Quazi Emadoddin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (Moringaecea are used in Indian traditional medicine and in folklore for many diseases and extensively used as CNS depressant traditionally. The interesting things of this plant are each part of Moringa oleifera is used as medicines. The present work has been carried out to evaluate the anti-epileptic activity of fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera against maximal electroshock (M.E.S and Picrotoxin (PTX induced convulsions in mice at different dose level (100ml/kg. p.o & 50ml/kg. p.o. Diazepam (5mg/kg. p.o and Phenytoin (25mg/kg. i.p were used as reference standard drugs. The data obtained indicates that the fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera at the dose of (50ml/kg p.o & 100ml/kg p.o shows anticonvulsant activity against Maximal electroshock and Picrotoxin induced convulsion in mice.
Joshi, Rupa; Reeta, K.H.; Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Tripathi, Manjari; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar
2015-01-01
Introduction: Traditionally, Panchagavya Ghrita (PG) has been used for the management of epilepsy, anxiety, fever and jaundice. It consists of five components of cow products namely, cow milk, clarified butter from cow milk, cow urine, curd from cow milk, and cow dung juice. Aim: To evaluate the effect of PG in maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures model and its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interaction with phenytoin (PHT) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in rats. Materials and Methods: M...
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J
2006-01-01
The anticonvulsant effects produced by topiramate (TPM) and gabapentin (GBP)--two second-generation antiepileptic drugs, in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 8:1, 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 were examined by isobolographic analysis in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model. Results indicate that the combinations of TPM and GBP at the fixed-ratios of 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8 resulted in supra-additive (synergistic) interaction against MES-induced seizures. Moreover, the combinations of TPM and GBP (at their median effective doses) did not affect motor performance of animals challenged with the chimney test and had no impact on neuromuscular tone in the grip-strength test. Additionally, GBP had no impact on total brain TPM concentrations, and simultaneously, TPM did not alter brain GBP concentrations, indicating that the interaction between drugs was pharmacodynamic in nature. In conclusion, supra-additive interaction of TPM with GBP against MES-induced seizures, lack of motor coordination and neuromuscular tone impairments as well as lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between TPM and GBP in preclinical study, strongly support the combined application of both antiepileptic drugs in patients with refractory partial epilepsy.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Stepień, Karolina; Czuczwar, Stanisław J
2006-01-01
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of fluoxetine (FXT), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in mice. FXT at the doses of 25, 20 and 15 mg/kg significantly increased the electroconvulsive threshold. The antidepressant applied at the lower doses (10, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg) did not influence the threshold. Moreover, FXT (at the highest subprotective dose of 10 mg/kg) increased the anticonvulsive potential of carbamazepine (CBZ), diphenylhydantoin (DPH), valproate (VPA) and phenobarbital (PB), producing a dose-related decrease in their ED50 values against MES. Nevertheless, pharmacokinetic events may be involved in the interaction between FXT and PB or CBZ, since the antidepressant raised the total brain concentration of the two antiepileptics. FXT in combination with AEDs did not influence the motor performance in the chimney test and long-term memory. In conclusion, the data suggest that FXT modulates seizure processes in the brain and may be advantageous in the treatment of epilepsy in depressed patients, improving the seizure control in epilepsy.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Trojnar, Michal K; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2010-08-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of stiripentol (STP) in combination with clobazam [CLB], and valproate [VPA]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model using the type I isobolographic analysis for parallel and non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of STP with CLB and VPA at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured along with total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations. In the mouse MES model, STP administered singly had its DRRC non-parallel to that for CLB and, simultaneously, parallel to that for VPA. With type I isobolography for parallel DRRCs, the combinations of STP with VPA at three fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 exerted sub-additive (antagonistic) interaction. Isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs revealed that the combination of STP with CLB at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 produced additive interaction. For all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength was affected. Total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations revealed bi-direction changes with the most profound being an 18.6-fold increase in CLB by STP and a 2.3-fold increase in STP by VPA. In conclusion, the additive interaction between STP and CLB was associated with a concurrent pharmacokinetic interaction and these data may explain the clinical efficacy seen with this combination. In contrast, the antagonism between STP and VPA was surprising since synergism is observed clinically.
Shirazi-zand, Zahra; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Naderi, Nima
2013-07-01
Cannabidiol is a nonpsychoactive member of phytocannabinoids that produces various pharmacological effects that are not mediated through putative CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their related effectors. In this study, we examined the effect of the i.c.v. administration of potassium BK channel blocker paxilline alone and in combination with cannabidiol in protection against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure in mice. In the PTZ-induced seizure model, i.c.v. administration of cannabidiol caused a significant increase in seizure threshold compared with the control group. Moreover, while i.c.v. administration of various doses of paxilline did not produce significant change in the PTZ-induced seizure threshold in mice, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline attenuated the antiseizure effect of cannabidiol in PTZ-induced tonic seizures. In the MES model of seizure, both cannabidiol and paxilline per se produced significant increase in percent protection against electroshock-induced seizure. However, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline did not produce significant interaction in their antiseizure effect in the MES test. The results of the present study showed a protective effect of cannabidiol in both PTZ and MES models of seizure. These results suggested a BK channel-mediated antiseizure action of cannabidiol in PTZ model of seizure. However, such an interaction might not exist in MES-induced convulsion.
Łukawski, Krzysztof; Swiderska, Grażyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), a thiazide-type diuretic and an antihypertensive drug, on the anticonvulsant activity of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine--CBZ, phenytoin--PHT, valproate--VPA, phenobarbital--PB, oxcarbazepine--OXC, lamotrigine--LTG and topiramate--TPM). The effects of HCTZ and AEDs on convulsions were examined in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice. Additionally, adverse effects of combined treatment with HCTZ and the AEDs in the passive avoidance task and chimney test were assessed. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally (ip) at single doses. The data obtained indicate that HCTZ (100 mg ip) enhanced the anticonvulsant action of CBZ, decreasing its ED(50) value from 11.9 to 7.7 mg/kg (p anticonvulsant potency. Acute HCTZ may positively influence the anticonvulsant action of CBZ in epileptic patients.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2004-11-01
The anticonvulsant effects of lamotrigine (LTG) and clonazepam (CZP) and combinations thereof against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice were investigated using three-dimensional (3D) isobolographic analysis. With this method, the doses of fixed-ratio combinations of the drugs (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) that elicited 16, 50 and 84% of the maximum anticonvulsant effect were determined. Additionally, to evaluate the characteristics of interactions observed with 3D isobolography, the brain concentrations of both drugs were verified pharmacokinetically. The 3D isobolographic analysis showed that LTG and CZP combined at the fixed ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 interacted synergistically in the MES test for all anticonvulsant effects between 16% and 84% of maximum. In contrast, the combination of LTG and CZP at the fixed ratio of 1:3 showed only pure additivity for all estimated effects in 3D isobolography. Moreover, none of the examined antiepileptic drugs altered the brain concentrations of the coadministered drug, so the observed interactions in the MES test are of a pharmacodynamic nature. The 3D isobolographic findings suggest that in epilepsy therapy, increased efficacy of seizure control (synergistic interaction) might be achieved by using LTG and CZP in combination. In this study, some important problems and assumptions related to statistical analysis of data in 3D isobolography are discussed.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2005-03-01
Isobolographic profile of interactions between lamotrigine (LTG) and felbamate (FBM), two second-generation antiepileptic drugs, against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures, and neurotoxic adverse effects in the chimney test in mice were determined. LTG combined with FBM at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 exerted merely additive interactions against MES-induced seizures. In the chimney test, isobolography revealed that LTG coadministered with FBM at the fixed ratio of 1:1 displayed subadditivity (antagonism), whereas the remaining combinations tested (1:3 and 3:1) exerted additivity in terms of their neurotoxic side effects. LTG (at the dose of 2.3 mg/kg) coadministered with FBM (25.7 mg/kg) at the fixed ratio of 1:1 from the MES test did not impair long-term memory of mice challenged with the passive avoidance task. Furthermore, FBM (25.7 mg/kg) altered neither the free plasma nor brain concentration of LTG, hence pharmacokinetic events, which might affect the observed interactions in the MES test, are unlikely. Considering benefit indices for the respective fixed ratio combinations, it may be concluded that the combination of LTG with FBM at the fixed ratio of 1:1 is advantageous from a preclinical point of view, offering the highest benefit index reaching the value of 1.46. Likewise, the two-drug combination of 1:3 was also beneficial and is worth recommendation with benefit index amounting to 1.36. Only the combination of 3:1 was neutral with a benefit index of 1.08. Protection offered by LTG in combination with FBM against maximal electroconvulsions and its favorable neurotoxic side effect profile might provide the patients with intractable seizures with an efficacious treatment, as the rational polytherapy however, it requires to be clinically confirmed and verified.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2007-01-15
The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between losigamone (LSG), valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), and phenobarbital (PB) in the maximal electroshock (MES) test in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced by means of an alternating current (ear-clip electrodes, 0.2-s stimulus duration, and tonic hindlimb extension taken as the endpoint). Adverse effects were evaluated in the chimney test (motor coordination) and the passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were measured by immunofluorescence or high-performance liquid chromatography. Isobolographic analysis indicated synergistic interactions between LSG and VPA. For example, in the proportion of 1:1 the theoretically calculated 50% effective dose for additivity (ED(50add)) was 138 mg/kg, while the experimentally derived ED(50) for the mixture (ED(50mix)) was 85.2 mg/kg. The difference was significant at p<0.001. LSG combined with CBZ or PHT showed additivity, whereas the combinations of LSG with PB were either additive, for the fixed ratios of 1:3 and 1:1, or antagonistic for the ratio of 3:1 (ED(50add)=18.4 mg/kg versus ED(50mix)=26.7 mg/kg, p<0.05). Impairment of long-term memory was noted only in the case of VPA given at its ED(50), however this AED did not affect motor performance. LSG, CBZ, PHT and PB (applied at their ED(50) values) and co-administration of LSG with conventional AEDs (including VPA) impaired neither motor performance nor long-term memory. LSG did not affect the brain concentration of VPA or PB, but significantly elevated the brain concentrations of CBZ and PHT. In contrast, VPA, CBZ and PHT significantly increased the brain concentration of LSG, indicating a pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed pharmacodynamic interactions. Although LSG exhibited some favorable pharmacodynamic interactions with various AEDs, these were complicated by pharmacokinetic interactions and emphasize the
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Filip, Damian; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena
2012-02-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin in combination with four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., gabapentin, levetiracetam, tiagabine, and vigabatrin) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type II isobolographic analysis. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. The combination of pregabalin with gabapentin at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was supra-additive (synergistic) in terms of seizure suppression while the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Similarly, the combination of pregabalin with tiagabine at the fixed-ratio of 25:1 was supra-additive, whereas the combinations at the fixed-ratios of 100:1 and 50:1 were additive in the mouse MES model. Pregabalin with levetiracetam and vigabatrin at the fixed-ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1 were additive in this seizure model. The combinations of pregabalin with gabapentin (1:1) and pregabalin with tiagabine (25:1) appear to be favorable combinations exerting supra-additive interaction in suppressing MES-induced seizures. Pregabalin in combination with levetiracetam and vigabatrin appears to be neutral producing only additivity in the mouse MES model.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2006-05-01
This study examined the interaction characteristics between loreclezole (LCZ) and various conventional antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin--PHT, carbamazepine--CBZ, valproate--VPA and phenobarbital--PB) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model using isobolographic analysis. Drug-related adverse effects were ascertained by use of the chimney test (motor impairment) and the step-through passive avoidance task (learning and retrieval). It was observed that the combination of LCZ with VPA or PB, at the fixed ratio of 1:1, was supra-additive (synergistic) and the combination of LCZ with CBZ, at all fixed ratios tested (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1), was supra-additive against electroconvulsions. The remaining combinations evaluated, i.e., LCZ with PB or VPA at fixed ratios of 1:3 and 3:1, as well as all fixed-ratio combinations between LCZ and PHT, were additive in the MES test in mice. Pharmacokinetic characterization revealed that LCZ significantly increased both free plasma and brain concentrations of CBZ and PHT, but was without effect on PB. Moreover, a bi-directional pharmacokinetic interaction between LCZ and VPA was observed in that while LCZ increased free plasma, but not total brain VPA concentrations, VPA increased the total brain, but not free plasma LCZ concentrations. Adverse-effect testing revealed that for all antiepileptic drug combinations neither motor performance nor long-term memory was altered. Of the drug combinations investigated, only that of LCZ and PB at the fixed ratio of 1:1 was not associated with any pharmacokinetic interactions, and thus it may be concluded that the supra-additive (synergistic) isobolographic interaction was pharmacodynamic in nature. Furthermore, the fact that LCZ and PB have similar mechanisms of action would suggest that drugs with similar mechanisms of action may provide rational polytherapy regimens.
Effect of artesunate on maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mice
K Sanjana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies are highly efficacious, and they are now listed as first-line therapies for uncomplicated malaria in most countries where malaria is endemic. Neurotoxicity of artemisinins is a growing concern. However, no studies have reported its antiepileptic or epileptogenesis potential, hence the present study was undertaken to explore the activity of artesunate in experimentally induced seizures in rodent models. Artesunate at doses 36.4 and 72.8 mg/kg respectively significantly reduced the duration of the hind limb extensions (3.033±1.493 and 2.033±1.383, respectively when compared to the control (P<0.0001 in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. However, no significant decrease was noted in the duration of clonic convulsions in a pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model indicating lack of activity in petit mal epilepsy. The results of the present study indicate that artesunate at both the doses employed showed a significant anticonvulsant activity in the maximum electroshock-induced seizure model suggesting its potential utility in the management of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and partial seizures. Further studies regarding its mechanism of action are warranted.
[Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].
Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P
2010-08-01
The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.
Luszczki Jarogniew J.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl- p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide (BAM-IPPS - a new succinimide derivative on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine [CBZ], phenobarbital [PB], phenytoin [PHT] and valproate [VPA] in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES-induced tonic seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration delivered via ear-clip electrodes. BAM-IPPS administered (i.p. at a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.05. Lower doses of BAM-IPPS (50 and 100 mg/kg had no significant impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. Moreover, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg did not significantly affect the anticonvulsant potency of CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA in the mouse MES model. BAM-IPPS elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice in a dosedependent manner. However, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant action of various classical AEDs in the mouse MES model, making the combinations of BAM-IPPS with CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA neutral, from a preclinical point of view.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2006-10-01
The anticonvulsant effects produced by stiripentol (STP), carbamazepine (CBZ), and their combination in the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice were investigated using three-dimensional (3D) isobolographic analysis. With 3D isobolography, the combinations of both drugs at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 for 16%, 50% and 84% antiseizure effects, respectively, were examined in order to evaluate the preclinical characteristics of the interactions between STP and CBZ. Additionally, to characterize precisely the types of interactions observed in the MES test, free plasma and total brain CBZ concentrations were estimated for all fixed-ratios tested. The 3D isobolographic analysis showed that STP and CBZ combined at the fixed-ratio of 1:3 produced supra-additive (synergistic) interactions in the MES test for the anticonvulsant effects ranging between 16% and 84%. In contrast, the combination of STP with CBZ at the fixed-ratio of 3:1 exerted sub-additive (antagonistic) interactions in 3D isobolography for all antiseizure effects examined in the MES test. Only the combination of STP and CBZ at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 was additive for the investigated effects (16%, 50% and 84%) in 3D isobolography. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of CBZ concentrations revealed that STP increased both free plasma and total brain CBZ concentrations for all fixed-ratio combinations tested (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1). In conclusion, the 3D isobolographic findings suggest that the combination of STP with CBZ exerted biphasic characteristics of interactions in the MES test, despite the pharmacokinetic increase in CBZ content in plasma and brains of experimental animals.
Sawicka, Katarzyna M; Wawryniuk, Agnieszka; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Daniluk, Jadwiga; Szpringer, Monika; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Drop, Bartlomiej; Zolkowska, Dorota; Luszczki, Jarogniew J
2017-04-01
Although the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission is still unclear, it is postulated that the HCN channels may be involved in seizure activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ivabradine (an HCN channel inhibitor) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Tonic seizures (maximal electroconvulsions) were evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by an electric current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Acute adverse-effect profiles of the combinations of ivabradine with classical antiepileptic drugs were measured in mice along with total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations. Results indicate that ivabradine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of valproate and considerably reduced that of phenytoin in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. Ivabradine (10 mg/kg) had no impact on the anticonvulsant potency of carbamazepine and phenobarbital in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in mice. Ivabradine (10 mg/kg) significantly diminished total brain concentration of phenytoin and had no effect on total brain valproate concentration in mice. In conclusion, the enhanced anticonvulsant action of valproate by ivabradine in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model was pharmacodynamic in nature. A special attention is required when combining ivabradine with phenytoin due to a pharmacokinetic interaction and reduction of the anticonvulsant action of phenytoin in mice. The combinations of ivabradine with carbamazepine and phenobarbital were neutral from a preclinical viewpoint.
Banach, Monika; Piskorska, Barbara; Borowicz-Reutt, Kinga K
2016-06-01
Antiarrhythmic and antiepileptic drugs share some mechanisms of actions. Therefore, possibility of interactions between these in epileptic patients with cardiac arrhythmias is quite considerable. Herein, we attempted to assess interactions between propafenone and four conventional antiepileptic drugs: carbamazepine, valproate, phenytoin and phenobarbital. Effects of propafenone on seizures were determined in the electroconvulsive threshold test in mice. Interactions between propafenone and antiepileptic drugs were estimated in the model of maximal electroshock. Motor coordination was evaluated in the chimney test, while long-term memory in the passive-avoidance task. Brain concentrations of antiepileptics were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Propafenone up to 50mg/kg did not affect the electroconvulsive threshold, significantly enhancing this parameter at doses of 60-90mg/kg. Applied at its subthreshold doses, propafenone potentiated the antielectroshock action of all four tested classical antiepileptics: carbamazepine, valproate, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Propafenone alone and in combinations with antiepileptics impaired neither motor performance nor long-term memory in mice. Propafenone did not change brain concentration of phenytoin and phenobarbital; however, it significantly decreased brain levels of carbamazepine and increased those of valproate. Propafenone exhibits its own anticonvulsant effect and enhances the action of classical antiepileptic drugs against electrically induced convulsions in mice. Further investigations are required to determine the effect of propafenone on antiepileptic therapy in humans. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Vaibhav Bhosle
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.
Zolkowska, Dorota; Andres-Mach, Marta; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Baumann, Michael H; Luszczki, Jarogniew J
2015-07-01
Seizures occur when the excitability of brain circuits is not sufficiently restrained by inhibitory mechanisms. Although modafinil is reported to reduce GABA-activated currents and extracellular GABA levels in the brain, the drug exerts anticonvulsant effects in animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of modafinil and its metabolites (sulfone and carboxylic acid) on the anticonvulsant action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA). Anticonvulsant activity was assessed with the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test and MES test in mice. Brain concentrations of AEDs were measured to ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed anticonvulsant effects. Intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg kg(-1) of modafinil or its metabolites significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice, whereas 50 mg kg(-1) of each compound enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of CBZ, PHT, and VPA, but not that of PB. A 25-mg kg(-1) dose of modafinil or its sulfone metabolite enhanced anticonvulsant activity of VPA. Modafinil and its metabolites (50 mg kg(-1)) did not alter total brain concentrations of PB and VPA but did elevate CBZ and PHT. Enhancement of anticonvulsant actions of VPA by modafinil in the mouse MES model is a pharmacodynamic effect. Collectively, our data suggest that modafinil may be a safe and beneficial adjunct to the therapeutic effects of AEDs in human patients.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2009-01-14
The anticonvulsant activity of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (MeTHIQ--an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) administered alone and in combination with four conventional antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and valproate) was determined in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. The types of interactions of MeTHIQ with the antiepileptic drugs were characterized using isobolographic analysis. The isobolographic analysis revealed that the combination of MeTHIQ with phenobarbital at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test. In contrast, the combinations of MeTHIQ with carbamazepine, phenytoin and valproate exerted additive interaction for all three fixed-ratios (1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) tested in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test. In conclusion, MeTHIQ produces a clear-cut anticonvulsant effect in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in mice. The supra-additive interaction of MeTHIQ with phenobarbital against maximal electroshock-induced seizures makes their combination of pivotal importance from a clinical viewpoint.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Jaszczyk, Bozena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2007-07-12
The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between two enantiomers of losigamone, AO-242 [(+)-5(R)-alpha(S)-5-(2-chlorophenylhydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2(5H)-furanone] and AO-294 [(-)-5(S)-alpha(R)-5-(2-chlorophenylhydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2(5H)-furanone], and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, or phenobarbital in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Both enantiomers interacted additively with conventional antiepileptic drugs at all studied fixed dose ratios (1:3, 1:1, 3:1). Furthermore, AO-242, AO-294 and antiepileptics applied alone, as well as combinations of enantiomers and antiepileptics did not affect motor performance in the chimney test. Significant impairment of long-term memory (passive-avoidance task) was noted only in the case of valproate alone, given at the dose equal to its median effective dose (ED(50)) against maximal electroshock. All other antiepileptics and their combinations with AO-242 or AO-294 did not impair memory of mice. Enantiomers did not affect the brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of the observed interactions. In conclusion, the present results suggest both AO-242 and AO-294 as promising candidate drugs in the add-on therapy of refractory epilepsy.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Filip, Damian; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2010-10-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin (PGB-a third-generation antiepileptic drug) in combination with three second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., lamotrigine [LTG], oxcarbazepine [OXC] and topiramate [TPM]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type I isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25mA, 500V, 50Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured. In the mouse MES model, PGB administered singly had its DRRC non-parallel to that for LTG, OXC and TPM. With type I isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs, the combinations of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted additive interaction. In all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength were affected. In conclusion, the additive interactions between PGB and LTG, OXC and TPM are worthy of consideration while extrapolating the results from this study to clinical settings.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Andres, Marta M; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2005-05-16
The anticonvulsant effects produced by mixtures of oxcarbazepine and gabapentin (two second-generation antiepileptic drugs) in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 were examined isobolographically in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Results displayed that mixtures of both drugs at the fixed-ratios of 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interactions against electroconvulsions. Only a fixed-ratio of 1:1 was indifferent with isobolography, although the combination displayed the trend towards supra-additivity. Furthermore, the combinations of oxcarbazepine with gabapentin, administered at their median effective doses (ED(50 mix)s), did not alter motor performance of animals challenged with the chimney test. Additionally, neither gabapentin nor oxcarbazepine affected total brain concentrations of co-administered drug, indicating a pharmacodynamic nature of interaction between these antiepileptics. Finally, based on preclinical data presented here the combination of oxcarbazepine and gabapentin is of particular importance for further therapy in patients with refractory partial seizures.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Malek, Robert; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2007-08-01
Using the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model, indicative of tonic-clonic seizures in humans, the present study was aimed at characterizing the interaction between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Isobolographic analysis indicated additive interactions between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin (for all fixed ratios of tested drugs: 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1). Additivity was also observed between remacemide and phenobarbital applied in proportions of 1:1 and 3:1. In contrast, the combination of remacemide and phenobarbital at the fixed-ratio of 1:3 resulted in antagonism. Neither motor performance nor long-term memory was impaired by remacemide or by carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate whether or not these drugs were administered singly or in combination. In combination with remacemide, brain concentrations of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin were increased by 71, 21, and 16%, respectively. Although brain valproate concentrations were unaffected by remacemide co-administration, brain concentrations of remacemide and its active metabolite, desglycinyl-remacemide, were increased by 68 and 162%, respectively. In contrast, phenobarbital co-administration was associated with decreases in brain remacemide (27%) and desglycinyl-remacemide (9%) concentrations, whereas only remacemide concentrations (increased by 131%) were affected by carbamazepine co-administration. In conclusion, significant and desirable pharmacodynamic interactions were observed between remacemide and valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. However, the concurrent pharmacokinetic interactions associated with remacemide complicate these observations and do not make remacemide a good candidate for adjunctive treatment of epilepsy.
