuring Changes in Use Patterns Owing to EBSCO Discovery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of academic libraries adopting web-scale discovery tools, few studies have quantified their effect on the use of library collections. This study measures the impact that EBSCO Discovery Service has had on use of library resources through circulation statistics, use of electronic resources, and interlibrary loan requests.…

  12. Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan U. Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM. Electromyographic (EMG activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA. Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05. Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90% and 100% for any muscle. The movement pattern in the hip joint changed with an increase in forward lean during maximal loading. Results may suggest that maximal loading during squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk.

  13. Energy localization in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashaev, Oktay K; Gurkan, Zeynep N

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the Möbius transformation for symmetric points under the generalized circle in the complex plane, the system of symmetric spin coherent states corresponding to antipodal qubit states is introduced. In terms of these states, we construct the maximally entangled complete set of two-qubit coherent states, which in the limiting cases reduces to the Bell basis. A specific property of our symmetric coherent states is that they never become unentangled for any value of ψ from the complex plane. Entanglement quantifications of our states are given by the reduced density matrix and the concurrence determinant, and it is shown that our basis is maximally entangled. Universal one- and two-qubit gates in these new coherent state basis are calculated. As an application, we find the Q symbol of the XY Z model Hamiltonian operator H as an average energy function in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space. It shows regular finite-energy localized structure with specific local extremum points. The concurrence and fidelity of quantum evolution with dimerization of double periodic patterns are given. (paper)

  14. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  15. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  16. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  17. The slack test does not assess maximal shortening velocity of muscle fascicle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Robin; Dorel, Sylvain; Nordez, Antoine; Rabita, Giuseppe; Couturier, Antoine; Hauraix, Hugo; Duchateau, Jacques; Guilhem, Gaël

    2018-06-14

    The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (V F ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared. Gastrocnemius medialis fascicle behaviour was investigated from 25 participants using high-frame rate ultrasound during quick releases performed at various activation levels (from 0% to 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque) and ballistic contractions. Unloaded joint velocity calculated using the slack test method increased whereas V F decreased with muscle activation level (P≤0.03). Passive and low-level quick releases elicited higher V F values (≥ 41.4±9.7 cm.s -1 ) compared to ballistic condition (36.3±8.7 cm.s -1 ), while quick releases applied at 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque produced the lowest V F These findings suggest that initial fascicle length, complex fascicle-tendon interactions, unloading reflex and motor-driven movement pattern strongly influence and limit the shortening velocity achieved during the slack test. Furthermore, V F elicited by quick releases is likely to reflect substantial contributions of passive processes. Therefore, the slack test is not appropriate to assess maximal muscle shortening velocity in vivo. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Quantization with maximally degenerate Poisson brackets: the harmonic oscillator!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutku, Yavuz

    2003-01-01

    Nambu's construction of multi-linear brackets for super-integrable systems can be thought of as degenerate Poisson brackets with a maximal set of Casimirs in their kernel. By introducing privileged coordinates in phase space these degenerate Poisson brackets are brought to the form of Heisenberg's equations. We propose a definition for constructing quantum operators for classical functions, which enables us to turn the maximally degenerate Poisson brackets into operators. They pose a set of eigenvalue problems for a new state vector. The requirement of the single-valuedness of this eigenfunction leads to quantization. The example of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate this general procedure for quantizing a class of maximally super-integrable systems

  19. Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang

    2018-03-01

    The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.

  20. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  1. Maximization of regional probabilities using Optimal Surface Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Lorza, Andres M.; Van Engelen, Arna; Petersen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We present a segmentation method that maximizes regional probabilities enclosed by coupled surfaces using an Optimal Surface Graph (OSG) cut approach. This OSG cut determines the globally optimal solution given a graph constructed around an initial surface. While most methods for vessel...... wall segmentation only use edge information, we show that maximizing regional probabilities using an OSG improves the segmentation results. We applied this to automatically segment the vessel wall of the carotid artery in magnetic resonance images. Methods: First, voxel-wise regional probability maps...... were obtained using a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on local image features. Then, the OSG segments the regions which maximizes the regional probabilities considering smoothness and topological constraints. Results: The method was evaluated on 49 carotid arteries from 30 subjects...

  2. El culto de Maximón en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Pédron‑Colombani, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo se enfoca en la figura de Maximón, deidad sincrética de Guatemala, en un contexto de desplazamiento de la religión católica popular por parte de las iglesias protestantes. Esta divinidad híbrida a la cual se agregan santos católicos como Judas Iscariote o el dios maya Mam, permite la apropiación de Maximón por segmentos diferenciados de la población (tanto indígena como mestiza). Permite igualmente ser símbolo de protestas sociales enmascaradas cuando se asocia Maximón con figur...

  3. Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.

  4. Maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses during deepwater running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p41   Aquatic exercises provide numerous benefits to the health of their practitioners. To secure these benefits, it is essential to have proper prescriptions to the needs of each individual and, therefore, it is important to study the cardiorespiratory responses of different activities in this environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses at the anaerobic threshold (AT between maximal deep-water running (DWR and maximal treadmill running (TMR. In addition, two methods of determining the AT (the heart rate deflection point [HRDP] and ventilatory method [VM] are compared in the two evaluated protocols. Twelve young women performed the two maximal protocols. Two-factor ANOVA for repeated measures with a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used (α < 0.05. Significantly higher values of maximal heart rate (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 and maximal oxygen uptake (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 in TMR compared to the DWR were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the methods for determining the AT (TMR: VM: 28.1 ± 5.3, HRDP: 26.6 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1; DWR: VM: 18.7 ± 4.8, HRDP: 17.8 ± 4.8 ml.kg−1.min−1. The results indicate that a specific maximal test for the trained modality should be conducted and the HRDP can be used as a simple and practical method of determining the AT, based on which the training intensity can be determined

  5. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand-maximize-compress algorithm for single-particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N Duane

    2016-08-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand-maximize-compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA.

  6. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  7. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite in the intercuspal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslam, A; Riise, C

    1983-05-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite, were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results show that, during maximal and submaximal bite an occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position is able to disturb the almost symmetric pattern of muscular activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles. Further, the level of muscular activity during maximal bite decreased significantly in all muscles studied. In some subjects, the decrease of muscular activity could still be observed one week after insertion of the interfering contact. After eliminating the interference, the muscular co-ordination pattern improved and the level of muscular activity increased significantly.

  8. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Jia, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  9. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  10. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  11. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  12. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  13. Identities on maximal subgroups of GLn(D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, D.; Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    2002-04-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GL n (D), n≥1 such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M] is a PI-algebra, then [D:F] n (D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite. (author)

  14. Instantons and Gribov copies in the maximally Abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, F.; Heinzl, T.; Wipf, A.; Tok, T.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the Faddeev-Popov operator corresponding to the maximally Abelian gauge for gauge group SU(N). Specializing to SU(2) we look for explicit zero modes of this operator. Within an illuminating toy model (Yang-Mills mechanics) the problem can be completely solved and understood. In the field theory case we are able to find an analytic expression for a normalizable zero mode in the background of a single 't Hooft instanton. Accordingly, such an instanton corresponds to a horizon configuration in the maximally Abelian gauge. Possible physical implications are discussed

  15. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Rådegran, G

    2003-01-01

    To unravel the mechanisms by which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is reduced with severe acute hypoxia in humans, nine Danish lowlanders performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion, while breathing room air (normoxia) or 10.5% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, approximately 5,300 m above sea......: 1) reduction of PiO2, 2) impairment of pulmonary gas exchange, and 3) reduction of maximal cardiac output and peak leg blood flow, each explaining about one-third of the loss in VO2 max....

  16. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita

    2012-05-01

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  17. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  18. Maximization of Tsallis entropy in the combinatorial formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the mathematical reformulation for maximization of Tsallis entropy S q in the combinatorial sense. More concretely, we generalize the original derivation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law to Tsallis statistics by means of the corresponding generalized multinomial coefficient. Our results reveal that maximization of S 2-q under the usual expectation or S q under q-average using the escort expectation are naturally derived from the combinatorial formulations for Tsallis statistics with respective combinatorial dualities, that is, one for additive duality and the other for multiplicative duality.

  19. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2012-05-15

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  20. The Large Margin Mechanism for Differentially Private Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel; Song, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    A basic problem in the design of privacy-preserving algorithms is the private maximization problem: the goal is to pick an item from a universe that (approximately) maximizes a data-dependent function, all under the constraint of differential privacy. This problem has been used as a sub-routine in many privacy-preserving algorithms for statistics and machine-learning. Previous algorithms for this problem are either range-dependent---i.e., their utility diminishes with the size of the universe...

  1. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  2. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. E-mail: huahuiyan@163.com; duzr@hnu.edu.cn. MS received 3 September 2012; revised 20 December 2012. Abstract. A saddle solution is called maximal saddle solution if its absolute value is not smaller than those absolute values ...

  3. Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct

  4. An optimal thermal condition for maximal chlorophyll extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an environmentally friendly process for chlorophyll extraction from bamboo leaves. Shaking water bath and ultrasound cleaner are adopted in this technology, and the influence of temperature of the water bath and ultrasonic cleaner is evaluated. Results indicated that there is an optimal condition for maximal yield of chlorophyll.

  5. Maximal multiplier operators in Lp(·)(Rn) spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Kopaliani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0007-4497 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : spherical maximal function * variable Lebesque spaces * boundedness result Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007449715000329

  6. Half-maximal supersymmetry from exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    We study D ≥ 4-dimensional half-maximal flux backgrounds using exceptional field theory. We define the relevant generalised structures and also find the integrability conditions which give warped half-maximal Minkowski{sub D} and AdS{sub D} vacua. We then show how to obtain consistent truncations of type II / 11-dimensional SUGRA which break half the supersymmetry. Such truncations can be defined on backgrounds admitting exceptional generalised SO(d - 1 - N) structures, where d = 11 - D, and N is the number of vector multiplets obtained in the lower-dimensional theory. Our procedure yields the most general embedding tensors satisfying the linear constraint of half-maximal gauged SUGRA. We use this to prove that all D ≥ 4 half-maximal warped AdS{sub D} and Minkowski{sub D} vacua of type II / 11-dimensional SUGRA admit a consistent truncation keeping only the gravitational supermultiplet. We also show to obtain heterotic double field theory from exceptional field theory and comment on the M-theory / heterotic duality. In five dimensions, we find a new SO(5, N) double field theory with a (6 + N)-dimensional extended space. Its section condition has one solution corresponding to 10-dimensional N = 1 supergravity and another yielding six-dimensional N = (2, 0) SUGRA. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-10-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  8. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  9. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  10. Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.

  11. Maximizing car insurance online sales by developing superior webshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pylväs, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to investigate what kind of webshop and what kind of improvements would increase customer satisfaction and maximize car insurance online sales by volume and by value. Main measure for this is the conversion rate, percentage of the potential buyers entering the site who actually make a purchase.

  12. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  13. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. A tri-atom W state can be generated by adjusting the interaction times between ...

  14. Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M. T. E.; Zwarts, M. J.; Leer, J. W. H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-efficacy

  15. The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria

    2011-01-01

    useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.

  16. An application of the maximal independent set algorithm to course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we demonstrated one of the many applications of the Maximal Independent Set Algorithm in the area of course allocation. A program was developed in Pascal and used in implementing a modified version of the algorithm to assign teaching courses to available lecturers in any academic environment and it ...

  17. Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…

  18. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  19. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  20. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  1. MAXIMIZING OPTO-ELASTIC INTERACTION USING TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    . Secondly, there is the photo-elastic effect which changes the refractive index through Pockel's coefficients as the material is strained. For the case of transverse electric modes, we study how the two effects change the material distribution which maximizes the change in the optical transmission...

  2. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  3. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Maximizers versus Satisficers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy; King, Stephanie L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, university students were presented a scenario in which a married couple was struggling in their marriage. These students were asked how likely it is that they would stay in a difficult marriage like the one described in the scenario. Each student also completed Schwartz's (2004) Maximization Scale. High scorers on this scale…

  4. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  5. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which

  6. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  7. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  8. Throughput maximization of parcel sorter systems by scheduling inbound containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Fikse, K.; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael; Meier, J. Fabian

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the inbound container scheduling problem for automated sorter systems in express parcel sorting. The purpose is to analyze which container scheduling approaches maximize the throughput of sorter systems. We build on existing literature, particularly on the dynamic load balancing

  9. Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and conventional equation. LR Keytel, E Mukwevho, MA Will, M Lambert. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance Vol. 11(3) 2005: 269-277. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  10. Aspects of multiuser MIMO for cell throughput maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauch, Gerhard; Tejera, Pedro; Guthy, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multiuser MIMO downlink scenario where the resources in time, frequency and space are allocated such that the total cell throughput is maximized. This is achieved by exploiting multiuser diversity, i.e. the physical resources are allocated to the user with the highest SNR. We assume...

  11. PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES, INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN STIMULATING JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT THINKING, UNDERSTANDING, AND DECISION MAKING AS ASSOCIATED WITH PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES OF FARM OPERATION FOR USE IN FARM MANAGEMENT. IT WAS DEVELOPED UNDER A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION GRANT BY TEACHER-EDUCATORS, A FARM…

  12. How Managerial Ownership Affects Profit Maximization in Newspaper Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busterna, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Explores whether different levels of a manager's ownership of a newspaper affects the manager's profit maximizing attitudes and behavior. Finds that owner-managers tend to place less emphasis on profits than non-owner-controlled newspapers, contrary to economic theory and empirical evidence from other industries. (RS)

  13. A note on a profit maximizing location model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a locational model with a profit-maximizing objective. The model can be illustrated by the following situation. There is a set of potential customers in a given region. A firm enters the market and wants to sell a certain product to this set of customers. The

  14. The Profit-Maximizing Firm: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Explains and illustrates a simplified use of graphical analysis for analyzing the profit-maximizing firm. Believes that graphical analysis helps college students gain a deeper understanding of marginalism and an increased ability to formulate economic problems in marginalist terms. (DB)

  15. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day...

  16. A decision theoretic framework for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, L.; van der Scheer, H.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Montgomery, A.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing a firm involved in direct marketing is the selection of addresses from a mailing list. When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually,

  17. Maximizing profits associated with abandonment decisions and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Economic strategies which are designed to maximize profits associated with abandonment decisions and options focus on: extending field life; offsetting of economic risks onto a third party; reuse of facilities and infrastructure; expansion of associated secondary processing and distribution capabilities and usage; and the sale of abandonment units to a third party

  18. Mentoring as Professional Development for Novice Entrepreneurs: Maximizing the Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring can be seen as relevant if not essential in the continuing professional development of entrepreneurs. In the present study, we seek to understand how to maximize the learning that occurs through the mentoring process. To achieve this, we consider various elements that the literature suggested are associated with successful mentoring and…

  19. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  20. Off-shell representations of maximally-extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    A general theorem on the necessity of off-shell central charges in representations of maximally-extended supersymmetry (number of spinor charges - 4 x largest spin) is presented. A procedure for building larger and higher-N representations is also explored; a (noninteracting) N=8, maximum spin 2, off-shell representation is achieved. Difficulties in adding interactions for this representation are discussed

  1. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  2. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  3. The Bianchi classification of maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gran, Ulf; Linares, Román; Nielsen, Mikkel; Ortín, Tomás; Roest, Diederik

    2003-01-01

    We perform the generalized dimensional reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds as classified by Bianchi. Thus, we construct 11 different maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities, two of which have an additional parameter. One class of group manifolds (class B) leads to

  4. The Bianchi classification of maximal D=8 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Gran, U; Linares, R; Nielsen, M; Ortin, T; Roest, D

    2003-01-01

    We perform the generalized dimensional reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds as classified by Bianchi. Thus, we construct 11 different maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities, two of which have an additional parameter. One class of group manifolds (class B) leads to

  5. Hard-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamidas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present, for the first time, a Hardy-type proof of nonlocality for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional total Hilbert space. Furthermore, the violation of local realistic predictions occurs for 25 % of trials, exceeding the 9 % maximum obtained by Hardy for nonmaximally entangled states. (author)

  6. Maximal Sharing in the Lambda Calculus with Letrec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; Rochel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing sharing in programs is desirable to compactify the code, and to avoid duplication of reduction work at run-time, thereby speeding up execution. We show how a maximal degree of sharing can be obtained for programs expressed as terms in the lambda calculus with letrec. We introduce a notion

  7. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  8. Impact of training status on maximal oxygen uptake criteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak treadmill running speed was significantly faster and total test time significantly longer in the trained group. In contrast, peak lactate, although maximal for both groups, was significantly higher in the untrained group (13.5 mmol.l-1 compared with 10.3 mmol.l-1). The other responses were not different between the groups ...

  9. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  10. Maximal isometric strength of the cervical musculature in 100 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Bülow, P M

    1999-01-01

    A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.......A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature....

  11. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to

  12. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  13. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  14. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhisong; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-11-20

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  15. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  16. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  17. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  18. On the maximal noise for stochastic and QCD travelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, Robi

    2008-01-01

    Using the relation of a set of nonlinear Langevin equations to reaction-diffusion processes, we note the existence of a maximal strength of the noise for the stochastic travelling wave solutions of these equations. Its determination is obtained using the field-theoretical analysis of branching-annihilation random walks near the directed percolation transition. We study its consequence for the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. For the related Langevin equation modeling the quantum chromodynamic nonlinear evolution of gluon density with rapidity, the physical maximal-noise limit may appear before the directed percolation transition, due to a shift in the travelling-wave speed. In this regime, an exact solution is known from a coalescence process. Universality and other open problems and applications are discussed in the outlook

  19. Magellan Project: Evolving enhanced operations efficiency to maximize science value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Allan R.; Neuman, James C.; Mckinney, J. Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Magellan has been one of NASA's most successful spacecraft, returning more science data than all planetary spacecraft combined. The Magellan Spacecraft Team (SCT) has maximized the science return with innovative operational techniques to overcome anomalies and to perform activities for which the spacecraft was not designed. Commanding the spacecraft was originally time consuming because the standard development process was envisioned as manual tasks. The Program understood that reducing mission operations costs were essential for an extended mission. Management created an environment which encouraged automation of routine tasks, allowing staff reduction while maximizing the science data returned. Data analysis and trending, command preparation, and command reviews are some of the tasks that were automated. The SCT has accommodated personnel reductions by improving operations efficiency while returning the maximum science data possible.

  20. Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W. Davis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.

  1. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  3. Speeding Up Maximal Causality Reduction with Static Dependency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiyou; Huang, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Stateless Model Checking (SMC) offers a powerful approach to verifying multithreaded programs but suffers from the state-space explosion problem caused by the huge thread interleaving space. The pioneering reduction technique Partial Order Reduction (POR) mitigates this problem by pruning equivalent interleavings from the state space. However, limited by the happens-before relation, POR still explores redundant executions. The recent advance, Maximal Causality Reduction (MCR), shows a promisi...