Zolkowska, Dorota; Kondrat-Wrobel, Maria W; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Luszczki, Jarogniew J
2016-02-04
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP - a selective antagonist for the glutamate metabotropic receptor subtype mGluR5) on the protective action of some novel antiepileptic drugs (lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were measured to determine whether MPEP altered pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs. Intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 and 2mg/kg of MPEP significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice, whereas MPEP at a dose of 1mg/kg considerably enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of pregabalin and topiramate, but not that of lamotrigine or oxcarbazepine in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Pharmacokinetic results revealed that MPEP (1mg/kg) did not alter total brain concentrations of pregabalin and topiramate, and the observed effect in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model was pharmacodynamic in nature. Collectively, our preclinical data suggest that MPEP may be a safe and beneficial adjunct to the therapeutic effects of antiepileptic drugs in human patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zagaja, Miroslaw; Pyrka, Daniel; Skalicka-Wozniak, Krystyna; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Glensk, Michał; Luszczki, Jarogniew J
2015-09-01
The effects of xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) on the anticonvulsant activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) were studied in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Total brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay to ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed anticonvulsant effects. Results indicate that xanthotoxin (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of carbamazepine against maximal electroshock-induced seizures (Panticonvulsant action of valproate in the maximal electroshock seizure test (Pdrugs. In conclusion, the combinations of xanthotoxin with carbamazepine and valproate, despite their beneficial effects in terms of seizure suppression in mice, were probably due to a pharmacokinetic increase in total brain concentrations of these antiepileptic drugs in experimental animals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Kominek, Mateusz; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Tchaytchian, Dariusz A; Kocharov, Sergey L; Zolkowska, Dorota
2012-06-01
Experimental epileptology is mainly focused on searching for some active compounds suppressing seizures that could become efficacious antiepileptic drugs. Accumulating evidence indicates that succinimide derivatives would be good candidates for novel antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of N-hydroxymethyl-p-isopropoxyphenyl-succinimide (HMIPPS) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in mice. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Acute adverse-effect profiles with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured along with total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations. Results indicate that HMIPPS administered intraperitoneally at 100mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice (Panticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital and valproate in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model by reducing their median effective doses (ED(50) values) from 23.25mg/kg to 16.82 mg/kg (Panticonvulsant action of valproate by reducing its ED(50) value from 259.3mg/kg to 210.6 mg/kg (P>0.05), but not that of phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. Pharmacokinetic experiments revealed that HMIPPS did not alter total brain concentrations of phenobarbital or valproate in mice. Moreover, none of the examined combinations of HMIPPS (50mg/kg) with carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate (at their ED(50) values from the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test) affected motor coordination in the chimney test, long-term memory in the passive avoidance task, and muscular strength in the grip-strength test in mice
Borowicz, Kinga K; Morawska, Dorota; Morawska, Marta
2015-10-01
From a theoretical point of view, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) as a precursor of calcitriol, a representative of secosteroids, may have neuroprotective properties and affect seizure phenomena. In the present study, interactions between cholecalciferol and three second generation antiepileptic drugs (oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, and topiramate) were studied in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Effects of drugs on motor coordination, long-term memory and explorative behavior of animals were evaluated in the chimney test, passive-avoidance task and plus-maze test, respectively. Cholecalciferol applied ip at doses of 37.5-75μg/kg significantly raised the electroconvulsive threshold. Cholecalciferol, administered at the subthreshold dose of 18.75μg, potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine, but did not change their brain concentrations, therefore the revealed interactions seem to be pharmacodynamic. Furthermore, the action of cholecalciferol was not dependent on its conversion to calcitriol. The anticonvulsant effect of topiramate was enhanced by cholecalciferol applied at the higher dose of 37.5μg/kg, at which it also increased the brain level of topiramate. As regards adverse effects, cholecalciferol, antiepileptic drugs, and their combinations did not significantly impair motor coordination or long-term memory in mice. Moreover, cholecalciferol did not show either anxiolytic or anxiogenic properties. Our findings show that cholecalciferol has not only its own anticonvulsant action but also enhances efficacy of certain antiepileptic drugs, at least in experimental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2010-05-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (MeTHIQ--an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) in combination with four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: lamotrigine [LTG], oxcarbazepine [OXC], pregabalin [PGB], and topiramate [TPM]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type I isobolographic analysis for parallel and non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of MeTHIQ with LTG, OXC, PGB and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 from the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured along with total brain concentrations of MeTHIQ and TPM. In the mouse MES model, MeTHIQ administered singly had its DRRC parallel to those for OXC and TPM, and simultaneously, non-parallel to those for LTG and PGB. With type I isobolography for parallel DRRCs, the combination of MeTHIQ with TPM at three fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction, whereas the combination of MeTHIQ with OXC at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 produced additive interaction. Similarly, the type I isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs revealed that the combination of MeTHIQ with LTG and PGB at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 produced additive interaction. For all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength were affected. Total brain concentrations of MeTHIQ and TPM revealed no significant changes in their concentrations when the drugs were combined at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1. In conclusion, the synergistic interaction of MeTHIQ with TPM at the fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 against MES-induced seizures was pharmacodynamic in nature and thus, it is worthy of consideration in further clinical settings. The combinations of MeTHIQ with LTG, OXC and PGB were neutral in the mouse MES model.
Andres-Mach, Marta; Zadrożniak, Anna; Haratym-Maj, Agnieszka; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Raszewski, Grzegorz; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Luszczki, Jarogniew J
2013-12-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction between 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-MeTHIQ-an endogenous parkinsonism-preventing substance) and various antiepileptic drugs [AEDs: clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), gabapentin (GBP), levetiracetam (LEV), tiagabine (TGB) and vigabatrin (VGB)] in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model. Results indicate that 1-MeTHIQ in combination with CZP (at the fixed ratios of 50:1 and 25:1), ETS (1:10) and GBP (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interactions in the mouse MES model. In contrast, 1-MeTHIQ in combination with CZP (200:1 and 100:1), ETS (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5), LEV and VGB (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10), and TGB (200:1, 100:1, 50:1 and 25:1) produced additive interaction in the mouse MES model. Total brain AED concentrations were unaffected by 1-MeTHIQ, and inversely, CZP, ETS and GBP had no impact on total brain concentrations of 1-MeTHIQ, indicating pharmacodynamic nature of synergistic interactions between 1-MeTHIQ and the tested AEDs in the mouse MES model. In conclusion, the supra-additive interactions of 1-MeTHIQ with CZP (at the fixed ratios of 50:1 and 25:1), ETS (1:10) and GBP (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) in the mouse MES model appear to be particularly favorable combinations from a clinical viewpoint. The additive combinations of 1-MeTHIQ with CZP (100:1, 50:1), ETS (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5), LEV and VGB (1:1, 1:2, 1:5, and 1:10), and TGB (200:1, 100:1, 50:1 and 25:1) seem to be neutral and worthy of consideration in further clinical practice.
Zagaja, Mirosław; Andres-Mach, Marta; Patrzylas, Paweł; Pyrka, Daniel; Szpringer, Monika; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena; Żółkowska, Dorota; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J
2016-12-01
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) on the protective action of 5 various second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., lacosamide, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. Seizure activity was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (25mA, 500V, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Drug-related adverse effects were determined in the chimney, grip-strength and passive avoidance tests. Total brain antiepileptic drug concentrations were measured to confirm pharmacodynamic nature of observed interactions with xanthotoxin. Results indicate that xanthotoxin (100mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant action of lacosamide (Panticonvulsant action of lacosamide (Pdrugs in mice. Furthermore, combinations of xanthotoxin with oxcarbazepine or topiramate produced no adverse effects. However, xanthotoxin in combination with lacosamide, lamotrigine or pregabalin significantly reduced muscular strength in mice in the grip-strength test. In the chimney test, only the combinations of xanthotoxin with pregabalin significantly impaired motor coordination in mice. In conclusion, the combinations of xanthotoxin with oxcarbazepine and topiramate produce beneficial anticonvulsant pharmacodynamic interactions in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure test. A special caution is advised when combining xanthotoxin with pregabalin due to appearance of acute adverse effects. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Łuszczki, Jarogniew; Czuczwar, Stanisław J
2004-03-01
The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between three non-barbiturate intravenous anesthetics and conventional antiepileptic drugs in the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced by means of an alternating current (ear-clip electrodes, 0.2-s stimulus duration, tonic hindlimb extension taken as the endpoint). Adverse effects were evaluated in the chimney test (motor performance) and passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Plasma levels of antiepileptic drugs were measured by immunofluorescence. Obtained results indicate that ketamine acts synergistically with valproate and carbamazepine. Also the combinations of propofol and valproate or phenobarbital led to synergistic interactions. An antagonism was found between etomidate and carbamazepine or phenobarbital. On the other hand, interactions between diphenylhydantoin and injectable anesthetics proved to be additive. The only exception was the combination of diphenylhydantoin and propofol (1:3). Pharmacokinetic phenomena do not seem to interfere with the observed interactions, since none of anesthetics influenced the free plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs. Referring to undesired effects, only propofol impaired long-term memory. Although propofol did not disturbed motor coordination, it enhanced motor impairment caused by carbamazepine and diphenylhydantoin. Results of the present study suggest that etomidate needs to be avoided in epileptic patients due to a possibility of negative interactions with some antiepileptic drugs and seizure precipitation.
Borowicz, Kinga K; Gołyska, Dorota; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J
2011-11-16
The influence of acute and chronic treatments with intraperitoneal venlafaxine, a selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on the anticonvulsant activity of selected antiepileptic drugs was studied in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Venlafaxine (12.5 and 25mg/kg), given either acutely or chronically, significantly increased the electroconvulsive threshold. Moreover, both acute and chronic venlafaxine, applied at the highest subprotective dose of 6.25mg/kg, enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of valproate, without affecting the protective action of carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin. The antidepressant did not affect brain concentration of valproate, indicating that the interaction between the two drugs seems pharmacodynamic in nature. Despite the lack of effect on the antielectroshock action of the remaining antiepileptics, acute venlafaxine increased the brain concentration of phenobarbital, while chronic venlafaxine reduced the brain level of phenytoin. In terms of adverse effects, acute/chronic venlafaxine and antiepileptic drugs alone, as well as their combinations, did not produce significant motor or long-term memory deficits in mice. Summing up, it seems that venlafaxine may be considered as a safe drug for the clinical use in patients with epilepsy and depressive disorders.
Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Zagaja, Miroslaw; Luszczki, Jarogniew J
2015-08-01
The influence of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA - a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) on the anticonvulsant potency and acute adverse-effect potentials of clobazam, lacosamide, and pregabalin was determined in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model and chimney test in mice. ACEA (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant potency of pregabalin in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model by decreasing the median effective dose (ED50 ) of pregabalin from 125.39 to 78.06 mg/kg (P clobazam and lacosamide in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. On the other hand, ACEA (2.5 mg/kg) did not affect acute adverse effects of clobazam, lacosamide or pregabalin, and the median toxic doses (TD50 ) for the studied anti-epileptic drugs in combination with ACEA did not differ from the TD50 values as determined for the drugs administered alone in the chimney test. In conclusion, ACEA ameliorates the pharmacological profile of pregabalin, when considering both the anticonvulsant and the acute adverse effects of the drug in preclinical study on animals. The combination of pregabalin with ACEA can be of pivotal importance for patients with epilepsy as a potentially advantageous combination if the results from this study translate into clinical settings.
André, V; Ferrandon, A; Marescaux, C; Nehlig, A
2000-01-01
In temporal lobe epilepsy, the occurrence of seizures seems to correlate with the presence of lesions underlying the establishment of a hyperexcitable circuit. However, in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy, neuronal damage occurs both in the structures belonging to the circuit of initiation and maintenance of the seizures (forebrain limbic system) as in the propagation areas (cortex and thalamus) and in the circuit of remote control of seizures (substantia nigra pars reticulata). To determine whether or not we could protect the brain from lesions and epileptogenesis induced by status epilepticus and identify cerebral structures involved in the genesis of epilepsy, we studied the effects of the chronic exposure to non-deleterious seizures, either focalized with secondary generalization (amygdala kindling, kindled-pilocarpine rats), or primary generalized (ear-clip electroshocks, electroshock-pilocarpine rats) on neuronal damage and epileptogenesis induced by lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus. These animals were compared to rats subjected to status epilepticus but not pretreated with seizures (sham-kindled-pilocarpine or sham-electroshock-pilocarpine rats). Compared to sham-pilocarpine rats, neuronal damage was prevented in the limbic system of the kindled-pilocarpine rats, except in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and the entorhinal cortex, while it was enhanced in rats pretreated with electroshocks, mainly in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. Most sham-kindled- and sham-electroshock-pilocarpine rats (92-100%) developed recurrent seizures after a silent period of 40-54days. Likewise, all kindled-pilocarpine rats developed spontaneous seizures after the same latency as their sham controls, while only two of 10 electroshock-pilocarpine rats became epileptic after a delay of 106-151days. The present data show that the apparent antiepileptic properties of electroshocks correlate with extensive damage in midbrain cortical regions, which may prevent the
田凯; 骆媛; 李万华; 隋昕; 杨军; 郑爱萍; 卫培峰; 王永安
2015-01-01
Objective To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of midazolam and diazepam when administered nasally on maximal electroshock seizure and metrazol seizure threshold test models .Methods Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups:model group, low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose of midazolam nasal spray groups , diazepam nasal spray in low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose of midazolam nasal spray groups .After the establishment of the maximal electroshock seizure( MES) and metrazol seizure threshold test models ( MST) in rats, the anticonvulsant effects of different doses of midazolam and the clinically used antiepileptic drug diazepam were evaluated and compared .HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes in the hippocampus , cortex and amygdala in rats .Results Significant anticonvulsant effects were observed on MES and MST in rats pretreated with different dosages of midazolam .In addition , the anticonvul-sant effects of midazolam were stronger than those of diazepam at the same dosage on MES and MST (P<0.05,P<0.01). Histopathological results showed that both midazolam and diazepam could effectively prevent the seizure -induced brain inju-ries, inhibit the increase of microglial cells and the inflammatory cell infiltration in the hippocampus, cortex and amygdala, and reduce the nucleus pycnosis and neuronophagia .Conclusion Midazolam has significantly anticonvulsant and neuropro-tective effects on different seizure models when administered nasally in rats .%目的：在大鼠最大电休克发作（ MES）及戊四唑惊厥（ MST）模型上，比较评价咪达唑仑与地西泮经鼻给药的抗惊厥作用。方法大鼠随机分为7组，分别为模型组、咪达唑仑鼻喷剂低、中、高剂量组和地西泮鼻喷剂低、中、高剂量组，每组10只。建立MES及MST模型，评价不同剂量咪达唑仑经鼻给药的抗惊厥作用，并与经典抗癫痫药物———地西泮比较，观察给药后72 h各组动物海马、
陈小飞; 李建雄; 王永安
2011-01-01
目的 评价贝那替秦等抗胆碱药在不同惊厥模型的抗惊厥疗效,探讨其可能的作用机制.方法 通过ig给予贝那替秦2～40 mg·kg-1记录最大电休克发作模型( MES)及戊四氮惊厥发作阈模型(MST)模型小鼠的未出现惊厥数.制备新生Wistar小鼠海马神经元细胞,加入贝那替秦1～100 μmol·L-1,MTT检测细胞存活率.结果 贝那替秦2～40 mg·kg-1在MES模型未出现惊厥数为2/10～7/10,在MST模型上未出现惊厥数为1/10～9/10均明显高于模型组(P<0.05,P<0.01),2个模型的ED50分别为12.2(4.7～53.6)mg·kg-1和12.5(7.0～25.9)mg·kg-1.贝那替秦1～100 μmol·L-1能明显对抗N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(NMDA)对海马神经元的损伤作用,细胞存活率明显增加(P<0.05).结论 贝那替秦在MES及MST惊厥模型均具明显抗惊厥作用,其作用机制可能与其对NMDA受体的拮抗作用有关.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of benactyzine and other anticholinergic drugs on different seizure models and investigate their anti-seizure mechanism. METHODS Benactyzine 2 -40 mg· kg -1 were given ig to mice. The number of mice without convulsant appearance was recorded in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and pentetrazole (Metrazol)seizure threshold test (MST) model. Benactyzine 1 -100 μmol·L-1 was added to primary cultured hippocampus neurons, and the cell survival was detected by MTT assay. RESULTS The number of mice without convulsant appearance was 2/10 -7/10 in the MES model vs 1/10 -9/10 in MST model. The ED50 of benactyzine in MES model was 12.2 (4.7 - 53.6) mg· kg-1 vs 12.5 (7.5 -25.9)mg·kg-1 in the MST model. The cell survival in benactyzine 1 -100 μmol·L-1 group was significantly higher than that of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid ( NMDA ) model group ( P ＜ 0.05 ).CONCLUSION Benactyzine shows significant anti-seizure effect on both MES and MST. The anticonvulsant mechanism might be related to its antagonism against NMDA receptors.
Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Plech, Tomasz; Wujec, Monika
2012-09-05
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 4-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(3-chlorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (TP4-a new S-triazole derivative possessing anticonvulsant properties in preclinical studies) on the protective action of four different classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Results indicate that TP4 administered intraperitoneally at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. TP4 at doses of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 mg/kg had no impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. Moreover, TP4 (50 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of carbamazepine, phenobarbital and valproate, but not that of phenytoin in the maximal electroshock seizure test in mice. TP4 at 25 mg/kg significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine, but not that of phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. Pharmacokinetic experiments revealed that TP4 significantly elevated total brain concentrations of carbamazepine and valproate, having no impact on total brain concentrations of phenobarbital in mice. In conclusion, the enhanced anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital by TP4 was probably pharmacodynamic in nature and, therefore, the combination of TP4 with phenobarbital is worthy of consideration while extrapolating the results from this study into clinical settings. The enhanced anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine and valproate by TP4 in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model was associated with pharmacokinetic increases in total brain concentrations of the antiepileptic drugs in mice. The combination of TP4 with phenytoin was neutral from a preclinical point of view. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
张雪娟; 宋力; 岳旺; 刘然
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Typically antiepileptic drugs, such as phenobarbital, fenitoina sodica and diazepam, can inhibit amygdala kindling effect in rats. However, whether midazolam has the same effect is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of midazolam on amygdala kindling onset in rats and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) in mice and effeots of antiepileptic drugs.DESIGN: This study was divided into three subexperiments, including the effects of midazolam on amygdala kindling onset, independent activities and incidence convulsion. All the three subexperiments were completely randomized,infra-group control or self-control studies.SETTING: Medical College of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Comprehensive Experimental Room, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University from August 2004 to March 2005. Nine Wistar rats weighing (250±10) g and 120 Kunming mice weighing (20±5) g and either gender were provided by Animal Center of Qingdao Institute of Drug Control.Midazolam (5 g/L) was provided by Xuzhou Enhua Drugs Co., Ltd. (batch number: 20030706).METHODS: ① Establishment of amygdala kindling models: Nine kindled rats were randomly selected and intraperitoneally injected with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg midazolam, respectively. Quadri-pathway biological signal processing system (SMUP-PC) was used to measure discharge duration (ADD) and Racine's stage. ② Sixty mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, including saline group, 40 mg/kg phenobarbital group, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg midazolam groups with 12 mice in each group. And then, numbers of activities in a unit time (times per 5 minutes) were determined by XZC-4A mini-animals independent activity instrument. ③ MES models were established to calculate incidence of convulsion.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of midazolam on ADD, Racine's stage, numbers of independent activities and incidence of convulsion.RESULTS: All the 9 rats and the 120 mice were
Sharareh Eskandari
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Sharareh Eskandari1, Jaleh Varshosaz1, Mohsen Minaiyan2, Majid Tabbakhian11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The treatment of brain disorders is one of the greatest challenges in drug delivery because of a variety of main barriers in effective drug transport and maintaining therapeutic concentrations in the brain for a prolonged period. The objective of this study was delivery of valproic acid (VPA to the brain by intranasal route. For this purpose, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication and characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-loading percentage, and release. Six groups of rats each containing six animals received drug-loaded NLCs intraperitoneally (IP or intranasally. Brain responses were then examined by using maximal electroshock (MES. The hind limb tonic extension:flexion inhibition ratio was measured at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-minute intervals. The drug concentration was also measured in plasma and brain at the most protective point using gas chromatography method. The particle size of NLCs was 154 ± 16 nm with drug-loading percentage of 47% ± 0.8% and drug release of 75% ± 1.9% after 21 days. In vivo results showed that there was a significant difference between protective effects of NLCs of VPA and control group 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after treatment via intranasal route (P < 0.05. Similar protective effect was observed in rats treated with NLCs of VPA in intranasal route and positive control in IP route (P > 0.05. Results of drug determination in brain and plasma showed that brain:plasma concentration ratio was much higher after intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA than the positive control group (IP route. In conclusion, intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA provided a better protection
76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop
2011-01-07
... National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY..., academia, military, test instrument manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off... requirements for electroshock weapons, the Law Enforcement Standards Office (OLES) at NIST has developed...
A Material History of Electroshock Therapy : Electroshock Technology in Europe until 1945.
Rzesnitzek, Lara; Lang, Sascha
2016-09-01
The article considers the history of electroshock therapy as a history of medical technology, professional cooperation and business competition. A variation of a history from below is intended; though not from the patients' perspective (Porter, Theory Soc 14:175-198, 1985), but with a focus on electrodes, circuitry and patents. Such a 'material history' of electroshock therapy reveals that the technical make-up of electroshock devices and what they were used for was relative to the changing interests of physicians, industrial companies and mental health politics; it makes an intriguing case for the Social Construction of Technology theory (Bijker et al., The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987).
‘Electroshock Therapy’ in the Third Reich
Rzesnitzek, Lara; Lang, Sascha
2017-01-01
The history of ‘electroshock therapy’ (now known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)) in Europe in the Third Reich is still a neglected chapter in medical history. Since Thomas Szasz’s ‘From the Slaughterhouse to the Madhouse’, prejudices have hindered a thorough historical analysis of the introduction and early application of electroshock therapy during the period of National Socialism and the Second World War. Contrary to the assumption of a ‘dialectics of healing and killing’, the introduction of electroshock therapy in the German Reich and occupied territories was neither especially swift nor radical. Electroshock therapy, much like the preceding ‘shock therapies’, insulin coma therapy and cardiazol convulsive therapy, contradicted the genetic dogma of schizophrenia, in which only one ‘treatment’ was permissible: primary prevention by sterilisation. However, industrial companies such as Siemens–Reiniger–Werke AG (SRW) embraced the new development in medical technology. Moreover, they knew how to use existing patents on the electrical anaesthesia used for slaughtering to maintain a leading position in the new electroshock therapy market. Only after the end of the official ‘euthanasia’ murder operation in August 1941, entitled T4, did the psychiatric elite begin to promote electroshock therapy as a modern ‘unspecific’ treatment in order to reframe psychiatry as an ‘honorable’ medical discipline. War-related shortages hindered even the then politically supported production of electroshock devices. Research into electroshock therapy remained minimal and was mainly concerned with internationally shared safety concerns regarding its clinical application. However, within the Third Reich, electroshock therapy was not only introduced in psychiatric hospitals, asylums, and in the Auschwitz concentration camp in order to get patients back to work, it was also modified for ‘euthanasia’ murder. PMID:27998332
Talevi, Alan; Bellera, Carolina L; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E
2007-09-01
A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a preservative widely used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, was signaled as active by the discriminant function and tested in mice in the Maximal Electroshock (MES) test (i.p. administration), according to the NIH Program for Anticonvulsant Drug Development. Based on the results of Methylparaben, Propylparaben (Nipasol), another preservative usually used in association with the former, was also tested. Both methyl and propylparaben were found active in mice at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The discovery of the anticonvulsant activities in the MES test of methylparaben and propylparaben might be useful for the development of new anticonvulsant medications, specially considering the well-known toxicological profile of these drugs.
Talevi, Alan; Bellera, Carolina L.; Castro, Eduardo A.; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E.
2007-09-01
A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a preservative widely used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, was signaled as active by the discriminant function and tested in mice in the Maximal Electroshock (MES) test (i.p. administration), according to the NIH Program for Anticonvulsant Drug Development. Based on the results of Methylparaben, Propylparaben (Nipasol), another preservative usually used in association with the former, was also tested. Both methyl and propylparaben were found active in mice at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The discovery of the anticonvulsant activities in the MES test of methylparaben and propylparaben might be useful for the development of new anticonvulsant medications, specially considering the well-known toxicological profile of these drugs.
Biological effects of an impulse current according to laboratory researches of electroshock devices
Grigoryev О.A.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The federal law "About Weapons" permits the use of electroshock devices if they are safe for people. We developed requirements for the procedure medical-biological testing on the safety of electroshock devices. We did an experimental study assessing medical-biological safety of electroshock devices. The assessment is based on a point system, which use ranges of biological effects. The experiments were performed in rabbits. We used 13 electroshock devices with different characteristics. Electroshock devices were made in Russia. We found that the response of a biological object to inrush current included convulsions, respiratory and cardiac activity. We analyzed the biological effects of pulsed current electroshock device obtained in experimental conditions. It is concluded that the characteristic clinical and physiological response to the action of electric current is pulsepolyparametric and depending on a combination of characteristics and condition of the electric impulse influence object.
MES Development Framework: Concepts, Ideas, Implementation
Caponetti, Fabio; Papaleo, Massimiliano
to the definition of a novel MES Development Framework, MDF. MDF empowers Visual Studio .NET with an Addin for MES definition. A custom class generator (CCG) generates from scratch to a fully customized ISA-95 compliant database and related C#.NET project in a few seconds. Customized classes are created as a data...
Role of nitric oxide in electroshock and pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold in rats.
Nidhi, G; Balakrishnan, S; Pandhi, P
1999-11-01
There are contradictory reports on whether nitric oxide (NO) is a proconvulsant or anticonvulsant. Hence a study was designed to investigate the effect of NO donor l-Arginine and NO synthesis inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (NOARG) on electroshock- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold in rats. L-arginine was tested in three doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg), and NOARG was administered in doses of 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg. L-Arginine increased the intensity of current required to produce a threshold seizure, whereas NOARG had the opposite effect. In PTZ-induced seizures, L-arginine significantly decreased the dose of PTZ required to produce a threshold seizure, while NOARG increased it. Hence, it was concluded that NO synthase inhibition had the opposite effect in electroshock- and PTZ-induced seizures, meriting further studies on the mechanism of effect.
MES Development Framework: Concepts, Ideas, Implementation
Caponetti, Fabio; Papaleo, Massimiliano
through product design, coding and testing. Cutting down the time between early analysis and working releases makes the adoption of an iterative development procedure possible and effective, like Unified Process. The key idea relies on the definition of a system. It should be able to use as input a MES...... to the definition of a novel MES Development Framework, MDF. MDF empowers Visual Studio .NET with an Addin for MES definition. A custom class generator (CCG) generates from scratch to a fully customized ISA-95 compliant database and related C#.NET project in a few seconds. Customized classes are created as a data...... interface and as a model of physical entities. Through the C# partial class techniques, further customisations are possible. Even if the MES is regenerated several times, any custom change will remain. MES behavior is described by a work-flow in a graphical way as a work-flow foundation project. High...
Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.
2016-03-01
Recall operations of quantum associative memory (QuAM) have been conducted separately through evolutionary as well as non-evolutionary processes in terms of unitary and non- unitary operators respectively by separately choosing our recently derived maximally entangled states (Singh-Rajput MES) and Bell's MES as memory states for various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES. it has been demonstrated that in both the types of recall processes the first and the fourth states of Singh-Rajput MES are most suitable choices as memory states for the queries `11' and `00' respectively while none of the Bell's MES is a suitable choice as valid memory state in these recall processes. It has been demonstrated that all the four states of Singh-Rajput MES are suitable choice as valid memory states for the queries `1?', `?1', `?0' and `0?' while none of the Bell's MES is suitable choice as the valid memory state for these queries also.
Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, Balwant S.
2017-04-01
New set of maximally entangled states (Singh-Rajput MES), constituting orthonormal eigen bases, has been revisited and its superiority and suitability in pattern-association (Quantum Associative Memory, QuAM) have been demonstrated. Using these MES as memory states in the evolutionary process of pattern storage in a two-qubit system, it has been shown that the first two states of Singh-Rajput MES are useful for storing the pattern |11> and the last two of these MES are useful in storing the pattern |10> Recall operations of quantum associate memory (QuAM) have been conducted through evolutionary process in terms of unitary operators by separately choosing Singh-Rajput MES and Bell's MES as memory states and it has been shown that Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states for recalling the patterns in a two-qubit system are much more suitable than Bell's MES.
Monika Sharma
2014-08-01
Conclusions: From the present investigation, it may be concluded that the dose of DPH may be reduced in an antiepileptic individual who is on verapamil and amlodipine therapy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 608-610
Information model construction of MES oriented to mechanical blanking workshop
Wang, Jin-bo; Wang, Jin-ye; Yue, Yan-fang; Yao, Xue-min
2016-11-01
Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is one of the crucial technologies to implement informatization management in manufacturing enterprises, and the construction of its information model is the base of MES database development. Basis on the analysis of the manufacturing process information in mechanical blanking workshop and the information requirement of MES every function module, the IDEF1X method was adopted to construct the information model of MES oriented to mechanical blanking workshop, and a detailed description of the data structure feature included in MES every function module and their logical relationship was given from the point of view of information relationship, which laid the foundation for the design of MES database.
Brendle, Joerg
2016-01-01
We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.
André, V; Ferrandon, A; Marescaux, C; Nehlig, A
2000-11-01
Electroconvulsive therapy, which is used to treat refractory major depression in humans increases seizure threshold and decreases seizure duration. Moreover, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor induced by electroshocks (ECS) might protect hippocampal cells from death in patients suffering from depression. As temporal lobe epilepsy is linked to neuronal damage in the hippocampus, we tested the effect of repeated ECS on subsequent status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine and leading to cell death and temporal epilepsy in the rat. Eleven maximal ECS were applied via ear-clips to adult rats. The last one was applied 2 days before the induction of SE by lithium-pilocarpine. The rats were electroencephalographically recorded to study the SE characteristics. The rats treated with ECS before pilocarpine (ECS-pilo) developed partial limbic (score 2) and propagated seizures (score 5) with a longer latency than the rats that underwent SE alone (sham-pilo). Despite this delay in the initiation and propagation of the seizures, the same number of ECS- and sham-pilo rats developed SE with a similar characteristic pattern. The expression of c-Fos protein was down-regulated by repeated ECS in the amygdala and the cortex. In ECS-pilo rats, c-Fos expression was decreased in the piriform and entorhinal cortex and increased in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Neuronal damage was identical in the forebrain areas of both groups, while it was worsened by ECS treatment in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices compared to sham-pilo rats. Finally, while 11 out of the 12 sham-pilo rats developed spontaneous recurrent seizures after a silent period of 40+/-27 days, only two out of the 10 ECS-pilo rats became epileptic, but after a prolonged latency of 106 and 151 days. One ECS-pilo rat developed electrographic infraclinical seizures and seven did not exhibit any seizures. Thus, the extensive neuronal damage occurring in the
K B Athreya
2009-09-01
It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.
Energy efficient MES. 39 vedors in comparison; Energieeffiziente MES. 39 Anbieter im Vergleich
Theuer, Hanna; Leo, Anne-Kathrin [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsinformatik und Electronic Government
2012-07-01
Due to increased legal restrictions, higher energy costs as well as the growing energy consciousness of the population, in recent years the energy-efficient production has increased in importance. Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) have a high potential in the recognition of potential savings and in the creation of solutions due to their direct application in production. The Center for Enterprise Research (Potsdam, Federal Republic of Germany) has queried many MES vendors about their functionality as well as the possibilities of the systems in the field of energy efficiency. Answers to 39 systems are received.
Soni, Kapil; Parle, Milind
2017-01-17
The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electroshock induced amnesia was employed to describe the actions. Treatment of TASP significantly increased step down latency of PAA and significantly increased discrimination index of ORT in groups with or without amnesia when compared to respective control groups. Furthermore, TASP administration resulted in significant fall in brain AChE activity, brain MDA level and brain nitrite level with simultaneous rise in brain GSH level, thereby decreased oxidative damage. A significant decrease in serum cholesterol was also observed. Ajowan supplementation may prove a remedy for the management of cognitive disorders owing to have pro-cholinergic, antioxidant and hypo-lipidemic activities.
Electroshock in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance--fictional, not factual.
Healy, David; Charlton, Bruce G
2009-05-01
Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT/electroshock) features in a number of books and movies, but always unfavourably. ECT plays a major role in Robert Pirsig's philosophical novel Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance ('ZAMM'). This has sold more than five million copies; making Pirsig perhaps the most widely read philosopher alive. ZAMM is apparently autobiographical, and describes the author suffering a psychotic breakdown which was treated by ECT. ECT led to a 'cure' but supposedly by deleting all memories of the author's earlier self, producing a lost personality called Phaedrus. The presentation of ECT in ZAMM is chilling: 'Destroyed by order of the court, enforced by the transmission of high-voltage alternating current through the lobes of his brain. Approximately 800 mills of amperage at durations of 0.5-1.5s had been applied on twenty-eight consecutive occasions, in a process known technologically as 'Annihilation ECS'. A whole personality had been liquidated without a trace in a technologically faultless act ....'. Yet newly published biographical information on Pirsig from Mark Richardson (Zen and now: on the trail of Robert Pirsig and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. New York: Knopf; 2008) has documented that the role of ECT in ZAMM is a 'literary device', added at a late stage in drafting the book. In reality the ECT had erased some short-term memory, but Pirsig's long-term memory had quickly returned. Richardson obtained this information from Robert Pirsig's (then) wife, from his sister, and also from his friend John Sutherland (who appears as a character in ZAMM). It seems that one of the most famous depictions of ECT, one that had appeared factual, was actually fictional.
Repenser les problèmes sociaux
2012-01-01
La représentation sociologique des problèmes sociaux centrée sur l’existence d’une mosaïque de groupes de personnes non conformes, à risque, dangereux ou en danger laisse peu de place à l’analyse des transformations sociétales, transversales et liantes lorsqu’il s’agit de penser ce qui « pose problème » aujourd’hui. En outre, elle véhicule la perception que certaines défavorisations, différences et comportements sont l’apanage de certaines catégories ou de certains groupes de personnes et con...
Anticonvulsive effect of agmatine in mice
Xin-QiangLu; Rui-BinSu; Xiao-LiWei; YinLiu; JinLi
2004-01-01
AIM: The present study was designed to examine the effect of agmatine, the decarboxylated product of L-arginine by L- arginine decarboxylase, on convulsion in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES) test and mouse glutamate-induced convulsion test. METHODS: MES convulsion and glutamate convulsion were respectively induced by an electrical stimulation
Agile Scheduling for MES in a Complex Information Environment
LIShu-xia; RAOYun-qing; ZHANGChao-yong
2005-01-01
Since Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is a bridge which links the upper planning system of the enterprise and the control system of the shop floor, various kinds of the information with different characteristics flow through the system. The information environment of MES and its effect on MES scheduling are analyzed. A methodological proposal is given to address the problem of agile scheduling in a complex information environment, based on which a microeconomic market and game theoretic model-based scheduling approach is presented. The future development of this method is also discussed.
Xu, L; Paulsen, J; Yoo, Y; Goodwin, E B; Strome, S
2001-11-01
The maternal-effect sterile (MES) proteins are maternally supplied regulators of germline development in Caenorhabditis elegans. In the hermaphrodite progeny from mes mutant mothers, the germline dies during larval development. On the basis of the similarities of MES-2 and MES-6 to known transcriptional regulators and on the basis of the effects of mes mutations on transgene expression in the germline, the MES proteins are predicted to be transcriptional repressors. One of the MES proteins, MES-3, is a novel protein with no recognizable motifs. In this article we show that MES-3 is localized in the nuclei of embryos and germ cells, consistent with its predicted role in transcriptional regulation. Its distribution in the germline and in early embryos does not depend on the wild-type functions of the other MES proteins. However, its nuclear localization in midstage embryos and its persistence in the primordial germ cells depend on wild-type MES-2 and MES-6. These results are consistent with biochemical data showing that MES-2, MES-3, and MES-6 associate in a complex in embryos. The distribution of MES-3 in the adult germline is regulated by the translational repressor GLD-1: MES-3 is absent from the region of the germline where GLD-1 is known to be present, MES-3 is overexpressed in the germline of gld-1 mutants, and GLD-1 specifically binds the mes-3 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). Analysis of temperature-shifted mes-3(bn21ts) worms and embryos indicates that MES-3 function is required in the mother's germline and during embryogenesis to ensure subsequent normal germline development. We propose that MES-3 acts epigenetically to induce a germline state that is inherited through both meiosis and mitosis and that is essential for survival of the germline.
A methodology for Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) implementation
Govindaraju, Rajesri; Putra, Krisna
2016-02-01
Manufacturing execution system is information systems (IS) application that bridges the gap between IS at the top level, namely enterprise resource planning (ERP), and IS at the lower levels, namely the automation systems. MES provides a media for optimizing the manufacturing process as a whole in a real time basis. By the use of MES in combination with the implementation of ERP and other automation systems, a manufacturing company is expected to have high competitiveness. In implementing MES, functional integration -making all the components of the manufacturing system able to work well together, is the most difficult challenge. For this, there has been an industry standard that specifies the sub-systems of a manufacturing execution systems and defines the boundaries between ERP systems, MES, and other automation systems. The standard is known as ISA-95. Although the advantages from the use of MES have been stated in some studies, not much research being done on how to implement MES effectively. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology describing how MES implementation project should be managed, utilising the support of ISA- 95 reference model in the system development process. A proposed methodology was developed based on a general IS development methodology. The developed methodology were then revisited based on the understanding about the specific charateristics of MES implementation project found in an Indonesian steel manufacturing company implementation case. The case study highlighted the importance of applying an effective requirement elicitation method during innitial system assessment process, managing system interfaces and labor division in the design process, and performing a pilot deployment before putting the whole system into operation.
ESTRATEGIA INTEGRAL PARA PyMES INNOVADORAS
Jairo Sanchez Quintero
2003-07-01
Full Text Available La administración y la planeación prospectivas, La planeación estratégica y la logística englobanlas necesidades de direccionamiento estratégico de las empresas a nivel mundial. Estos tres elementos actúan como un trípode. Es decir, si falta uno de ellos no podrá haber estabilidad. La prospectiva aporta el análisis y construcción de escenarios futuros además del análisis de actores. La planeación estratégica (unida a la prospectiva permite el análisis de las variables internas y externas para formular los propósitos (misión, visión, objetivos y metas, las estrategias, los planes de acción y los indicadores de desempeño y logro, tanto para la empresa en su totalidad como para cada área de la misma en particular. Finalmente, la logística permite agregar valor e integrar los procesos transversales de la empresa, ya que se ocupa del mejoramiento de actividades desde la compra de materias primas o insumos hasta la distribución y el servicio al cliente en actividades de postventa. En este artículo, se presentan los hallazgos centrales de la investigación exploratoria sobre planeación prospectiva, estratégica y logística. Dicho estudio se concentra en una muestra de 29 empresas del sector de alimentos de Bogotá (19 empresas de lácteos y 10 de conservas y aplican una metodología de estudio de caso e Investigación y acción a cuatro empresas. El análisis de esta muestra empresarial y la revisión Bibliográfica realizada sentaron las bases para el diseño de la guía y la herramienta de mejora continua en estrategia, que forma parte de la caja de herramientas, fruto del trabajo del grupo PyMES, EAN durante el último año.
SNR-adaptive stream weighting for audio-MES ASR.
Lee, Ki-Seung
2008-08-01
Myoelectric signals (MESs) from the speaker's mouth region have been successfully shown to improve the noise robustness of automatic speech recognizers (ASRs), thus promising to extend their usability in implementing noise-robust ASR. In the recognition system presented herein, extracted audio and facial MES features were integrated by a decision fusion method, where the likelihood score of the audio-MES observation vector was given by a linear combination of class-conditional observation log-likelihoods of two classifiers, using appropriate weights. We developed a weighting process adaptive to SNRs. The main objective of the paper involves determining the optimal SNR classification boundaries and constructing a set of optimum stream weights for each SNR class. These two parameters were determined by a method based on a maximum mutual information criterion. Acoustic and facial MES data were collected from five subjects, using a 60-word vocabulary. Four types of acoustic noise including babble, car, aircraft, and white noise were acoustically added to clean speech signals with SNR ranging from -14 to 31 dB. The classification accuracy of the audio ASR was as low as 25.5%. Whereas, the classification accuracy of the MES ASR was 85.2%. The classification accuracy could be further improved by employing the proposed audio-MES weighting method, which was as high as 89.4% in the case of babble noise. A similar result was also found for the other types of noise.
Deadlock-free Production Scheduling with Dynamic Buffers in MES
Taiping Mo
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In order to enable enterprises to change the production management mode and improve efficiency, MES provides overall solutions to information integration of manufacturing enterprises. Production scheduling is an important functional module in MES, and research of shop scheduling in MES has important significance. The concept deadlock is first put forward by computer science researchers who are engaged in resource allocation in the operation system. Modern manufacturing enterprises need to process complex workpieces with different processing step, so it is easy to produce a deadlock in the production process. A deadlock will bring many serious consequences for the system. Equipping with enough buffers can solve the problem of deadlock. However, it is costly and there is even no way to allocate buffers in some manufacturing industries. Considering the buffer cost and scheduling index, this paper puts forward the dynamic buffers deadlock-free scheduling to reduce cost and lower risk of the enterprise to a minimum.
Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES
Ondřej WINKLER
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.
Optimisation des systèmes multi-antennes appliqués aux systèmes MC -CDMA
BENYAROU, MOURAD
2014-01-01
Aujourd’hui les systèmes MIMO sont devenus un des sujets les plus étudiés en recherche, car ils sont capables d’augmenter l’efficacité spectrale (capacité) sur une largeur de bande limitée. L’aptitude des systèmes multi-antennes à résister aux évanouissements et aux interférences constitue par ailleurs un avantage supplémentaire indéniable. Les avantages des systèmes MIMO vont cependant bien au-delà de ceux des antennes intelligentes. Le fait de placer des antennes des deux côt...
Profit maximization mitigates competition
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
1996-01-01
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
Componentes empresariales en las MIPyMES colombianas
Rafael Ignacio Pérez Uribe
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Varios estudios en Colombia evidencian las oportunidades de mejoramiento de este tipo de empresas. En este artículo solo mencionaremos los más representativos. En ellos se muestra de manera clara y suficiente a qué tienen que enfrentarse las MIPyMES para lograr una sostenibilidad que les permita ser empresas de clase mundial.
Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.
2017-05-04
A deep water electroshocking platform (DEP), developed to characterize larval lampreys (ammocoetes) and associated habitat in depths up to 15 m, was recently tested in the field. The DEP samples 0.55 m2∙min-1 without requiring ammocoete transport to the surface. Searches were conducted at a known rearing location (mouth of the Wind River, WA) and at locations on the Cowlitz River, WA, where ammocoetes had not previously been found. At the mouth of the Wind River, video imaged ammocoetes ranged from 50 to 150 mm in water depths between 1.5 m and 4.5 m and were more common in sediments containing organic silt. Ammocoetes (n=137) were detected at 61% of locations sampled (summer) and 50% of the locations sampled (winter). Following the field verification, the DEP was used on the lower 11.7 km of the Cowlitz River, WA. Ammocoetes (n=41) were found with a detection rate of 26% at specific search locations. Cowlitz River sediment containing ammocoetes was also dominated by silt with organic material, often downstream of alluvial bars in water depths from 0.8 to 1.7 m. Test results indicated a high sampling efficiency, favorable detection rates, and little or no impact to ammocoetes and their surrounding benthic environments.
Huidbescherming met barrière-crèmes : een literatuurstudie
Eick, A.J. van; Hooidonk, C. van
1986-01-01
De effectieve waarde van barrière-crèmes is nagegaan. Op basis van gegevens uit de literatuur en van producenten van deze crèmes werden de gebruikte testmethoden en resultaten geëvalueerd. De conclusie is dat de effectieve waarde van de crèmes niet is aangetoond en dat het gebruik ervan discutabel i
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Perturbations, organismes et écosystèmes
Ponge, Jean-François
2012-01-01
Ce texte reprend et développe par l'ajout de nombreux exemples les propos tenus lors d'une conférence donnée par l'auteur au Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, sur le site du Jardin des Plantes, le 12 février 2008. Il expose une théorie portant sur le rôle des perturbations dans l'assemblage et l'évolution des espèces au sein des écosystèmes, en prenant principalement, mais pas uniquement, comme base de réflexion les écosystèmes terrestres. Deux groupes d'organismes, possédant des stratégi...
Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...
Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO
2005-01-01
A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.
Andrew M. Parker
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.
Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.
PyMES INNOVADORAS. Cambio de Estrategias e Instrumentos
Juan Gonzalo Castellanos
2013-01-01
¿Cómo hacer que las PyMES aumenten el valor de sus productos y servicios? ¿Cómo incorporar valor-conocimiento a la totalidad de la organización? Se intenta en este escrito introducir algunos conceptos útiles para comprender mejor la compleja realidad de los pequeños y medianos negocios en el mercado de hoy. En este artículo se trabajan conceptos relativos a la innovación como actividad primordial e integradora en el quehacer de una empresa competitiva y se revisan los resultados de diversos e...
PyMES INNOVADORAS. Cambio de Estrategias e Instrumentos
Castellanos, Juan Gonzalo
2013-01-01
¿Cómo hacer que las PyMES aumenten el valor de sus productos y servicios? ¿Cómo incorporar valor-conocimiento a la totalidad de la organización? Se intenta en este escrito introducir algunos conceptos útiles para comprender mejor la compleja realidad de los pequeños y medianos negocios en el mercado de hoy. En este artículo se trabajan conceptos relativos a la innovación como actividad primordial e integradora en el quehacer de una empresa competitiva y se revisan los resultados de diversos e...
Roesch, Philipp; Warzok, Ulrike; Enke, Martin; Müller, Robert; Schattenberg, Caspar; Schalley, Christoph A; Kaupp, Martin; Braun, Thomas; Wittwer, Philipp
2017-07-29
A series of isotopologues of the siloxanediol Mes2 Si(OH)(μ-O)Si(OH)Mes2 (3 a) (Mes=2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding disiloxane precursors Mes2 Si(μ-O)2 SiMes2 (2 a), Mes2 Si(μ-(17) O)2 SiMes2 (2 b) or Mes2 Si(μ-(18) O)2 SiMes2 (2 c) with an excess of H2 O, H2(17) O or H2(18) O. NMR and IR signal assignments for the siloxanediols in benzene are supported by quantum-chemical calculations, which indicate small energy differences between trans and cis conformers, the latter of which exhibits an intramolecular hydrogen bond. (1) H NMR as well as IR data suggest the presence of a mixture of both conformers in C6 D6 . Hydrogen-bonded adducts of Mes2 Si(OH)(μ-O)Si(OH)Mes2 with ethers such as diethylether, dimethoxyethane or dioxane were observed in the solid state, where they form polymeric chain-like structures. The latter appear to be stable only in the crystal. (17) O{(1) H} NMR and IR data in THF solution suggest an interaction of 3 a with at least one THF molecule, whereas diethylether appears not to interact. Water adducts form neither in solution nor in the solid state as indicated by NMR and ATR IR data. (17) O{(1) H} NMR and ESI-MS experiments illustrate the remarkably high stability of the siloxanediols towards water and show no evidence for intra- or intermolecular oxygen-exchange reactions. In marked contrast, a stepwise exchange of all three oxygen atoms-including the one in the Si-O-Si bridge-occurred in the gas phase, when [Mes2 Si((18) OH)(μ-(18) O)Si((18) O)Mes2 ](-) was treated with H2 O in the hexapole of an ESI FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The scrambling between the bridging and the other oxygen atoms likely proceeds through cyclic Si2 O2 intermediates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Oyen, Wim Jg; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C
2012-01-27
In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer used during the labelling procedure: NaAc, NH4Ac, HEPES and MES buffer. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock and cadmium contamination, the decay product of 111In, was also examined in these buffers. Escalating amounts of 111InCl3 were added to 1 μg of the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [DTPA]- and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA]-conjugated compounds (exendin-3, octreotide and anti-carbonic anhydrase IX [CAIX] antibody). Five volumes of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid [MES], 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid [HEPES], NH4Ac or NaAc (0.1 M, pH 5.5) were added. After 20 min at 20°C (DTPA-conjugated compounds), at 95°C (DOTA-exendin-3 and DOTA-octreotide) or at 45°C (DOTA-anti-CAIX antibody), the labelling efficiency was determined by instant thin layer chromatography. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock on the labelling efficiency of DTPA-exendin-3 as well as the effect of increasing concentrations of Cd2+ (the decay product of 111In) were also examined. Specific activities obtained for DTPA-octreotide and DOTA-anti-CAIX antibody were five times higher in MES and HEPES buffer. Radiolabelling of DTPA-exendin-3, DOTA-exendin-3 and DTPA-anti-CAIX antibody in MES and HEPES buffer resulted in twofold higher specific activities than that in NaAc and NH4Ac. Labelling of DTPA-exendin-3 decreased with 66% and 73% for NaAc and NH4Ac, respectively, at day 11 after the production date of 111InCl3, while for MES and HEPES, the maximal decrease in the specific activity was 10% and 4% at day 11, respectively. The presence of 1 pM Cd2+ in the labelling mixture of DTPA-exendin-3 in NaAc and NH4Ac markedly reduced the labelling
The fruit essential oil of Pimpinella anisum exerts anticonvulsant effects in mice.
Pourgholami, M H; Majzoob, S; Javadi, M; Kamalinejad, M; Fanaee, G H; Sayyah, M
1999-08-01
This study investigates anticonvulsant effects of an essential oil of the fruits of Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae), a folkloric remedy in the Iranian traditional medicine, against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or maximal electroshock (MES) in male mice. The essential oil suppressed tonic convulsions induced by PTZ or MES. It also elevated the threshold of PTZ-induced clonic convulsions in mice. The essential oil produced motor impairment. However, this effect was not observed at the doses and time courses needed for anticonvulsant activity.
PyMES INNOVADORAS. Cambio de Estrategias e Instrumentos
Juan Gonzalo Castellanos
2003-07-01
Full Text Available ¿Cómo hacer que las PyMES aumenten el valor de sus productos y servicios? ¿Cómo incorporar valor-conocimiento a la totalidad de la organización? Se intenta en este escrito introducir algunos conceptos útiles para comprender mejor la compleja realidad de los pequeños y medianos negocios en el mercado de hoy. En este artículo se trabajan conceptos relativos a la innovación como actividad primordial e integradora en el quehacer de una empresa competitiva y se revisan los resultados de diversos estudios sobre innovación y PyMES en el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo, incluyendo los resultados del análisis de los casos elaborados dentro del ejercicio que promueve la Escuela de Administración de Negocios EAN en la línea de investigación sobre pequeñas y medianas empresas.
Film Presentation: Big Bang, mes ancêtres et moi
2010-01-01
Big Bang, mes ancêtres et moi, by Franco-German TV producer ARTE (2009) What do we know about the origins of the world today? This documentary presents a voyage into the mystery of these origins, accompanied by passionate scientists such as paleoanthropologist Pascal Picq, astrophysicist Hubert Reeves, physicist Etienne Klein and quantum gravity theorist Abhay Ashtekar. Organized around three key moments – the birth of the Universe, the appearance of life and the origins of mankind – this investigation takes us to various research areas around the world, including the large underground particle accelerator at CERN. The German version of this film, Big Bang im Labor, will be presented on 1st October. Big Bang, mes ancêtres et moi will be shown on Friday, 24 September from 13:00 to 14:00 in room 222-R-001 Language: French Big Bang im Labor will be shown on Friday, 1 October from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium Language : German &nbs...
The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES
Oliver, S J; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Beelen, A; Béthermin, M; Blain, A; Boselli, A; Bridge, C; Brisbin, D; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Cirasuolo, M; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Feltre, A; Ferrero, P; Fiolet, N; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Giovannoli, E; Glenn, J; Gong, Y; Solares, E A González; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Harwit, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Hurley, P; Hwang, H S; Hyde, A; Ibar, E; Ilbert, O; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Floc'h, E Le; Levenson, L; Faro, B Lo; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Magdis, G; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Marshall, J; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Patel, H; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sánchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wardlow, J; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M
2012-01-01
The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling ~380 deg^2. Fields range in size from 0.01 to ~20 deg^2, using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 \\mu m), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 \\mu m), with an additional wider component of 270 deg^2 with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5\\sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identi...
Rudiger Bubner
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.
SYSTÈMES COMPTABLES DANS LE CONTEXTE DE LA MONDIALISATION
Loredana Oana Hutanu (Toma
2013-09-01
Full Text Available La comptabilité joue un rôle important dans les politiques économiques nationales et internationales et analysées dans le contexte de la mondialisation économique, l’harmonisation des normes comptables, a donné lieu au fil du temps, à une source continue de controverse. L'évolution de la comptabilité dans le contexte actuel est caractérisée par un phénomène d'harmonisation et de normalisation internationale. Cet article veut faire connaitre au public les deux principaux systèmes comptables existants et leur besoin d'harmonisation.
Realization of Lean Manufacture with MES%MES系统实现精益生产
陆国强
2012-01-01
The workshop manufacturing execution system(MES) is an effective way to achieve lean manufacture. It can be say that MES system is the best software carrier to achieve lean manufacture. In the process of MES item actualizing and building" our factory take a number of measures to strive the MES system for a bright spot and specialty item of the factory carrying out lean manufacture and meticulous management, and have achieved satisfactory results.%车间制造执行系统(MES),是实现精益生产的有效途径,即MES系统是实现精益生产的最佳软件载体.在MES系统实施和建设的过程中,采取了多项措施,开展精益生产和精细化管理,取得了满意的效果.