  4. Planning for partnerships: Maximizing surge capacity resources through service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lavonne M; Reams, Paula K; Canclini, Sharon B

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks and natural or human-caused disasters can strain the community's surge capacity through sudden demand on healthcare activities. Collaborative partnerships between communities and schools of nursing have the potential to maximize resource availability to meet community needs following a disaster. This article explores how communities can work with schools of nursing to enhance surge capacity through systems thinking, integrated planning, and cooperative efforts.

  5. Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization...... algorithm and its application in coherent optical communication systems for linear and nonlinear impairment mitigation. Furthermore, the estimated parameters are used to build the probabilistic model of the system for the synthetic impairment generation....

  6. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  7. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  8. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  9. Crystallographic cut that maximizes of the birefringence in photorefractive crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Parada, Jorge Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The electro-optical birefringence effect depends on the crystal type, cut crystal, applied electric field and the incidence direction of light on the principal crystal faces. It is presented a study of maximizing the birefringence in photorefractive crystals of cubic crystallographic symmetry, in terms of these three parameters. General analytical expressions for the birefringence were obtained, from which birefringence can be established for any type of cut. A new crystallographic cut was en...

  10. Maximal reductions in the Baker-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1992-05-01

    A preliminary expression for the Baker-Hausdorff formula is found up to ninth order, i.e. a series expansion of z in terms of multiple commutators, where e x =e x e y with x and y non-commuting, up to ninth degree in x,y. By means of complete sets of linear relations between multiple commutators, maximal reduction of the number of different multiple commutators in the series is obtained. 4 refs

  11. Competitive prices as profit-maximizing cartel prices

    OpenAIRE

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.I.; Wen, Q.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in Economics Letters, 114, 39-42. Even under antitrust enforcement, firms may still form a cartel in an infinitely-repeated oligopoly model when the discount factor is sufficiently close to one. We present a linear oligopoly model where the profit-maximizing cartel price converges to the competitive equilibrium price as the discount factor goes to one. We then identify a set of necessary conditions for this seemingly counter-intuitive result.

  12. On Throughput Maximization in Constant Travel-Time Robotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Dawande; Chelliah Sriskandarajah; Suresh Sethi

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling operations in bufferless robotic cells that produce identical parts. The objective is to find a cyclic sequence of robot moves that minimizes the long-run average time to produce a part or, equivalently, maximizes the throughput rate. The robot can be moved in simple cycles that produce one unit or, in more complicated cycles, that produce multiple units. Because one-unit cycles are the easiest to understand, implement, and control, they are widely used i...

  13. Minimal and Maximal Operator Space Structures on Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    P., Vinod Kumar; Balasubramani, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a Banach space $X$, there are many operator space structures possible on $X$, which all have $X$ as their first matrix level. Blecher and Paulsen identified two extreme operator space structures on $X$, namely $Min(X)$ and $Max(X)$ which represents respectively, the smallest and the largest operator space structures admissible on $X$. In this note, we consider the subspace and the quotient space structure of minimal and maximal operator spaces.

  14. On the maximal dimension of a completely entangled subspace for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    dim S = d1d2 ...dk − (d1 +···+ dk) + k − 1, where E is the collection of all completely entangled subspaces. When H1 = H2 and k = 2 an explicit orthonormal basis of a maximal completely entangled subspace of H1 ⊗ H2 is given. We also introduce a more delicate notion of a perfectly entangled subspace for a multipartite ...

  15. Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

  16. PLANNING ROUTES ACROSS ECONOMIC TERRAINS: MAXIMIZING UTILITY, FOLLOWING HEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value. We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes.

  17. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  19. Improved Algorithms OF CELF and CELF++ for Influence Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Lv

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the wide application in some fields, such as viral marketing, sales promotion etc, influence maximization has been the most important and extensively studied problem in social network. However, the most classical KK-Greedy algorithm for influence maximization is inefficient. Two major sources of the algorithm’s inefficiency were analyzed in this paper. With the analysis of algorithms CELF and CELF++, all nodes in the influenced set of u would never bring any marginal gain when a new seed u was produced. Through this optimization strategy, a lot of redundant nodes will be removed from the candidate nodes. Basing on the strategy, two improved algorithms of Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++ were proposed in this study. To evaluate the two algorithms, the two algorithms with their benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++ were conducted on some real world datasets. To estimate the algorithms, influence degree and running time were employed to measure the performance and efficiency respectively. Experimental results showed that, compared with benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++, matching effects and higher efficiency were achieved by the new algorithms Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++. Solutions with the proposed optimization strategy can be useful for the decisionmaking problems under the scenarios related to the influence maximization problem.

  20. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  1. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  2. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  3. Effect of sonic driving on maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilla, L.R.; Hatcher, Stefanie

    2000-07-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate antecedent binaural stimulation (ABS) on maximal aerobic physical performance. Twenty-two healthy, physically active subjects, 21-34 years, randomly received one of two preparations for each session: 15 min of quiet (BLANK) or percussive sonic driving at 200+ beats per minute (bpm) using a recorded compact disc (FSS, Mill Valley, CA) with headphones (ABS). Baseline HR, blood pressure (BP), and breathing frequency (f(br)) were obtained. During each condition, HR and f(br) were recorded at 3-min intervals. The graded maximal treadmill testing was administered immediately postpreparation session on separate days, with at least 48 h rest between sessions. There were significant differences in the antecedent period means between the two conditions, ABS (HR: 70.2 +/- 10.7 bpm; f(br): 18.5 +/- 3.3 br min(-1); BP: 134.5/87.9 +/- 13.6/9.2 mm Hg) and BLANK (HR: 64.6 +/- 7.9; f(br): 14.3 +/- 2.9; BP: 126.7/80.3 +/- 12.1/8.6). Differences were noted for each 3-min interval and pre- postantecedent period. The maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results showed that there was a small but significant (P 0.05). There may be a latency to ABS related to entrainment or imagery-enhanced warm-up. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:558-565, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis falls short of countering fatigue during repeated maximal isokinetic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Naito, Hisashi; Chow, Chin Moi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperventilation, implemented during recovery of repeated maximal sprints, has been shown to attenuate performance decrement. This study evaluated the effects of hyperventilation, using strength exercises, on muscle torque output and EMG amplitude. Fifteen power-trained athletes underwent maximal isokinetic knee extensions consisting of 12 repetitions × 8 sets at 60°/s and 25 repetitions × 8 sets at 300°/s. The inter-set interval was 40 s for both speeds. For the control condition, subjects breathed spontaneously during the interval period. For the hyperventilation condition, subjects hyperventilated for 30 s before each exercise set (50 breaths/min, PETCO2: 20-25 mmHg). EMG was recorded from the vastus medialis and lateralis muscles to calculate the mean amplitude for each contraction. Hyperventilation increased blood pH by 0.065-0.081 and lowered PCO2 by 8.3-10.3 mmHg from the control values (P < 0.001). Peak torque declined with repetition and set numbers for both speeds (P < 0.001), but the declining patterns were similar between conditions. A significant, but small enhancement in peak torque was observed with hyperventilation at 60°/s during the initial repetition phase of the first (P = 0.032) and fourth sets (P = 0.040). EMG amplitude also declined with set number (P < 0.001) for both speeds and muscles, which was, however, not attenuated by hyperventilation. Despite a minor ergogenic effect in peak torque at 60°/s, hyperventilation was not effective in attenuating the decrement in torque output at 300°/s and decrement in EMG amplitude at both speeds during repeated sets of maximal isokinetic knee extensions.

  5. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  6. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  7. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  8. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  9. Muscle Synergies of Untrained Subjects during 6 min Maximal Rowing on Slides and Fixed Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazlin Shaharudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slides ergometer (SE was an improvisation from fixed ergometer (FE to bridge the gap of mechanics between ergometer rowing and on-water rowing. The specific mechanical constraints of these two types of ergometers may affect the pattern of muscle recruitment, coordination and adaptation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergy during 6 minutes maximal rowing on slides (SE and fixed ergometers (FE. The laterality of muscle synergy was also examined. Surface electromyography activity, power output, heart rate, stroke length and stroke rate were analyzed from nine physically active subjects to assess the rowing performance. Physically active subjects, who were not specifically trained in rowing, were chosen to exclude the training effect on muscle synergy. Principal component analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was applied to extract muscle synergy. Three muscle synergies were sufficient to explain the majority of variance in SE (94.4 ± 2.2 % and FE (92.8 ± 1.7 %. Subjects covered more rowing distance, exerted greater power output and attained higher maximal heart rate during rowing on SE than on FE. The results proved the flexibility of muscle synergy to adapt to the mechanical constraints. Rowing on SE emphasized on bi-articular muscles contrary to rowing on FE which relied on cumulative effect of trunk and upper limb muscles during propulsive phase.

  10. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Ejector Internal Flow Structure and Geometry Modification for Maximized Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsafioon, Mehdi; Aidoun, Zine; Poirier, Michel

    2017-12-01

    A wide range of industrial refrigeration systems are good candidates to benefit from the cooling and refrigeration potential of supersonic ejectors. These are thermally activated and can use waste heat recovery from industrial processes where it is abundantly generated and rejected to the environment. In other circumstances low cost heat from biomass or solar energy may also be used in order to produce a cooling effect. Ejector performance is however typically modest and needs to be maximized in order to take full advantage of the simplicity and low cost of the technology. In the present work, the behavior of ejectors with different nozzle exit positions has been investigated using a prototype as well as a CFD model. The prototype was used in order to measure the performance advantages of refrigerant (R-134a) flowing inside the ejector. For the CFD model, it is assumed that the ejectors are axi-symmetric along x-axis, thus the generated model is in 2D. The preliminary CFD results are validated with experimental data over a wide range of conditions and are in good accordance in terms of entrainment and compression ratios. Next, the flow patterns of four different topologies are studied in order to discuss the optimum geometry in term of ejector entrainment improvement. Finally, The numerical simulations were used to find an optimum value corresponding to maximized entrainment ratio for fixed operating conditions.

  11. The Study of the Impacts of "Running" on the Contact Area of Soles and Maximal Strength among Elite Middle Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Ahmet; Aydos, Latif; Kaya, Metin; Yuksel, Mehmet Fatih; Pekel, Haci Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    It is possible that running training for many years in athletics affects athletes' running patterns and sole structure. The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of maximal force applied to the floor area and contact area of the athletes with related to mid-distance training for athletics. 18 male athletes who represent Turkey on the…

  12. Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiti Rokhmania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.

  13. A Comparison of Heuristics with Modularity Maximization Objective using Biological Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirim Harun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding groups of objects exhibiting similar patterns is an important data analytics task. Many disciplines have their own terminologies such as cluster, group, clique, community etc. defining the similar objects in a set. Adopting the term community, many exact and heuristic algorithms are developed to find the communities of interest in available data sets. Here, three heuristic algorithms to find communities are compared using five gene expression data sets. The heuristics have a common objective function of maximizing the modularity that is a quality measure of a partition and a reflection of objects’ relevance in communities. Partitions generated by the heuristics are compared with the real ones using the adjusted rand index, one of the most commonly used external validation measures. The paper discusses the results of the partitions on the mentioned biological data sets.

  14. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  15. Patient-specific rhytidectomy: finding the angle of maximal rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew A; Ransom, Evan R

    2012-09-01

    Rhytidectomy is fundamentally an operation of tissue release and resuspension, although the manner and direction of suspension are subject to perpetual debate. The authors describe a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy and quantify the resulting angle and its relationship to patient age. Patients were prospectively enrolled; demographic data, history, and operative details were recorded. Rhytidectomies were performed by the senior author (AAJ). After complete elevation, the face-lift flap was rotated in a medially-based arc (0-90°) while attention was given to the submental area, jawline, and midface. The angle of maximal rejuvenation for each hemiface was identified as described, and the flap was resuspended. During redraping, measurements of vertical and horizontal skin excess were recorded in situ. The resulting angle of lift was then calculated for each hemiface using trigonometry. Symmetry between sides was determined, and the effect of patient age on this angle was assessed. Three hundred hemifaces were operated (147 women; 3 men). Mean age was 60 years (range, 37-80 years). Mean resulting angle for the cohort was 60° from horizontal (range, 46-77°). This was inversely correlated with patient age (r = -.3). Younger patients (<50 years, 64°) had a significantly more vertical angle than older patients (≥70 years, 56°; P < .0002). No significant intersubject difference was found between hemifaces (P = .53). The authors present a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy. This angle was more superior than posterior in all cases and is intimately related to patient age. Lasting results demand a detailed anatomical understanding and strict attention to the direction and degree of laxity.

  16. Dopaminergic balance between reward maximization and policy complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eParush

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous reinforcement-learning models of the basal ganglia network have highlighted the role of dopamine in encoding the mismatch between prediction and reality. Far less attention has been paid to the computational goals and algorithms of the main-axis (actor. Here, we construct a top-down model of the basal ganglia with emphasis on the role of dopamine as both a reinforcement learning signal and as a pseudo-temperature signal controlling the general level of basal ganglia excitability and motor vigilance of the acting agent. We argue that the basal ganglia endow the thalamic-cortical networks with the optimal dynamic tradeoff between two constraints: minimizing the policy complexity (cost and maximizing the expected future reward (gain. We show that this multi-dimensional optimization processes results in an experience-modulated version of the softmax behavioral policy. Thus, as in classical softmax behavioral policies, probability of actions are selected according to their estimated values and the pseudo-temperature, but in addition also vary according to the frequency of previous choices of these actions. We conclude that the computational goal of the basal ganglia is not to maximize cumulative (positive and negative reward. Rather, the basal ganglia aim at optimization of independent gain and cost functions. Unlike previously suggested single-variable maximization processes, this multi-dimensional optimization process leads naturally to a softmax-like behavioral policy. We suggest that beyond its role in the modulation of the efficacy of the cortico-striatal synapses, dopamine directly affects striatal excitability and thus provides a pseudo-temperature signal that modulates the trade-off between gain and cost. The resulting experience and dopamine modulated softmax policy can then serve as a theoretical framework to account for the broad range of behaviors and clinical states governed by the basal ganglia and dopamine systems.

  17. Weak incidence algebra and maximal ring of quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X, X′ be two locally finite, preordered sets and let R be any indecomposable commutative ring. The incidence algebra I(X,R, in a sense, represents X, because of the well-known result that if the rings I(X,R and I(X′,R are isomorphic, then X and X′ are isomorphic. In this paper, we consider a preordered set X that need not be locally finite but has the property that each of its equivalence classes of equivalent elements is finite. Define I*(X,R to be the set of all those functions f:X×X→R such that f(x,y=0, whenever x⩽̸y and the set Sf of ordered pairs (x,y with xmaximal right (left ring of quotients of I*(X,R is discussed. It is shown that the results proved can give a large class of rings whose maximal right ring of quotients need not be isomorphic to its maximal left ring of quotients.

  18. Maximizing opto‐mechanical interaction using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    is performed on a periodic cell and the periodic modeling of the optical and mechanical fields have been carried out using transverse electric Bloch waves and homogenization theory in a plane stress setting, respectively. Two coupling effects are included being the photoelastic effect and the geometric effect......This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization...

  19. Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.

  20. Five aspects of maximizing objectivity from perceptual evaluations of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volk, Christer Peter; Bech, Søren; Pedersen, Torben H.

    2015-01-01

    of data from the listening evaluations. This paper addresses the following subset of aspects for increasing the objectivity of data from listening tests: The choice of perceptual attributes, relevance of perceptual attributes, choice of loudness equalisation strategy, optimum listening room specifications......A literature study was conducted focusing on maximizing objectivity of results from listening evaluations aimed at establishing the relationship between physical and perceptual measurements of loudspeakers. The purpose of the study was to identify and examine factors influencing the objectivity......, as well as loudspeaker listening in-situ vs. listening to recordings of loudspeakers over headphones....

  1. Maximal lens bounds on QSO-galaxy association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, I.

    1989-01-01

    The maximal possible enhancement of QSO number counts that can be produced by any ensemble of lenses which conserve brightness and in which the magnification probability is negligibly correlated with the intrinsic QSO flux is obtained. Under the assumption of the Boyle et al. (1988) number-magnitude relation for the QSOs unaffected by lenses, the theory is applied to the QSO-galaxy association sample of Webster et al. (1988). The results suggest that the background QSOs of Webster et al. may be appreciably affected by lensing. 17 refs

  2. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer.

  4. Maximal respiratory pressures and pulmonary function in male runners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cordain, L; Glisan, B J; Latin, R W; Tucker, A; Stager, J M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effects of long term exercise on respiratory muscle strength, maximal inspiratory (Pl max) and expiratory (PE max) pressures, pulmonary volumes and capacities and anthropometric parameters were measured in a group of 101 male runners aged 16 to 58 years. The runners exhibited significantly (p less than 0.05) lower PE max (202 +/- 41 cm H2O and significantly greater residual lung volumes (RV) (2.08 +/- 0.49 L) than predicted values for normal subjects of similar height and age...

  5. Maximal heat loading of electrostatic deflector's septum at the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, A.; Borissenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector is used for extraction of accelerated particles at the isochronous cyclotron U-150 (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakhstan). Efficiency of beam extraction depends on a set of factors. Decisive is heat state of the septum and essentially beam extraction is limited by beam power dissipation on the deflector. Due to the works carried on for radioisotope production, determination of septum's maximal heat loading, optimization of the septum's geometry represent the interest. Maximum heat loading of deflector's septum and it's dependence on septum's geometry and thermal-physical properties of septum's material are presented in the paper as result of numerical calculation. The obtained results are discussed

  6. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....... of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory...

  7. A New Tetrahydrofuran Lignan Diglycoside from Viola tianshanica Maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new lignan glycoside, tianshanoside A (1, together with a known phenylpropanoid glycoside, syringin (2 and two known lignan glycosides, picraquassioside C (3, and aketrilignoside B (4, were isolated from the whole plant of Viola tianshanica Maxim. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. The three lignans 1, 3, and 4 did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer Ags cells or HepG2 liver cancer cells. This is the first report of the isolation of a lignan skeleton from the genus Viola L.

  8. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...... of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 2.0 mm, placed between first molars either on the left or the right side, and compared with the level of activity with undistrubed occlusion. Unilateral premature contact caused a significant asymmetry of action in all muscles under study with stronger activity ipsilaterally...

  9. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    Roč. 55, č. 1 ( 2012 ), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi-Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  10. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P. [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2009-12-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N{sub f}=2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280

  11. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N f =2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 PS < or similar 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision. (orig.)

  12. Maximal entanglement of two spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Starting with two weakly-coupled anti-ferromagnetic spinor condensates, we show that by changing the sign of the coefficient of the spin interaction, $U_{2}$, via an optically-induced Feshbach resonance one can create an entangled state consisting of two anti-correlated ferromagnetic condensates. This state is maximally entangled and a generalization of the Bell state from two anti-correlated spin-1/2 particles to two anti-correlated spin$-N/2$ atomic samples, where $N$ is the total number of...