Janusz Brzozowski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Zak, Michail
2008-01-01
A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).
Yu, Nengkun; Ying, Mingsheng
2011-01-01
In order to better understand the class of quantum operations that preserve the positivity of partial transpose (PPT operations) and its relation to the widely used class of local operations and classical communication (LOCC), we study the problem of distinguishing orthogonal maximally entangled states (MES) by PPT operations. Firstly, we outline a rather simple proof to show that the number of $d\\otimes d$ PPT distinguishable MES is at most $d$, which slightly generalizes existing results on this problem. Secondly, we construct 4 MES in $4\\otimes 4$ state space that cannot be distinguished by PPT operations. Before our work, it was unknown whether there exists $d$ MES in $d\\otimes d$ state space that are locally indistinguishable. This example leads us to a novel phenomenon of "Entanglement Catalysis Discrimination". Moreover, we find there exists a set of locally indistinguishable states $K$ such that $K^{\\otimes m}$ is locally distinguishable for some finite $m$. As an interesting application, we exhibit a...
un mes de invierno y otro de verano
Martín Farías Salvador
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Se muestran los resultados de la utilización de imágenes satelitales GOES, cada 90 minutos, para estudiar el comportamiento espacio-temporal de la nube estratocúmulo, productora de niebla advectiva, en un sector costero del desierto de Atacama. Este potencial recurso hidrológico, muy influyente en los ecosistemas de desierto, se investiga además con la intención de abastecer de agua potable a pequeños poblados rurales, para agricultura, bebederos en predios ganaderos y reforestación. A través de la comparación del comportamiento de este tipo de nube, entre un mes de invierno y otro de verano, se determinan sus ciclos diario y mensual, la frecuencia de su presencia, los corredores por donde penetra desde el océano hacia el interior, potenciales lugares para captación de agua y una gran diferencia existente entre los meses seleccionados.
Social group utility maximization
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
A Proposal for Production Data Collection on a Hybrid Production Line in Cooperation with MES
Znamenák Jaroslav
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Due to the increasing competitive environment in the manufacturing sector, many industries have the need for a computer integrated engineering management system. The Manufacturing Execution System (MES is a computer system designed for product manufacturing with high quality, low cost and minimum lead time. MES is a type of middleware providing the required information for the optimization of production from launching of a product order to its completion. There are many studies dealing with the advantages of the use of MES, but little research was conducted on how to implement MES effectively. A solution to this issue are KPIs. KPIs are important to many strategic philosophies or practices for improving the production process. This paper describes a proposal for analyzing manufacturing system parameters with the use of KPIs.
The Use of BPMN for Modelling The MES Level in Information and Control Systems
Peter Michalik
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper describes how to use the process map to model the MES level of information and control systems. In the practical application, the BPMN standard was used for the design of the function of the management maintenance, which, according MES organization, is one of the 11 basic MES functions. The application was implemented on the flexible production line, located in the laboratory at the Department of Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence. In this article, there is only one BPMN model of a MES function from the set of modelled functions in our laboratory. These functions were also modelled by the UML Activity Diagram. Although the UML model is not included in this article, there is a comparison of these approaches based on selected criteria and our experiences with modelling in the laboratory at the university.
Movimiento de lectura en las salas Colombia y General durante el mes de diciembre de 1968
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República
1968-12-01
Full Text Available El documento presenta un cuadro comparativo de las actividades culturales del pais, así como las exposiciones de artes plásticas y otras inauguradas en el pais en el mes de diciembre de 1968.
Model of Integration of Material Flow Control System with MES/ERP System via Cloud Computing
Peter Peniak
2014-01-01
This article deals with a model of application gateway for integration of Material Flow Control System with ERP/MES systems, which are provided by Cloud Computing and Software as Service delivery model...
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Linda Lai
2010-01-01
This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...
Etude des systèmes protoplanétaires
Augereau, Jean-Charles
2000-11-01
Les disques de poussières et de gaz autour des étoiles rejoignant la Séquence Principale sont les sites de formation des planètes extra-solaires dont l'existence s'est vu confirmée récemment. Cette thèse aborde l'étude de la poussière des environnements circumstellaires. Elle associe des observations spatiales à haute résolution angulaire, la modélisation des propriétés physico-chimiques des poussières et leur comportement optique, la modélisation des disques optiquement fins et la dynamique des planétésimaux à l'origine des grains observés autour des étoiles âgées. Les images obtenues avec le Télescope Spatial Hubble révèlent deux nouveaux disques circumstellaires autour des étoiles HD 141569 et HD 100546, parfois classées dans la catégorie des étoiles de Herbig. Bien que les systèmes présentent des âges proches (~10 millions d'années), les morphologies très différentes des disques mettent en évidence la difficulté pour élaborer un scénario unique d'évolution des systèmes protoplanétaires. L'anneau fin de poussières autour de HR 4796A, une étoile d'âge similaire aux précédentes, est marginalement résolu depuis le sol. La modélisation complète de ce disque permet de reproduire l'ensemble des observations disponibles. Ces résultats impliquent la présence de planétésimaux, à un âge aussi peu avancé, pour repeupler le disque en poussières poreuses et essentiellement amorphes qui sont soufflées par la pression de radiation. Une modélisation dynamique du prototypique disque autour de β Pictoris est proposée. Associée à une description réaliste du comportement optique des grains, cette approche reproduit les caractéristiques générales du disque ainsi que des asymétries plus fines en supposant la présence d'une planète dans un disque de planétésimaux et en tenant compte des effets différentiels de la pression de radiation sur les grains. Enfin, le modèle de disques que j'ai développé est exploit
Perfiles decisorios en las PyMEs y su impacto en la organización
Baltar, Fabiola; Foutel, Mariana; Gentile, Natacha; Musticchio, Carlos A.
2013-01-01
Este artículo propone identificar y caracterizar los distintos perfiles decisorios en las PyMEs, analizando la influencia de las variables demográficas, actitudinales y de mando, de las características de las decisiones, de las estructuras de soporte e información en la determinación de diversos perfiles de decisión en 147 PyMEs marplatenses.
Pasaribu, Dheafani Arnila
2015-01-01
The formulation of the case in this research is how far the effect of retail marketing mix strategy which consist of product, price, place, promotion, personality, and presentation on customer satisfaction of minimarket MES Mart syariah and how far the effect of customer satisfaction on MES Mart customer loyalty. The goal of this research is to know and analize the effect of retail marketing mix strategy which consist of product, price, place, promotion, personality, and presentation on custo...
PRIA ja MES teevad koostööd maaelu edendamiseks / Heli Raamets
Raamets, Heli, 1975-
2004-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Nädaline : Maakonna Talu Leht, 16. okt. 2004, lk. 1. Põllumajanduse Registrite ja Informatsiooni Amet (PRIA) ning Maaelu Edendamise Sihtasutus (MES) sõlmisid kokkuleppe, mille alusel külaelu arendajatel, kellele PRIA määras või määrab investeeringutoetuse, on võimalik saada omaosaluse rahastamiseks MES-ist laenu või tagatist pangalaenu jaoks
PRIA ja MES teevad koostööd maaelu edendamiseks / Heli Raamets
Raamets, Heli, 1975-
2004-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Nädaline : Maakonna Talu Leht, 16. okt. 2004, lk. 1. Põllumajanduse Registrite ja Informatsiooni Amet (PRIA) ning Maaelu Edendamise Sihtasutus (MES) sõlmisid kokkuleppe, mille alusel külaelu arendajatel, kellele PRIA määras või määrab investeeringutoetuse, on võimalik saada omaosaluse rahastamiseks MES-ist laenu või tagatist pangalaenu jaoks
HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization
Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Martan, A; Masata, J; Halaska, M; Voigt, R
1998-06-01
The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of the maximal voluntary muscle contraction of the pelvic floor (PFM) and contractions of the PFM evoked by maximal electric stimulation using an electrostimulation apparatus Conmax by monitoring the position of the urethrovesical junction by ultrasound. The trial comprised 20 women with confirmed stress incontinence of urine. With the patients in a supine position with abducted lower extremities an electrostimulation probe was inserted into the vagina. This was followed by perineal ultrasound (US) examination using an ACUSON 128 XP-10 apparatus and a convex tube 5 MHz. The ultrasound examination was made using the electrostimulation probe--at rest and during maximal voluntary contraction of the PFM. This was followed by maximal electric stimulation and after five minutes during stimulation the US examination was repeated. It was performed also during maximal electric stimulation (MES) concurrently with maximal voluntary contraction of the PFM. For electrostimulation a Conmax appartus was used. The applied frequency was 50 Hz, amplitude from 0 to 90 mA (grade 0-6), duration of pulse 0.75 ms. The maximum intensity of stimulation was determined by the patient, i.e. when stimulation was not yet painful. During US the authors investigated the gamma angle, i.e. the angle between the axis of the symphysis and the connecting line between the UV junction and the lower borderline of the symphysis. The mean difference of the gamma angle during voluntary contraction of the PFM and at rest was 13.6. During contraction caused by maximal electric stimulation of the PFM and at rest this difference was 21.3. The difference did not differ significantly during maximal electric stimulation of the PFM and during maximal electric stimulation and voluntary contraction of the PFM. From the trial ensues that contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during maximal electric stimulation is stronger as compared with the
MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK
Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims
Swanepoel, Konrad J
2011-01-01
A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
Maximal subgroups of finite groups
S. Srinivasan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.
Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
2000-01-01
of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...
Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2013-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Maximizing entropy over Markov processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2014-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Aquatic risk assessment of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES).
Miura, Kazuaki
2007-01-01
The aquatic risk of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) used in household detergents was assessed. The environmental exposure assessment expressed as predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was determined on the basis of monitoring results from the seven sites of four rivers in the urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. The 95 percentile as well as geometric mean of the MES concentration was found to exhibit a good correlation with the geometric mean of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; the latter's regression was greater than 0.99). The predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic environment was estimated by performing chronic assays of algae and daphnia. The risk characterization ratio (RCR: PEC/PNEC) was less than 1. Therefore, it is concluded that MES will not adversely affect the aquatic environment in Japan.
The construction of holon -based MES%基于全能体的MES构建
周华; 杨建军; 邓家盚
2001-01-01
MES(Manufacturing Execution Systems) bridges the plan level and the control level of enterprise. To organize efficient production in a more complicated and more distributed factory environment, MES must hold the attributes of agility and extensibility. This paper discusses how to build such MES based on holons and, with our MES research subject from the State 863/CIMS, we further illustrator the characteristics of our holon－ based MES and how it can, together with the legacy ERP, maintain system's agility and extensibility in an dynamic manufacturing environment.%MES(ManufacturingExecutionSystems－中文译作制造执行系统或生产实施系统)是连接制造企业上层计划系统和执行控制系统的桥梁。为了在当前日益复杂和分布化的工厂环境中组织生产，MES必须具有良好的敏捷性和伸缩性。本文探讨了如何基于holon（全能体）构造具有上述特点的MES，并结合本课题组的863/CIMS研究项目，阐述了在车间多变环境下，基于全能体的MES特点以及它如何和ERP系统结合保证制造系统的伸缩性和敏捷性的。
Production of organics from CO_{2} by microbial electrosynthesis (MES) at high temperature
Faraghi Parapari, Neda; Zengler, Karsten
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Microbial electrosynthesis (MES), a process by which microorganisms reduce carbon dioxide to multi-carbon compounds using electrical current as energy source, has so far been demonstrated at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 37°C. Elevated operating temperatures, however, could improve....... thermoautotrophica with columbic efficiencies (CE) of 79±15% and 72±4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Considering CE and acetate production rate during MES, M. thermoautotrophica outperformed M. thermoacetica over a wide range of operating temperatures. Current-dependent reduction of CO2 also occurred below the minimum...
El mito de la creación de valor en las PyMEs
2010-01-01
Actualmente las grandes empresas por un lado, como las pequeñas y medianas (PyMES) por el otro, no pueden dejar de anticiparse al futuro, caso contrario desaprovecharán oportunidades. La Creación de Valor hoy en día es fundamental en todo tipo de organización por lo que la misma significa, y es imprescindible que las PyMES entiendan su importancia y el modo en que se puede generar. Lo que se busca en el presente trabajo, que forma parte de un Programa de Becas para Investigación de la Univers...
Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon
2010-01-01
Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Lai, Linda
2010-01-01
... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...
Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?
Linda Lai
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,
Dalia L. Diab
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Laura J. Gaydos
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The Caenorhabditis elegans MES proteins are key chromatin regulators of the germline. MES-2, MES-3, and MES-6 form the C. elegans Polycomb repressive complex 2 and generate repressive H3K27me3. MES-4 generates H3K36me3 on germline-expressed genes. Transcript profiling of dissected mutant germlines revealed that MES-2/3/6 and MES-4 cooperate to promote the expression of germline genes and repress the X chromosomes and somatic genes. Results from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 occupy mutually exclusive domains on the autosomes and that H3K27me3 is enriched on the X. Loss of MES-4 from germline genes causes H3K27me3 to spread to germline genes, resulting in reduced H3K27me3 elsewhere on the autosomes and especially on the X. Our findings support a model in which H3K36me3 repels H3K27me3 from germline genes and concentrates it on other regions of the genome. This antagonism ensures proper patterns of gene expression for germ cells, which includes repression of somatic genes and the X chromosomes.
MODELO DE GESTIÓN DE OPERACIONES PARA PyMES INNOVADORAS
Andrés Velásquez Contreras
2003-01-01
Este artículo describe los fundamentos teóricos para el mejoramiento de la gestión de producción y logística de las PyMES. Esta es una época de constantes cambios donde los mercados, los productos y los competidores se transforman tan...
Liliana Yanet Gómez Aristizábal; Carlos Eduardo Díaz Ruíz; Ruben Dario Manrique Hernández
2013-01-01
Objetivo Determinar los factores asociados con la lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el sexto mes en madres adolescentes de los niveles I y II del SISBEN de la ciudad de Medellín. Métodos Se realizó...
Tire MES Application Achievement Release Confer- ence Held by MESNAC and Jinyu Jointly
LiLingxin
2011-01-01
On October 29, MESNAC Co., Ltd. and Jinyu Tire Co., Ltd. jointly held the informatized whole-line application release conference of "precise production of tire enterprises and MES intelligent driving platform". Both parties held the strategic cooperation signing ceremony simultaneously, and 30 tire enterprises including Hangzhou Zhongce, Double Coin, Aeolus, etc. presented the confer- ence.
Maximizing ROI with yield management
Neil Snyder
2001-01-01
.... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...
Reductive silylation of Cp*UO2((Mes)PDI(Me)) promoted by Lewis bases.
Kiernicki, J J; Harwood, J S; Fanwick, P E; Bart, S C
2016-02-21
Functionalization of the uranyl moiety (UO2(2+)) in Cp*UO2((Mes)PDI(Me)) (1-PDI) ((Mes)PDI(Me) = 2,6-((Mes)N=CMe)2C5H3N; Mes = 2,4,6-triphenylmethyl), which bears a reduced, monoanionic pyridine(diimine) ligand, is reported. Silylating reagents, R3Si-X (R = Me, X = Cl, I, OTf, SPh; R = Ph, X = Cl), effectively add across the strong O=U=O bonds in the presence of the Lewis base, OPPh3, generating products of the form (R3SiO)2UX2(OPPh3)2 (R = Me, X = I (2-OPPh3), Cl (3-OPPh3), SPh (5-OPPh3), OTf (6-OPPh3); R = Ph, X = Cl (4-OPPh3)). During this transformation, reduction to uranium(iv) occurs with loss of (Cp*)2 and (Mes)PDI(Me), each of which acts as a one-electron source. In the reaction, the Lewis base serves to activate the silyl halide, generating a more electrophilic silyl group, as determined by (29)Si NMR spectroscopy, that undergoes facile transfer to the oxo groups. Complete U-O bond scission was accomplished by treating the uranium(iv) disiloxide compounds with additional silylating reagent, forming the family (Ph3PO)2UX4. All compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, infrared, and electronic absorption spectroscopies. X-ray crystallographic characterization was used to elucidate the structures of 2-OPPh3, 4-OPPh3, 5-OPPh3, and 6-OPPh3.
Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?
John List; Charles Mason
2009-01-01
Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
A. Garmroodi Asil
2017-09-01
To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.
Tomoko eKagenishi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species. MES, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8. However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone. Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in root apex.
Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity
Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy
2006-01-01
The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.
Asboth, V; Sayers, J; Bethermin, M; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Glenn, J; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maloney, P R; Marques-Chaves, R; Martinez-Navajas, P I; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, Douglas; Siegel, S R; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Wheeler, J
2016-01-01
Selecting sources with rising flux densities towards longer wavelengths from Herschel/SPIRE maps is an efficient way to produce a catalogue rich in high-redshift (z > 4) dusty star-forming galaxies. The effectiveness of this approach has already been confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up observations, but the previously available catalogues made this way are limited by small survey areas. Here we apply a map-based search method to 274 deg$^2$ of the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and create a catalogue of 477 objects with SPIRE flux densities $S_{500} > S_{350} >S_{250}$ and a 5 \\sigma cut-off $S_{500}$ > 52 mJy. From this catalogue we determine that the total number of these "red" sources is at least an order of magnitude higher than predicted by galaxy evolution models. These results are in agreement with previous findings in smaller HerMES fields; however, due to our significantly larger sample size we are also able to investigate the shape of the red source counts for the first time. We examine the 500 $...
BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL SINGULAR INTEGRALS
CHEN JIECHENG; ZHU XIANGRONG
2005-01-01
The authors study the singular integrals under the Hormander condition and the measure not satisfying the doubling condition. At first, if the corresponding singular integral is bounded from L2 to itseff, it is proved that the maximal singu lar integral is bounded from L∞ to RBMO except that it is infinite μ-a.e. on Rd. A sufficient condition and a necessary condition such that the maximal singular integral is bounded from L2 to itself are also obtained. There is a small gap between the two conditions.
[Pt(mesBIAN)(tda)]: a near-infrared emitter and singlet oxygen sensitizer.
Rachford, Aaron A; Hua, Fei; Adams, Christopher J; Castellano, Felix N
2009-05-28
The synthesis and subsequent photophysical investigation of [Pt(mesBIAN)(tda)], where mesBIAN is bis(mesitylimino)acenaphthene and tda is tolan-2,2'-diacetylide, reveal excited-state characteristics best described as triplet charge transfer ((3)CT) in nature upon visible light excitation. Large ground-state dipole moments are apparent as the absorption spectrum dramatically red-shifts with decreasing solvent polarity. The (3)CT excited state is significantly lower in energy than the ligand-centered (3)tda excited-state, as confirmed by steady-state and time-resolved techniques. Singlet oxygen sensitization studies demonstrate that (1)O(2) production occurs by diffusive quenching from the photo-excited (3)CT state (Phi(Delta) = 0.24, lambda(max) approximately 1270 nm) in oxygen-saturated dichloromethane.
Espace de Services : Vers une formalisation des Systèmes d'Information Pervasifs
Kirsch Pinheiro, Manuele; Le Grand, Bénédicte; Souveyet, Carine; Najar, Salma
2013-01-01
National audience; Cet article introduit la notion d'Espace de Services, constituant un cadre formel pour la spécification des fonctionnalités proposées par un Système d'Information Pervasif (SIP) à ses utilisateurs. Les SIP représentent la nouvelle génération de Systèmes d'Information. Ils se distinguent des SI traditionnels par l'hétérogénéité des environnements pervasifs et des systèmes pervasifs eux-mêmes, du fait de leur intégration à l'entreprise et de leur besoin d'alignement vis-à-vis...
La communication organisante dans les systèmes à risques
Bouzon,Arlette
2015-01-01
Jusqu’à maintenant, la fiabilité des systèmes complexes a essentiellement résulté d’une approche dite « positiviste » qui consiste à prévoir et à maîtriser les risques par des ingénieurs et ergonomes durant leur conception. Or, à la suite d’incidents particulièrement graves, dans le domaine nucléaire notamment (Three Miles Island aux États-Unis en 1979 et Tchernobyl en URSS en 1986), des limites à cette approche sont apparues. Du fait de la complexification toujours croissante des systèmes ét...
Problem un ou deux phonèmes? w języku polskim
Marcin Wągiel
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The un ou deux phonèmes? problem in Polish The paper deals with the so-called un ou deux phonèmes? problem in Modern Polish. The framework adopted by the author is the theory and methodology of Axiomatic Functionalism, i.e., a functional semiotic approach developed by Jan W. F. Mulder in association with Sándor G. J. Hervey which is mainly based on linguistic ideas of André Martinet. The analysis focuses on the phonological interpretation of sequences of palatalized labials and [j], nasal diphthongs, and affricates in Polish. The author argues that nasal diphthongs and palatal and retroflex affricates should be interpreted monophonematically, whereas it is both adequate and economical to interpret sequences of palatalized labials and [j] and alveolar affricates as realizations of sequences of two separate phonemes. Problem un ou deux phonèmes? w języku polskim Niniejszy artykuł poświęcony jest tzw. problemowi un ou deux phonèmes? we współczesnej polszczyźnie. Aparatem pojęciowym wykorzystanym przez autora jest teoria i metodologia funkcjonalizmu aksjomatycznego, tj. funkcjonalnego opisu semiotycznego opracowanego przez Jana W. F. Muldera we współpracy z Sándorem G. J. Herveyem, który bazuje na koncepcjach lingwistycznych André Martineta. Analiza skupia się na interpretacji fonologicznej sekwencji spalatalizowanych spółgłosek labialnych oraz [j], dyftongów nazalnych, a także afrykat w języku polskim. Autor argumentuje, że dyftongi nazalne oraz afrykaty palatalne i retrofleksyjne powinny być interpretowane monofonemicznie, natomiast interpretacja sekwencji spalatalizowanych spółgłosek labialnych i [j] oraz afrykat alweolarnych jako realizacji sekwencji dwóch niezależnych fonemów jest zarówno adekwatna, jak i ekonomiczna.
Model of Integration of Material Flow Control System with MES/ERP System via Cloud Computing
Peter Peniak
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This article deals with a model of application gateway for integration of Material Flow Control System with ERP/MES systems, which are provided by Cloud Computing and Software as Service delivery model. The developed gateway interface is supposed to cover fundamental requirements of production systems for customization and real-time control of material flow within manufacturing processes. Designed solution has been tested and evaluated for High Bay Storage system in a real production environment
Théorie des probabilités problèmes et solutions
Reischer, Corina; Rémillard, Bruno
2002-01-01
Une approche qui propose aux lecteurs des modèles de démarche à suivre pour résoudre les problèmes et qui fournit des arguments de preuve ou de démonstration. Une importante banque d'exercices variés permettra aux étudiants de se familiariser avec les notions de probabilités qui soutiennent la formation des statisticiens, des actuaires et des ingénieurs.
El efecto fin de mes en los principales mercados accionarios latinoamericanos
Werner Kristjanpoller Rodríguez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available En los mercados accionarios es frecuente encontrar anomalías de calendario, las cuales han sido objeto de diversos estudios en estas últimas décadas, incluso demostrándose que algunas de ellas a través del tiempo han ido desapareciendo. En este contexto, este artículo analiza una de estas anomalías, el efecto fin de mes, tanto en rendimiento como en volatilidad en los mercados accionarios de seis países latinoamericanos; a saber, Brasil, México, Chile, Colombia, Perú y Argentina en el periodo 1993-2011. La importancia de este estudio radica en poder probar si el efecto de fin de mes ha ido desapareciendo o aún persiste, ya que algunos efectos calendario en mercados accionarios desarrollados se han ido disipando. Los hallazgos de esta investigación, que se realizó de acuerdo con los tres periodos diferentes definidos en la literatura para analizar el impacto fin de mes, muestran que la mayoría de los países bajo análisis obtienen rendimientos anormales positivos en los días asociados al cambio de mes y también muestran anomalías en la volatilidad. Esta investigación no solamente analiza los índices característicos de cada mercado, sino que también las acciones en particular de cada uno, dotándolo de una muestra mucho mayor y exigente al momento de concluir sobre la existencia del fenómeno. También se incluye un análisis de volumen de transacción para verificar ciertas hipótesis del fenómeno asociadas a mayor flujo de efectivo.
Understanding maximal repetitions in strings
Crochemore, Maxime
2008-01-01
The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.
Actividades predominantes a nivel nacional, regional y local de las PyMEs industriales argentinas
Roark, Geraldina Yesica
2013-06-01
Full Text Available La creciente importancia e interés que han ido adquiriendo las Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (PyMEs en la actividad económica del país, ha originado la realización de diversos estudios, tanto de instituciones públicas como privadas, que a través de encuestas y registros han caracterizado diferentes temáticas para este tipo de empresas.En este contexto, el Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial de la Facultad de Ingeniería, perteneciente a la Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA, ubicado en la ciudad de Olavarría, se encuentra actualmente desarrollando un proyecto de investigación denominado "Cadena de valor e impacto de las actividades clave en la conducta competitiva de las PyMEs" con el objeto de evaluar sus cadenas de valor y generar propuestas de mejora que impacten positivamente en su competitividad y sustentabilidad en el sector al que pertenecen. Consecuentemente, la relevancia del presente estudio se focaliza en determinar las actividades predominantes de las PyMEs argentinas, a nivel nacional, regional y local, de forma tal de fundamentar la elección de la población objeto de estudio del citado proyecto.
Note on maximal distance separable codes
YANG Jian-sheng; WANG De-xiu; JIN Qing-fang
2009-01-01
In this paper, the maximal length of maximal distance separable(MDS)codes is studied, and a new upper bound formula of the maximal length of MDS codes is obtained. Especially, the exact values of the maximal length of MDS codes in some parameters are given.
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
2014-07-22
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Asymptotics of robust utility maximization
Knispel, Thomas
2012-01-01
For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...
Maximal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana Sanwong; R.P. Sullivan
2007-01-01
In 1976 Howie proved that a finite congruence-free semigroup is a simple group if it has at least three elements but no zero elementInfinite congruence-free semigroups are far more complicated to describe, but some have been constructed using semigroups of transformations (for example, by Howie in 1981 and by Marques in 1983)Here, forcertain semigroups S of numbers and of transformations, we determine all congruences p on S such that S/p is congruence-free, that is, we describe all maximal congruences on such semigroups S.
Empresarios PyMEs a través de sus narraciones: estilos propios y especificidades
Gentile, Natacha; Baltar, Fabiola
2013-01-01
El propósito de este trabajo es identificar y caracterizar perfiles de empresarios PyMEs utilizando el enfoque de las narraciones y obteniendo información a través de entrevistas en profundidad. Lo que se busca con esto es comprender las especificidades del proceso de toma de decisiones de este tipo de empresarios, de manera de entender qué factores influyen en su estilo de decisión y cómo inciden estos modelos decisorios en el desempeño de la organización y en el desarrollo de ventajas compe...
Il Sedur de Oraciones de mes di Yom Tob Atias (Ferrara 1552
Leoni, Aron di Leone
2003-06-01
Full Text Available In 1552, in Ferrara, Yom Tob Atias published two vulgarisations of the Hebrew prayer-book. The first volume is the well-known Libro de Oracyones de todo el año, copies of which can be consulted in different libraries. The only known copy of the second prayer-book, the Sedur de Oraciones de mes, was held in an Amsterdam library (Silva Rosa gave a brief description of it. This volume was apparently lost during the Second World War, may be en route from Amsterdam to Jerusalem, and has been recently and happily recovered. The present paper offers a thorough examination of the Sedur de Oraciones de mes and its comparison with the Libro de Oracyones. Lastly, by comparing Yom Tob Atias' translation of a famous Talmudic passage with the analogous vulgarisation by Isac Cavallero, one realizes that the former is far simpler and closer to the original Hebrew text, whereas the latter is perhaps more elegant and articulated, due to the use of modern Spanish expressions.En 1552, en Ferrara, Yom Tob Atias publicó dos vulgarizaciones del libro de oraciones hebreo. El primero es el conocido Libro de Oracyones de todo el año, del cual pueden consultarse varias copias en diversas bibliotecas. La única copia conocida del segundo libro de oraciones, el Sedur de Oraciones de mes, se conservaba en una biblioteca de Amsterdam (Silva Rosa me proporcionó una breve descripción del mismo. Parece que este volumen se perdió durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, quizás de camino desde Amsterdam a Jerusalén, y hace poco tiempo ha sido felizmente recuperado. Este artículo presenta un examen completo del Sedur de Oraciones de mes, así como una comparación con el Libro de Oracyones. Por último, gracias a la comparación de la traducción de Yom Tob Atias de un famoso pasaje talmúdico con la vulgarización de Isac Cavallero, se advierte que la primera es mucho más simple y está más cercana al texto hebreo original, mientras que la segunda es quizás más elegante y
Gómez Aristizábal, Liliana Yanet; Díaz Ruíz, Carlos Eduardo; Manrique Hernández, Ruben Dario
2013-01-01
Objetivo Determinar los factores asociados con la lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el sexto mes en madres adolescentes de los niveles I y II del SISBEN de la ciudad de Medellín.Métodos Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con 323 madres adolescentes, 197 casos y 126 controles de la “Estrategia Buen Comienzo Había una Vez-BCHV” de Metrosalud y la Alcaldía de Medellín. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva para el análisis univariado. Se hizo un análisis de correspondencias. La comparación d...
Metodología Lean en las PyMEs agroalimentarias ecuatorianas
Bravo Bravo, Verónica Patricia
2011-01-01
El presente trabajo tiene por objeto analizar y ver la aplicación de la metodología LEAN en las PyMEs agroalimentarias del Ecuador. Ecuador un país en vía de desarrollo, productor y exportador de materia prima se ve en la necesidad de cumplir con las exigencias del mercado y adoptar herramientas, metodología y sistemas de gestión de calidad para cumplir con las expectativas y necesidades de sus clientes y asimismo ser competitivos en este mundo globalizado. En el presente trabajo,...
Mecanismos para la internacionalización de las PyMES
Zapata, Cristina I.
2008-01-01
Las empresas PyMEs son conscientes de la importancia que el proceso exportador tiene para el crecimiento y muchas veces hasta para su supervivencia. El comercio internacional representa un papel cada vez más relevante en el aporte a la actividad extractiva, industrial y de servicios de un país como Argentina. Las motivaciones y el desarrollo de estrategias de Marketing Internacional son la base para el logro del proceso exportación de las empresas PyME de Argentina. Facultad de Ciencias Ec...
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.
Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery
Jiang, Minghui
2009-01-01
In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...
Maximal right smooth extension chains
Huang, Yun Bao
2010-01-01
If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...
Knowledge-based MES for traditional Chinese medicine enterprises%基于知识的中药制药企业MES
黄海松; 谢庆生; 李少波; 袁庆霓
2012-01-01
针对中药制造企业生产运行、管理很大程度上依赖于经验,信息传递不及时、不全面,管理与生产脱节,生产指挥滞后等问题,首先分析了中药制药企业对MES系统的需求,并在此基础上,提出了以优化整个生产过程为核心的基于知识的中药制药企业MES系统,给出了系统的功能模型并详细阐述了各功能模块.然后重点研究了系统构建的关键技术:知识的提取、知识的融合、知识的重用、生产过程优化等.该系统采用开放性的、可扩展的、模块化的、面向对象的体系结构,能实现生产过程的最优计划与调度、药品批次的跟踪、设备的预测性维护等功能,已在贵州某中药厂进行了应用验证,应用效果良好.%The production management of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing enterprise relies heavily on the experience of manager, and delayed one-sided information transfer leads to the disjointedness between management and production as well as the delay of production command. Considering the above shortness and specific characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine production, this paper designed the knowledge-based MES for traditional Chinese medicine enterprises to optimize production processes. In this paper, function model of the system was given and the function modules of the system were described in detail. This paper also focused on the research of the system's key technologies including knowledge extraction, knowledge integration, knowledge reuse, process optimization. The MES uses an open, scalable, modular, object-oriented architecture to achieve functions such as optimization and schedule of productive process, on-line quality inspection of medicine, batch tracking of products and predictive maintenance of equipments. It has been applied in a pharmaceutical companies of Guizhou with good results.
Populisma iezīmes ASV “Tea Party” kustībā
Ozoliņa, Linda
2012-01-01
Maģistra darbā “Populisma iezīmes ASV “Tea Party” kustībā” tiek pētīta 2009.gadā ASV izveidojošās Tea Party kustības politisko platformu, kā arī izcelšanās apstākļus, ar mērķi ir noskaidrot, vai ASV Tea Party kustībā novērojamas populisma iezīmes, kas padarītu to piederīgu plašākai populistu organizāciju ģimenei. Maģistra darbā izvirzītais problēmjautājums ir, vai Tea Party kustības ideoloģiskā platforma un izcelsme liecina par tās piederību plašākai populistu ģimenei? Maģistra darba hipotē...
A Novel Mechanism for TRF of Plant-wide Material Flows in Process Industry MES
朱炜; 朱峰; 荣冈
2014-01-01
This paper is standing on the recent viewpoint originated from relevant industrial practices that well or-ganized tracing, representing and feedback (TRF) mechanism of material-flow information is crucial for system utility and usability of manufacturing execution systems (MES), essentially, for activities on the side of multi-level decision making and optimization mainly in the planning and scheduling. In this paper, we investigate a key issue emphasized on a route of multi-level information evolution on the side of large-scale feedback, where material-flow states could evolve from the measuring data (local states) to networked event-type information cells (global states) and consequently to the key performance indicators (KPI) type information (gross states). Importantly, with adapta-bilities to frequent structural dynamics residing in running material flows, this evolving route should be modeled as a suit of sophisticated mechanism for large-scale dynamic states tracking and representing so as to upgrade accu-racy and usability of the feedback information in MES. To clarify inherent complexities of this evolving route, the investigated issue is demonstrated from extended process systems engineering (PSE) point of view, and the TRF principles of the multi-level feedback information (states) are highlighted under the multi-scale methodology. As the main contribution, a novel mechanism called TRF modeling mechanism is introduced.
HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies
Bussmann, R S; Fialkov, A; Scudder, J; Hayward, C C; Cowley, W I; Bock, J; Calanog, J; Chapman, S C; Cooray, A; De Bernardis, F; Farrah, D; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R; Hopwood, R; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Lacey, C; Loeb, A; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A J; Vieira, J D; Wang, L; Wardlow, J
2015-01-01
The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for...
Approche en soins primaires pour les problèmes de consommation de cannabis
Turner, Suzanne D.; Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon
2014-01-01
Résumé Objectif Étudier les caractéristiques et complications cliniques de la consommation à risque de cannabis et du trouble de consommation de cannabis, et présenter un protocole en cabinet pour le dépistage, l’identification et la prise en charge de ces problèmes. Sources des données Une recherche des essais contrôlés, des études d’observation et des révisions sur l’usage de cannabis par les adolescents et les jeunes adultes; les méfaits psychiatriques et médicaux liés au cannabis; le trouble de consommation de cannabis et son traitement; et les lignes directrices sur la consommation à faible risque de cannabis a été effectuée dans PubMed. Message principal Les médecins doivent questionner tous leurs patients quant à leur usage de cannabis. Ils doivent questionner plus souvent les adolescents et jeunes adultes de même que les personnes qui présentent un risque élevé de problèmes liés au cannabis (qui ont un trouble psychiatrique ou de consommation de drogue concomitant). Les problèmes pouvant être causés par le cannabis, comme les troubles de l’humeur, la psychose et les symptômes respiratoires, devraient susciter des questions sur la consommation de cannabis. Aux patients qui rapportent un usage de cannabis, les médecins devraient poser des questions sur la fréquence et la quantité consommée, la présence de symptômes de tolérance ou de sevrage, les tentatives de réduire leur consommation et la présence de problèmes liés au cannabis. Les usagers à faible risque fument, inhalent ou ingèrent le cannabis occasionnellement sans aucun signe de dysfonctionnement scolaire, professionnel ou social; les personnes dont l’usage est problématique consomment tous les jours ou presque tous les jours, ont de la difficulté à réduire leur consommation et leur fonctionnement scolaire, professionnel et social est perturbé. Les médecins devraient offrir à tous les patients dont l’usage est problématique des conseils
Erliza Hambali
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Year by year, globally the production of petroleum decreases but its demand increases. The world will get the energy crisis including Indonesia if that condition happens continously. Because of that, Indonesia starts to develop IOR (improved oil recovery method for their oil fields. IOR method is an improvement of the secondary phase in which the oil recovery is expected to increase oil production. One method of IOR is chemical injection with surfactant for injection. Surfactant is dissolved with injection water and injected to reservoir. Generally, surfactant of petroleum sulphonates is used for oil recovery. Due to the weaknesses of petroleum suphonates such as not resistant in high salinity and high hardness water, therefore it triggers to get surfactant substitute like MES (methyl ester sulphonates that is synthesized by bio-oil from Jatropha curcas L. The study was aimed to know the performance of MES surfactant formula from jatropha oil for IOR in fluid sample of oil field and synthetic sandstone core. The best condition from this research was surfactant 0.2 PV with the soaking time of 12 hours. This formula gave the highest of incremental total oil recovery 61%. The number were resulted from 48% waterflooding and 13% surfactant injection.
HerMES: Point source catalogues from Herschel-SPIRE observations II
Wang, L; Clarke, C; Bock, J; Buat, V; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Heinis, S; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Norberg, P; Oliver, S J; Roehlly, Y; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Smith, A J; Vaccari, M; Zemcov, M
2013-01-01
The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) is the largest Guaranteed Time Key Programme on the Herschel Space Observatory. With a wedding cake survey strategy, it consists of nested fields with varying depth and area totalling ~380 deg^2. In this paper, we present deep point source catalogues extracted from Herschel-SPIRE observations of all HerMES fields, except for the later addition of the 270 deg^2 HeLMS field. These catalogues constitute the second Data Release (DR2) made in October 2013. A subset of these catalogues, which consists of bright sources extracted from Herschel-SPIRE observations completed by May 1, 2010 (covering ~ 74 deg^2) were released earlier in the first extensive Data Release (DR1) in March 2012. Two different methods are used to generate the point source catalogues, the SUSSEXtractor (SXT) point source extractor used in two earlier data releases (EDR and EDR2) and a new source detection and photometry method. The latter combines an iterative source detection algorithm, S...
PyMES COLOMBIANAS Y LA GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO
Andrea Carolina Bustos Claro
2003-07-01
Full Text Available En los últimos años, la adaptación de modelos e-business se ha convertido en un elemento de vital importancia para las organizaciones, hasta el punto de creer que ésta es la mejor forma de crear una ventaja competitiva en el mercado global. Sin embargo, es necesario tener presente que la existencia de la tecnología por sí sola, no asegura el éxito. Se requiere además del cambio de algunos paradigmas organizacionales: lacultura, los niveles jerárquicos y el manejo que se le da a la información y a la comunicación. Gracias a los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto “Indicadores Pragmáticos de Gestión del Conocimiento aplicado a páginas Web de PyMES colombianas”, adelantado por el Centro de Investigaciones de la EAN, se ha logrado un acercamiento a la situación actual de las páginas Web de las PyMES y su desempeño en la red.
The maximal D = 4 supergravities
Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)
2007-06-15
All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.
Maximizing profit using recommender systems
Das, Aparna; Ricketts, Daniel
2009-01-01
Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based solely on the customer's past purchases, product ratings and demographic data without considering the profitability the items being recommended. In this work we study the question of how a vendor can directly incorporate the profitability of items into its recommender so as to maximize its expected profit while still providing accurate recommendations. Our approach uses the output of any traditional recommender system and adjust them according to item profitabilities. Our approach is parameterized so the vendor can control how much the recommendation incorporating profits can deviate from the traditional recommendation. We study our approach under two settings and show that it achieves approximately 22% more profit than traditional recommendations.
The maximal D=5 supergravities
de Wit, Bernard; Trigiante, M; Wit, Bernard de; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario
2007-01-01
The general Lagrangian for maximal supergravity in five spacetime dimensions is presented with vector potentials in the \\bar{27} and tensor fields in the 27 representation of E_6. This novel tensor-vector system is subject to an intricate set of gauge transformations, describing 3(27-t) massless helicity degrees of freedom for the vector fields and 3t massive spin degrees of freedom for the tensor fields, where the (even) value of t depends on the gauging. The kinetic term of the tensor fields is accompanied by a unique Chern-Simons coupling which involves both vector and tensor fields. The Lagrangians are completely encoded in terms of the embedding tensor which defines the E_6 subgroup that is gauged by the vectors. The embedding tensor is subject to two constraints which ensure the consistency of the combined vector-tensor gauge transformations and the supersymmetry of the full Lagrangian. This new formulation encompasses all possible gaugings.
Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization
Abdallah, A Nait
2012-01-01
Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.
Sri Hidayati; Pudji Permadi; Hestuti Eni
2017-01-01
An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES) was caried out using methyl ester palm oil in factorial design and NaHSO as sulfonating agent with variation of ratio mol NaHSO : methyl ester (1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2 ) and sulfonation time (3 hour (L1), 4.5 hour (L2) and 6 hour (L3). The result showed that the best sulfonation condition present in 1:1,5 mol ratio and sulfonation time of 4,5 hour. The best characteristic of MES was produced em...
Rondi, Gustavo R.; Casal, María del Carmen; Galante, Marcelo Javier; Gómez, Melisa
2013-01-01
En el desarrollo de este trabajo se abordan las situaciones y dificultades de orden práctico que pueden presentarse cuando una PyME argentina decide adoptar por primera vez la NIIF para las PyMEs. Para ello, se han analizado el tratamiento que la NIIF para las PyMEs y las normas contables argentinas contemplan para los cambios de políticas contables; las simplificaciones, exenciones especiales y requerimientos específicos que la NIIF establece en su adopción por primera vez; y las principales...
Les grands problèmes mathématiques ils orientent l'avenir des maths
2012-01-01
Les mathématiques ont leurs sept merveilles ! Il s’agit des sept problèmes du millénaire, mis à prix à un million de dollars chacun par l’Institut Clay de mathématiques en 2000. Mais l’intelligence des mathématiciens est aussi mise à l’épreuve par bien d’autres problèmes, tels ceux de Hilbert. Découvrez dans ce numéro comment ces énigmes orientent l’avenir de la discipline ouvrant la voie à de nouvelles connaissances fondamentales.
Ming; XU
2015-01-01
This paper made scientific analysis on asynchronous MES for discipline of College Japanese in characteristic campus of agriculturerelated universities. It made modular design for discipline of College Japanese in emotional concept,language skill,language knowledge,learning strategy,and cultural quality combining students’ demands and education and teaching rules. Relying on Internet and Mobile Internet aided teaching platform,it came up with " Integration- Separation- Integration" asynchronous teaching approach. The practice indicates that teaching effect of such approach is remarkable. However,asynchronous MES for discipline of College Japanese raises higher requirement for interaction between teachers and students and voluntary effort of teachers.
Impacts, adaptation et vulnérabilité des systèmes naturels et humains en Europe
Salas y Mélia, David; Badeau, Vincent; Delire, Christine; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Lemonsu, Aude; Masson, Valéry; Pigeon, Grégoire; Regimbeau, Mathieu; Viguié, Vincent
2015-01-01
Cet article analyse les impacts observés et projetés du changement climatique sur les systèmes humains et naturels, leur vulnérabilité et les possibilités d’adaptation. Il donne un aperçu des principaux résultats pour l’hydrologie, l’agriculture, les écosystèmes naturels, les infrastructures, le transport, l’énergie, le tourisme, la santé et les aspects sociaux. L’article reprend les principales conclusions du chapitre Europe de la contribution du Groupe II au 5e rapport du Giec paru en 2014....
Variables que influyen en el comportamiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el sexto mes
William Cáceres Fernández
Full Text Available Introducción: la lactancia materna exclusiva hasta los 6 meses se considera la alimentación ideal para el recién nacido, pues se ha demostrado que garantiza el crecimiento y desarrollo, previene enfermedades frecuentes en la infancia y en la edad adulta, y brinda múltiples ventajas para los niños y las madres. Objetivo: determinar algunas variables que influyen en el comportamiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el 6to mes de vida del recién nacido. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo a través de la aplicación de una encuesta a 56 madres de niños mayores de 6 meses, pertenecientes a 4 consultorios del médico de la familia del policlínico «Héroes del Moncada», en el periodo comprendido desde enero hasta diciembre de 2012. Se tomaron los datos necesarios de la madre y el niño mediante la aplicación de una encuesta y se vaciaron en un formulario elaborado al efecto. Resultados: el grupo de edad de 20-35 años fue el que predominó en las madres que mantuvieron la lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el sexto mes, con un 73,2 %; fueron las madres con nivel universitario (21,4 % las que tenían más conocimiento sobre las ventajas de la lactancia materna. En el 42,3 % de los casos se interrumpió la lactancia materna exclusiva por la incorporación al trabajo; y se enfermaron más aquellos niños que interrumpieron la lactancia. Conclusiones: existen factores como la edad menor de 20 ó mayor de 35 años, el bajo nivel cultural y la necesidad de reincorporación al trabajo, que atentan contra mantener una lactancia materna exclusiva hasta el sexto mes de vida del recién nacido.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot, beeping nodes receive no feedback, while silent nodes can only differentiate between none of its neighbors beeping, or at least one of its neighbors beeping. We start by proving a lower bound that shows that in this model, it is not possible to locally converge to an MIS in sub-polynomial time. We then study four different relaxations of the model which allow us to circumvent the lower bound and find an MIS in polylogarithmic time. First, we show that if a polynomial upper bound on the network size is known, it is possi...
Maximal switchability of centralized networks
Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-08-01
We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
廖一专; 肖田元; 韩丹
2014-01-01
介绍了制造执行系统（ MES ）领域的企业-控制系统集成标准ANSI/ISA-95与其应用现状。利用制造运行管理活动模型分析，提取出纺机企业实际生产流程中关键性制造活动及功能、硬件需求，以辅助MES方案设计。通过纺机制造行业MES案例，展示了该标准在行业应用的实践指导作用。%It introduces current international standards of enterprise -control system integration of manufacturing execution system ( MES) ANSI/ISA-95 and its application in industry .By using manufacturing operation man-agement activity model analysis , it defines the critical function needs and hardware requirements of production processes , and assists MES solution design .It presents a MES case of textile machinery manufacturing and illus-tratese the ANSI/ISA-95 applications in industrial field .
Erosion results from DiMES and design implications to ITER and Starlite
Wong, C.P.C.; West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Whyte, D.G. [INRS, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Bastaz, R.J. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Wampler, W.R. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-12-31
Using the DiMES mechanism at DIII-D, erosion rates of graphite, and metallic coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W have been measured under different plasma operating conditions. The measured net erosion rate for C is substantial (16 nm/s) during ELMing H-mode at a heat flux of 2 MW/m{sup 2}. Measured gross erosion rates of the metals are lower than expected from sputtering yields, most likely due to heavy surface contamination by carbon. The measured erosion of W is substantially lower than the other materials, and when account is taken for redeposition, it is shown to be a viable candidate for the Starlite reactor`s divertor. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Erosion results from DiMES and design implications to ITER and Starlite
Wong, C.P.C.; West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bastaz, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Whyte, D.G. [INRS, Varennes, PQ (Canada). Energie et Materiaux; Wampler, W.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Using the DiMES mechanism at DIII-D, erosion rates of graphite, and metallic coatings of Be, V, Mo, and W have been measured under different plasma operating conditions. The measured net erosion rate for C is substantial (16 nm/s) during ELMing H-mode at a heat flux of 2 MW/m{sup 2}. Measured gross erosion rates of the metals are lower than expected from sputtering yields, most likely due to heavy surface contamination by carbon. The measured erosion of W is substantially lower than the other materials, and when account is taken for redeposition, it is shown to be a viable candidate for the Starlite reactor`s divertor.
PENENTUAN LAMA SULFONASI PADA PROSES PRODUKSI SURFAKTAN MES UNTUK APLIKASI EOR
Mira Rivai
2011-04-01
Full Text Available For producing oil remains that remained at old oil wells (mature field, a method of advanced oil acquirement improvement known as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR should be applied. Surfactant plays an important role in EOR process by reducing interfacial tension (IFT, altering wettability, reducing oil viscosity, and stabilizing dispersion to facilitate the process of oil jetting from reservoir to production well. To optimally cleanse oil that still remained a surfactant compatible with formation water and reservoir is needed. This study was conducted to get the best time of sulfonation process for producing MES surfactant with lower interfacial tension for EOR application. Results showed that the best times of sulfonation process with lower interfacial tension value were 3 and 4 hours
The SysMES Framework: System Management for Networked Embedded Systems and Clusters
Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto
Automated system management for large distributed and heterogeneous environments is a common challenge in modern computer sciences. Desired properties of such a management system are, among others, a minimal dependency on human operators for problem recognition and solution, adaptability to increasing loads, fault tolerance and the flexibility to integrate new management resources at runtime. Existing tools address parts of these requirements however there is no single integrated framework which possesses all mentioned characteristics. SysMES was developed as an integrated framework for automated monitoring and management of networked devices. In order to achieve the requirements of scalability and fault tolerance, a fully distributed and decentralized architecture has been chosen. The framework comprises a monitoring module, a rule engine and an executive module for the execution of actions. A formal language has been defined which allows administrators to define complex spatial and temporal rule conditions ...
[Mes differ by positioning: empirical testing of decentralized dynamics of the self].
Mizokami, Shinichi
2013-10-01
The present study empirically tested the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self proposed by Hermans & Kempen (1993), which they developed theoretically and from clinical cases, not from large samples of empirical data. They posited that worldviews and images of the self could vary by positioning even in the same individual, and denied that the ego was an omniscient entity that knew and controlled all aspects of the self (centralized ego). Study 1 tested their conceptualization empirically with 47 university students in an experimental group and 17 as a control group. The results showed that the scores on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and images of the Mes in the experimental group significantly varied by positioning, but those in the control group did not. Similar results were found in Study 2 with a sample of 120 university students. These results empirically supported the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self.
Development of Graphene-based novel cathode material in MES system
Chen, Leifeng; Aryal, Nabin; Ammam, Fariza
2014-01-01
Sporomusa ovata (S.O) typically have a negative outer-surface charge. The graphene oxide (GO) is the acceptor of the electron. If the GO accept electrons from the Sporomusa ovata and the GO can be reduced to graphene. This will lead to in situ construction of a bacteria/graphene network in the cathode.......The graphene (GP) has outstanding electrical conductivity, extremely high specific surface area,mechanical robustness and flexibility, chemical inertness, and biocompatibility. These special properties ofGP can provide excellent opportunity to improve the performance of MES. Gram negative microorganisms like...... analyzed by SEM or AFM. Thanks to the high surface area for graphene, superior conductivity, biocompatibility, the incorporation of the large amount bacteria into the biofilm matrix, and forming multiplexed conductive pathways, so the hybrid biofilm can facilitate electron exchange between bacteria...
La singularité dans les systèmes complexes
Badariotti, Dominique
2016-01-01
Le thème de la singularité, si difficile à aborder dans un système de pensée purement cartésien, peut devenir un thème d'étude et de questionnements dans le domaine des systèmes complexes naturels et artificiels où la singularité des émergences invite à s'interroger sur cette 10 caractéristique particulière. Pour autant, ce thème demande à être davantage investigué tant les acceptions sont différentes, d'une discipline à l'autre, derrière ce mot. Au delà des différences, on peut réduire le co...
Limites ethnographiques traditionnelles dans le Centre-Ouest Pays, langues et systèmes agraires
Trochet, Jean-René
2015-01-01
Revenir sur le problème des limites au sein de la France rurale traditionnelle peut sembler une préoccupation dépassée. N’a-t-on pas tout dit sur les fameuses lignes qui marquaient encore clairement le contact entre les « civilisations rurales » du nord et du sud de la France il y a une trentaine d’années ? En réalité, à l’exception de Charles Parain, peu de chercheurs français ont réfléchi aux problèmes que peuvent poser ces limites traditionnelles en elles-mêmes, et a fortiori à ceux qui se...