  13. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  14. Monopsony in the labor market: Profit vs. Wage maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Đorđe, Olgin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the efficiency of profit- and wage-maximizing (PM and WM monopsony in the labor market. We show that, both locally and globally, a PM monopsony may well be dominated by its WM twin, where the local and global dominance are defined with respect to a single (inverse labor supply function and a single family of such functions. This family is always divided in the two disjoint (subfamilies of the PM and WM dominance. We also analyze some major factors that explain the size of these (subfamilies. .

  15. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping-generations model to study the growth-maximizing level of public debt under conditions of demograhic change. It is shown that the optimal debt level depends on a positive marginal productivity of public capital. In general, it also depends on the demographic par...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  16. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise.

  17. AC-600 reactor reloading pattern optimization by using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Xie Zhongsheng; Yao Dong; Li Dongsheng; Zhang Zongyao

    2000-01-01

    The use of genetic algorithms to optimize reloading pattern of the nuclear power plant reactor is proposed. And a new encoding and translating method is given. Optimization results of minimizing core power peak and maximizing cycle length for both low-leakage and out-in loading pattern of AC-600 reactor are obtained

  18. A comparative meta-analysis of maximal aerobic metabolism of vertebrates: implications for respiratory and cardiovascular limits to gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hancock, Thomas V; Hedrick, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Maximal aerobic metabolic rates (MMR) in vertebrates are supported by increased conductive and diffusive fluxes of O(2) from the environment to the mitochondria necessitating concomitant increases in CO(2) efflux. A question that has received much attention has been which step, respiratory or cardiovascular, provides the principal rate limitation to gas flux at MMR? Limitation analyses have principally focused on O(2) fluxes, though the excess capacity of the lung for O(2) ventilation and diffusion remains unexplained except as a safety factor. Analyses of MMR normally rely upon allometry and temperature to define these factors, but cannot account for much of the variation and often have narrow phylogenetic breadth. The unique aspect of our comparative approach was to use an interclass meta-analysis to examine cardio-respiratory variables during the increase from resting metabolic rate to MMR among vertebrates from fish to mammals, independent of allometry and phylogeny. Common patterns at MMR indicate universal principles governing O(2) and CO(2) transport in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, despite the varied modes of activities (swimming, running, flying), different cardio-respiratory architecture, and vastly different rates of metabolism (endothermy vs. ectothermy). Our meta-analysis supports previous studies indicating a cardiovascular limit to maximal O(2) transport and also implicates a respiratory system limit to maximal CO(2) efflux, especially in ectotherms. Thus, natural selection would operate on the respiratory system to enhance maximal CO(2) excretion and the cardiovascular system to enhance maximal O(2) uptake. This provides a possible evolutionary explanation for the conundrum of why the respiratory system appears functionally over-designed from an O(2) perspective, a unique insight from previous work focused solely on O(2) fluxes. The results suggest a common gas transport blueprint, or Bauplan, in the vertebrate clade.

  19. On the configuration of supercapacitors for maximizing electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Zhao, X S

    2012-05-01

    Supercapacitors, which are attracting rapidly growing interest from both academia and industry, are important energy-storage devices for acquiring sustainable energy. Recent years have seen a number of significant breakthroughs in the research and development of supercapacitors. The emergence of innovative electrode materials (e.g., graphene) has clearly provided great opportunities for advancing the science in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Conversely, smart configurations of electrode materials and new designs of supercapacitor devices have, in many cases, boosted the electrochemical performance of the materials. We attempt to summarize recent research progress towards the design and configuration of electrode materials to maximize supercapacitor performance in terms of energy density, power density, and cycle stability. With a brief description of the structure, energy-storage mechanism, and electrode configuration of supercapacitor devices, the design and configuration of symmetric supercapacitors are discussed, followed by that of asymmetric and hybrid supercapacitors. Emphasis is placed on the rational design and configuration of supercapacitor electrodes to maximize the electrochemical performance of the device. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On Maximizing the Throughput of Packet Transmission under Energy Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Dai, Guangli; Li, Yan; Shan, Feng

    2018-06-23

    More and more Internet of Things (IoT) wireless devices have been providing ubiquitous services over the recent years. Since most of these devices are powered by batteries, a fundamental trade-off to be addressed is the depleted energy and the achieved data throughput in wireless data transmission. By exploiting the rate-adaptive capacities of wireless devices, most existing works on energy-efficient data transmission try to design rate-adaptive transmission policies to maximize the amount of transmitted data bits under the energy constraints of devices. Such solutions, however, cannot apply to scenarios where data packets have respective deadlines and only integrally transmitted data packets contribute. Thus, this paper introduces a notion of weighted throughput, which measures how much total value of data packets are successfully and integrally transmitted before their own deadlines. By designing efficient rate-adaptive transmission policies, this paper aims to make the best use of the energy and maximize the weighted throughput. What is more challenging but with practical significance, we consider the fading effect of wireless channels in both offline and online scenarios. In the offline scenario, we develop an optimal algorithm that computes the optimal solution in pseudo-polynomial time, which is the best possible solution as the problem undertaken is NP-hard. In the online scenario, we propose an efficient heuristic algorithm based on optimal properties derived for the optimal offline solution. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Automatic physical inference with information maximizing neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Compressing large data sets to a manageable number of summaries that are informative about the underlying parameters vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference. When only simulations are available, these summaries are typically chosen heuristically, so they may inadvertently miss important information. We introduce a simulation-based machine learning technique that trains artificial neural networks to find nonlinear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). In test cases where the posterior can be derived exactly, likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces nearly exact posteriors, showing that these summaries are good approximations to sufficient statistics. In a series of numerical examples of increasing complexity and astrophysical relevance we show that IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, nonlinear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima. We anticipate that the automatic physical inference method described in this paper will be essential to obtain both accurate and precise cosmological parameter estimates from complex and large astronomical data sets, including those from LSST and Euclid.

  3. Strategies for maximizing clinical effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Targum, Steven D; Nasrallah, Henry A; Ross, Ruth

    2006-11-01

    The ultimate clinical objective in the treatment of schizophrenia is to enable affected individuals to lead maximally productive and personally meaningful lives. As with other chronic diseases that lack a definitive cure, the individual's service/recovery plan must include treatment interventions directed towards decreasing manifestations of the illness, rehabilitative services directed towards enhancing adaptive skills, and social support mobilization aimed at optimizing function and quality of life. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for considering approaches for maximizing the effectiveness of the array of treatments and other services towards promoting recovery of persons with schizophrenia. We discuss pharmacological, psychological, and social strategies that decrease the burden of the disease of schizophrenia on affected individuals and their families while adding the least possible burden of treatment. In view of the multitude of treatments necessary to optimize outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia, effective coordination of these services is essential. In addition to providing best possible clinical assessment and pharmacological treatment, the psychiatrist must function as an effective leader of the treatment team. To do so, however, the psychiatrist must be knowledgeable about the range of available services, must have skills in clinical-administrative leadership, and must accept the responsibility of coordinating the planning and delivery of this multidimensional array of treatments and services. Finally, the effectiveness of providing optimal individualized treatment/rehabilitation is best gauged by measuring progress on multiple effectiveness domains. Approaches for efficient and reliable assessment are discussed.

  4. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Maximizing Macromolecule Crystal Size for Neutron Diffraction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, R. A.; Kephart, R.; Leardi, R.; Myles, D. A.; Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A challenge in neutron diffraction experiments is growing large (greater than 1 cu mm) macromolecule crystals. In taking up this challenge we have used statistical experiment design techniques to quickly identify crystallization conditions under which the largest crystals grow. These techniques provide the maximum information for minimal experimental effort, allowing optimal screening of crystallization variables in a simple experimental matrix, using the minimum amount of sample. Analysis of the results quickly tells the investigator what conditions are the most important for the crystallization. These can then be used to maximize the crystallization results in terms of reducing crystal numbers and providing large crystals of suitable habit. We have used these techniques to grow large crystals of Glucose isomerase. Glucose isomerase is an industrial enzyme used extensively in the food industry for the conversion of glucose to fructose. The aim of this study is the elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism at the molecular level. The accurate determination of hydrogen positions, which is critical for this, is a requirement that neutron diffraction is uniquely suited for. Preliminary neutron diffraction experiments with these crystals conducted at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) reveal diffraction to beyond 2.5 angstrom. Macromolecular crystal growth is a process involving many parameters, and statistical experimental design is naturally suited to this field. These techniques are sample independent and provide an experimental strategy to maximize crystal volume and habit for neutron diffraction studies.

  6. Biomechanical characteristics of handballing maximally in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2014-11-01

    The handball pass is influential in Australian football, and achieving higher ball speeds in flight is an advantage in increasing distance and reducing the chance of interceptions. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive kinematic data and identify key technical aspects of maximal handball performance. Three-dimensional full body kinematic data from 19 professional Australian football players performing handball pass for maximal speed were collected, and the hand speed at ball contact was used to determine performance. Sixty-four kinematic parameters initially obtained were reduced to 15, and then grouped into like components through a two-stage supervised principal components analysis procedure. These components were then entered into a multiple regression analysis, which indicated that greater hand speed was associated with greater shoulder angular velocity and separation angle between the shoulders and pelvis at ball contact, as well as an earlier time of maximum upper-trunk rotation velocity. These data suggested that in order to increase the speed of the handball pass in Australian football, strategies like increased shoulder angular velocity, increased separation angle at ball contact, and earlier achievement of upper-trunk rotation speed might be beneficial.

  7. Synthesis of magnetic systems producing field with maximal scalar characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevets, Nickolay I.

    2005-01-01

    A method of synthesis of the magnetic systems (MSs) consisting of uniformly magnetized blocks is proposed. This method allows to synthesize MSs providing maximum value of any magnetic field scalar characteristic. In particular, it is possible to synthesize the MSs providing the maximum of a field projection on a given vector, a gradient of a field modulus and a gradient of a field energy on a given directing vector, a field magnitude, a magnetic flux through a given surface, a scalar product of a field or a force by a directing function given in some area of space, etc. The synthesized MSs provide maximal efficiency of permanent magnets utilization. The usage of the proposed method of MSs synthesis allows to change a procedure of projecting in principal, namely, to execute it according to the following scheme: (a) to choose the sizes, a form and a number of blocks of a system proceeding from technological (economical) reasons; (b) using the proposed synthesis method, to find an orientation of site magnetization providing maximum possible effect of magnet utilization in a system obtained in (a). Such approach considerably reduces a time of MSs projecting and guarantees maximal possible efficiency of magnets utilization. Besides it provides absolute assurance in 'ideality' of a MS design and allows to obtain an exact estimate of the limit parameters of a field in a working area of a projected MS. The method is applicable to a system containing the components from soft magnetic material with linear magnetic properties

  8. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  9. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim Ethanol Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Meng, Ning; Chang, Bingquan; Quan, Xianghua; Yuan, RuiYing; Li, Bin

    2018-04-05

    Epimedium brevicornu Maxim has been used as a traditional herbal drug in China. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of E. brevicornu Maxim ethanol extract (EBME) were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophages and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that EBME attenuated inflammation by decreasing the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. EBME increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The inhibitory effects of EBME on LPS-stimulated NO and PGE 2 expression were partially reversed by HO-1 inhibitor. EBME also elicited an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced peritonitis. Therefore, EBME exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Quantum coherence generating power, maximally abelian subalgebras, and Grassmannian geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We establish a direct connection between the power of a unitary map in d-dimensions (d algebra). This set can be seen as a topologically non-trivial subset of the Grassmannian over linear operators. The natural distance over the Grassmannian induces a metric structure on Md, which quantifies the lack of commutativity between the pairs of subalgebras. Given a maximally abelian subalgebra, one can define, on physical grounds, an associated measure of quantum coherence. We show that the average quantum coherence generated by a unitary map acting on a uniform ensemble of quantum states in the algebra (the so-called coherence generating power of the map) is proportional to the distance between a pair of maximally abelian subalgebras in Md connected by the unitary transformation itself. By embedding the Grassmannian into a projective space, one can pull-back the standard Fubini-Study metric on Md and define in this way novel geometrical measures of quantum coherence generating power. We also briefly discuss the associated differential metric structures.

  11. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  12. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  13. Quantum effects in non-maximally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Non-Maximally symmetric spaces provide a more general background to explore the relation between the geometry of the manifold and the quantum fields defined in the manifold than those with maximally symmetric spaces. A static Taub universe is used to study the effect of curvature anisotropy on the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a self-interacting scalar field. The one-loop effective potential on a λphi 4 field with arbitrary coupling xi is computed by zeta function regularization. For massless minimal coupled scalar fields, first order phase transitions can occur. Keeping the shape invariant but decreasing the curvature radius of the universe induces symmetry breaking. If the curvature radius is held constant, increasing deformation can restore the symmetry. Studies on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories are also focused on the deformation effect. Using the dimensional regularization, the effective potential of the free scalar fields in M 4 x T/sup N/ and M 4 x (Taub) 3 spaces are obtained. The stability criterions for the static solutions of the self-consistent Einstein equations are derived. Stable solutions of the M 4 x S/sup N/ topology do not exist. With the Taub space as the internal space, the gauge coupling constants of SU(2), and U(1) can be determined geometrically. The weak angle is therefore predicted by geometry in this model

  14. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  15. The indexing ambiguity in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) resolved using an expectation maximization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiguang; Spence, John C H

    2014-11-01

    Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais symmetry is higher than the space-group symmetry, there will be multiple indexing options that are geometrically equivalent, and hence many ways to merge diffraction intensities from protein nanocrystals. Structure factor magnitudes from full reflections are required to resolve this ambiguity but only partial reflections are available from each XFEL shot, which must be merged to obtain full reflections from these 'stills'. To resolve this chicken-and-egg problem, an expectation maximization algorithm is described that iteratively constructs a model from the intensities recorded in the diffraction patterns as the indexing ambiguity is being resolved. The reconstructed model is then used to guide the resolution of the indexing ambiguity as feedback for the next iteration. Using both simulated and experimental data collected at an X-ray laser for photosystem I in the P63 space group (which supports a merohedral twinning indexing ambiguity), the method is validated.

  16. M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this informal review for non-specalists we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the worldvolumes branes in String Theory and M-Theory. Particular focus is made on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane worldvolume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-Theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying String Theory and M-Theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-Theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.

  17. LikelihoodLib - Fitting, Function Maximization, and Numerical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, I B

    2001-01-01

    A new class library is designed for function maximization, minimization, solution of equations and for other problems related to mathematical analysis of multi-parameter functions by numerical iterative methods. When we search the maximum or another special point of a function, we may change and fit all parameters simultaneously, sequentially, recursively, or by any combination of these methods. The discussion is focused on the first the most complicated method, although the others are also supported by the library. For this method we apply: control of precision by interval computations; the calculation of derivatives either by differential arithmetic, or by the method of finite differences with the step lengths which provide suppression of the influence of numerical noise; possible synchronization of the subjective function calls with minimization of the number of iterations; competitive application of various methods for step calculation, and converging to the solution by many trajectories.

  18. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.

  19. Preliminary accelerator plans for maximizing the integrated LHC luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ruggiero, F; Ostojic, R; Scandale, Walter; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Wenninger, J

    2006-01-01

    A working group on "Proton Accelerators for the Future" (PAF) has been created in May 2005 by the CERN direction to elaborate a baseline scenario of the possible development and upgrade of the present Proton Accelerator Complex. This report is the result of the investigation conducted until the end of 2005, in close connection with the working group on "Physics Opportunities with Future Proton Accelerators" (POFPA) and is consistent with their recommendations. Focused on the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity for the LHC experiments, a scenario of evolution is proposed, subject to further refinement using the future experience of commissioning and running-in the collider and its injector complex. The actions to be taken in terms of consolidation, R & D and improvement are outlined. The benefits for other types of physics are mentioned and will be investigated in more detail in the future.

  20. Techniques to maximize software reliability in radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Piercey, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Microprocessor system failures due to memory corruption by single event upsets (SEUs) and/or latch-up in RAM or ROM memory are common in environments where there is high radiation flux. Traditional methods to harden microcomputer systems against SEUs and memory latch-up have usually involved expensive large scale hardware redundancy. Such systems offer higher reliability, but they tend to be more complex and non-standard. At the Space Astronomy Laboratory the authors have developed general programming techniques for producing software which is resistant to such memory failures. These techniques, which may be applied to standard off-the-shelf hardware, as well as custom designs, include an implementation of Maximally Redundant Software (MRS) model, error detection algorithms and memory verification and management

  1. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  2. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory......We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....

  3. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."

  4. Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate 3D-conforming tetrahedral meshes from closed 2-manifold surfaces. Our approach is inspired by recent work on maximal Poisson-disk sampling (MPS), which can generate well-distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform or adaptive sampling, respectively. We also propose an efficient optimization strategy to protect the domain boundaries and to remove slivers to improve the meshing quality. We present various experimental results to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of our proposed approach. We demonstrate that the performance and quality (e.g., minimal dihedral angle) of our approach are superior to current state-of-the-art optimization-based approaches.

  5. Maximal network reliability for a stochastic power transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Many studies regarded a power transmission network as a binary-state network and constructed it with several arcs and vertices to evaluate network reliability. In practice, the power transmission network should be stochastic because each arc (transmission line) combined with several physical lines is multistate. Network reliability is the probability that the network can transmit d units of electric power from a power plant (source) to a high voltage substation at a specific area (sink). This study focuses on searching for the optimal transmission line assignment to the power transmission network such that network reliability is maximized. A genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products is developed to solve this assignment problem. A real power transmission network is adopted to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method while comparing with the random solution generation approach.

  6. Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Deguchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We apply a generalized Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin (BRST formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed SU(2 Yang–Mills (YM theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev–Popov (FP effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.

  7. Applications of maximally concentrating optics for solar energy collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1985-11-01

    A new family of optical concentrators based on a general nonimaging design principle for maximizing the geometric concentration, C, for radiation within a given acceptance half angle ±θα has been developed. The maximum limit exceeds by factors of 2 to 10 that attainable by systems using focusing optics. The wide acceptance angles permitted using these techniques have several unique advantages for solar concentrators including the elimination of the diurnal tracking requirement at intermediate concentrations (up to ˜10x), collection of circumsolar and some diffuse radiation, and relaxed tolerances. Because of these advantages, these types of concentrators have applications in solar energy wherever concentration is desired, e.g. for a wide variety of both thermal and photovoltaic uses. The basic principles of nonimaging optical design are reviewed. Selected configurations for thermal collector applications are discussed and the use of nonimaging elements as secondary concentrators is illustrated in the context of higher concentration applications.

  8. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  9. Sum-Rate Maximization of Coordinated Direct and Relay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Popovski, Petar; Thai, Chan

    2012-01-01

    Joint processing of multiple communication flows in wireless systems has given rise to a number of novel transmission techniques, notably the two-way relaying based on wireless network coding. Recently, a related set of techniques has emerged, termed coordinated direct and relay (CDR) transmissions......, where the constellation of traffic flows is more general than the two-way. Regardless of the actual traffic flows, in a CDR scheme the relay has a central role in managing the interference and boosting the overall system performance. In this paper we investigate the novel transmission modes, based...... on amplify-and-forward, that arise when the relay is equipped with multiple antennas and can use beamforming. We focus on one representative traffic type, with one uplink and one downlink users and consider the achievable sum-rate maximization relay beamforming. The beamforming criterion leads to a non...

  10. Damped oscillatory integrals and boundedness problem for maximal operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikromov, Isroil A.

    2003-06-01

    We consider a real-analytic hypersurface S in IR n+1 with surface measure dσ, ψ is a compactly supported non-negative smooth cut-off function, and we let dμ q be the surface measure with dμ q ψvertical barΛ(X)vertical bar q dσ, where Λ(X) is a damping factor defined by the matrix of a second fundamental form of the surface. We show that if S is a real analytic hypersurface, then μ-circumflex q (ξ) decays as O(vertical barξvertical bar -(1/2+ε) ), where ε > 0, provided q > 3/2. We also consider applications involving maximal operators associated to averages of functions over hypersurfaces. (author)

  11. Low-energy restoration of parity and maximal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.; Sarkar, U.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal symmetry of fermions of one generation, SU(16), which includes the left-right-symmetric Pati-Salam group, SU(4)/sub c/ x SU(2) /sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/, as a subgroup, allows the possibility of a low-energy (M/sub R/approx.100 GeV) breaking of the left-right symmetry. It is known that such a low-energy restoration of parity can be consistent with weak-interaction phenomenology. We examine different chains of descent of SU(16) that admit a low value of M/sub R/ and determine the other intermediate symmetry-breaking mass scales associated with each of these chains. These additional mass scales provide an alternative to the ''great desert'' expected in some grand unifying models. The contributions of the Higgs fields in the renormalization-group equations are retained and are found to be important

  12. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.

  14. Maximizing omnidirectional light harvesting in metal oxide hyperbranched array architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Rao, Hua-Shang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-05-01

    The scrupulous design of nanoarchitectures and smart hybridization of specific active materials are closely related to the overall photovoltaic performance of an anode electrode. Here we present a solution-based strategy for the fabrication of well-aligned metal oxide-based nanowire-nanosheet-nanorod hyperbranched arrays on transparent conducting oxide substrates. For these hyperbranched arrays, we observe a twofold increment in dye adsorption and enhanced light trapping and scattering capability compared with the pristine titanium dioxide nanowires, and thus a power conversion efficiency of 9.09% is achieved. Our growth approach presents a strategy to broaden the photoresponse and maximize the light-harvesting efficiency of arrays architectures, and may lead to applications for energy conversion and storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing.

  15. Long memory analysis by using maximal overlapping discrete wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nur Amalina binti; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-05-01

    Long memory process is the asymptotic decay of the autocorrelation or spectral density around zero. The main objective of this paper is to do a long memory analysis by using the Maximal Overlapping Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) based on wavelet variance. In doing so, stock market of Malaysia, China, Singapore, Japan and United States of America are used. The risk of long term and short term investment are also being looked into. MODWT can be analyzed with time domain and frequency domain simultaneously and decomposing wavelet variance to different scales without loss any information. All countries under studied show that they have long memory. Subprime mortgage crisis in 2007 is occurred in the United States of America are possible affect to the major trading countries. Short term investment is more risky than long term investment.

  16. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  17. Two-colorable graph states with maximal Schmidt measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The Schmidt measure was introduced by Eisert and Briegel for quantifying the degree of entanglement of multipartite quantum systems [J. Eisert, H.-J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 22306]. For two-colorable graph states, the Schmidt measure is related to the spectrum of the associated graph. We observe that almost all two-colorable graph states have maximal Schmidt measure and we construct specific examples. By making appeal to a result of Ehrenfeucht et al. [A. Ehrenfeucht, T. Harju, G. Rozenberg, Discrete Math. 278 (2004) 45], we point out that the graph operations called local complementation and switching form a transitive group acting on the set of all graph states of a given dimension

  18. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Lysimachia fortunei Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Lin; Yang, Zi-Ni; He, Cui; Liao, Hai-Bing; Wang, Heng-Shan; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Six previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, fortunosides A-F, together with six known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lysimachia fortunei Maxim. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analyses (1D, 2D-NMR and HRESIMS) and chemical methods. All isolated triterpenoid saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human liver cancer cell lines (SMMC-7721, Hep3B, HuH7, and SK-Hep-1). Three saponins with the aglycone protoprimulagenin A exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against all of the tested human cancer cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 4.76 to 15.12 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  20. Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, 78216 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Garcia, M E [Theoretische Physik, FB 18, Universitaet Kassel and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Str.40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2009-08-07

    In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.

  1. Teaching for more effective learning: Seven maxims for practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that deep learning, which seeks lasting mastery over a subject, is more desirable in professional education than shallow learning, which is merely designed to pass academic assessments, this paper suggests ways in which teachers in higher education can encourage the former. Noting that students tend to adopt either a shallow or deep approach in response to their experiences in the classroom and their understanding of what the assessment regime requires, it argues that, as a consequence, it ought to be possible to prompt more students to adopt deep learning approaches by manipulating teaching and assessment strategies. The literature on teaching and learning is explored in order to derive maxims of good practice which, if followed, can reasonably be expected to promote deep learning and discourage surface learning. It is argued that this will lead to more effective preparation for the real world of professional practice

  2. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  3. On Maximal Hard-Core Thinnings of Stationary Particle Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian; Last, Günter

    2018-02-01

    The present paper studies existence and distributional uniqueness of subclasses of stationary hard-core particle systems arising as thinnings of stationary particle processes. These subclasses are defined by natural maximality criteria. We investigate two specific criteria, one related to the intensity of the hard-core particle process, the other one being a local optimality criterion on the level of realizations. In fact, the criteria are equivalent under suitable moment conditions. We show that stationary hard-core thinnings satisfying such criteria exist and are frequently distributionally unique. More precisely, distributional uniqueness holds in subcritical and barely supercritical regimes of continuum percolation. Additionally, based on the analysis of a specific example, we argue that fluctuations in grain sizes can play an important role for establishing distributional uniqueness at high intensities. Finally, we provide a family of algorithmically constructible approximations whose volume fractions are arbitrarily close to the maximum.

  4. Open Maximal Mucosa-Sparing Functional Total Laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dulguerov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTotal laryngectomy after (chemoradiotherapy is associated with a high incidence of fistula and therefore flaps are advocated. The description of a transoral robotic total laryngectomy prompted us to develop similar minimally invasive open approaches for functional total laryngectomy.MethodsA retrospective study of consecutive unselected patients with a dysfunctional larynx after (chemoradiation that underwent open maximal mucosal-sparing functional total laryngectomy (MMSTL between 2014 and 2016 is presented. The surgical technique is described, and the complications and functional outcome are reviewed.ResultsThe cohorts included 10 patients who underwent open MMSTL. No pedicled flap was used. Only one postoperative fistula was noted (10%. All patients resumed oral diet and experienced a functional tracheo-esophageal voice.ConclusionMMSTL could be used to perform functional total laryngectomy without a robot and with minimal incidence of complications.

  5. An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang

    2013-07-21

    The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.

  6. Pareto optimization of an industrial ecosystem: sustainability maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. M.-S. Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates a procedure to design an Industrial Ecosystem for sequestrating CO2 and consuming glycerol in a Chemical Complex with 15 integrated processes. The Complex is responsible for the production of methanol, ethylene oxide, ammonia, urea, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene glycol, glycerol carbonate, β-carotene, 1,2-propanediol and olefins, and is simulated using UNISIM Design (Honeywell. The process environmental impact (EI is calculated using the Waste Reduction Algorithm, while Profit (P is estimated using classic cost correlations. MATLAB (The Mathworks Inc is connected to UNISIM to enable optimization. The objective is granting maximum process sustainability, which involves finding a compromise between high profitability and low environmental impact. Sustainability maximization is therefore understood as a multi-criteria optimization problem, addressed by means of the Pareto optimization methodology for trading off P vs. EI.

  7. Maximizing Statistical Power When Verifying Probabilistic Forecasts of Hydrometeorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChant, C. M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrometeorological events (i.e. floods, droughts, precipitation) are increasingly being forecasted probabilistically, owing to the uncertainties in the underlying causes of the phenomenon. In these forecasts, the probability of the event, over some lead time, is estimated based on some model simulations or predictive indicators. By issuing probabilistic forecasts, agencies may communicate the uncertainty in the event occurring. Assuming that the assigned probability of the event is correct, which is referred to as a reliable forecast, the end user may perform some risk management based on the potential damages resulting from the event. Alternatively, an unreliable forecast may give false impressions of the actual risk, leading to improper decision making when protecting resources from extreme events. Due to this requisite for reliable forecasts to perform effective risk management, this study takes a renewed look at reliability assessment in event forecasts. Illustrative experiments will be presented, showing deficiencies in the commonly available approaches (Brier Score, Reliability Diagram). Overall, it is shown that the conventional reliability assessment techniques do not maximize the ability to distinguish between a reliable and unreliable forecast. In this regard, a theoretical formulation of the probabilistic event forecast verification framework will be presented. From this analysis, hypothesis testing with the Poisson-Binomial distribution is the most exact model available for the verification framework, and therefore maximizes one's ability to distinguish between a reliable and unreliable forecast. Application of this verification system was also examined within a real forecasting case study, highlighting the additional statistical power provided with the use of the Poisson-Binomial distribution.

  8. Maximal Oxygen Consumption is Reduced in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al-Samir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have measured maximal oxygen consumption (V’O2,max of mice lacking one or two of the established mouse red-cell CO2 channels AQP1, AQP9 and Rhag. We intended to study whether these proteins, by acting as channels for O2, determine O2 exchange in the lung and in the periphery. We found that V’O2,max as determined by the Helox technique is reduced by ~ 16%, when AQP1 is knocked out, but not when AQP9 or Rhag are lacking. This figure holds for animals respiring normoxic as well as hypoxic gas mixtures. To see whether the reduction of V’O2,max is due to impaired O2 uptake in the lung, we measured carotid arterial O2 saturation (SO2 by pulse oximetry. Neither under normoxic (inspiratory O2 21% nor under hypoxic conditions (11% O2 is there a difference in SO2 between AQP1null and WT mice, suggesting that AQP1 is not critical for O2 uptake in the lung. The fact that the % reduction of V’O2,max is identical in normoxia and hypoxia indicates moreover that the limitation of V’O2,max is not due to an O2 diffusion problem, neither in the lung nor in the periphery. Instead, it appears likely that AQP1null animals exhibit a reduced V’O2,max due to the reduced wall thickness and muscle mass of the left ventricles of their hearts, as reported previously. We conclude that very likely the properties of the hearts of AQP1 knockout mice cause a reduced maximal cardiac output and thus cause a reduced V’O2,max, which constitutes a new phenotype of these mice.

  9. Short Run Profit Maximization in a Convex Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Vrankic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the short run profit maximization problem in a convex analysis framework. The goal is to apply the results of convex analysis due to unique structure of microeconomic phenomena on the known short run profit maximization problem where the results from convex analysis are deductively applied. In the primal optimization model the technology in the short run is represented by the short run production function and the normalized profit function, which expresses profit in the output units, is derived. In this approach the choice variable is the labour quantity. Alternatively, technology is represented by the real variable cost function, where costs are expressed in the labour units, and the normalized profit function is derived, this time expressing profit in the labour units. The choice variable in this approach is the quantity of production. The emphasis in these two perspectives of the primal approach is given to the first order necessary conditions of both models which are the consequence of enveloping the closed convex set describing technology with its tangents. The dual model includes starting from the normalized profit function and recovering the production function, and alternatively the real variable cost function. In the first perspective of the dual approach the choice variable is the real wage, and in the second it is the real product price expressed in the labour units. It is shown that the change of variables into parameters and parameters into variables leads to both optimization models which give the same system of labour demand and product supply functions and their inverses. By deductively applying the results of convex analysis the comparative statics results are derived describing the firm's behaviour in the short run.

  10. Antiproliferative Activity of Phenylpropanoids Isolated from Lagotis brevituba Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuan; Jing, Zhao; Haixia, Wang; Ruitao, Yu; Huaixiu, Wen; Zenggen, Liu; Lijuan, Mei; Yiping, Wang; Yanduo, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of phenylpropanoids isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of Lagotis brevituba Maxim. The phenylpropanoids were identified as echinacoside, lagotioside, glucopyranosyl(1-6)martynoside, plantamoside, and verbascoside. Three of the compounds, lagotioside, glucopyranosyl(1-6)martynoside, and plantamoside, were isolated from L. brevituba for the first time. The antiproliferative activity of the isolates was evaluated in human gastric carcinoma (MGC-803), human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), human hepatocellar carcinoma (HepG2), and human lung cancer (HCT116) cells using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Plantamoside showed promising activity against MGC-803 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 37.09 μM. The mechanism of the pro-apoptosis effect of plantamoside was then evaluated in MGC-803 cells. Changes in cell morphology, including disorganization of the architecture of actin microfilaments and formation of apoptotic bodies, together with cell cycle arrest in G2/M phases, were observed after treatment of plantamoside. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were associated with a decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which was accompanied by the release of reactive oxygen species and Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm. Taken together, the results indicated that plantamoside promotes apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Renormalization effects in the SU(16) maximally gauged theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi-Hezaveh, E.

    1981-03-01

    In the context of a quark-lepton unified gauge theory, when fermionic degrees of freedom are maximally gauged, several intermediate mass scales filling the grand plateau, between 10 2 Gev. and the grand unifying mass scale, M, may exist. In particular, when renormalization effects are taken into account for the SU(16) ''maximal'' gauge symmetry, [in which lepton number is regarded as the fourth color quantum number], it turns out that two intermediate stages governed by the symmetries G 2 =SU(8)sub(I) S SU(8)sub(II) X U(1)sub(F) and G 3 =SU(2)sub(L) X XU(2)sub(R) X SU(4)sub(C) can naturally coexist if Sin 2 theta (Msub(W))>1/6+5/9(α(Msub(W)/αsub(S)(Msub(W)). It is shown that these symmetries break down at a mass scale of the order of Msub(X) approximately equal to 10 4 -10 5 Gev. If neutral current phenomenology (or any other experiment) predicts Sin 2 theta (Msub(W))>0.206, then quark-lepton unification and left-right symmetry simultaneously break down at M approximately equal to 10 4 Gev. (at which αsub(C)(Msub(X) approximately equal to 0.041). It is then argued that apart from proton decay, n-anti n oscillation and neutrinoless double β decay processes, an accurate experimental value of Sin 2 theta (Msub(W)), to α 10 -4 accuracy) plays a crucial role in determining the possible existence of such intermediate stages. (author)

  12. Comparison of three protocols for measuring the maximal respiratory pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria B. Sclauser Pessoa

    Full Text Available Introduction To avoid the selection of submaximal efforts during the assessment of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, some reproducibility criteria have been suggested. Criteria that stand out are those proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS and European Respiratory Society (ERS and by the Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA. However, no studies were found that compared these criteria or assessed the combination of both protocols. Objectives To assess the pressure values selected and the number of maneuvers required to achieve maximum performance using the reproducibility criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, the BTA and the present study. Materials and method 113 healthy subjects (43.04 ± 16.94 years from both genders were assessed according to the criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, BTA and the present study. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, followed by ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc LSD or by Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon, according to the data distribution. Results The criterion proposed by the present study resulted in a significantly higher number of maneuvers (MIP and MEP – median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 5[5-6], 4[3-5] and 3[3-4] for the present study criterion, BTA and ATS/ERS, respectively; p < 0.01 and higher pressure values (MIP – mean and 95% confidence interval: 103[91.43-103.72], 100[97.19-108.83] and 97.6[94.06-105.95]; MEP: median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 124.2[101.4-165.9], 123.3[95.4-153.8] and 118.4[95.5-152.7]; p < 0.05. Conclusion The proposed criterion resulted in the selection of pressure values closer to the individual’s maximal capacity. This new criterion should be considered in future studies concerning MIP and MEP measurements.

  13. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  14. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  15. Assessment of the Maximal Split-Half Coefficient to Estimate Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barry L.; Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2010-01-01

    The maximal split-half coefficient is computed by calculating all possible split-half reliability estimates for a scale and then choosing the maximal value as the reliability estimate. Osburn compared the maximal split-half coefficient with 10 other internal consistency estimates of reliability and concluded that it yielded the most consistently…

  16. Les Ambivalences du Silence: Les "Maximes" de la Rochefoucauld Par Quatre Chemins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcat, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Maxims are famous for their moral pronouncements, yet La Rochefoucauld's "Maximes" (1678) have become infamous for offering little moral guidance. Morally ambivalent at best, the "Maximes" are also less known for their other forms of ambivalence, whether rhetorical, psychological, anthropological or linguistic. Such are…

  17. Maximally entangled mixed states of two atoms trapped inside an optical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shangbin; Xu Jingbo

    2009-01-01

    In some off-resonant cases, the reduced density matrix of two atoms symmetrically coupled with an optical cavity can very approximately approach maximally entangled mixed states or maximal Bell violation mixed states in their evolution. The influence of a phase decoherence on the generation of a maximally entangled mixed state is also discussed

  18. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  19. Mutually Unbiased Maximally Entangled Bases for the Bipartite System Cd⊗ C^{dk}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hua; Tao, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Tian-Jiao; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The construction of maximally entangled bases for the bipartite system Cd⊗ Cd is discussed firstly, and some mutually unbiased bases with maximally entangled bases are given, where 2≤ d≤5. Moreover, we study a systematic way of constructing mutually unbiased maximally entangled bases for the bipartite system Cd⊗ C^{dk}.

  20. Maximal exercise electrocardiography responses and coronary heart disease mortality among men with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, G William; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Lavie, Carl J; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2008-05-27

    An abnormal ECG during maximal exercise testing has been shown to be a powerful predictor of future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in asymptomatic men. However, little is known about the relationship between exercise ECG responses and CHD risk in men with diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between exercise ECG responses and mortality in 2854 men with documented diabetes mellitus (mean age 49.5 years) who completed a maximal treadmill exercise test during the period from 1974 to 2001 and who were without a previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) event at baseline. Mortality due to all causes, CHD, and CVD were the main outcome measures across categories of exercise ECG responses, with stratification by cardiorespiratory fitness, quantified as treadmill test duration. During an average follow-up of 16 years, 441 deaths (210 CVD and 133 CHD) were identified. Across normal, equivocal, and abnormal exercise ECG groups, age- and examination year-adjusted CHD mortality rates per 10 000 person-years were 23.0, 48.6, and 69.0, respectively (P(trend)<0.001). After further adjustment for fasting plasma glucose level, smoking, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history of CVD or diabetes mellitus, abnormal resting ECG responses, and cardiorespiratory fitness, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.00 (referent), 1.68 (1.01 to 2.77), and 2.21 (1.41 to 3.46; P(trend)<0.001). Similar patterns of associations were noted between exercise ECG testing and both CVD and all-cause mortality risk. Among men with diabetes mellitus, equivocal and abnormal exercise ECG responses were associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and CHD mortality.