Principales prácticas de recursos humanos de las PyMEs industriales exitosas.
Liliana Rocío López Suárez
2013-04-01
Full Text Available El éxito competitivo de la PyME depende en parte de la buena gestión de recursos humanos,por lo que no darle el valor que requiere constituye una de las principales causas de fracasode estas empresas. La responsabilidad de la gestión eficaz de los recursos humanos recae fundamentalmenteen los directivos. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo identificarlos estilos de dirección y las principales prácticas de recursos humanos que llevan a cabo lasPyMEs industriales exitosas de México y España. Para alcanzar los objetivos antes reseñados,se ha realizado un análisis documental, así como entrevistas en profundidad a expertosen el área de recursos humanos. En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados conrespecto a las prácticas mencionadas.
The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...
Systèmes locaux d'alerte précoce et de réponse aux urgences ...
SARAH
30 janv. 2015 ... incertitude se trouvent en liste les risques les plus fréquents et dont ... et les invasions acridiennes (Banque Mondiale,. 2013). La plupart des crises .... nécessaire pour solutionner certains problèmes même ne relevant pas du ...
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B, E-mail: agrawal@iopb.res.i, E-mail: bpradhan@iopb.res.i [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 005 (India)
2010-06-11
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo [Theory Center, KEK,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particles and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Masato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Performance of Palm-Based C16/18 Methyl Ester Sulphonate (MES) in Liquid Detergent Formulation.
Maurad, Zulina Abd; Idris, Zainab; Ghazali, Razmah
2017-07-01
Liquid detergents are more convenient than powdered detergents as they dissolve readily in water, generate less dust and dosing is easy. However, the stability of liquid detergents is an issue of concern. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study the formulation requirement to produce heavy-duty liquid detergents based on palm-based methyl esters sulphonate (MES) with desirable properties and performance. MES is produced from renewable and sustainable feedstock suitable to replace the conventional fossil-based surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulphonates (LAS). Five palm-based liquid detergents (PBLDs) were formulated using C16/18 MES as the primary surfactant. The physical properties, washing performance, stability and biodegradability of PBLDs were evaluated. Performance of the PBLDs was evaluated against two commercial liquid detergents which use LAS and alcohol glucoside as surfactant (benchmark product) and it was found that the PBLDs exhibited excellent performance. PBLDs can be formulated with or without phosphates and still demonstrate good detergency. The stability study of PBLDs indicated that no appreciable hydrolysis occurred. PBLDs exhibited better biodegradability profiles compared to commercial detergent containing LAS. PBLDs passed the 60% biodegradability level within 3 to 8 d, while commercial detergent took 24 d. It was shown that palm-based C16/18 MES could be potentially formulated into liquid detergents and gave better performance than LAS based liquid detergent. Attributes of C16/18 MES should not be overlooked, which include an abundant and naturally derived palm stearin as raw material and environmental safety profiles that are superior to most synthetic surfactants.
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
吴迪; 魏斌; 王双; 孙海霞; 辛毅; 张翠丽
2012-01-01
目的:探讨仙人掌多糖对体外肺鳞癌细胞(SK-MES-1)生长抑制作用.方法:体外培养SK-MES-1细胞,四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法观察野生仙人掌多糖对其生长的抑制,计算最低抑制浓度及抑制率；观察不同浓度多糖对细胞形态的影响:SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳简析不同组别蛋白质表达的差异.结果:野生仙人掌多糖24 h和48 h对肿瘤细胞的最低抑制浓度和抑制率分别为0.0625 mg/ml.34.06％和0.0625 mg/ml 35.37％；不同组间蛋白质表达有差异.结论:野生仙人掌多糖对SK-MES-1肺鳞癌细胞有抑制作用.%Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effect of wild Cactus polysaccharide on SK-MES-1 lung squamous carcinoma cells. Methods: SK-MES-1 cells were cultivated in vitro. MTT assay was used to detect the inhibition phenomena of wild Cactus polysaccharide on the growth of tumor cells, calculated the lowest inhibition concentration and tumor inhibitive ratio(IR). The influence of different concentrations of polysaccharide on cell shape was examined respectively. SDS-PAGE assay was used to estimate the difference of protein expression among each group. Results: The lowest inhibition concentration and IR of wild Cactus polysaccharide to SK-MES-1 for 24 h and 48h were 0.0625 mg/ml, 34.06% and 0.0625 mg/ml, 35.37%. The protein expression was different in each group. Conclusion: Wild Cactus polysaccharide had anti-tumor effect on lung squamous carcinoma cells.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
Sampling and Representation Complexity of Revenue Maximization
Dughmi, Shaddin; Han, Li; Nisan, Noam
2014-01-01
We consider (approximate) revenue maximization in auctions where the distribution on input valuations is given via "black box" access to samples from the distribution. We observe that the number of samples required -- the sample complexity -- is tightly related to the representation complexity of an approximately revenue-maximizing auction. Our main results are upper bounds and an exponential lower bound on these complexities.
Lisonek, Petr
1996-01-01
our classifications confirmthe maximality of previously known sets, the results in E^7 and E^8are new. Their counterpart in dimension larger than 10is a set of unit vectors with only two values of inner products in the Lorentz space R^{d,1}.The maximality of this set again follows from a bound due...
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...
Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads
Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
2017-01-01
In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.
Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter
2014-06-07
Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Mes chers collègues, les moines, ou le partage de l’ignorance
Laurence Caillet
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Mes chers collègues, les moines, ou le partage de l’ignorance. Aucun statut ne m’a autant étonnée que celui de collègue qui me fut conféré par les moines du Grand monastère de l’Est, à Nara. Après avoir testé mes connaissances en matière de rituel, ces moines fort savants manifestèrent en effet, avec ostentation, leur ignorance. Pointant pour moi des détails liturgiques qu’ils tenaient pour incompréhensibles, ils prirent un plaisir évident à bavarder histoire et théologie, comme si je pouvais apporter quoi que ce soit. Cette mise en scène du caractère incompréhensible du rituel soulignait le caractère ineffable de cérémonies jadis accomplies au ciel par des entités supérieures. Je fournissais prétexte à décrire la vanité de l’érudition face à l’accomplissement des mystères et aussi l’importance de cette érudition pour renouer avec un sens originel irrémédiablement inconnaissable.My dear colleagues the monks, or the sharing of ignorance. No status has ever surprised me as much as that of “colleague” conferred on me by the monks of the Great Eastern Monastery of Nara. After testing my knowledge of ritual, these very learned monks made great show of their ignorance. Drawing my attention to liturgical details that they held to be incomprehensible, they took obvious pleasure in chatting about history and theology, as if I were capable of making the slightest contribution. This staging of the impenetrable nature of the ritual highlighted the ineffable character of the ceremonies performed in heaven long ago by superior beings. I provided a convenient pretext for describing the vanity of erudition in the face of the accomplishment of the mysteries, and also the importance of this erudition for renewing an original, irreparably unknowable meaning.
Ece KORKUT
2013-09-01
Full Text Available La grammaire de texte est un domaine de recherche interphrastique qui étudie comment les thèmes et les rhèmes dans les textes s’articulent entre eux dans le cadre de la cohésion et de la cohérence. Autrement dit, la grammaire de texte analyse les phrases qui constituent ensemble un texte, à part et en relation les unes avec les autres, du point de vue, entre autres, du thème et du rhème. Le « thème » est le point de départ ou un élément déjà connu des locuteurs; quant au « rhème », c’est une information nouvelle qui vient s’ajouter authème et qui assure la progression dans le texte. Dans cet article, uneséquence de texte en français composé de six phrases a été comparéeavec cinq traductions en turc du point de vue de l’agencement desthèmes et des rhèmes. A la fin de l’étude, il a été observé que danscertaines traductions, le thème était substitué au rhème, qu’entre lesdispositions des rhèmes se trouvaient de grandes différences, quecertains rhèmes du texte original avaient été supprimés et que denouveaux rhèmes avaient été créés par les traducteurs. Il est naturel etindispensable qu’il y ait des différences dans la syntaxe des thèmes etdes rhèmes lorsqu’il s’agit des traductions entre les languesappartenant à des familles de langue différentes, cependant cela nesignifie nullement que l’on peut disposer aléatoirement les élémentsconstituant un texte. A la suite de la comparaison faite du texte originalavec les cinq traductions et ces dernières entre elles, il n’a été constatéqu’une phrase, parmi six, qui a été traduite convenablement par tousles traducteurs, donc la traduction d’une seule phrase était compatibledu point de vue de l’ordre des thèmes et des rhèmes. Dans les cinqphrases qui restent, il s’agit de plusieurs écarts entre les choix desthèmes et des rhèmes ainsi que dans la disposition de ces derniers. Metin dilbilgisi, metinlerde izlek ve
Sri Hidayati
2016-04-01
Full Text Available An experiment of sulfonation process of methyl ester to produce methyl ester sulfonates (MES was caried out using methyl ester palm oil in factorial design and NaHSO as sulfonating agent with variation of ratio mol NaHSO : methyl ester (1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2 and sulfonation time (3 hour (L1, 4.5 hour (L2 and 6 hour (L3. The result showed that the best sulfonation condition present in 1:1,5 mol ratio and sulfonation time of 4,5 hour. The best characteristic of MES was produced emulsion stability of 68.25%, acid value of 2.57 mg KOH/g, iod value 10.91 g 1od/100 g sample, interfacial tension of 1.806 dyne/cm at MES concentration of 1% (w/w. The optimal salinity occured at concentration of 20.000 ppm which 1FT value of 0.0055 dyne/cm. Heating at a temperature of 800 C for 30 days with the addition of 2 3. Keywords: MES, sulfonation, NaHSO ABSTRAK Sebuah penelitian tentang proses produksi metil ester sulfonat menggunakan bahan baku metil ester minyak kelapa sawit dilakukan secara faktorial menggunakan NaHSO sebagai agen pensulfonasi dengan variasi rasio mol NaHSO 1:1,25, 1:1,5, 1:1,75 dan 1:2 dan lama sulfonasi.dengan variasi 3; 45; dan 6 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi proses sulfonasi terbaik terdapat pada rasio metil ester dan mol reaktan 1:1,5 dan lama reaksi 4,5 jam dan suhu reaksi lOOoC yang menghasilkan nilai stabilitas emulsi 68,25%, bilangan asam 2,57 mg KOH/g sampel, bilangan iod 10,91 g 1od/100 g sampel. Konsentrasi metil ester sulfonat MES terbaik untuk menghasilkan 1FT terendah adalah 1% (b/b yaitu 1,806 dyne/cm, salinitas optimal terjadi pada 20.000 ppm NaCl dengan nilai 1FT 0,0055 dyne/cm. 0,098 dyne/cm. Kata kunci: MES, proses sulfonasi, NaHSO
2014-01-01
Les phénomènes de diffusion sont essentiels pour contrôler la qualité des produits laitiers, et pourtant ceux-ci sont encore très peu connus pour des solutés autres que le sel et l’eau. L'objectif de cette thèse a été d'étudier comment la diffusion de solutés est influencée par la microstructure de différents systèmes laitiers et par les caractéristiques physico-chimiques des solutés. Ces systèmes présentaient une concentration identique en caséines mais des microstructures différentes, modul...
The HerMES sub-millimetre local and low-redshift luminosity functions
Marchetti, L; Franceschini, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Farrah, D; Feltre, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M
2015-01-01
We used wide area surveys over 39 deg$^2$ by the HerMES collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE multi-wavelength camera, to estimate the low-redshift, $0.02
HerMES : SPIRE detection of high redshift massive compact galaxies in GOODS-N field
Cava, A; Perez-Fournon, I; Buitrago, F; Trujillo, I; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Auld, R; Bock, J; Brisbin, D; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Cirasuolo, M; Clements, D L; Conselice, C J; Cooray, A; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Ferrero, P; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Griffin, M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Marchetti, L; Morrison, G E; Mortier, A M J; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Wright, G
2010-01-01
We have analysed the rest-frame far infrared (FIR) properties of a sample of massive (Mstar > 10^11Msun) galaxies at 2
PROPUESTA DE UN MODELO DE GESTION HUMANA Y CULTURA ORGANIZACIONAL PARA PyMES INNOVADORAS
RAFAEL IGNACIO PEREZ URIBE
2003-07-01
Full Text Available La gestión humana y cultura organizacional son conceptos inseparables en cualquier tipo de organización y han sido tratados extensamente en el ámbito académico general, pero no en el caso de las PyMES. Las condiciones sociales, económicas y culturales de este nuevo siglo hacen imprescindible que las empresas medianas y pequeñas sean altamente creativas, innovadoras, se adapten ágilmente a los cambios, sobrevivan y crezcan, y para lograrlo necesariamente deben contar con una fuerza laboral comprometida, capacitada y motivada, que trabaje en busca del logro de la misión de la organización, pero que a la vez sienta que están logrando satisfacer sus deseos, expectativas y necesidades más profundas. En este artículo se revisan algunos planteamientos que profundizan sobre gestión humana y cultura organizacional de manera integral y que sirven de guía básica temática para el diseño de un modelo de gestión humana.
Gotiskās iezīmes Čarlza Dikensa darbos
Ševšeļova, Viktorija
2013-01-01
Bakalaura darbā „Gotiskā iezīmes Čārlza Dikensa darbos” tiek aplūkota gan gotiskā žanra vēsture gan, kā Čārlz Dikenss izmantojis to savos darbos. Šī darba pirmā nodaļa iepazīstina ar gotiskā žanra iezīmēm un to attīstību no gotiskā romāna līdz gotiskam stāstām. Darba otrajā nodaļā tiek aprakstīta angļu rakstnieka Čārlza Dikensa stāstu cikla „Christmas Books” ietekme uz Ziemassvētku tradīcijām . Darba trešajā daļa tiek analizēti pieci stāsti no „Christmas Books” , katrs stāsts tiek apskatīts a...
HerMES: point source catalogues from deep Herschel-SPIRE observations
Smith, A J; Oliver, S J; Auld, R; Bock, J; Brisbin, D; Burgarella, D; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Ivison, R J; Mortier, A M J; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Savage, R; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Symeonidis, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Zemcov, M
2011-01-01
We describe the generation of single-band point source catalogues from submillimetre Herschel-SPIRE observations taken as part of the Science Demonstration Phase of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). Flux densities are found by means of peak-finding and the fitting of a Gaussian point-response function. With highly-confused images, careful checks must be made on the completeness and flux density accuracy of the detected sources. This is done by injecting artificial sources into the images and analysing the resulting catalogues. Measured flux densities at which 50 per cent of injected sources result in good detections at (250, 350, 500) {\\mu}m range from (11.6, 13.2, 13.1) mJy to (25.7, 27.1, 35.8) mJy, depending on the depth of the observation (where a `good' detection is taken to be one with positional offset less than one full-width half-maximum of the point-response function, and with the measured flux density within a factor of 2 of the flux density of the injected source). This pape...
HerMES: The Submillimeter Spectral Energy Distributions of Herschel/SPIRE-Detected Galaxies
Schulz, B; Clements, D L; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Giovannoli, E; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Fournon, I Perez; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rawlings, J; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M
2010-01-01
We present colours of sources detected with the Herschel/SPIRE instrument in deep extragalactic surveys of the Lockman Hole, Spitzer-FLS, and GOODS-N fields in three photometric bands at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers. We compare these with expectations from the literature and discuss associated uncertainties and biases in the SPIRE data. We identify a 500 micrometer flux limited selection of sources from the HerMES point source catalogue that appears free from neighbouring/blended sources in all three SPIRE bands. We compare the colours with redshift tracks of various contemporary models. Based on these spectral templates we show that regions corresponding to specific population types and redshifts can be identified better in colour-flux space. The redshift tracks as well as the colour-flux plots imply a majority of detected objects with redshifts at 1
El cambio de los Sistemas de Control de Gestión: Estudio de caso múltiple en PyMEs
Lucio Jesús Uc Heredia
2010-01-01
El estudio de los Sistemas de Control de Gestión (SCG) de las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (PyMEs) resulta oportuno ante la imparable transformación del ambiente empresarial. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer cómo cambian los SCG de las PyMEs. Para ello se analiza el cambio de SCG de cuatro PyMEs industriales manufactureras utilizando la tipología para la clasificación de Sulaiman y Mitchell (2005) y el modelo de interpretación de Busco, Quattrone y Riccaboni (2007). Los estudios de caso...
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...
Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration
Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand
2012-01-01
We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.
Modélisation cinématique du contact pour les Systèmes Articulés
1995-01-01
National audience; La synthèse d'animations réalistes nécessite un paramétrage rigoureux des systèmes articulés qui permette d'exprimer les champs de vitesses absolues tout en respectant les contraintes géométriques aux liaisons. Les contacts extérieurs sont les liaisons les plus difficiles à traiter. Cet article en propose une modélisation qui permet d'exprimer toutes les vitesses instantanées en coordonnées articulaires, ainsi que de résoudre les problèmes de maintien du contact au cours du...
CONSIDERACIONES PRÁCTICAS PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO EN LAS PyMES INNOVADORAS
Hugo Alfonso Vargas Arévalo
2003-07-01
Full Text Available Las PyMES se presentan en la actualidad como las principales empresas generadoras de empleo en Colombia. Son además un segmento empresarial de gran importancia por su contribución al PIB. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas adolecen de la gestión necesaria para convertirlas en unidades innovadoras, autosostenibles y en crecimiento. Hay, por ejemplo, una gran dificultad para obtener financiación, para vender, para generar estrategias de asociación, para gestionar recursos humanos. Este artículo se propone unificar algunos conceptos concernientes a la administración de capital de trabajo de las PyMES. Se hace énfasis en la rentabilidad y se aporta un conjunto de recursos estratégicos que puede contribuir a mejorar la gestión de este tipo de empresas en el contexto colombiano.
Evaluation des systèmes existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations des ponts
BURDET, Olivier; Muttoni, Aurelio
2006-01-01
Le projet de recherche Evaluation des systèmes existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations des ponts a été initié dans le but de préparer sous forme condensée une présentation et une évaluation des systèmes de mesure existants pour le suivi à long terme des déformations de ponts ainsi que des recommandations en vue d’applications particulières. Ce sujet est d’actualité car d’une part il importe de gérer au mieux les ouvrages et les ressources et d’autre part parce que plusieurs cas ...
Arlette BOUZON, La place de la communication dans la conception de systèmes à risques
Laramée, Alain
2009-01-01
Dans cet ouvrage, l’auteure tente de situer la place qu’occupe la communication dans ce qu’elle nomme « des systèmes techniques complexes ». Les systèmes dont il est question concernent les organisations dont la conception des objets présente des risques. Il s’agit ici particulièrement des entreprises œuvrant dans les domaines de l’aérospatial, de la production de produits chimiques, des centrales nucléaires… L’auteure appuie son essai sur une enquête de terrain menée au sein d’équipes de tra...
PyMes: las grandes organizaciones del mañana, ¿ISO la solucion del hoy?
Placeres, A.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, we demonstrate the relevance for the companies in terms of maintaining a high competitive ability with their peers, and taking into account the requirement of their clients, trying to procure better tools based upon their financial capabilities, with particular emphasis on PyMes (small and medium-sized companies. This arises from the fact that in order to grow for a company; it should take into account the commitment and variation in this regard, in their clients. In this article the growth options of PyMes based upon the search for standardization, certification and the implementation of their processes with the aid of standard norms such as ISO 9000 are highlighted. This process should be on the basis of the level of the commitment of all their employees, as in the absence of such commitments, such processes will be viewed as unnecessary costs which will not help the growth of the company.
Guide du calcul en mécanique valider le comportement des systèmes techniques
Spenlé, Daniel
2012-01-01
Ce guide couvre l’essentiel des programmes de la Première STI2D aux sections de BTS pour les compétences liées à la mécanique. Pour prendre en compte les nouveautés pédagogiques, cette nouvelle édition évolue vers des systèmes « grand public » (robotique humanoïde, cycle trainer, power-ball…) ou des systèmes liés au développement durable(éolienne, scooter électrique…). Points forts - Un guide qui tient compte des orientations du nouveau programme de STI2D : - systèmes vibratoires ; - accéléromètres, effet gyroscopique ; - développement de l’énergétique. - Les disciplines Génie mécanique/Génie électrique sont décloisonnées: - introduction de dispositifs pluri-techniques ; - présentation d’interfaces liant la partie opérative à la partie commande ; - introduction de la conversion de l’énergie électrique en énergie mécanique et réciproquement, étude comportementale, point de fonctionnement, définition des grandeurs associées. - Le caractère expérimental, ...
Problèmes linguistiques dans le système multilingues Linguistic Problems in Multilingual Systems
Moureau M.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available La communauté scientifique est internationale. L'industrie du pétrole est internationale. Des problèmes de communication, de langage, de langue y sont rencontrés chaque jour. C'est pourquoi, bien que tranchant assez vigoureusement sur les sujets habituels de la Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole, l'article de Magdeleine Moureau et Gerald Brace sur des problèmes de linguistique ne nous a pas paru trop étranger aux préoccupations de nos lecteurs pour leur être présenté. Cet article a pour but de traiter d'abord des impossibilités théoriques de la traduction, d'évoquer ensuite les modalités pratiques de sa réalisation quotidienne et de les appliquer à l'étude des problèmes inhérents à l'élaboration d'un langage documentaire multilinguisme. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical impossibilities of translation, and then to describe the practical ways of actually translating, and to apply these ways to the task of studying problems inherent in elaborating a multilingual documentary language.
HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL
HR Division
2000-01-01
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Maximizing throughput by evaluating critical utilization paths
Weeda, P.J.
1991-01-01
Recently the relationship between batch structure, bottleneck machine and maximum throughput has been explored for serial, convergent and divergent process configurations consisting of two machines and three processes. In three of the seven possible configurations a multiple batch structure maximize
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...
Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Del Valle, María E; Enrique, Andrea V; Rosella, María A; Bruno, Fiorella; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Talevi, Alan
2015-01-01
Steviol glycosides are natural constituents of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bert. (Asteraceae) that have recently gained worldwide approval as nonnutritive sweeteners by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. Cheminformatic tools suggested that the aglycone steviol and several of its phase I metabolites were predicted as potential anticonvulsant agents effective in the seizure animal model maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test. Thus, aqueous infusion from S. rebaudiana was tested in the MES test (mice, intraperitoneal administration), confirming dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect. Afterward, isolated stevioside and rebaudioside A were tested in the MES test, with positive results. Though drug repositioning most often focuses on known therapeutics, this article illustrates the possibilities of this strategy to find new functionalities and therapeutic indications for food constituents and natural products.
Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Mussaenda philippica on animals
Kar DM; Rout SK; Moharana L; Majumdar S
2014-01-01
Objective:To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and sepals ofMussaenda philippica (M. Philippica) and its fractions(methanol, dioxin and aqueous) against pentylene tetrazole(PTZ), maximal electroshock(MES),Strychnine(STR),Picrotoxin induced convulsions at different dose levels.Methods:The anticonvulsant effect of extracts was studied by theMES,PTZ,STR andPicrotoxin-induced seizure.Results:The extract at100 and200 mg/kg, produced a significant(P<0.01) dose dependent increase in onset of convulsion compared to the control inMES,PTZ, strychnine and picrotoxin-induced seizures.Conclustions:The data obtained indicates thatHydroalcoholic extracts ofM. philippica leaves and sepals may help to control grandmal and petitmal epilepsy.
Di Ianni, Mauricio E.; del Valle, Mara E.; Enrique, Andrea V.; Rosella, Mara A.; Bruno, Fiorella; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E.
2015-01-01
Abstract Steviol glycosides are natural constituents of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bert. (Asteraceae) that have recently gained worldwide approval as nonnutritive sweeteners by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. Cheminformatic tools suggested that the aglycone steviol and several of its phase I metabolites were predicted as potential anticonvulsant agents effective in the seizure animal model maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test. Thus, aqueous infusion from S. rebaudiana was tested in the MES test (mice, intraperitoneal administration), confirming dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect. Afterward, isolated stevioside and rebaudioside A were tested in the MES test, with positive results. Though drug repositioning most often focuses on known therapeutics, this article illustrates the possibilities of this strategy to find new functionalities and therapeutic indications for food constituents and natural products. PMID:26258457
Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.
Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C
2004-04-01
We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups
M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2002-01-01
Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach
M.Rajalakshmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.
Natural selection and the maximization of fitness.
Birch, Jonathan
2016-08-01
The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the 'new' interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, on which the theorem is exactly true for any evolving population that satisfies some minimal assumptions. The second is the Formal Darwinism project, which forges links between gene frequency change and optimal strategy choice. In both cases, I argue that the results fail to establish a biologically significant maximization principle. I conclude that it may be a mistake to look for universal maximization principles justified by theory alone. A more promising approach may be to find maximization principles that apply conditionally and to show that the conditions were satisfied in the evolution of particular traits.
Bugbee, B. G.; Salisbury, F. B.
1985-01-01
All buffering agents used to stabilize pH in hydroponic research have disadvantages. Inorganic buffers are absorbed and may become phytotoxic. Solid carbonate salts temporarily mitigate decreasing pH but provide almost no protection against increasing pH, and they alter nutrient absorption. Exchange resins are more effective, but we find that they remove magnesium and manganese from solution. We have tested 2(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) as a buffering agent at concentrations of 1 and 10 mol m-3 (1 and 10 mM) with beans, corn, lettuce, tomatoes, and wheat. MES appears to be biologically inert and does not interact significantly with other solution ions. Relative growth rates among controls and MES treatments were nearly identical for each species during the trial period. The pH was stabilized by 1 mol m-3 MES. This buffer warrants further consideration in nutrient research.