  1. Structural biomechanics of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton under maximal masticatory loading: Inferences and critical analysis based on a validated computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amir R; Whyne, Cari M; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    The trend towards optimizing stabilization of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton (CMFS) with the minimum amount of fixation required to achieve union, and away from maximizing rigidity, requires a quantitative understanding of craniomaxillofacial biomechanics. This study uses computational modeling to quantify the structural biomechanics of the CMFS under maximal physiologic masticatory loading. Using an experimentally validated subject-specific finite element (FE) model of the CMFS, the patterns of stress and strain distribution as a result of physiological masticatory loading were calculated. The trajectories of the stresses were plotted to delineate compressive and tensile regimes over the entire CMFS volume. The lateral maxilla was found to be the primary vertical buttress under maximal bite force loading, with much smaller involvement of the naso-maxillary buttress. There was no evidence that the pterygo-maxillary region is a buttressing structure, counter to classical buttress theory. The stresses at the zygomatic sutures suggest that two-point fixation of zygomatic complex fractures may be sufficient for fixation under bite force loading. The current experimentally validated biomechanical FE model of the CMFS is a practical tool for in silico optimization of current practice techniques and may be used as a foundation for the development of design criteria for future technologies for the treatment of CMFS injury and disease. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  3. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  4. Optimization of Second Fault Detection Thresholds to Maximize Mission POS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan

    2018-01-01

    both magnitude and time. As such, the Navigation team is taking advantage of the INS's capability to schedule and change fault detection thresholds in flight. These values are optimized along a nominal trajectory in order to maximize probability of mission success, and reducing the probability of false positives (defined as when the INS would report a second fault condition resulting in loss of mission, but the vehicle would still meet insertion requirements within system-level margins). This paper will describe an optimization approach using Genetic Algorithms to tune the threshold parameters to maximize vehicle resilience to second fault events as a function of potential fault magnitude and time of fault over an ascent mission profile. The analysis approach, and performance assessment of the results will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this process to second fault detection to maximize mission probability of success.

  5. Coverage maximization for a poisson field of drone cells

    KAUST Repository

    Azari, Mohammad Mahdi; Murillo, Yuri; Amin, Osama; Rosas, Fernando; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Pollin, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    the drones are looking down, and the channel model becomes height-dependent. In this paper, we study the effect of antenna patterns and height-dependent shadowing. We consider a random network topology to capture the effect of dynamic changes of the flying

  6. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Sato, Kimitake; Wassinger, Craig A; Lamont, Hugh S; Stone, Michael H

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of 2 different training methods on dynamic and isometric measures of maximal strength. Seventeen recreationally trained men (1 repetition maximum [1RM] squat: 146.9 ± 22.4 kg) were assigned to 2 groups: full range of motion (ROM) squat (F) and full ROM with partial ROM squat (FP) for the 7-week training intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that there was a statistically significant group-by-time interaction for impulse scaled at 50, 90, and 250 milliseconds at 90° of knee flexion and rate of force development at 200 milliseconds with 120° of knee flexion (p ≤ 0.05). There was also a statistically significant time effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, isometric squat peak force allometrically scaled (IPFa) 90°, IPFa 120°, and impulse allometrically scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Additionally, the FP group achieved statistically larger relative training intensities (%1RM) during the final 3 weeks of training (p ≤ 0.05). There was a trend for FP to improve over F in 1RM squat (+3.1%, d = 0.53 vs. 0.32), 1RM partial squat (+4.7%, d = 0.95 vs. 0.69), IPFa 120° (+5.7%, d = 0.52 vs. 0.12), and impulse scaled at 50, 90, 200, and 250 milliseconds at 90° (+6.3 to 13.2%, d = 0.50-1.01 vs. 0.30-0.57) and 120° (+3.4 to 16.8%, d = 0.45-1.11 vs. 0.08-0.37). These larger effect sizes in the FP group can likely be explained their ability to train at larger relative training intensities during the final 3 weeks of training resulting in superior training adaptations. Our findings suggest that partial ROM squats in conjunction with full ROM squats may be an effective training method for improving maximal strength and early force-time curve characteristics in men with previous strength training experience. Practically, partial squats may be beneficial for strength and power athletes during a strength-speed mesocycle while peaking

  7. Technique of the transcervical-subxiphoid-videothoracoscopic maximal thymectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski Marcin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to present the new technique of transcervical-subxiphoid-videothoracoscopic "maximal"thymectomy introduced by the authors of this study for myasthenia gravis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixteen patients with Osserman scores ranging from I-III were operated on from 1/9/2000 to 31/12/2006 for this study. The operation was performed through four incisions: a transverse 5-8 cm incision in the neck, a 4-6 cm subxiphoid incision and two 1 cm incisions for videothoracoscopic (VTS ports. The cervical part of the procedure was performed with an open technique while the intrathoracic part was performed using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS technique. The whole thymus with the surrounding fatty tissue containing possible ectopic foci of the thymic tissue was removed. Such an operation can be performed by one surgical team (the one team approach or by two teams working simultaneously (two team approach. The early and late results as well as the incidence and localization of ectopic thymic foci have been presented in this report. Results: There were 216 patients in this study of which 178 were women and 38 were men. The ages of the patients ranged from 11 to 69 years (mean 29.7 years. The duration of myasthenia was 2-180 months (mean 28.3 months. Osserman scores were in the range of I-III. Almost 27% of the patients were taking steroids or immunosuppressive drugs preoperatively. The mean operative time was 201.5 min (120-330 min for a one-team approach and it was 146 (95-210 min for a two-team approach (P < 0.05. While there was no postoperative mortality, the postoperative morbidity was 12%. The incidence of ectopic thymic foci was 68.4%. The rates of complete remission after one, two, three, four and five years of follow-up were 26.3, 36.5, 42.9, 46.8 and 50.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Transcervical-subxiphoid-VTS maximal thymectomy is a complete and highly effective treatment modality for

  8. Maximally-localized position, Euclidean path-integral, and thermodynamics in GUP quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2018-04-01

    In dealing with quantum mechanics at very high energies, it is essential to adapt to a quasiposition representation using the maximally-localized states because of the generalized uncertainty principle. In this paper, we look at maximally-localized states as eigenstates of the operator ξ = X + iβP that we refer to as the maximally-localized position. We calculate the overlap between maximally-localized states and show that the identity operator can be expressed in terms of the maximally-localized states. Furthermore, we show that the maximally-localized position is diagonal in momentum-space and that the maximally-localized position and its adjoint satisfy commutation and anti-commutation relations reminiscent of the harmonic oscillator commutation and anti-commutation relations. As application, we use the maximally-localized position in developing the Euclidean path-integral and introduce the compact form of the propagator for maximal localization. The free particle momentum-space propagator and the propagator for maximal localization are analytically evaluated up to quadratic-order in β. Finally, we obtain a path-integral expression for the partition function of a thermodynamic system using the maximally-localized states. The partition function of a gas of noninteracting particles is evaluated. At temperatures exceeding the Planck energy, we obtain the gas' maximum internal energy N / 2 β and recover the zero heat capacity of an ideal gas.

  9. A New Look at the Impact of Maximizing on Unhappiness: Two Competing Mediating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to explore how the decision-making style of maximizing affects subjective well-being (SWB, which mainly focuses on the confirmation of the mediator role of regret and suppressing role of achievement motivation. A total of 402 Chinese undergraduate students participated in this study, in which they responded to the maximization, regret, and achievement motivation scales and SWB measures. Results suggested that maximizing significantly predicted SWB. Moreover, regret and achievement motivation (hope for success dimension could completely mediate and suppress this effect. That is, two competing indirect pathways exist between maximizing and SWB. One pathway is through regret. Maximizing typically leads one to regret, which could negatively predict SWB. Alternatively, maximizing could lead to high levels of hope for success, which were positively correlated with SWB. Findings offered a complex method of thinking about the relationship between maximizing and SWB.

  10. A multifaceted approach to maximize erectile function and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, David R; Gambone, Joseph C; Morris, Marge A; Ignarro, Louis J

    2010-12-01

    To review the role of various factors influencing vascular nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP, and consequently, erectile function and vascular health. Pertinent publications are reviewed. Daily moderate exercise stimulates vascular NO production. Maintenance of normal body weight and waist/hip ratio allows NO stimulation by insulin. Decreased intake of fat, sugar, and simple carbohydrates rapidly converted to sugar reduces the adverse effects of fatty acids and sugar on endothelial NO production. Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate endothelial NO release. Antioxidants boost NO production and prevent NO breakdown. Folic acid, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin E support the biochemical pathways leading to NO release. Cessation of smoking and avoidance of excessive alcohol preserve normal endothelial function. Moderate use of alcohol and certain proprietary supplements may favorably influence erectile and vascular function. Treatment of any remaining testosterone deficit will both increase erectile function and reduce any associated metabolic syndrome. After production of NO and cyclic GMP are improved, use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors should result in greater success in treating remaining erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have also suggested positive effects of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors on vascular function. A multifaceted approach will maximize both erectile function and vascular health. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parton Distributions based on a Maximally Consistent Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The choice of data that enters a global QCD analysis can have a substantial impact on the resulting parton distributions and their predictions for collider observables. One of the main reasons for this has to do with the possible presence of inconsistencies, either internal within an experiment or external between different experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the global fit, different definitions of a conservative PDF set, that is, a PDF set based on a maximally consistent dataset, have been introduced. However, these approaches are typically affected by theory biases in the selection of the dataset. In this contribution, after a brief overview of recent NNPDF developments, we propose a new, fully objective, definition of a conservative PDF set, based on the Bayesian reweighting approach. Using the new NNPDF3.0 framework, we produce various conservative sets, which turn out to be mutually in agreement within the respective PDF uncertainties, as well as with the global fit. We explore some of their implications for LHC phenomenology, finding also good consistency with the global fit result. These results provide a non-trivial validation test of the new NNPDF3.0 fitting methodology, and indicate that possible inconsistencies in the fitted dataset do not affect substantially the global fit PDFs.

  12. Listeners are maximally flexible in updating phonetic beliefs over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, David; Myers, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Perceptual learning serves as a mechanism for listenexrs to adapt to novel phonetic information. Distributional tracking theories posit that this adaptation occurs as a result of listeners accumulating talker-specific distributional information about the phonetic category in question (Kleinschmidt & Jaeger, 2015, Psychological Review, 122). What is not known is how listeners build these talker-specific distributions; that is, if they aggregate all information received over a certain time period, or if they rely more heavily upon the most recent information received and down-weight older, consolidated information. In the present experiment, listeners were exposed to four interleaved blocks of a lexical decision task and a phonetic categorization task in which the lexical decision blocks were designed to bias perception in opposite directions along a "s"-"sh" continuum. Listeners returned several days later and completed the identical task again. Evidence was consistent with listeners using a relatively short temporal window of integration at the individual session level. Namely, in each individual session, listeners' perception of a "s"-"sh" contrast was biased by the information in the immediately preceding lexical decision block, and there was no evidence that listeners summed their experience with the talker over the entire session. Similarly, the magnitude of the bias effect did not change between sessions, consistent with the idea that talker-specific information remains flexible, even after consolidation. In general, results suggest that listeners are maximally flexible when considering how to categorize speech from a novel talker.

  13. Statistical complexity is maximized in a small-world brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Liang Tan

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a network of Izhikevich neurons to explore what it means for a brain to be at the edge of chaos. To do so, we first constructed the phase diagram of a single Izhikevich excitatory neuron, and identified a small region of the parameter space where we find a large number of phase boundaries to serve as our edge of chaos. We then couple the outputs of these neurons directly to the parameters of other neurons, so that the neuron dynamics can drive transitions from one phase to another on an artificial energy landscape. Finally, we measure the statistical complexity of the parameter time series, while the network is tuned from a regular network to a random network using the Watts-Strogatz rewiring algorithm. We find that the statistical complexity of the parameter dynamics is maximized when the neuron network is most small-world-like. Our results suggest that the small-world architecture of neuron connections in brains is not accidental, but may be related to the information processing that they do.

  14. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Maximizing Impact: Pairing interactive web visualizations with traditional print media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, E. K.; Appling, A.; Carr, L.; De Cicco, L.; Read, J. S.; Walker, J. I.; Winslow, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Our Nation's rapidly growing store of environmental data makes new demands on researchers: to take on increasingly broad-scale, societally relevant analyses and to rapidly communicate findings to the public. Interactive web-based data visualizations now commonly supplement or comprise journalism, and science journalism has followed suit. To maximize the impact of US Geological Survey (USGS) science, the USGS Office of Water Information Data Science team builds tools and products that combine traditional static research products (e.g., print journal articles) with web-based, interactive data visualizations that target non-scientific audiences. We developed a lightweight, open-source framework for web visualizations to reduce time to production. The framework provides templates for a data visualization workflow and the packaging of text, interactive figures, and images into an appealing web interface with standardized look and feel, usage tracking, and responsiveness. By partnering with subject matter experts to focus on timely, societally relevant issues, we use these tools to produce appealing visual stories targeting specific audiences, including managers, the general public, and scientists, on diverse topics including drought, microplastic pollution, and fisheries response to climate change. We will describe the collaborative and technical methodologies used; describe some examples of how it's worked; and challenges and opportunities for the future.

  16. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  17. Terminal altitude maximization for Mars entry considering uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Zhao, Zeduan; Yu, Zhengshi; Dai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainties present in the Mars atmospheric entry process may cause state deviations from the nominal designed values, which will lead to unexpected performance degradation if the trajectory is designed merely based on the deterministic dynamic model. In this paper, a linear covariance based entry trajectory optimization method is proposed considering the uncertainties presenting in the initial states and parameters. By extending the elements of the state covariance matrix as augmented states, the statistical behavior of the trajectory is captured to reformulate the performance metrics and path constraints. The optimization problem is solved by the GPOPS-II toolbox in MATLAB environment. Monte Carlo simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Primary trading performances between the nominal deployment altitude and its dispersion can be observed by modulating the weights on the dispersion penalty, and a compromised result referring to maximizing the 3σ lower bound of the terminal altitude is achieved. The resulting path constraints also show better satisfaction in a disturbed environment compared with the nominal situation.

  18. Maritime energy and security: Synergistic maximization or necessary tradeoffs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Offshore energy is big business. The traditional source of maritime energy, offshore petroleum and gas, has been on the rise since a reliable method of extraction was discovered in the mid-20th century. Lately, it has been joined by offshore wind and tidal power as alternative “green” sources of maritime energy. Yet all of this has implications for maritime environmental regimes as well, as maritime energy extraction/generation can have a negative effect on the ocean environment. This paper considers two major questions surrounding maritime energy and environmental concerns. First, how and why do these two concerns, maritime energy and environmental protection, play against each other? Second, how can states both secure their energy and environmental securities in the maritime domain? Maximizing maritime energy output necessitates some environmental costs and vice versa, but these costs vary with the type of offshore energy technology used and with the extent to which states are willing to expend effort to protect both environmental and energy security. - Highlights: • Security is a complicated concept with several facets including energy and environmental issues. • Offshore energy contributes to energy supply but can have environmental and monitoring costs. • Understanding the contribution of offshore energy to security depends on which security facet is deemed most important.

  19. Phenolic compounds from Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Elvira E; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Pokrovsky, Mikhail A; Petrova, Tatijana N; Pokrovsky, Andrey G; Gorovoy, Petr G

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-one phenolic compounds (1-21) including dihydrocinnamic acid, isoflavonoids, flavonoids, coumestans, pterocarpans, chalcones, isoflavan and isoflaven, were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. Phloretinic acid (1), chrysin (6), 9-methoxycoumestan (8), isoglycyrol (9), 6″-O-acetylanonin (19) and 6″-O-acetylwistin (21) were isolated from G. pallidiflora for the first time. Isoflavonoid acetylglycosides 19, 21 might be artefacts that could be produced during the EtOAc fractionation process of whole extract. Compounds 2-4, 10, 11, 19 and 21 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity with respect to model cancer cell lines (CEM-13, MT-4, U-937) using the conventional MTT assays. Isoflavonoid calycosin (4) showed the best potency against human T-cell leukaemia cells MT-4 (CTD 50 , 2.9 μM). Pterocarpans medicarpin (10) and homopterocarpin (11) exhibit anticancer activity in micromolar range with selectivity on the human monocyte cells U-937. The isoflavan (3R)-vestitol (16) was highly selective on the lymphoblastoid leukaemia cells CEM-13 and was more active than the drug doxorubicin.

  20. Anesthetic constituents of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.: A pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Rong; Cui, Mei-Yu; Zhang, Qi-Li; Zhang, Mei-Yan; Yu, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Xian-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Li

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy-α-sanshool, hydroxy-β-sanshool, and hydroxy-γ-sanshool in rat plasma after the subcutaneous and intravenous administration of an extract of the pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Piperine was used as the internal standard. The analytes were extracted from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.9 μm) with a gradient elution system at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/0.05% formic acid in water and the total analysis time was 4 min. Positive electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reaction monitoring mode for the analytes. The calibration curves of the three analytes were linear over the tested concentration range. The intra- and interday precision was no more than 13.6%. Extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability were satisfactory in rat plasma. The developed and validated method was suitable for the quantification of hydroxy-α-sanshool, hydroxy-β-sanshool, and hydroxy-γ-sanshool and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of these analytes after subcutaneous and intravenous administration to rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Plant regeneration from protoplasts of Gentiana straminea Maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Guomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for plant regeneration from protoplasts of Gentiana straminea Maxim. via somatic embryogenesis. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli in an enzyme solution composed of 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% Hemicellulase, and 0.5 M sorbitol with a yield of 3.0 × 106 protoplasts per gram of fresh weight. Liquid, solid-liquid double layer (sLD and agar-pool (aPL culture systems were used for protoplast culture. The aPL culture was the only method that produced embryogenic, regenerative calli. With aPL culture, the highest frequencies of protoplast cell division and colony formation were 39.6% and 16.9%, respectively, on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L N6-benzylaminopurine (BA. Microcalli were transferred to solid MS medium containing a reduced concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 mg/L to promote the formation of embryogenic calli. Somatic embryos developed into plantlets on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA at a rate of 43.7%.

  2. Comparison of empirical strategies to maximize GENEHUNTER lod scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C H; Finch, S J; Mendell, N R; Gordon, D

    1999-01-01

    We compare four strategies for finding the settings of genetic parameters that maximize the lod scores reported in GENEHUNTER 1.2. The four strategies are iterated complete factorial designs, iterated orthogonal Latin hypercubes, evolutionary operation, and numerical optimization. The genetic parameters that are set are the phenocopy rate, penetrance, and disease allele frequency; both recessive and dominant models are considered. We selected the optimization of a recessive model on the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) data of chromosome 1 for complete analysis. Convergence to a setting producing a local maximum required the evaluation of over 100 settings (for a time budget of 800 minutes on a Pentium II 300 MHz PC). Two notable local maxima were detected, suggesting the need for a more extensive search before claiming that a global maximum had been found. The orthogonal Latin hypercube design was the best strategy for finding areas that produced high lod scores with small numbers of evaluations. Numerical optimization starting from a region producing high lod scores was the strategy that found the highest maximum observed.

  3. Mammogram segmentation using maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, J; Peter, J Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer among women. Mammogram is one of the most effective tools for early detection of the breast cancer. Various computer-aided systems have been introduced to detect the breast cancer from mammogram images. In a computer-aided diagnosis system, detection and segmentation of breast masses from the background tissues is an important issue. In this paper, an automatic segmentation method is proposed to identify and segment the suspicious mass regions of mammogram using a modified transition rule named maximal cell strength updation in cellular automata (CA). In coarse-level segmentation, the proposed method performs an adaptive global thresholding based on the histogram peak analysis to obtain the rough region of interest. An automatic seed point selection is proposed using gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based sum average feature in the coarse segmented image. Finally, the method utilizes CA with the identified initial seed point and the modified transition rule to segment the mass region. The proposed approach is evaluated over the dataset of 70 mammograms with mass from mini-MIAS database. Experimental results show that the proposed approach yields promising results to segment the mass region in the mammograms with the sensitivity of 92.25% and accuracy of 93.48%.

  4. On gauged maximal d  =  8 supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso Andino, Óscar; Ortín, Tomás

    2018-04-01

    We study the gauging of maximal d  =  8 supergravity using the embedding tensor formalism. We focus on SO(3) gaugings, study all the possible choices of gauge fields and construct explicitly the bosonic actions (including the complicated Chern–Simons terms) for all these choices, which are parametrized by a parameter associated to the 8-dimensional SL(2, {R}) duality group that relates all the possible choices which are, ultimately, equivalent from the purely 8-dimensional point of view. Our result proves that the theory constructed by Salam and Sezgin by Scherk–Schwarz compactification of d  =  11 supergravity and the theory constructed in Alonso-Alberca (2001 Nucl. Phys. B 602 329) by dimensional reduction of the so called ‘massive 11-dimensional supergravity’ proposed by Meessen and Ortín in (1999 Nucl. Phys. B 541 195) are indeed related by an SL(2, {R}) duality even though they have two completely different 11-dimensional origins.

  5. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  6. Maximizing recovery of water-soluble proteins through acetone precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Andrew M J; Wall, Mark J; Doucette, Alan A

    2013-09-24

    Solvent precipitation is commonly used to purify protein samples, as seen with the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate through acetone precipitation. However, in its current practice, protein loss is believed to be an inevitable consequence of acetone precipitation. We herein provide an in depth characterization of protein recovery through acetone precipitation. In 80% acetone, the precipitation efficiency for six of 10 protein standards was poor (ca. ≤15%). Poor recovery was also observed for proteome extracts, including bacterial and mammalian cells. As shown in this work, increasing the ionic strength of the solution dramatically improves the precipitation efficiency of individual proteins, and proteome mixtures (ca. 80-100% yield). This is obtained by including 1-30 mM NaCl, together with acetone (50-80%) which maximizes protein precipitation efficiency. The amount of salt required to restore the recovery correlates with the amount of protein in the sample, as well as the intrinsic protein charge, and the dielectric strength of the solution. This synergistic approach to protein precipitation in acetone with salt is consistent with a model of ion pairing in organic solvent, and establishes an improved method to recover proteins and proteome mixtures in high yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal optical communication terminal structure for maximizing the link budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Jiang, Dagang; Deng, Ke; Zhang, Peng

    2015-02-01

    Ordinary inter-satellite optical includes at least three optical paths for acquisition, tracking and communication, the three optical paths work simultaneously and share the received power. An optimal structure of inter-satellite optical communication terminal with single working optical path at each of working stages of acquisition and communication is introduced. A space optical switch based on frustrated total internal reflection effect is applied to switch the received laser power between the acquisition sensor and the communication sensor between the stages of acquisition and communication, this is named as power fusion which means power is transferred for shutting down unused optical path. For the stages of tracking and communication, a multiple cells sensor is used to accomplish the operation of tracking while communication, this is named as function fusion which means accomplishing multiple functions by one device to reduce the redundant optical paths. For optical communication terminal with single working path structure, the total received laser power would be detected by one sensor for each different stages of acquisition, tracking and communication, the link budget would be maximized, and this design would help to enlarge the system tolerance and reduce the acquisition time.

  8. Managing the innovation supply chain to maximize personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2014-02-01

    Personalized medicine epitomizes an evolving model of care tailored to the individual patient. This emerging paradigm harnesses radical technological advances to define each patient's molecular characteristics and decipher his or her unique pathophysiological processes. Translated into individualized algorithms, personalized medicine aims to predict, prevent, and cure disease without producing therapeutic adverse events. Although the transformative power of personalized medicine is generally recognized by physicians, patients, and payers, the complexity of translating discoveries into new modalities that transform health care is less appreciated. We often consider the flow of innovation and technology along a continuum of discovery, development, regulation, and application bridging the bench with the bedside. However, this process also can be viewed through a complementary prism, as a necessary supply chain of services and providers, each making essential contributions to the development of the final product to maximize value to consumers. Considering personalized medicine in this context of supply chain management highlights essential points of vulnerability and/or scalability that can ultimately constrain translation of the biological revolution or potentiate it into individualized diagnostics and therapeutics for optimized value creation and delivery.

  9. Glioma Surgery: Technological Advances to Achieve a Maximal Safe Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Roberto; Zenga, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Cofano, Fabio; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Spena, Giannantonio; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Fornaro, Riccardo; Ducati, Alessandro; Garbossa, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Despite the best treatment and advances in therapy, prognosis remains poor. One of the mainstays of therapy in GBM is surgical excision. Several studies have confirmed that the extent of resection (EOR) positively influences overall survival (OS) in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs). A literature search was performed using PubMed to assess the useful neurosurgical tools to achieve the best neurosurgical performance. In order to achieve the major extent of resection, preserving neurological function, many tools are now available, especially neuronavigation, intraoperative fluorescence, intraoperative ultrasound, and neuromonitoring. In addition to the maximal excision of tumor, the neurosurgeon can use photodynamic therapy (PTD) and local drug delivery (LDD) to improve the local control and bridge conventional radio and chemotherapy. EOR improves OS in patients with HGGs. There are technological possibilities for achieving a complete resection preserving neurological function, and it is not acceptable to perform only biopsy of these lesions.

  10. Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.

    2006-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  11. Energy-driven scheduling algorithm for nanosatellite energy harvesting maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slongo, L. K.; Martínez, S. V.; Eiterer, B. V. B.; Pereira, T. G.; Bezerra, E. A.; Paiva, K. V.

    2018-06-01

    The number of tasks that a satellite may execute in orbit is strongly related to the amount of energy its Electrical Power System (EPS) is able to harvest and to store. The manner the stored energy is distributed within the satellite has also a great impact on the CubeSat's overall efficiency. Most CubeSat's EPS do not prioritize energy constraints in their formulation. Unlike that, this work proposes an innovative energy-driven scheduling algorithm based on energy harvesting maximization policy. The energy harvesting circuit is mathematically modeled and the solar panel I-V curves are presented for different temperature and irradiance levels. Considering the models and simulations, the scheduling algorithm is designed to keep solar panels working close to their maximum power point by triggering tasks in the appropriate form. Tasks execution affects battery voltage, which is coupled to the solar panels through a protection circuit. A software based Perturb and Observe strategy allows defining the tasks to be triggered. The scheduling algorithm is tested in FloripaSat, which is an 1U CubeSat. A test apparatus is proposed to emulate solar irradiance variation, considering the satellite movement around the Earth. Tests have been conducted to show that the scheduling algorithm improves the CubeSat energy harvesting capability by 4.48% in a three orbit experiment and up to 8.46% in a single orbit cycle in comparison with the CubeSat operating without the scheduling algorithm.

  12. Lifestyle and metabolic approaches to maximizing erectile and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, D R; Gambone, J C; Morris, M A; Esposito, K; Giugliano, D; Ignarro, L J

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, which disrupt nitric oxide (NO) production directly or by causing resistance to insulin, are central determinants of vascular diseases including ED. Decreased vascular NO has been linked to abdominal obesity, smoking and high intakes of fat and sugar, which all cause oxidative stress. Men with ED have decreased vascular NO and circulating and cellular antioxidants. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers are increased in men with ED, and all increase with age. Exercise increases vascular NO, and more frequent erections are correlated with decreased ED, both in part due to stimulation of endothelial NO production by shear stress. Exercise and weight loss increase insulin sensitivity and endothelial NO production. Potent antioxidants or high doses of weaker antioxidants increase vascular NO and improve vascular and erectile function. Antioxidants may be particularly important in men with ED who smoke, are obese or have diabetes. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammatory markers, decrease cardiac death and increase endothelial NO production, and are therefore critical for men with ED who are under age 60 years, and/or have diabetes, hypertension or coronary artery disease, who are at increased risk of serious or even fatal cardiac events. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors have recently been shown to improve antioxidant status and NO production and allow more frequent and sustained penile exercise. Some angiotensin II receptor blockers decrease oxidative stress and improve vascular and erectile function and are therefore preferred choices for lowering blood pressure in men with ED. Lifestyle modifications, including physical and penile-specific exercise, weight loss, omega-3 and folic acid supplements, reduced intakes of fat and sugar, and improved antioxidant status through diet and/or supplements should be integrated into any comprehensive approach to maximizing erectile function, resulting in greater overall success and patient

  13. Maximizing noise energy for noise-masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Étienne, Cédric; Arleo, Angelo; Allard, Rémy

    2017-08-01

    Noise-masking experiments are widely used to investigate visual functions. To be useful, noise generally needs to be strong enough to noticeably impair performance, but under some conditions, noise does not impair performance even when its contrast approaches the maximal displayable limit of 100 %. To extend the usefulness of noise-masking paradigms over a wider range of conditions, the present study developed a noise with great masking strength. There are two typical ways of increasing masking strength without exceeding the limited contrast range: use binary noise instead of Gaussian noise or filter out frequencies that are not relevant to the task (i.e., which can be removed without affecting performance). The present study combined these two approaches to further increase masking strength. We show that binarizing the noise after the filtering process substantially increases the energy at frequencies within the pass-band of the filter given equated total contrast ranges. A validation experiment showed that similar performances were obtained using binarized-filtered noise and filtered noise (given equated noise energy at the frequencies within the pass-band) suggesting that the binarization operation, which substantially reduced the contrast range, had no significant impact on performance. We conclude that binarized-filtered noise (and more generally, truncated-filtered noise) can substantially increase the energy of the noise at frequencies within the pass-band. Thus, given a limited contrast range, binarized-filtered noise can display higher energy levels than Gaussian noise and thereby widen the range of conditions over which noise-masking paradigms can be useful.

  14. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania; Stavrakas, Camille; Philippe, Bertrand; Richter, Johannes M.; Alsari, Mejd; Booker, Edward P.; Hutter, Eline M.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lilliu, Samuele; Savenije, Tom J.; Rensmo, Håkan; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Friend, Richard H.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2018-03-01

    Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can

  15. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  17. Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization for Practical Location Privacy Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Takao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy attacks based on a Markov chain model have been widely studied to de-anonymize or de-obfuscate mobility traces. An adversary can perform various kinds of location privacy attacks using a personalized transition matrix, which is trained for each target user. However, the amount of training data available to the adversary can be very small, since many users do not disclose much location information in their daily lives. In addition, many locations can be missing from the training traces, since many users do not disclose their locations continuously but rather sporadically. In this paper, we show that the Markov chain model can be a threat even in this realistic situation. Specifically, we focus on a training phase (i.e. mobility profile building phase and propose Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization (EMTF, which alternates between computing a distribution of missing locations (E-step and computing personalized transition matrices via tensor factorization (M-step. Since the time complexity of EMTF is exponential in the number of missing locations, we propose two approximate learning methods, one of which uses the Viterbi algorithm while the other uses the Forward Filtering Backward Sampling (FFBS algorithm. We apply our learning methods to a de-anonymization attack and a localization attack, and evaluate them using three real datasets. The results show that our learning methods significantly outperform a random guess, even when there is only one training trace composed of 10 locations per user, and each location is missing with probability 80% (i.e. even when users hardly disclose two temporally-continuous locations.

  18. Maximizing gain in high-throughput screening using conformal prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Fredrik; Afzal, Avid M; Norinder, Ulf; Bender, Andreas

    2018-02-21

    Iterative screening has emerged as a promising approach to increase the efficiency of screening campaigns compared to traditional high throughput approaches. By learning from a subset of the compound library, inferences on what compounds to screen next can be made by predictive models, resulting in more efficient screening. One way to evaluate screening is to consider the cost of screening compared to the gain associated with finding an active compound. In this work, we introduce a conformal predictor coupled with a gain-cost function with the aim to maximise gain in iterative screening. Using this setup we were able to show that by evaluating the predictions on the training data, very accurate predictions on what settings will produce the highest gain on the test data can be made. We evaluate the approach on 12 bioactivity datasets from PubChem training the models using 20% of the data. Depending on the settings of the gain-cost function, the settings generating the maximum gain were accurately identified in 8-10 out of the 12 datasets. Broadly, our approach can predict what strategy generates the highest gain based on the results of the cost-gain evaluation: to screen the compounds predicted to be active, to screen all the remaining data, or not to screen any additional compounds. When the algorithm indicates that the predicted active compounds should be screened, our approach also indicates what confidence level to apply in order to maximize gain. Hence, our approach facilitates decision-making and allocation of the resources where they deliver the most value by indicating in advance the likely outcome of a screening campaign.

  19. Classifying supersymmetric solutions in 3D maximal supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Shigemori, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    String theory contains various extended objects. Among those, objects of codimension two (such as the D7-brane) are particularly interesting. Codimension-two objects carry non-Abelian charges which are elements of a discrete U-duality group and they may not admit a simple spacetime description, in which case they are known as exotic branes. A complete classification of consistent codimension-two objects in string theory is missing, even if we demand that they preserve some supersymmetry. As a step toward such a classification, we study the supersymmetric solutions of 3D maximal supergravity, which can be regarded as an approximate description of the geometry near codimension-two objects. We present a complete classification of the types of supersymmetric solutions that exist in this theory. We found that this problem reduces to that of classifying nilpotent orbits associated with the U-duality group, for which various mathematical results are known. We show that the only allowed supersymmetric configurations are 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 BPS, and determine the nilpotent orbits that they correspond to. One example of 1/16 BPS configurations is a generalization of the MSW system, where momentum runs along the intersection of seven M5-branes. On the other hand, it turns out exceedingly difficult to translate this classification into a simple criterion for supersymmetry in terms of the non-Abelian (monodromy) charges of the objects. For example, it can happen that a supersymmetric solution exists locally but cannot be extended all the way to the location of the object. To illustrate the various issues that arise in constructing supersymmetric solutions, we present a number of explicit examples.

  20. A Three-Threshold Learning Rule Approaches the Maximal Capacity of Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the theoretical foundations of how memories are encoded and retrieved in neural populations is a central challenge in neuroscience. A popular theoretical scenario for modeling memory function is the attractor neural network scenario, whose prototype is the Hopfield model. The model simplicity and the locality of the synaptic update rules come at the cost of a poor storage capacity, compared with the capacity achieved with perceptron learning algorithms. Here, by transforming the perceptron learning rule, we present an online learning rule for a recurrent neural network that achieves near-maximal storage capacity without an explicit supervisory error signal, relying only upon locally accessible information. The fully-connected network consists of excitatory binary neurons with plastic recurrent connections and non-plastic inhibitory feedback stabilizing the network dynamics; the memory patterns to be memorized are presented online as strong afferent currents, producing a bimodal distribution for the neuron synaptic inputs. Synapses corresponding to active inputs are modified as a function of the value of the local fields with respect to three thresholds. Above the highest threshold, and below the lowest threshold, no plasticity occurs. In between these two thresholds, potentiation/depression occurs when the local field is above/below an intermediate threshold. We simulated and analyzed a network of binary neurons implementing this rule and measured its storage capacity for different sizes of the basins of attraction. The storage capacity obtained through numerical simulations is shown to be close to the value predicted by analytical calculations. We also measured the dependence of capacity on the strength of external inputs. Finally, we quantified the statistics of the resulting synaptic connectivity matrix, and found that both the fraction of zero weight synapses and the degree of symmetry of the weight matrix increase with the

  1. Cigarette smoking decreases dynamic inspiratory capacity during maximal exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on exercise capacity, respiratory responses and dynamic changes in lung volume during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty-one men with type, 2 diabetes without cardiopulmonary disease were recruited and divided into 28 non-current smokers and 13 current smokers. All subjects received lung function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise testing using tracings of the flow-volume loop. Exercise capacity was compared using the percentage of predicted oxygen uptake at maximal workload (%VO2max). Respiratory variables and inspiratory capacity (IC) were compared between the two groups at rest and at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximum workload. Although there was no significant difference in lung function tests between the two groups, venous carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels were significantly higher in current smokers. %VO2max was inversely correlated with CO-Hb levels. Changing patterns in respiratory rate, respiratory equivalent and IC were significantly different between the two groups. Current smokers had rapid breathing, a greater respiratory equivalent and a limited increase in IC during exercise. Cigarette smoking diminishes the increase in dynamic IC in patients with type 2 diabetes. As this effect of smoking on dynamic changes in lung volume will exacerbate dynamic hyperinflation in cases complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physicians should consider smoking habits and lung function when evaluating exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Improved lower extremity pedaling mechanics in individuals with stroke under maximal workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Susan M; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Bazyk, Andrew S; Koop, Mandy Miller; Ozinga, Sarah; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-05-01

    Background Individuals with stroke present with motor control deficits resulting in the abnormal activation and timing of agonist and antagonist muscles and inefficient movement patterns. The analysis of pedaling biomechanics provides a window into understanding motor control deficits, which vary as a function of workload. Understanding the relationship between workload and motor control is critical when considering exercise prescription during stroke rehabilitation. Objectives To characterize pedaling kinematics and motor control processes under conditions in which workload was systematically increased to an eventual patient-specific maximum. Methods A cohort study was conducted in which 18 individuals with chronic stroke underwent a maximal exertion cardiopulmonary exercise test on a stationary cycle ergometer, during which pedaling torque was continuously recorded. Measures of force production, pedaling symmetry, and pedaling smoothness were obtained. Results Mean Torque increased significantly (p pedaling action, improved from 0.37(0.29) to 0.29(0.35) during downstroke (p = 0.007), and worsened during the upstroke: -0.37(0.38) to -0.62(0.46) (p pedaling improved significantly from initial to terminal workloads (p pedaling kinematics at terminal workloads indicate that individuals with stroke demonstrate improved motor control with respect to the timing, sequencing, and activation of hemiparetic lower extremity musculature compared to lower workloads. Therapeutic prescription involving higher resistance may be necessary to sufficiently engage and activate the paretic lower extremity.