The Orden de oraciones de mes arreo (Ferrara 1555 and a Bakasah composed by Abraham Usque
Herzfeld, Siegfried
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The British Library owns the only known copy of a prayer-book composed in 1555 by Abraham Usque: the Libro de Oraciones de mes arreo. Usque was well aware of the difficulties, encountered by many former Marranos still unfamiliar with Jewish liturgy, to follow the sometime long and complicated synagogue service. Abraham tried to provide a simplified version of the Siddur and abridged some part of it. In the Prologue he claimed to have presented the prayers in a plain and straight way (arreo: without the necessity of having to leaf through the book to find the continuation of the service. Abraham inserted in his Siddur a new prayer by which he asked the Lord to put an end to the sufferings of Israel, to raise up a scion of David and to restore His people to its ancient glory and dignity. The Author wanted to provide a reassuring answer to the anxieties and hopes of his generation. Likewise the Jews who left Spain in 1492, also the Portuguese Marranos who reached Ferrara towards the middle of the XVIcentury, continued to cherish the deeply rooted cultural values of their erstwhile homeland and considered their departure from Iberian Peninsula as a most catastrophic event. Abraham Usque asked the Lord to be content with the punishments already inflicted to His people and to grant His pardon to the sons of Israel who had completely abandoned every idolatrie practice.La British Library conserva la única copia conocida de un libro de oraciones compuesto en 1555 por Abraham Usque: el Libro de Oraciones de mes arreo. Usque era consciente de las dificultades que tenían muchos de los antiguos marranos, aún no familiarizados con la liturgia judía, en seguir el a veces largo y complicado servicio de la sinagoga. Abraham trató de proporcionar una versión simplificada del sidur, y lo abrevió en parte. En el Prólogo afirmó que había presentado las oraciones de un modo llano y directo (arreo, sin que hubiera necesidad de hojear el libro en busca de la
Baker, Gary A; Rachford, Aaron A; Castellano, Felix N; Baker, Sheila N
2013-04-02
The solvatochromic properties of [Pt(mesBIAN)(tda)] are studied in traditional molecular solvents and ionic liquids and duly compared along established empirical solvent parameter scales. The charge-transfer absorption band of [Pt(mesBIAN)(tda)] is determined to be primarily dependent upon solvent acidity and dipolarity. Notably, ionic liquids do not obey the same well-behaved trend as molecular solvents, highlighting the complexity and domain (nano)segregation inherent to ionic liquids.
En este último mes del año 2007 hay varias noticias importantes
Redaccion Veterinaria.org
2007-12-01
Full Text Available En este último mes del año 2007 hay varias noticias importanteshttp://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n121207/1207editorial00.pdfAsí es, pues aparte de los artículos, informamos de dos reuniones importantes de ámbito latinoamericano en las que REDVET ha participado: la Asamblea Anual o Junta de editores anual de e-revistas de las revistas que conformamos la Plataforma OpenAcces de Revistas Electrónicas Españolas y Latinoamericanas, celebrada en Madrid,en las instalaciones del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, y el I EncuentroLatinoamericano de Revistas Zootécnicas, celebrado en Córdoba en las instalaciones de la Facultad de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Córdoba. Igualmente nos hacemos eco de varias bases de datos donde REDVET está indexada y, de manera especial en el importante directorio universitario de Chile, Al día, junto con RECVET, y de la culminación plena en la Red de Revistas Científicas de AméricaLatina y el Caribe, España y Portugal (Redalyc. Igualmente, reproducimos la carta enviada en octubre pasado a la Comisión Nacional Evaluadora de la Actividad Investigadora de España en defensa de la adecuada valoración de las revistas científicas electrónicas que en conjunto firmamos con el resto de editores que integramos la Plataforma Open Access de Revistas ElectrónicasEspañolas y Latinoamericanas e-revist@ Esa y otras noticias están disponibles en el número normal de REDVET de este mes de diciembre del 2007.Ahora bien en este mes el número normal se complementa con otros números monográficos de REDVET, el Monográfico sobre Bienestar Animal, con lo que por fin podemos cumplir, antes de terminar el año, con lo avisado en la Editorial de REDVET de Julio http://www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n070707.html “Confiamos en la compresión de la mayoría de vosotros y para compensaros os adelantamos que el equipo directivo de Veterinaria.org no tomaremos vacaciones este verano para cumplir
Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms
Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais
2002-01-01
In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...
Anticonvulsant action of Dingxianning Keliji%定痫宁颗粒剂抗癫痫作用的实验研究
周大兴; 金国梁; 方伟
2001-01-01
目的：研究定痫宁颗粒剂的抗癫痫作用。方法：采用海人酸(KA)所致癫痫、最大电休克发作(maximal electroshock seizure, MES)、戊四氮最小阈发作(metrazol minimal threshold seizure, MET)以及士的宁惊厥为指标，观察定痫宁的抗癫痫作用。结果：定痫宁能显著抑制海人酸所致大鼠癫痫发作，对抗大鼠、小鼠的最大电休克发作和小鼠的戊四氮最小阈发作、士的宁的惊厥反应。结论：定痫宁具有明显的抗癫痫作用。%Objective: To observe the anticonvulsant action of Dingxianning Keliji (DXNKLJ). Methonds: The anticonvulsant action of DXNKLJ was investigated in Maximal Electroshock seizure (MES), Kainic acid (Ka)-induced convusion, strychine-induced convulsion, and Metrazol threshold seizure (MET), respectively. Results: DXNKLJ (24、16、8g/kg) had an obvious effect against MES in both mice or rats and MET in mice, had an antagonism tokainic acid、strychinine-induced convuision also. Conclusion: DXNKLJ had an obvious anticonvulsant effect.
Harada, C; Hirai, T; Fujii, Y; Harusawa, S; Kurihara, T; Kamei, C
2004-05-01
The effects of histamine H3 antagonists on amygdaloid kindled and maximal electroshock seizures in rats were studied to determine their potential as new antiepileptic drugs. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, rats were fixed to a stereotaxic apparatus and a stainless steel guide cannula for drug administration was implanted into the lateral ventricle. In amygdaloid kindled seizures, electrodes were implanted into the right amygdala and electroencephalogram was recorded bipolarly; stimulation was applied bipolarly every day by a constant current stimulator and continued until a generalized convulsion was obtained. In the maximal electroshock (MES) seizure test, electroconvulsion was induced by stimulating animals through ear-clip electrodes, and the durations of tonic and clonic seizures were measured. Thioperamide, clobenpropit, iodophenpropit, VUF5514, VUF5515 and VUF4929 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of both seizure stage and afterdischarge (AD) duration of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The duration of tonic seizure induced by MES was also inhibited by H3 antagonists, but the duration of clonic seizures were unchanged. Among the H3 antagonists tested, clobenpropit and iodophenpropit were somewhat more potent than the other drugs on amygdaloid kindled seizures and MES seizures, respectively. These results indicate that some H3 antagonists may be useful as antiepileptic drugs, especially for secondary generalized seizures and/or tonic-clonic seizures in humans.
Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements
M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu
2017-04-01
In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.
Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim
Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN
2015-01-01
3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
The maximal process of nonlinear shot noise
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2009-05-01
In the nonlinear shot noise system-model shots’ statistics are governed by general Poisson processes, and shots’ decay-dynamics are governed by general nonlinear differential equations. In this research we consider a nonlinear shot noise system and explore the process tracking, along time, the system’s maximal shot magnitude. This ‘maximal process’ is a stationary Markov process following a decay-surge evolution; it is highly robust, and it is capable of displaying both a wide spectrum of statistical behaviors and a rich variety of random decay-surge sample-path trajectories. A comprehensive analysis of the maximal process is conducted, including its Markovian structure, its decay-surge structure, and its correlation structure. All results are obtained analytically and in closed-form.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Absence of parasympathetic reactivation after maximal exercise.
de Oliveira, Tiago Peçanha; de Alvarenga Mattos, Raphael; da Silva, Rhenan Bartels Ferreira; Rezende, Rafael Andrade; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout
2013-03-01
The ability of the human organism to recover its autonomic balance soon after physical exercise cessation has an important impact on the individual's health status. Although the dynamics of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise has been studied, little is known about heart rate variability after this type of exercise. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of heart rate and heart rate variability recovery after maximal exercise in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy male subjects (21·7 ± 3·4 years; 24·0 ± 2·1 kg m(-2) ) participated in the study. The experimental protocol consisted of an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer, until maximal voluntary exhaustion. After the test, recovery R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min. From the absolute differences between peak heart rate values and the heart rate values at 1 and 5 min of the recovery, the heart rate recovery was calculated. Postexercise heart rate variability was analysed from calculations of the SDNN and RMSSD indexes, in 30-s windows (SDNN(30s) and RMSSD(30s) ) throughout recovery. One and 5 min after maximal exercise cessation, the heart rate recovered 34·7 (±6·6) and 75·5 (±6·1) bpm, respectively. With regard to HRV recovery, while the SDNN(30s) index had a slight increase, RMSSD(30s) index remained totally suppressed throughout the recovery, suggesting an absence of vagal modulation reactivation and, possibly, a discrete sympathetic withdrawal. Therefore, it is possible that the main mechanism associated with the fall of HR after maximal exercise is sympathetic withdrawal or a vagal tone restoration without vagal modulation recovery. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Maximizing band gaps in plate structures
Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...
Maximal and Minimal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana SANWONG; Boorapa SINGHA; R.P.SULLIVAN
2009-01-01
In 2006,Sanwong and Sullivan described the maximal congruences on the semigroup N consisting of all non-negative integers under standard multiplication,and on the semigroup T(X) consisting of all total transformations of an infinite set X under composition. Here,we determine all maximal congruences on the semigroup Zn under multiplication modulo n. And,when Y X,we do the same for the semigroup T(X,Y) consisting of all elements of T(X) whose range is contained in Y. We also characterise the minimal congruences on T(X,Y).
Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics
1987-03-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
Microbiota mesófila aeróbia contaminante do leite UHT
Juliana Ramos Pereira
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A produção nacional de leite tratado por ultra-alta temperatura (UHT em 2011 foi de 5,81 bilhões de litros, representando assim 78% do leite fluido consumido no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos (AM em leite UHT, verificando o atendimento a padrões microbiológicos legais, classificando os grupos encontrados segundo suas características morfo-tintoriais e discutindo a metodologia de enumeração determinada pela Instrução Normativa 62 do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Das 60 amostras estudadas, 23 (38,3% apresentaram resultados acima do padrão de 100 UFC/mL estabelecido pela IN 370 do MAPA para micro-organismos AM. Quando o Bacillus sporothermodurans foi considerado, as contagens máximas aumentaram 71,2% nas amostras integrais e 31,0% nas amostras desnatadas. Considerando-se as maiores diluições semeadas em que se obteve crescimento, foi possível o isolamento de 462 colônias de AM que, na coloração de Gram representaram 64,3% de bactérias Gram positivas e 9,5%, de bactérias Gram negativas. Fungos filamentosos e leveduras somaram 26,2%. Entre os Gram positivos predominaram cocos, B. sporothermodurans e, outros bacilos. Entre os Gram negativos predominaram os cocobacilos e os bacilos. Como as amostras representam lotes de leite UHT de importantes marcas do sul do país, os resultados demonstram que 11 das 15 marcas estudadas apresentaram excesso de AM, quando comparadas com o parâmetro legal. Os grupos de microrganismos presentes, sobretudo os Gram negativos que são sensíveis à temperatura, indicam possíveis falhas no processamento e/ou contaminação pós-processamento.
Problèmes entomologiques en replantation des palmeraies et des cocoteraies
Mariau Dominique
2000-03-01
Full Text Available C’est aux alentours de la vingt-cinquième année que l’on envisage de replanter une palmeraie. C’est en effet vers cet âge que commencent à se poser des problèmes de récolte en raison de la taille des palmiers. En un quart de siècle, l’amélioration génétique aura suffisamment fait de progrès pour escompter un gain de production de l’ordre de 20%. Enfin, dans certaines situations, plusieurs maladies ont pu affecter les vieilles palmeraies. Avec de 15 à 25% d’arbres manquants, principalement lorsque ceux-ci se présentent sous la forme de taches, une diminution de la production se fait nettement sentir. Cela peut, par exemple, être le cas avec les maladies de la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest, lorsque la palmeraie n’a pas été plantée avec du matériel végétal tolérant, ou du ganoderma en Malaisie. Le renouvellement des cocoteraies se fait avec un espace de temps beaucoup plus long. En effet, la récolte des noix peut se faire au sol et la hauteur des cocotiers n’est donc pas un facteur limitant. Par ailleurs, la majorité des cocoteraies étant sous la forme de petites plantations villageoises, les agriculteurs rechignent toujours à abattre leurs cocotiers, même si des semences potentiellement plus productives leurs sont proposées. Ce sont les raisons pour lesquelles les cocoteraies de 50 ans et plus représentent la règle. L’abattage d’une plantation de palmiers à huile ou de cocotiers constitue naturellement un changement brutal de l’environnement, ce qui a des conséquences importantes notamment sur l’entomofaune, parmi laquelle des ravageurs majeurs ainsi que leurs ennemis naturels.
Islam Farah
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern in Canada but despite this, the available epidemiological data on both rates and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is limited. The present study assessed the prevalence and predictors of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy of women living in Canada from 2005-2006 who had a singleton live birth and whose child remained in their care 5-9 months following birth. Prevalence of maternal alcohol consumption was examined across the Canadian provinces. Methods The analysis was based on the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, a population-based survey that assessed pregnancy, delivery and postnatal experiences of mothers and their children between November 2005 and May 2006. The main outcome variable assessed was ever drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The sample of mothers who drank during pregnancy consisted mainly of low to moderate level-alcohol drinkers (95.8%, while only 1.7% of the sample were heavy drinkers (>1 drink per day. Socio-economic factors, demographic factors, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy related factors that proved to be significant at the bivariate level were considered for a logistic regression analysis. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results Analysis of 5882 mothers, weighted to represent 72,767 Canadian women, found that 10.8% of women drank alcohol at some point during their pregnancies. This mainly reflects prevalence of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption. Prevalence of drinking alcohol during pregnancy was 13.8% in Eastern-Central provinces, 7.8% in Western Provinces-British Columbia, 4.1% in Eastern-Atlantic provinces and 4.0% in Western-Prairie Provinces. Utilizing alcohol during gestation was significantly associated with several important factors including marital status, smoking status, reaction to the pregnancy and
Incidencia de microorganismos mesófilos en la producción del agua de bebida envasada
Y. R. Corredor
1994-09-01
Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar una posible incidencia de microorganismos mesófilos en la producción del agua de bebida envasada, se analizaron los factores más importantes implicados en la producción. Para determinar la calidad del agua, se almacenó en diferentes tipos de envases (policarbonato, vidrio, polietileno de alta densidad (PAD, polietileno de baja densidad (PBD y polipropileno coextruído con polietileno (PCP, y posteriormente se realizaron recuentos totales para microorganismos mesófilos y número más probable paracoliformes totales y Pseudomona aeruginosa obteniéndose menores recuentos en el agua envasada en vidrio. Posteriormente, se compararon los tratamientos de descontaminación del agua (cloraciónozonización utilizando dos tipos de envase (PBD y PCP, para determinar el material y tratamiento que conservan mejor las características organolépticas-fisicoquimicas y la menor incidencia de microorganismos mesófilos durante el tiempo de almacenamiento del producto. El envase más adecuado es el de PCP de calibre 2,5 con el tratamiento de cloro 0,6 pm; también se demostró que el crecimiento bacteria no fue un producto más del almacenamiento y el tipo de envase, ya que al realizar el muestre0 de los sistemas de producción, el agua fue siempre potable. Finalmente, se realizó un panel de saboreo, obteniéndose una preferencia del 80% de los encuestados, hacia el envase de PCP con el tratamiento de cloro.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.
Schmitt, David E.
This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…
MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM OF ABSTRACT ECONOMY
刘心歌; 蔡海涛
2001-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for a new type of preference correspondences which are Qθ-majorized is given. Then some existence theorems of equilibrium for abstract economy and qualitative game in which the constraint or preference correspondences are Qθ-majorized are obtained in locally convex topological vector spaces.
DNA solution of the maximal clique problem.
Ouyang, Q; Kaplan, P D; Liu, S; Libchaber, A
1997-10-17
The maximal clique problem has been solved by means of molecular biology techniques. A pool of DNA molecules corresponding to the total ensemble of six-vertex cliques was built, followed by a series of selection processes. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main qu
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing throughput in an automated test system
朱君
2007-01-01
@@ Overview This guide is collection of whitepapers designed to help you develop test systems that lower your cost, increase your test throughput, and can scale with future requirements. This whitepaper provides strategies for maximizing system throughput. To download the complete developers guide (120 pages), visit ni. com/automatedtest.
The gaugings of maximal D=6 supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2008-01-01
We construct the most general gaugings of the maximal D = 6 supergravity. The theory is ( 2, 2) supersymmetric, and possesses an on-shell SO( 5, 5) duality symmetry which plays a key role in determining its couplings. The field content includes 16 vector fields that carry a chiral spinor representat
WEIGHTED BOUNDEDNESS OF A ROUGH MAXIMAL OPERATOR
无
2000-01-01
In this note the authors give the weighted Lp-boundedness fora class of maximal singular integral operators with rough kernel.The result in this note is an improvement and extension ofthe result obtained by Chen and Lin in 1990.
Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.
Brown, Ronald A.
1992-01-01
Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2003-01-01
The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem
Shinji Yamashita
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.
Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2008-01-01
For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Maximally entangled mixed states made easy
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2006-01-01
We show that, contrarily to a recent claim [M. Ziman and V. Bu\\v{z}ek, Phys. Rev. A. \\textbf{72}, 052325 (2005)], it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local nonunital quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems
ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang
2009-01-01
We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults.
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults
Mako eOkanda
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Mes soixante ans y sus referentes políticos y literarios: las memorias en verso de Constance de Salm
Ángela Magdalena Romera Pintor
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This article studies Constance de Salm’s memoirs, published in 1833 and entitled Mes soixante ans. In her memoirs composed in verse the author recallsher feminist discourse in support of women’s rights, as she did all her life. We will unveil the political and literary references of the poetic discourse, which recalls the moresignificant events in France in a period of great change: from the end of the 18thcentury and through the early part of the 19thcentury. We will pay particular attention to the Empire period, with which Constance de Salm’s works have been consistently associated
Sistemas de Información Gerencial en los procesos de negocio de las PyMEs de Jujuy
Castillo, César A.; Herrera Cognetta, Analía; Rico, Lía G.; Salva, Sergio; Sarmiento, Julián; Tejerina, Mario; Villarrubia, Laura R.
2013-01-01
El equipo de investigación ha planteado como fundamento para estudio e investigación, la siguiente hipótesis: “la implementación de Sistemas de Información Gerencial en las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas de la provincia de Jujuy, aportará grandes ventajas para su eficiente administración y crecimiento”. A fin de refutar o confirmar ésta, se ha iniciado el correspondiente relevamiento en las PyMEs de la provincia, en lo concerniente a su situación actual, analizando además, sus necesidades de in...
Des systèmes alimentaires articulés et transversaux pour une sécurité alimentaire
2013-01-01
Coordination du numéro : Damien Conaré (Chaire Unesco Alimentations du monde/Montpellier SupAgro, France), Steve Déry ([VertigO]/ Université Laval, Canada), Patrick Mundler (Université Laval, Canada), Pascal Thériault (Université McGill, Canada) et Eric Duchemin ([VertigO]/UQÀM, Canada) [VertigO] - La revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement prépare un nouveau dossier qui paraîtra en mai 2014. Pour ce dossier, nous recherchons des analyses et des recherches sur les thèmes de l’agricu...
CONSIDERACIONES PRÁCTICAS PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL CAPITAL DE TRABAJO EN LAS PyMES INNOVADORAS
Hugo Alfonso Vargas Arévalo
2003-01-01
Las PyMES se presentan en la actualidad como las principales empresas generadoras de empleo en Colombia. Son además un segmento empresarial de gran importancia por su contribución al PIB. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas adolecen de la gestión necesaria para convertirlas en unidades innovadoras, autosostenibles y en crecimiento. Hay, por ejemplo, una gran dificultad para obtener financiación, para vender, para generar estrategias de asociación, para gestionar recursos humanos. Este artícu...
Modelo de predicción de quiebra en micro y pequeñas empresas (MiPyMEs)
2014-01-01
[ESP] La presente investigación sobre la predicción de fracaso empresarial tiene como objetivo aplicar y validar el modelo ponderado de la valoración de riesgo RPV en las micro y pequeñas empresas (MiPyMEs) de la región sur del estado de Hidalgo (México), a fin de identificar las variables relacionadas con el proceso de quiebra. Para alcanzar este objetivo, el estudio se propone la contrastación empírica del (RPV) de Mosqueda 2010. Los resultados arrojan información importante que permite cor...
Etude comparative de différents superalliages base Ni pour ressorts de systèmes de maintien
Ter-Ovanessian, Benoît
2011-01-01
Les systèmes de maintien situés sur les structures assemblages-combustibles des réacteurs nucléaires à eau sous pression (REP) sont constitués d'un empilement de lames qui agissent à la fois, comme élément accommodant les incompatibilités thermiques résultant des différences de coefficients de dilatation Acier, alliages de zirconium et principalement, comme système permettant de limiter les effets hydrodynamiques induits par le passage du fluide caloporteur à travers les assemblages. Actuelle...
Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Oyen, Wim JG; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C.
2012-01-01
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], high specific activity of 111In-labelled tracers will allow administration of low amounts of tracer to prevent receptor saturation and/or side effects. To increase the specific activity, we studied the effect of the buffer used during the labelling procedure: NaAc, NH4Ac, HEPES and MES buffer. The effect of the ageing of the 111InCl3 stock and cadmium contamination, the decay product of 111In, was also examined in th...
Gestión de calidad en la construcción del software : Un enfoque para PyMEs
Bertone, Rodolfo Alfredo; Pasini, Ariel C.; Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Esponda, Silvia; Pesado, Patricia Mabel
2006-01-01
Las normas clásicas de establecimiento de calidad, CMM o ISO, apuntan a controlar el desarrollo del software de una manera integral poniendo énfasis en cada una de las etapas de la construcción de los componentes de una aplicación. Estos modelos presentan dificultades para ser aplicados a PyMES (Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas), por lo altos costos y complejidad de la infraestructura requerida para su aplicación. Es por esto que es útil la consideración de adecuaciones de modelos alternativos ex...
BUSY: Una plataforma para la gestión de reservas por hora en PyMes
González Cabrero, Juan Carlos
2016-01-01
El objetivo de este proyecto consiste en el desarrollo de una plataforma software enfocada a pequeñas y medianas empresas (PyMEs), para llevar a cabo la organización de servicios ofrecidos a los clientes. buSy es una herramienta cómoda y sencilla para la gestión de reservas y control de horarios con un ámbito de negocio generalista, ya que su enfoque global permite la utilización de esta aplicación a una amplia gama de categorías de empresa. Se trata de un proyecto web desar...
Andreas Rechtsteiner
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Methylation of histone H3K36 in higher eukaryotes is mediated by multiple methyltransferases. Set2-related H3K36 methyltransferases are targeted to genes by association with RNA Polymerase II and are involved in preventing aberrant transcription initiation within the body of genes. The targeting and roles of the NSD family of mammalian H3K36 methyltransferases, known to be involved in human developmental disorders and oncogenesis, are not known. We used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP to investigate the targeting and roles of the Caenorhabditis elegans NSD homolog MES-4, which is maternally provided to progeny and is required for the survival of nascent germ cells. ChIP analysis in early C. elegans embryos revealed that, consistent with immunostaining results, MES-4 binding sites are concentrated on the autosomes and the leftmost approximately 2% (300 kb of the X chromosome. MES-4 overlies the coding regions of approximately 5,000 genes, with a modest elevation in the 5' regions of gene bodies. Although MES-4 is generally found over Pol II-bound genes, analysis of gene sets with different temporal-spatial patterns of expression revealed that Pol II association with genes is neither necessary nor sufficient to recruit MES-4. In early embryos, MES-4 associates with genes that were previously expressed in the maternal germ line, an interaction that does not require continued association of Pol II with those loci. Conversely, Pol II association with genes newly expressed in embryos does not lead to recruitment of MES-4 to those genes. These and other findings suggest that MES-4, and perhaps the related mammalian NSD proteins, provide an epigenetic function for H3K36 methylation that is novel and likely to be unrelated to ongoing transcription. We propose that MES-4 transmits the memory of gene expression in the parental germ line to offspring and that this memory role is critical for the PGCs to execute a proper germline program.
Andreas Rechtsteiner
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Methylation of histone H3K36 in higher eukaryotes is mediated by multiple methyltransferases. Set2-related H3K36 methyltransferases are targeted to genes by association with RNA Polymerase II and are involved in preventing aberrant transcription initiation within the body of genes. The targeting and roles of the NSD family of mammalian H3K36 methyltransferases, known to be involved in human developmental disorders and oncogenesis, are not known. We used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP to investigate the targeting and roles of the Caenorhabditis elegans NSD homolog MES-4, which is maternally provided to progeny and is required for the survival of nascent germ cells. ChIP analysis in early C. elegans embryos revealed that, consistent with immunostaining results, MES-4 binding sites are concentrated on the autosomes and the leftmost approximately 2% (300 kb of the X chromosome. MES-4 overlies the coding regions of approximately 5,000 genes, with a modest elevation in the 5' regions of gene bodies. Although MES-4 is generally found over Pol II-bound genes, analysis of gene sets with different temporal-spatial patterns of expression revealed that Pol II association with genes is neither necessary nor sufficient to recruit MES-4. In early embryos, MES-4 associates with genes that were previously expressed in the maternal germ line, an interaction that does not require continued association of Pol II with those loci. Conversely, Pol II association with genes newly expressed in embryos does not lead to recruitment of MES-4 to those genes. These and other findings suggest that MES-4, and perhaps the related mammalian NSD proteins, provide an epigenetic function for H3K36 methylation that is novel and likely to be unrelated to ongoing transcription. We propose that MES-4 transmits the memory of gene expression in the parental germ line to offspring and that this memory role is critical for the PGCs to execute a proper germline program.