  3. A comparison of successful and unsuccessful attempts in maximal bench pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the differences in EMG and kinematics between successful and unsuccessful attempts in bench pressing at one repetition maximum (1RM) in recreational weight-trained subjects. We hypothesized that failure occurs during the sticking period (the period during which there is a temporary reduction in movement velocity). Eleven male subjects (age = 21.9 +/- 1.8 yr, mass = 80.0 +/- 11.2 kg, height = 1.79 +/- 0.08 m) with at least 1 yr of bench press training experience participated in this study. They performed attempts at 1RM and 1RM + 2.5 kg in bench press during which kinematics and muscle activity were recorded. One successful attempt and one unsuccessful attempt were used for further analysis. Both attempts showed the same sticking period, but only half of the failures occurred during that period. The main differences in the kinematics occurred during the sticking period. Muscle activity, in contrast, showed the same pattern in both attempts and only differed during the downward and the start of the upward movement of the lift. The sticking period occurs in both successful and unsuccessful attempts in maximal bench press. However, failure does not always occur during the sticking period.

  4. Usability testing of two e-learning resources: methods to maximize potential for clinician use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Chignell, Mark; Straus, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Rigorous usability testing of e-learn-ing resources is an important prerequisite to their wide-spread use among clinicians. This study demonstrates the application of an evidence-based approach to usability testing of two stroke-related e-learning resources (StrokEngine). 14 stroke rehabilitation clinicians (occupational therapists and physiotherapists) from Ontario, Canada participated in a 1.5 h in-person testing session. Clinicians navigated StrokEngine in search of information to answer questions on stroke assessment/intervention. Their search patterns were observed and clinicians provided verbal/written feedback about StrokEngine. Content analysis was used to generate themes and categorize them under two broad categories: facilitators and barriers to use. Five key facilitators and three key barriers to Strok-Engine use were identified and related to screen format, layout/organization, ease of navigation, quality of content, likelihood of using StrokEngine in the future, and system dysfunctions. All 14 clinicians were very or extremely satisfied with the layout/organization, quality and clinical relevance of the content, stating that they were likely to use StrokEngine in the future. All identified barriers from this study were addressed with website modifications in order to maximize the usability and navigability of StrokEngine. This rigorous methodology for usability testing can be applied during the design process of any e-learning resource.

  5. Self-consistent collective-coordinate method for ''maximally-decoupled'' collective subspace and its boson mapping: Quantum theory of ''maximally-decoupled'' collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumori, T.; Sakata, F.; Maskawa, T.; Une, T.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a full quantum theory, which is capable by itself of determining a ''maximally-decoupled'' collective motion. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the motivation and basic idea of the theory are explained, and the ''maximal-decoupling condition'' on the collective motion is formulated within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, in a general form called the invariance principle of the (time-dependent) Schrodinger equation. In the second part, it is shown that when the author positively utilize the invariance principle, we can construct a full quantum theory of the ''maximally-decoupled'' collective motion. This quantum theory is shown to be a generalization of the kinematical boson-mapping theories so far developed, in such a way that the dynamical ''maximal-decoupling condition'' on the collective motion is automatically satisfied

  6. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Look at the Impact of Maximizing on Unhappiness: Two Competing Mediating Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiaxi; Zhang, Jiaxi; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Pinjia; Han, Bing; Sun, Hao; Cao, Fei; Miao, Danmin

    2018-01-01

    The current study aims to explore how the decision-making style of maximizing affects subjective well-being (SWB), which mainly focuses on the confirmation of the mediator role of regret and suppressing role of achievement motivation. A total of 402 Chinese undergraduate students participated in this study, in which they responded to the maximization, regret, and achievement motivation scales and SWB measures. Results suggested that maximizing significantly predicted SWB. Moreover, regret and...

  8. On differential operators generating iterative systems of linear ODEs of maximal symmetry algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndogmo, J. C.

    2017-06-01

    Although every iterative scalar linear ordinary differential equation is of maximal symmetry algebra, the situation is different and far more complex for systems of linear ordinary differential equations, and an iterative system of linear equations need not be of maximal symmetry algebra. We illustrate these facts by examples and derive families of vector differential operators whose iterations are all linear systems of equations of maximal symmetry algebra. Some consequences of these results are also discussed.

  9. Effective monopole potential for SU(2) lattice gluodynamics in spatial maximal Abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernodub, M.N.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Veselov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the dual superconductor hypothesis in finite-temperature SU(2) lattice gluodynamics in the Spatial Maximal Abelian gauge. This gauge is more physical than the ordinary Maximal Abelian gauge due to absence of non-localities in temporal direction. We shown numerically that in the Spatial Maximal Abelian gauge the probability distribution of the abelian monopole field is consistent with the dual superconductor mechanism of confinement [ru

  10. Uncountably many maximizing measures for a dense subset of continuous functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Mao

    2018-05-01

    Ergodic optimization aims to single out dynamically invariant Borel probability measures which maximize the integral of a given ‘performance’ function. For a continuous self-map of a compact metric space and a dense set of continuous functions, we show the existence of uncountably many ergodic maximizing measures. We also show that, for a topologically mixing subshift of finite type and a dense set of continuous functions there exist uncountably many ergodic maximizing measures with full support and positive entropy.

  11. Establishing Maximal Medical Improvement After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuke, William A; Leroux, Timothy S; Gregory, Bonnie P; Black, Austin; Forsythe, Brian; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2018-03-01

    As health care transitions from a pay-for-service to a pay-for-performance infrastructure, the value of orthopaedic care must be defined accurately. Significant efforts have been made in defining quality and cost in arthroplasty; however, there remains a lag in ambulatory orthopaedic care. Two-year follow-up has been a general requirement for reporting outcomes after rotator cuff repair. However, this time requirement has not been established scientifically and is of increasing importance in the era of value-based health care. Given that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a common ambulatory orthopaedic procedure, the purpose of this study was to establish a time frame for maximal medical improvement (the state when improvement has stabilized) after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Systematic review. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, identifying studies reporting sequential patient-reported outcomes up to a minimum of 2 years after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The primary clinical outcome was patient-reported outcomes at 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-up. Secondary clinical outcomes included range of motion, strength, retears, and complications. Clinically significant improvement was determined between various time intervals by use of the minimal clinically important difference. The review included 19 studies including 1370 patients who underwent rotator cuff repair. Clinically significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes was seen up to 1 year after rotator cuff repair, but no clinical significance was noted from 1 year to 2 years. The majority of improvement in strength and range of motion was seen up to 6 months, but no clinically meaningful improvement was seen thereafter. All reported complications and the majority of retears occurred within 6 months after rotator cuff repair. After rotator cuff repair, a clinically significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes, range of motion, and strength was seen up to 1

  12. Maximal venous outflow velocity: an index for iliac vein obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T Matthew; Cassada, David C; Heidel, R Eric; Grandas, Oscar G; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Edmondson, James D; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2012-11-01

    Leg swelling is a common cause for vascular surgical evaluation, and iliocaval obstruction due to May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) can be difficult to diagnose. Physical examination and planar radiographic imaging give anatomic information but may miss the fundamental pathophysiology of MTS. Similarly, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the legs gives little information about central impedance of venous return above the inguinal ligament. We have modified the technique of duplex ultrasonography to evaluate the flow characteristics of the leg after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement, with the objective of revealing iliocaval obstruction characteristic of MTS. Twelve patients with signs and symptoms of MTS were compared with healthy control subjects for duplex-derived maximal venous outflow velocity (MVOV) after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement of the leg. The data for healthy control subjects were obtained from a previous study of asymptomatic volunteers using the same MVOV maneuvers. The tourniquet-induced venous engorgement mimics that caused during vigorous exercise. A right-to-left ratio of MVOV was generated for patient comparisons. Patients with clinical evidence of MTS had a mean right-to-left MVOV ratio of 2.0, asymptomatic control subjects had a mean ratio of 1.3, and MTS patients who had undergone endovascular treatment had a poststent mean ratio of 1.2 (P = 0.011). Interestingly, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging results, when available, were interpreted as positive in only 53% of the patients with MTS according to both our MVOV criteria and confirmatory venography. After intervention, the right-to-left MVOV ratio in the MTS patients was found to be reduced similar to asymptomatic control subjects, indicating a relief of central venous obstruction by stenting the compressive MTS anatomy. Duplex-derived MVOV measurements are helpful for detection of iliocaval venous obstruction, such as MTS. Right-to-left MVOV ratios and

  13. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R

    2014-01-01

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function...... and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax...... and RAP (P healthy...

  14. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  15. Activity-Driven Influence Maximization in Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rohit; Saleem, Muhammad Aamir; Calders, Toon

    2017-01-01

    -driven approach based on the identification of influence propagation patterns. In the first work, we identify so-called information-channels to model potential pathways for information spread, while the second work exploits how users in a location-based social network check in to locations in order to identify...... influential locations. To make our algorithms scalable, approximate versions based on sketching techniques from the data streams domain have been developed. Experiments show that in this way it is possible to efficiently find good seed sets for influence propagation in social networks.......Interaction networks consist of a static graph with a timestamped list of edges over which interaction took place. Examples of interaction networks are social networks whose users interact with each other through messages or location-based social networks where people interact by checking...

  16. Evaluation of the clinical maxim: "If it ain't broke, don't fix it".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell-Duffy, Chris; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Irving, Elizabeth L; Mouat, Graham S V; Elliott, David B

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of patients return to optometric practice dissatisfied with their spectacles. An important question is whether any of these cases are preventable. There are several different clinical maxims that are used to modify the subjective refraction when determining the refractive prescription. These maxims aim to improve patient comfort and adaptation and thereby reduce patient dissatisfaction with new spectacles. They are not based on research evidence, but rather on expert opinion gained from clinical experience. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze a large number of case records of dissatisfied patients to assess the possible usefulness of the prescribing maxim "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." Three hundred eighteen non-tolerance cases from a university-based Canadian optometric clinic were categorized by a focus group of optometrists. Three prescribing categories were defined and comprised cases in which application of the proposed maxim may have prevented the recheck eye examination; a more limited application of the maxim for one working distance may have been appropriate; and finally scenarios in which the maxim did not work in that the practitioner was judged to have initially followed the maxim, yet patient dissatisfaction was still reported. The remaining unallocated records comprised prescribing situations outside the scope of this study. Approximately 32% of non-tolerance cases were judged to have been preventable by use of the proposed maxim. Furthermore, an additional 10% reduction in recheck cases may have been possible by a more liberal interpretation of the maxim. Conversely, 4% of cases were deemed to comprise scenarios in which the maxim was followed yet the patient returned later to report problems with their spectacles. The prescribing maxim "if it ain't broke, don't fix it" appears to have a role in reducing recheck eye examinations and improving patient satisfaction with new spectacles.

  17. Maximizing therapeutic gain with gemcitabine and fractionated radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathy A.; Milas, Luka; Hunter, Nancy R.; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Buchmiller, Lara; Kishi, Kazushi; Hittelman, K. Walter; Ang, K. Kian

    1999-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The nucleoside analogue gemcitabine inhibits cellular repair and repopulation, induces apoptosis, causes tumor growth delay, and enhances radiation-induced growth delay. After single doses of drug and radiation, maximum enhancement of tumor response was obtained when gemcitabine preceded radiation by at least 24 h. Conversely, the cellular radioresponse of the normal gastrointestinal epithelium was slightly protected when gemcitabine and radiation were separated by 24 h. This differential response created a time frame within which therapeutic gain could be maximized. In our present investigation, we sought to define the most therapeutically beneficial scheme of gemcitabine administration when combined with fractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: C3Hf/Kam mice were given identical drug and radiation schedules of administration, and both normal tissue (jejunal mucosa) and tumor (Sa-NH) responses were measured. Irradiation was given once per day for 5 days in normal tissue and tumor growth delay studies and twice per day for the tumor cure endpoint. A total dose of 25 mg/kg gemcitabine was given i.p. in 1 of 3 schedules: a single dose of 25 mg/kg 24 h before the start of fractionated irradiation, 12.5 mg/kg 24 h before the first and third radiation doses, or 24 h before each of 5 radiation doses. Groups of mice bearing 7- or 8-mm diameter tumors were treated with gemcitabine alone or in combination with fractionated irradiation under ambient or hypoxic conditions. The survival response of the jejunal mucosa was quantified by the microcolony assay and histologically by quantifying apoptosis, mitosis, S-phase fraction, and crypt cellularity. Results: For tumor growth delay, dose-modifying factors (DMFs) were similar (1.34-1.46) for all 3 schedules of drug administration. In contrast, the response of the jejunum was strongly dependent on the schedule of gemcitabine administration. A single dose of gemcitabine before the start of fractionated

  18. Maximal violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for infinite dimensional states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zohren, S.; Gill, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a much simplified version of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for the 2×2×d Bell scenario. Numerical maximization of the violation of this inequality over all states and measurements suggests that the optimal state is far from maximally entangled, while the best

  19. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  20. A note on profit maximization and monotonicity for inbound call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, G.M.; Pot, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider an inbound call center with a fixed reward per call and communication and agent costs. By controlling the number of lines and the number of agents, we can maximize the profit. Abandonments are included in our performance model. Monotonicity results for the maximization problem are

  1. Maximizing carbon storage in the Appalachians: A method for considering the risk of disturbance events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Vanderberg; Kevin Boston; John. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for the probability of loss due to disturbance events can influence the prediction of carbon flux over a planning horizon, and can affect the determination of optimal silvicultural regimes to maximize terrestrial carbon storage. A preliminary model that includes forest disturbance-related carbon loss was developed to maximize expected values of carbon stocks...

  2. Minimal Blocking Sets in PG(2, 8) and Maximal Partial Spreads in PG(3, 8)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barat, Janos

    2004-01-01

    We prove that PG(2, 8) does not contain minimal blocking sets of size 14. Using this result we prove that 58 is the largest size for a maximal partial spread of PG(3, 8). This supports the conjecture that q2-q+ 2 is the largest size for a maximal partial spread of PG(3, q), q>7....

  3. Deconstructing facts and frames in energy research: Maxims for evaluating contentious problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we argue that assumptions and values can play a combative, corrosive role in the generation of objective energy analysis. We then propose six maxims for energy analysts and researchers. Our maxim of information asks readers to keep up to date on trends in energy resources and technology. Our maxim of inclusivity asks readers to involve citizens and other public actors more in energy decisions. Our maxim of symmetry asks readers to keep their analysis of energy technologies centered always on both technology and society. Our maxim of reflexivity asks readers to be self-aware of one's assumptions. Our maxim of prudence asks readers to make energy decisions that are ethical or at least informed. Our maxim of agnosticism asks readers to look beyond a given energy technology to the services it provides and recognize that many systems can provide a desired service. We conclude that decisions in energy are justified by, if not predicated on, beliefs—beliefs which may or may not be supported by objective data, constantly blurring the line between fact, fiction, and frames. - Highlights: • Assumptions and values can play a combative, corrosive role in the generation of objective energy analysis. • Decisions in energy are justified by, if not predicated on, beliefs. • We propose six maxims for energy analysts and researcher.

  4. Application of the maximal covering location problem to habitat reserve site selection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Robert G. Haight

    2016-01-01

    The Maximal Covering Location Problem (MCLP) is a classic model from the location science literature which has found wide application. One important application is to a fundamental problem in conservation biology, the Maximum Covering Species Problem (MCSP), which identifies land parcels to protect to maximize the number of species represented in the selected sites. We...

  5. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  6. Maximizing flexibility and learning; using learning technology to improve course programs in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Aasbrenn, Martin; Bingen, Hanne Maria

    2009-01-01

    ICDE 23rd World Conference. Including EADTU Annual Conference 7-10 June, 2009 The Netherlands, Maastricht MECC We propose a framework for development of course programs in higher education : Our vision is that all teaching in higher education should aim for maximal learning with maximal flexibility. Learning technology could be used to optimize this, implemented through continuous feedback from the students.

  7. Conversational Implicature of Peanuts Comic Strip Based on Grice’s Maxim Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about conversational implicature that occurs in Peanuts comic strips. The objectives of this study are to find out the implied meaning in the conversation between Charlie Brown with Lucy van Pelt and Lucy van Pelt with Linus van Pelt to evaluate the existence of maxim flouting and maxim violating in those conversations in relation to the four maxims such as quantity, quality, relation, and manner. Likewise, this study attempts to find out the reason for using conversational implicature in a comic strip. The writers uses a qualitative method with library research concerning to Grice’s maxim theory to analyze the conversational implicature. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that all the comics that comprise 14 comics generate conversational implicature since all the characters breach rules of maxim. The result of this analysis shows that flouting maxim of manner has the highest occurrence of conversational implicature and the least occurrences belong to flouting maxim of relation and violating maxim of quantity. Moreover, the writers concludes that to make a successful communication ideally the speaker and the hearer to cooperate in the conversation by saying explicitly so the hearer can grasp the meaning as the goal of communication is to deliver a message to the hearer.  

  8. Nonlinear Impairment Compensation Using Expectation Maximization for PDM 16-QAM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo

    2012-01-01

    We show experimentally that by using non-linear signal processing based algorithm, expectation maximization, nonlinear system tolerance can be increased by 2 dB. Expectation maximization is also effective in combating I/Q modulator nonlinearities and laser linewidth....

  9. Coverage maximization for a poisson field of drone cells

    KAUST Repository

    Azari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2018-02-15

    The use of drone base stations to provide wireless connectivity for ground terminals is becoming a promising part of future technologies. The design of such aerial networks is however different compared to cellular 2D networks, as antennas from the drones are looking down, and the channel model becomes height-dependent. In this paper, we study the effect of antenna patterns and height-dependent shadowing. We consider a random network topology to capture the effect of dynamic changes of the flying base stations. First we characterize the aggregate interference imposed by the co-channel neighboring drones. Then we derive the link coverage probability between a ground user and its associated drone base station. The result is used to obtain the optimum system parameters in terms of drones antenna beamwidth, density and altitude. We also derive the average LoS probability of the associated drone and show that it is a good approximation and simplification of the coverage probability in low altitudes up to 500 m according to the required signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR).

  10. Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: The evolution of maximal body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Gary P.; Diamond, Jared; Flannery, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Among local faunas, the maximum body size and taxonomic affiliation of the top terrestrial vertebrate vary greatly. Does this variation reflect how food requirements differ between trophic levels (herbivores vs. carnivores) and with taxonomic affiliation (mammals and birds vs. reptiles)? We gathered data on the body size and food requirements of the top terrestrial herbivores and carnivores, over the past 65,000 years, from oceanic islands and continents. The body mass of the top species was found to increase with increasing land area, with a slope similar to that of the relation between body mass and home range area, suggesting that maximum body size is determined by the number of home ranges that can fit into a given land area. For a given land area, the body size of the top species decreased in the sequence: ectothermic herbivore > endothermic herbivore > ectothermic carnivore > endothermic carnivore. When we converted body mass to food requirements, the food consumption of a top herbivore was about 8 times that of a top carnivore, in accord with the factor expected from the trophic pyramid. Although top ectotherms were heavier than top endotherms at a given trophic level, lower metabolic rates per gram of body mass in ectotherms resulted in endotherms and ectotherms having the same food consumption. These patterns explain the size of the largest-ever extinct mammal, but the size of the largest dinosaurs exceeds that predicted from land areas and remains unexplained. PMID:11724953

  11. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M

    1990-01-01

    A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...

  12. Generalized Yosida Approximations Based on Relatively A-Maximal m-Relaxed Monotonicity Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-you Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study a new notion of relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotonicity framework and discuss some properties of a new class of generalized relatively resolvent operator associated with the relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotone operator and the new generalized Yosida approximations based on relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotonicity framework. Furthermore, we give some remarks to show that the theory of the new generalized relatively resolvent operator and Yosida approximations associated with relatively A-maximal m-relaxed monotone operators generalizes most of the existing notions on (relatively maximal monotone mappings in Hilbert as well as Banach space and can be applied to study variational inclusion problems and first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  13. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  14. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  15. The key kinematic determinants of undulatory underwater swimming at maximal velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaboy, Chris; Naemi, Roozbeh; Brown, Susan; Psycharakis, Stelios; McCabe, Carla; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The optimisation of undulatory underwater swimming is highly important in competitive swimming performance. Nineteen kinematic variables were identified from previous research undertaken to assess undulatory underwater swimming performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine which kinematic variables were key to the production of maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity. Kinematic data at maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity were collected from 17 skilled swimmers. A series of separate backward-elimination analysis of covariance models was produced with cycle frequency and cycle length as dependent variables (DVs) and participant as a fixed factor, as including cycle frequency and cycle length would explain 100% of the maximal swimming velocity variance. The covariates identified in the cycle-frequency and cycle-length models were used to form the saturated model for maximal swimming velocity. The final parsimonious model identified three covariates (maximal knee joint angular velocity, maximal ankle angular velocity and knee range of movement) as determinants of the variance in maximal swimming velocity (adjusted-r2 = 0.929). However, when participant was removed as a fixed factor there was a large reduction in explained variance (adjusted r2 = 0.397) and only maximal knee joint angular velocity continued to contribute significantly, highlighting its importance to the production of maximal swimming velocity. The reduction in explained variance suggests an emphasis on inter-individual differences in undulatory underwater swimming technique and/or anthropometry. Future research should examine the efficacy of other anthropometric, kinematic and coordination variables to better understand the production of maximal swimming velocity and consider the importance of individual undulatory underwater swimming techniques when interpreting the data.

  16. Flouting maxim by sherlock holmes and dr. Watson in tv series Of sherlock season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Affifatusholihah

    2017-04-01

    In running daily activities, people will always meet and interact with other people, and language is a medium that is used by humans to interact with each other. In a conversation or discussion, everyone should pay attention to the four maxims in order that there are no errors in communication. However, it is not uncommon that the four rules above are breached by the speakers. This is called non-observance of the maxims, and one of a non-observance of the maxims that often occurs in is flouting maxim. The aims of this paper are to describe types of maxims that are flouted by Sherlock Holmes and dr. Watson as well as to describe how the maxims are flouted in Sherlock TV series season 1. This research used qualitative descriptive method. The researcher classifies the utterances to know what kind of maxim which are flouted, categorizes those into the category based on the Grice’s theory of Cooperative Principle, namely: maxim of quantity, quality, relation and manner. The research procedure begin by searching the script in the internet, matching the utterances in the script and in film and sorting the utterances between Sherlock Holmes and dr. Watson as well observing every word or sentence which are flouted by the main characters. The findings find that all kinds of maxims are flouted by Sherlock and dr. Watson. The result of analysis shows that the maxim flouted when the speakers say something irrelevant; something roguishness or lied to hide the truth in the form of rhetorical question; the information becomes more or too informative than what is required; and something obscurity of expression, ambiguity, or unnecessary prolixity.

  17. Spectroscopic vector analysis for fast pattern quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Younghoon; Ryu, Sungyoon; Lee, Chihoon; Yang, Yusin

    2018-03-01

    In semiconductor industry, fast and effective measurement of pattern variation has been key challenge for assuring massproduct quality. Pattern measurement techniques such as conventional CD-SEMs or Optical CDs have been extensively used, but these techniques are increasingly limited in terms of measurement throughput and time spent in modeling. In this paper we propose time effective pattern monitoring method through the direct spectrum-based approach. In this technique, a wavelength band sensitive to a specific pattern change is selected from spectroscopic ellipsometry signal scattered by pattern to be measured, and the amplitude and phase variation in the wavelength band are analyzed as a measurement index of the pattern change. This pattern change measurement technique is applied to several process steps and verified its applicability. Due to its fast and simple analysis, the methods can be adapted to the massive process variation monitoring maximizing measurement throughput.

  18. Auditory Time-Frequency Masking for Spectrally and Temporally Maximally-Compact Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Necciari

    Full Text Available Many audio applications perform perception-based time-frequency (TF analysis by decomposing sounds into a set of functions with good TF localization (i.e. with a small essential support in the TF domain using TF transforms and applying psychoacoustic models of auditory masking to the transform coefficients. To accurately predict masking interactions between coefficients, the TF properties of the model should match those of the transform. This involves having masking data for stimuli with good TF localization. However, little is known about TF masking for mathematically well-localized signals. Most existing masking studies used stimuli that are broad in time and/or frequency and few studies involved TF conditions. Consequently, the present study had two goals. The first was to collect TF masking data for well-localized stimuli in humans. Masker and target were 10-ms Gaussian-shaped sinusoids with a bandwidth of approximately one critical band. The overall pattern of results is qualitatively similar to existing data for long maskers. To facilitate implementation in audio processing algorithms, a dataset provides the measured TF masking function. The second goal was to assess the potential effect of auditory efferents on TF masking using a modeling approach. The temporal window model of masking was used to predict present and existing data in two configurations: (1 with standard model parameters (i.e. without efferents, (2 with cochlear gain reduction to simulate the activation of efferents. The ability of the model to predict the present data was quite good with the standard configuration but highly degraded with gain reduction. Conversely, the ability of the model to predict existing data for long maskers was better with than without gain reduction. Overall, the model predictions suggest that TF masking can be affected by efferent (or other effects that reduce cochlear gain. Such effects were avoided in the experiment of this study by using

  19. Auditory Time-Frequency Masking for Spectrally and Temporally Maximally-Compact Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necciari, Thibaud; Laback, Bernhard; Savel, Sophie; Ystad, Sølvi; Balazs, Peter; Meunier, Sabine; Kronland-Martinet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Many audio applications perform perception-based time-frequency (TF) analysis by decomposing sounds into a set of functions with good TF localization (i.e. with a small essential support in the TF domain) using TF transforms and applying psychoacoustic models of auditory masking to the transform coefficients. To accurately predict masking interactions between coefficients, the TF properties of the model should match those of the transform. This involves having masking data for stimuli with good TF localization. However, little is known about TF masking for mathematically well-localized signals. Most existing masking studies used stimuli that are broad in time and/or frequency and few studies involved TF conditions. Consequently, the present study had two goals. The first was to collect TF masking data for well-localized stimuli in humans. Masker and target were 10-ms Gaussian-shaped sinusoids with a bandwidth of approximately one critical band. The overall pattern of results is qualitatively similar to existing data for long maskers. To facilitate implementation in audio processing algorithms, a dataset provides the measured TF masking function. The second goal was to assess the potential effect of auditory efferents on TF masking using a modeling approach. The temporal window model of masking was used to predict present and existing data in two configurations: (1) with standard model parameters (i.e. without efferents), (2) with cochlear gain reduction to simulate the activation of efferents. The ability of the model to predict the present data was quite good with the standard configuration but highly degraded with gain reduction. Conversely, the ability of the model to predict existing data for long maskers was better with than without gain reduction. Overall, the model predictions suggest that TF masking can be affected by efferent (or other) effects that reduce cochlear gain. Such effects were avoided in the experiment of this study by using maximally

  20. Linezolid Dose That Maximizes Sterilizing Effect While Minimizing Toxicity and Resistance Emergence for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shashikant; Magombedze, Gesham; Koeuth, Thearith; Sherman, Carleton; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Raj, Prithvi; Wakeland, Edward; Deshpande, Devyani; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2017-08-01

    Linezolid has an excellent sterilizing effect in tuberculosis patients but high adverse event rates. The dose that would maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity is unknown. We performed linezolid dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies in the hollow fiber system model of tuberculosis (HFS-TB) for sterilizing effect. HFS-TB units were treated with several doses to mimic human-like linezolid intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics and repetitively sampled for drug concentration, total bacterial burden, linezolid-resistant subpopulations, and RNA sequencing over 2 months. Linezolid-resistant isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing. The expression of genes encoding efflux pumps in the first 1 to 2 weeks revealed the same exposure-response patterns as the linezolid-resistant subpopulation. Linezolid-resistant isolates from the 2nd month of therapy revealed mutations in several efflux pump/transporter genes and a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator. Linezolid sterilizing effect was linked to the ratio of unbound 0- to 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24 ) to MIC. Optimal microbial kill was achieved at an AUC 0-24 /MIC ratio of 119. The optimal sterilizing effect dose for clinical use was identified using Monte Carlo simulations. Clinical doses of 300 and 600 mg/day (or double the dose every other day) achieved this target in 87% and >99% of 10,000 patients, respectively. The susceptibility breakpoint identified was 2 mg/liter. The simulations identified that a 300-mg/day dose did not achieve AUC 0-24 s associated with linezolid toxicity, while 600 mg/day achieved those AUC 0-24 s in linezolid dose of 300 mg/day performed well and should be compared to 600 mg/day or 1,200 mg every other day in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Srivastava et al.

  1. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  2. Maximizing the potential of mining tourism through knowledge infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kršák

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper deals with different approaches to the issue of shortage of relevant customer behavior data and key performance indicators for evaluating and planning for mining tourism. Mining tourism's offer is concentrated in tourist destinations emerging from tourist sub-regions or other areas of interest that by unwritten rules may or may not copy administrative boundaries of NUTS 5 areas. Management of mining tourism's offer is a part of destination management organizations' processes, which within their planning are dependent on huge amounts of data as key components of their knowledge infrastructure. In Slovakia, the issue of knowledge infrastructures in tourism is approached by the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA with redeemable value to the national economy and published only as an informative report. On the other hand, regarding tourism destination management on the principles of knowledge-based economy, publicly available statistics at levels of NUTS 4-5 do not have an exact information value regards to the performance of mining tourism's offer. These facts cause lack of effective support of mining tourism in Slovakia and create significant barriers in information cooperation of tourism stakeholders. Data management and analysis may be challenging to tourism stakeholders. Information technologies offer advanced features as detection of qualitative patterns and hidden dependencies as well as the possibility of continuous study of destination's KPI evolution. Different examples around the world show that information collected in ICT knowledge infrastructures can be used as intelligent decision support tools. The tools can connect tourism and mining tourism stakeholders into a system based on knowledge and provide them with solutions to complex problems without having deep technical expertise. The results show that the issued problematic of data shortage in destination management could be solved through implementation of destination

  3. Salinity effect on the maximal growth temperature of some bacteria isolated from marine enviroments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S O; Morita, R Y

    1968-01-01

    Salinity of the growth medium was found to have a marked effect on the maximal growth temperature of four bacteria isolated from marine sources. Vibrio marinus MP-1 had a maximal growth temperature of 21.2 C at a salinity of 35% and a maximal growth temperature of 10.5 C at a salinity of 7%, the lowest salinity at which it would grow. This effect was shown to be due to the presence of various cations in the medium. The order of effectiveness of cations in restoring the normal maximal growth temperature, when added to dilute seawater, was Na(+) > Li(+) > Mg(++) > K(+) > Rb(+) > NH(4) (+). The anions tested, with the exception of SO(4)=, had no marked effect on the maximal growth temperature response. In a completely defined medium, the highest maximal growth temperature was 20.0 C at 0.40 m NaCl. A decrease in the maximal growth temperature was observed at both low and high concentrations of NaCl.

  4. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake without exercise testing in Korean healthy adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Jung-Man; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2012-08-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake is generally accepted as the most valid and reliable index of cardiorespiratory fitness and functional aerobic capacity. The exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake is unsuitable for screening tests in public heath examinations, because of the potential risks of exercise exertion and time demands. We designed this study to determine whether work-related physical activity is a potential predictor of maximal oxygen uptake, and to develop a maximal oxygen uptake equation using a non-exercise regression model for the cardiorespiratory fitness test in Korean adult workers. Study subjects were adult workers of small-sized companies in Korea. Subjects with history of disease such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and angina were excluded. In total, 217 adult subjects (113 men of 21-55 years old and 104 women of 20-64 years old) were included. Self-report questionnaire survey was conducted on study subjects, and maximal oxygen uptake of each subject was measured with the exercise test. The statistical analysis was carried out to develop an equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake. The predictors for estimating maximal oxygen uptake included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, leisure-time physical activity and the factors representing work-related physical activity. The work-related physical activity was identified to be a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake. Moreover, the equation showed high validity according to the statistical analysis. The equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake developed in the present study could be used as a screening test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in Korean adult workers.

  5. Violations of Grice`s Maxims in The Prince and the Pauper Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Waget

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper responses must be provided interlocutors to make onversation productive and meaningful. However, interlocutors do not always provide proper responses because they do not even know conversation rules. Grice coins 4 maxims as general rules to govern daily conversation. The maxims are Quantity, Quality, Relevance, and Manner. Conversation occurs in the real daily interaction also in arts including movies. The Prince and the Pauper movie is one of the media for human daily conversation. Some parts of the movie contains violations of Grice`s maxims by the characters. Based on this background, the writer intends to explore violations ofGrice’s maxims in the movie and analyze the purposes of the violations. To achieve these objectives, the writer formulates two research problems: (1 Which of Grice`s maxims are violated by the addressees in The Prince and the Pauper movie? (2 For what purposes do the addressees violate the maxims? The base of this research is a movie script as document. Thus, the writer uses document analysis as the method of this research. Grounded on the analysis, the writer finds that the characters, especially Prince, Tom Canty, King, and the Earl of Hertford in the movie dialogues violate the four of Grice`s maxims. When failing to provide sufficient information, telling lie to their addressers, providing irrelevant glosses, and failing to be true, brief, univocal, and orderly, they respectively violate maxims of Quantity, Quality, Relevance, and Manner. Moreover, the writer finds that the characters violate the maxims in order to mislead the counterparts, be polite, save face, avoid discussion, and communicate self-interest.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180101

  6. Maximal violation of Bell's inequalities for algebras of observables in tangent spacetime regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, S.J.; Werner, R.

    1988-01-01

    We continue our study of Bell's inequalities and quantum field theory. It is shown in considerably broader generality than in our previous work that algebras of local observables corresponding to complementary wedge regions maximally violate Bell's inequality in all normal states. Pairs of commuting von Neumann algebras that maximally violate Bell's inequalities in all normal states are characterized. Algebras of local observables corresponding to tangent double cones are shown to maximally violate Bell's inequalities in all normal states in dilatation-invariant theories, in free quantum field models, and in a class of interacting models. Further, it is proven that such algebras are not split in any theory with an ultraviolet scaling limit

  7. Maximal overlap with a fully separable state and translational invariance for multipartite entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H. T.; Yuan Di; Tian, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The maximal overlap with the fully separable state for the multipartite entangled pure state with translational invariance is studied explicitly by some exact and numerical evaluations, focusing on the one-dimensional qubit system and some representative types of translational invariance. The results show that the translational invariance of the multipartite state could have an intrinsic effect on the determination of the maximal overlap and the nearest fully separable state for multipartite entangled states. Furthermore, a hierarchy of the basic entangled states with translational invariance is found, from which one could readily find the maximal overlap and a related fully separable state for the multipartite state composed of different translational invariance structures.

  8. Maximization of bremsstrahlung and K-series production efficiencies in flash x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, x-ray output of flash x-ray tubes was maximized empirically by changing the electrode geometry and varying the capacitance of the pulse generator. With the advent of high-voltage, low-impedance transmission lines, short-duration, high-current pulses could be generated with ease. An appropriate line scaling should assure that dose maximization is not reached at the expense of pulse prolongation which would reduce stop motion capability, but rather that dose rate should be maximized. Additionally, anode evaporation in the arc phase should be minimized to enhance tube life

  9. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    physically active in spite of shoulder pain and nine healthy matched controls were examined to determine isometric and isokinetic submaximal shoulder-abduction force steadiness at target forces corresponding to 20%, 27.5%, and 35% of the maximal shoulder abductor torque, and maximal shoulder muscle strength......We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remained...

  10. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  11. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  12. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  13. Energy Efficiency and SINR Maximization Beamformers for Spectrum Sharing With Sensing Information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with sensing information to achieve optimal energy-efficient systems. The proposed schemes maximize EE and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality-of-service constraints

  14. Physiological and morphological determinants of maximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); H.O. Coxson (Harvey); P.D. Pare

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMaximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be reduced by three different mechanisms; loss of lung elastic recoil, decreased airway conductance upstream of flow-limiting segments; and increased collapsibility of airways.

  15. A Simple General Solution for Maximal Horizontal Range of Projectile Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Busic, Boris

    2005-01-01

    A convenient change of variables in the problem of maximizing the horizontal range of the projectile motion, with an arbitrary initial vertical position of the projectile, provides a simple, straightforward solution.

  16. Evidence for maximal acceleration and singularity resolution in covariant loop quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2013-08-30

    A simple argument indicates that covariant loop gravity (spin foam theory) predicts a maximal acceleration and hence forbids the development of curvature singularities. This supports the results obtained for cosmology and black holes using canonical methods.

  17. Bounds on absolutely maximally entangled states from shadow inequalities, and the quantum MacWilliams identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Felix; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens; Gühne, Otfried

    2018-04-01

    A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. Maximal entanglement is then present across every bipartition. The existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correction and the shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in dimensions larger than two. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation. Finally, we consider AME states whose subsystems have different local dimensions, and present an example for a 2×3×3×3 system that shows maximal entanglement across every bipartition.

  18. Weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,. Bhopal 462 .... The theory of one-sided maximal operators is of interest for its intrinsic nature and for connections to the ... Also, another motivation to study these.

  19. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  20. Teeth grinding, oral motor performance and maximal bite force in cerebral palsy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti Rodrigues Santos, Maria Teresa; Duarte Ferreira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Guimarães, Antonio Sergio; Lira Ortega, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Identify whether the degree of oral motor performance is related to the presence of teeth grinding and maximal bite force values in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Ninety-five spastic cerebral palsy children with and without teeth grinding, according to caregivers' reports, were submitted to a comprehensive oral motor performance evaluation during the feeding process using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Maximal bite force was measured using an electronic gnathodynamometer. The teeth grinding group (n = 42) was younger, used anticonvulsant drugs, and was more frequently classified within the subfunctional oral motor performance category. Teeth grinding subfunctional spastic cerebral palsy children presented lower values of maximal bite force. The functional groups showing the presence or absence of teeth grinding presented higher values of maximal bite force compared with the subfunctional groups. In spastic cerebral palsy children, teeth grinding is associated with the worse oral motor performance. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.