Visual Quality Management System Based on MES%基于MES的可视化质量管理系统
赵栋; 陈呈频; 兰秀菊; 汤洪涛
2011-01-01
According to the problem of poor intuition and interaction on workshop quality management system, difficult to manage quality in the manufacturing process effectively, the paper presented a kind of workshop manufacturing process'visual quality management system based on MES.Based on study the architecture, functional model and work processes of the system, the visualization, real-time and dynamic quality management of the manufacturing process was obtained.[Ch,8 fig.8 ref.]%针对车间质量管理系统直观性交互性差,难以有效地对制造过程质量进行管理.提出了制造执行系统(MES)环境下的可视化质量管理系统(Visual Quality Management System,VQMS)的概念,研究了基于MES的可视化质量管理系统的体系结构、功能模型和业务实现流程,实现对制造过程质量的可视化、实时化和动态化管理.
La science de l’amour dans les poèmes et dans les contes soufis
Dr Natália Maria Lopes Nunes
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Cet article est le résultat introductoire du travail de recherche sur l’amour divin à partir de deux grands maîtres soufis, Ibn Arabi et Djalal ad Din Rumi, qui ont développé dans leurs poèmes et contes ce qu’on peut appeler la Science de l’Amour. Rumi, considéré comme l'un des maîtres de la "Science de l'Amour", l’a répandue à travers des poèmes mystiques et de la danse des derviches. Ibn Arabi, connu comme le "maître maximum" du Soufisme a saisi la sagesse sur l'amour dans le Traité d’Amour. Les deux amoureux de Dieu, ont exprimé leur sagesse sur l'Amour et la Beauté du Bien-Aimé, l’extase de l'âme dans l'union entre l'homme et Dieu.
Mitschka, Sibylle; Ulas, Thomas; Goller, Tobias; Schneider, Karin; Egert, Angela; Mertens, Jérôme; Brüstle, Oliver; Schorle, Hubert; Beyer, Marc; Klee, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Günther, Patrick; Bassler, Kevin; Schultze, Joachim L.; Kolanus, Waldemar
2015-01-01
Regulatory networks for differentiation and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells have long been suggested to be mutually exclusive. However, with the identification of many new components of these networks ranging from epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational to even post-translational mechanisms, the cellular states of pluripotency and early differentiation might not be strictly bi-modal, but differentiating stem cells appear to go through phases of simultaneous expression of stemness and differentiation genes. Translational regulators such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) might be prime candidates for guiding a cell from pluripotency to differentiation. Using Trim71, one of two members of the Tripartite motif (Trim) protein family with RNA binding activity expressed in murine ES cells, we demonstrate that Trim71 is not involved in regulatory networks of pluripotency but regulates neural differentiation. Loss of Trim71 in mES cells leaves stemness and self-maintenance of these cells intact, but many genes required for neural development are up-regulated at the same time. Concordantly, Trim71−/− mES show increased neural marker expression following treatment with retinoic acid. Our findings strongly suggest that Trim71 keeps priming steps of differentiation in check, which do not pre-require a loss of the pluripotency network in ES cells. PMID:26057209
Évaluation des services rendus par les écosystèmes en France
Philippe Blancher
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Cet article rend compte de la méthode d’évaluation des services écosystémiques appliquée au territoire français dans le cadre d’une approche exploratoire. S’inscrivant dans le sillage du ‘‘Millennium Ecosystem Assessment’’ (MA lancé par l’ONU, l’application de la démarche du MA à un territoire donné a conduit à l’élaboration de nouveaux outils d’analyse et de mesure des interactions entre nature et activités humaines à plusieurs échelles territoriales, à travers une projection cartographique des écosystèmes sur l’ensemble du territoire, un recensement des services rendus par les écosystèmes en France et une méthodologie pour leur quantification.This article introduces a method for the assessment of ecosystem services on the French territory. Following the U.N.-initiated Millennium Ecosystem Assessment framework, the implementation of an ecosystem assessment on a specific territory led to the conception of new tools for the analysis and the measurement of interactions between nature and human activities at different territorial scales, through the mapping of ecosystems, an identification of ecosystem services on the French territory and a methodology for their quantification.
Martínez, Daniel; Orozco, Gustavo; Rincón, Sandra; Gil, Iván
2010-11-01
alpha-Methyl esters sulfonates (alpha-MES) are anionic surfactants that are derived from biorenewable resources, offering interesting environmental and chemical properties for application in the detergent industry. A simulation of their production process was conducted using a commercial production process currently used for palm oil. Results, prices of raw materials were submitted to economic analysis, and final MES price was compared with available data for linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (LAS) prices. The results for substances properties and product streams obtained from simulation were reliable in agreement to real values. It was found that increasing methyl ester national price by 20%, 50% and the equivalent to linear alkyl benzene price, the final price of alpha-methyl ester sulfonates was lower than the current price of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. The capital cost and payout period for a production capacity of 49,000tons of surfactant per year were obtained. Results indicate that the process is economically feasible and can be applied to palm oil-based industries in Colombia.
Mitschka, Sibylle; Ulas, Thomas; Goller, Tobias; Schneider, Karin; Egert, Angela; Mertens, Jérôme; Brüstle, Oliver; Schorle, Hubert; Beyer, Marc; Klee, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Günther, Patrick; Bassler, Kevin; Schultze, Joachim L; Kolanus, Waldemar
2015-06-09
Regulatory networks for differentiation and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells have long been suggested to be mutually exclusive. However, with the identification of many new components of these networks ranging from epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational to even post-translational mechanisms, the cellular states of pluripotency and early differentiation might not be strictly bi-modal, but differentiating stem cells appear to go through phases of simultaneous expression of stemness and differentiation genes. Translational regulators such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) might be prime candidates for guiding a cell from pluripotency to differentiation. Using Trim71, one of two members of the Tripartite motif (Trim) protein family with RNA binding activity expressed in murine ES cells, we demonstrate that Trim71 is not involved in regulatory networks of pluripotency but regulates neural differentiation. Loss of Trim71 in mES cells leaves stemness and self-maintenance of these cells intact, but many genes required for neural development are up-regulated at the same time. Concordantly, Trim71(-/-) mES show increased neural marker expression following treatment with retinoic acid. Our findings strongly suggest that Trim71 keeps priming steps of differentiation in check, which do not pre-require a loss of the pluripotency network in ES cells.
Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval
Dahab, Eiman Abou El
2014-01-01
The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization
Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew
2012-01-01
Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...
Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.
Choey, M; Weigend, A S
1997-08-01
While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.
Maximally Symmetric Spacetimes emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations
Bravetti, A; Quevedo, H
2015-01-01
In this work we prove that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity emerge from the geometric structure of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic fluctuation theory. To present our argument, we begin by showing that the pseudo-Riemannian structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space is a solution to the vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity with a cosmological constant. Then, we use the geometry of equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's Field Equations -- Minkowski, de-Sitter and Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes -- correspond to thermodynamic fluctuations. Moreover, we argue that these might be the only possible solutions that can be derived in this manner. Thus, the results presented here are the first concrete examples of spacetimes effectively emerging from the thermodynamic limit over an unspecified microscopic theory without any further assumptions.
Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity
Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default
Lim, Thomas
2008-01-01
We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.
Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique
2011-01-01
This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...
Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests
Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric
2014-01-01
We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...
Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings
Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna
2014-01-01
We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.
Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M
2011-01-01
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance.
Shenoy, A K; Miyahara, J T; Swinyard, E A; Kupferberg, H J
1982-08-01
The 1.5-benzodiazepine (clobazam), the 1,4-benzodiazepine (diazepam), and two nonbenzodiazepine antiepileptic drugs (phenobarbital and valproate) were evaluated in mice and rats with a battery of well-standardized anticonvulsant test procedures. The results obtained indicate that clobazam and valproate exhibit a wider range of experimental anticonvulsant activity than either diazepam or phenobarbital. Except for clobazam by the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in rats, clobazam and valproate are effective in nontoxic doses against MES and all four chemically induced seizures (Metrazol, bicuculline, picrotoxin, and strychnine). Clobazam is effective by the MES test in rats only in doses that exceed the median minimal toxic dose. Phenobarbital is effective against all of the above tests, but minimal toxic doses must be employed to prevent strychnine seizures. Diazepam, on the other hand, is effective in nontoxic doses against seizures induced by Metrazol, bicuculline, and picrotoxin, but protects animals from maximal electroshock and strychnine seizures only when given in toxic doses. When compared on the basis of protective indices (PI = TD50/ED50) calculated from intraperitoneal data, the PIs for clobazam were 1.6 to 13 times higher than those for diazepam. Overall, except for the MES test in rats, the PIs for clobazam were from 1.5 to 44 times higher than those for any of the other three substances. With respect to the MES test in rats, the PI for clobazam was 10.8 times higher than that for diazepam; however, the PIs for phenobarbital and valproate were 3.5 and 4.4 times higher, respectively, than that for clobazam. These data suggest that the spectrum of anticonvulsant activity for the 1,5-benzodiazepine (clobazam) is superior to that for the 1,4-benzodiazepine (diazepam). Also, the broad experimental profile of anticonvulsant activity of clobazam agrees well with its reported broad clinical efficacy.
Research on MES of Discrete Manufacturing Enterprise Based on AM and LP%面向AM和LP的离散制造业MES研究
张成磊; 刘红军; 王迪
2012-01-01
通过对敏捷制造和精益生产的研究,指出离散制造业需要运用制造执行系统来实现敏捷制造和精益生产,给出了制造执行系统应具备的功能,构建了基于SOA的MES架构并以CG公司为例进行了应用分析.%Based on the analysis of agile manufacturing and lean production, it points out that the discrete manufacturing needs to use MES to realize agile manufacturing and lean production. It gives the MES functions for discrete manufacturing enterprise, and builds the architecture of MES based on SOA.
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.
Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia
2017-01-01
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in
Brozovic, Anamaria; Duran, George E.; Wang, Yan C; Francisco, E. Brian; Sikic, Branimir I.
2015-01-01
We studied the role of miRNA-200 family members in cellular sensitivity to paclitaxel and carboplatin, using two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and MES-OV, and their paclitaxel resistant variants OVCAR-3/TP and MES-OV/TP. Both resistant variants display a strong epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, with marked decreases in expression of miR-200c and miR-141 in OVCAR-3/TP, and down-regulation of all five members of the miR-200 family in MES-OV/TP. Lentiviral transfection of inhibitors of miR-200c or miR-141 in parental OVCAR-3 triggered EMT and rendered the cells resistant to paclitaxel and carboplatin. Conversely, the infection of OVCAR-3/TP cells with retroviral particles carrying the miR-200ab429 and 200c141 clusters triggered a partial mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). This partial MET was not sufficient to re-sensitize OVCAR-3/TP cells to paclitaxel. However, the miR-200c/miR-141 cluster transfectants became 6-8× resistant to carboplatin, an unexpected result, whereas miR-200a/miR-200b/miR-429 had no effect. Transfecting the OVCAR-3/TP GFP cells with specific miRNA mimics confirmed these data. MiR-200c and miR-141 mimics conferred resistance to carboplatin in MES-OV/TP cells, similar to OVCAR-3/TP, but sensitized MES-OV to paclitaxel. Several genes involved in balancing oxidative stress were altered in OVCAR-3/TP 200c141 cells compared to controls. The miR-200 family plays major, cell-context dependent roles in regulating EMT and sensitivity to carboplatin and paclitaxel in OVCAR-3 and MES-OV cells. PMID:26025631
Dhande Priti
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives : To study the effect of oral magnesium oxide supplementation alone and on the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the animal models of maximal electroshock seizures (MES and chemically (pentylenetetrazole [PTZ]-induced seizures. Methods : Healthy male albino rats were given magnesium oxide (MgO supplementation orally in various doses (500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg /day for 4 weeks (day 1 to day 28. On day 0 and day 29, response to MES (180 mA for 0.2 s was tested 1 h after pre-administration of phenytoin or carbamazepine orally. Similarly, in the other groups, the response to PTZ 40 mg/kg i.p. was tested 1 h after pre-administration of oral sodium valproate. Results : Oral administration of MgO in a low dose (500 mg/kg for 4 weeks in healthy rats appears to exert protective effect against MES. High oral doses of MgO (750 and 1000 mg/kg appear to enhance the activity of phenytoin and carbamazepine in the MES model. MgO supplementation was seen to decrease the latency of PTZ-induced seizures. Conclusion : The dose of oral MgO appears to have an inverse relation with the protective effect in MES-induced seizure model. High doses of MgO supplementation given orally appear to enhance the activity of standard anti-epileptic drugs in the MES-induced seizure model.
Poulten, Rebecca C; Page, Michael J; Algarra, Andrés G; Le Roy, Jennifer J; López, Isidoro; Carter, Emma; Llobet, Antoni; Macgregor, Stuart A; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Murugesu, Muralee; Whittlesey, Michael K
2013-09-18
The two-coordinate cationic Ni(I) bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Ni(6-Mes)2]Br (1) [6-Mes =1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene] has been structurally characterized and displays a highly linear geometry with a C-Ni-C angle of 179.27(13)°. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the five occupied metal-based orbitals are split in an approximate 2:1:2 pattern. Significant magnetic anisotropy results from this orbital degeneracy, leading to single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior.
Redes Sociales, una estrategia corporativa para las PyMES de la región de Guaymas Sonora México
Valdez Juárez, Luis Enrique; Rascón Ruiz, Jesús Antonio; Ramos Esocbar, Elva Alicia; Huerta Gaxiola, Jorge Enrique
2012-01-01
[ESP] Las Redes Sociales son una alternativa para las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PyMEs) de la región Guaymas-San Carlos, Sonora, México para conquistar mayor presencia en el mercado. El presente trabajo se planteó como objetivo conocer qué tanto estas organizaciones han utilizados las redes sociales y los beneficios que han logrado, así como proponer estrategias que mejoren su desempeño. En la metodología, el estudio se enfocó a las PyMEs del sector comercio y servicios. Se aplicó un cuest...
Coquil, Xavier
2014-01-01
Les vertus agricoles et environnementales des systèmes de polyculture élevage autonomes sont aujourd'hui reconnues par la recherche et les politiques publiques : par leur moindre consommation en intrants (engrais, pesticides mécanisation...), et par les recyclages de matières entre cultures et élevage, ces systèmes restent productifs tout en limitant les impacts sur l'environnement. Toutefois, leur public reste confidentiel : le chemin de la réduction voir de l'abandon des intrants nécessite ...
Ho, Anh Tai
2009-01-01
Cette thèse étudie la possibilité d'appliquer les techniques de modulations multiporteuses de type OFDM dans les futurs systèmes de communications par satellite. Elle traite notamment du problème de synchronisation au niveau récepteur pour les systèmes de diffusion par satellite en bande Ka. L'objectif est de proposer une structure de réception ayant besoin du moins de ressources possibles pour synchroniser afin d'optimiser l'efficacité spectrale du système et obtenir un gain par rapport à un...
Sweet-Lecercle, Ann
2016-01-01
« De grands dieux naquirent d’un calembour », écrit Valéry. C’est Terence Cave, dans son livre The Cornucopian Text : Problems of Writing in the French Renaissance, qui le cite à propos du Quart Livre de Rabelais. Si, selon T. Cave, cela constitue un « problème » dans le contexte français, en Angleterre, un demi-siècle plus tard, il s’agit d’un principe de création fort qui permet à Shakespeare de faire la première tentative d’envergure, dans son œuvre, pour mettre en scène des fantômes. Il s...
面向柴油机制造企业基于 MES 的车间单元调度探究%Research on diesel engine manufactory workshop scheduling based on MES
苏翔; 潘莹; 闫园园
2013-01-01
针对柴油机制造企业产品结构复杂、加工制造周期长、设备利用率低以及生产过程中人为调度密集，底层信息不能及时反馈等现状，提出了面向柴油机制造企业基于 MES 的车间单元调度系统。首先分析了系统的体系结构，调度流程以及实现功能，在此基础上建立了车间单元调度的多目标模型，并进一步采用基于 TOC 的遗传-分散搜索混合算法进行求解，使车间单元调度系统更具科学性和实用性。%According to the diesel engine products with complicated structure,long processing cycle,low utilization rate of equipment,intensive artificial scheduling and the underlying information without feedback,the diesel engine manufactory workshop scheduling system based on MES is proposed.Firstly, this paper analyzes the structure of the system,the scheduling process and functions.On this basis,we established a multi-objective model to the workshop scheduling,and further we used genetic-scatter search algorithm based on TOC to solve the problem,which makes the workshop scheduling system more scientifically and practically.
Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment
Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs. The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n=23 performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT, time to achieve it (tPTI, contractile impulse (CI, root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS, and rate of torque development (RTD, in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m, RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s−1versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s−1, and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms. We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.
Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R
2002-11-01
Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...
ON THE SPACES OF THE MAXIMAL POINTS
梁基华; 刘应明
2003-01-01
For a continuous domain D, some characterization that the convex powerdomain CD is adomain hull of Max(CD) is given in terms of compact subsets of D. And in this case, it isproved that the set of the maximal points Max(CD) of CD with the relative Scott topology ishomeomorphic to the set of all Scott compact subsets of Max(D) with the topology induced bythe Hausdorff metric derived from a metric on Max(D) when Max(D) is metrizable.
Understanding of English Contracts though Relation Maxims
XU Chi-ying; JIANG Li-hui
2013-01-01
Contract is the legal evidence of the concerning parties of business. And this lead to its unique characteristics:technical terms, archaism, borrowed words, juxtaposition, and abbreviation. The understanding of contracts is of vital importance for each party, because it concerns the share of interests. In order to avoid ambiguity that some words or sentence in English contracts may lead to, and achieve“best relevance and least effort”of communication, this paper, by applying relation maxim, deeply analyze how to understand English contracts though selection of words, modification, the complexity and simplicity of sentence.
Maximizing results in reconstruction of cheek defects.
Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
2009-07-01
The face is exceedingly important, as it is the medium through which individuals interact with the rest of society. Reconstruction of cheek defects after trauma or surgery is a continuing challenge for surgeons who wish to reliably restore facial function and appearance. Important in aesthetic facial reconstruction are the aesthetic unit principles, by which the face can be divided in central facial units (nose, lips, eyelids) and peripheral facial units (cheeks, forehead, chin). This article summarizes established options for reconstruction of cheek defects and provides an overview of several modifications as well as tips and tricks to avoid complications and maximize aesthetic results.
Maximizing policy learning in international committees
Nedergaard, Peter
2007-01-01
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
Sciences pour les Exoplanètes et les Systèmes Planétaires
Roques, F.; Balança, C.; Bénilan, Y.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Marcq, E.; Navarro, T.; Renner, S.; Schneider, J.; Schott, C.
2016-12-01
The websites Sciences pour les Exoplanètes et les Systèmes Planétaires (SESP) and Exoplanètes present planetary and exoplanetary sciences with courses, interactive tools, and a didactic catalogue connected to the Encyclopedia exoplanet.eu. These websites have been created in the context of the LabEx ESEP (Exploration Spatiale des Environnements Planétaires) and they are directed towards undergraduate level. They can be used as support for face-to-face courses and self-training. The websites will be translated and will be used to create e-learning degree courses. SESP: http://sesp.esep.pro/fr/index.html EXOPLANETES: http://exoplanetes.esep.pro/
Mario Ernesto
2003-07-01
Full Text Available En medio de la crisis de desempleo, pobreza y desigualdad que afronta Colombia, las pequeñas y medianas empresas se han convertido en una alternativa importante de generación de trabajo y valor agregado. Sin embargo, éstas deben aprovechar las ventajas que se otorgaron al país en el marco del ATPDEA, por medio del cual los Estados Unidos concedió preferencias arancelarias a más de cinco mil seiscientos productos que estuvieron vigentes durante más de diez años, y que luego, a partir de septiembre del 2002, se ampliaron en más de seiscientos productos. En este trabajo se presentan los rubros de la lista adicional, que presentan posibilidades de exportación a los Estados Unidos por parte de las PyMES de Bogotá y Cundinamarca.
Contribution au domaine de la conception des Systèmes Embarqués et Pervasifs Faible Consommation
Laurent, Johann
2015-01-01
La première partie est consacré à l’Estimation de la Consommation des Architectures Logicel. Ce travail est en continuité de mes travaux de thèse et ont démarré avec le projet SPICES piloté par le Dr Eric Senn. Ce projet avait pour but, pour notre partie, de modéliser et d’estimer la consommation des services d’un système d’exploitation à haut niveau. Ces travaux ont fait l’objet de la thèse de Saadia Dhouib (2006-2009) co dirigée par Eric Senn et Jean Philippe Diguet.La seconde aborde le pro...
Aide à la conception de systèmes instrumentés de sécurité
Bicking, Frédérique; Simon, Christophe; Aubry, Jean-François
2008-01-01
National audience; Cet article propose une méthodologie de conception des Systèmes Instrumentés de Sécurité (SIS) à un coût minimal afin de satisfaire au niveau d'Intégrité de Sécurité (SIL) exigé par les normes de sécurité IEC 61508 et IEC 61511. L'étude proposée s'inscrit dans le contexte de l'allocation conjointe de la disponibilité et de la redondance des SIS. Elle est basée sur la modélisation des SIS par des réseaux de fiabilité. La méthode d'optimisation choisie est les algorithmes gén...
Applications de la vision omnidirectionnelle à la perception de scènes pour des systèmes mobiles
Savatier, Xavier
2014-01-01
Ce mémoire présente une synthèse des travaux que j’ai menés à l’ESIGELEC au sein de son institut de recherche l’IRSEEM. Mes activités de recherche ont porté dans un premier temps sur la conception et l’évaluation de dispositifs de mesure de la dynamique de la marche de personnes atteintes de pathologies de la hanche, dans le cadre de ma thèse effectuée à l’université de Rouen en lien le Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Rouen. En 2003, j’ai rejoint les équipes de recherche qui se constituaien...
Démarche d'Ingénierie Système pour les systèmes de management
Bron, Jean-Yves; Salzemann, Bruno
2015-01-01
International audience; Le pôle AIP-PRIMECA Lorraine est un centre de ressources de l'Université de Lorraine, il met à disposition des filières de formation des plateformes à caractères industriels. Dans cette publication, nous proposons une démarche d'ingénierie d'un processus de son système de management. L'originalité de notre contribution repose principalement sur l'usage de méthodologies issues de l'Ingénierie des Systèmes Complexes pour la conception d'un processus d'un système de manag...
Kavita Gahlot
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl
Thermodynamique statistique résumés de cours et problèmes résolus
Chahine, C
1976-01-01
Le présent ouvrage est conçu pour une initiation à la thermodynamique statistique en présentant un très grand nombre d'applications sous forme de problèmes résolus, et en donnant des résumés de cours constitués de l'essentiel des résultats théoriques nécessaires pour traiter les applications chaque fois qu'est abordé un nouveau domaine. Partant d'un niveau élémentaire et rédigé de façon très progressive, ce livre qui se suffit à lui-même, permet de saisir l'aspect physique des phénomènes, et de faire le lien entre les statistiques élémentaires et les statistiques de Gibbs. Le lecteur pourra, soit résoudre effectivement les problèmes sans avoir recours à la solution et tirer alors tout le bénéfice d'une recherche personnelle, soit lire l'ensemble de l'énoncé et de la solution qui sont très détaillés, et forment ainsi un exposé très clair. L'ouvrage, qui développe principalement l'aspect physique des phénomènes, intéresse les étudiants en physique dès la 1ère année ...
Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting
Gillam, W D
2011-01-01
Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.
Maximal coherence in a generic basis
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2016-12-01
Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.
Symmetry and approximability of submodular maximization problems
Vondrak, Jan
2011-01-01
A number of recent results on optimization problems involving submodular functions have made use of the multilinear relaxation of the problem. These results hold typically in the value oracle model, where the objective function is accessible via a black box returning f(S) for a given S. We present a general approach to deriving inapproximability results in the value oracle model, based on the notion of symmetry gap. Our main result is that for any fixed instance that exhibits a certain symmetry gap in its multilinear relaxation, there is a naturally related class of instances for which a better approximation factor than the symmetry gap would require exponentially many oracle queries. This unifies several known hardness results for submodular maximization, and implies several new ones. In particular, we prove that there is no constant-factor approximation for the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular function over the bases of a matroid. We also provide a closely matching approximation algorithm for...
Kimata, Yuu; Kitamura, Kenji; Fenner, Nicola; Yamano, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division generating haploid gametes and is dependent upon protein ubiquitylation by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Accurate control of the APC/C during meiosis is important in all eukaryotic cells and is in part regulated by the association of coactivators and inhibitors. We previously showed that the fission yeast meiosis-specific protein Mes1 binds to a coactivator and inhibits APC/C; however, regulation of the Mes1-mediated APC/C inhibition remains elusive. Here we show how Mes1 distinctively regulates different forms of the APC/C. We study all the coactivators present in the yeast genome and find that only Slp1/Cdc20 is essential for meiosis I progression. However, Fzr1/Mfr1 is a critical target for Mes1 inhibition because fzr1Δ completely rescues the defect on the meiosis II entry in mes1Δ cells. Furthermore, cell-free studies suggest that Mes1 behaves as a pseudosubstrate for Fzr1/Mfr1 but works as a competitive substrate for Slp1. Intriguingly, mutations in the D-box or KEN-box of Mes1 increase its recognition as a substrate by Fzr1, but not by Slp1. Thus Mes1 interacts with two coactivators in a different way to control the activity of the APC/C required for the meiosis I/meiosis II transition. PMID:21389117
Lumbroso, H
1991-01-01
Cet ouvrage propose 61 problèmes consacrés aux ondes électromagnétiques dans le vide et les conducteurs tous complètement résolus. Chaque chapitre s'ouvre par un rappel des principaux résultats du cours.
Red de proyectos de fomento a la integración productiva entre PyMEs en América Latina y el Caribe
Maria Oslecy Rocha Garcia
2006-01-01
Presentación sobre el IV taller del clúster de proyectos FOMIN sobre la Red de proyectos de fomento a la integración productiva entre PyMEs en América Latina y el Caribe. Da a conocer los principales obstáculos, las estrategias de gobernabilidad y los resultados alcanzados.
Jean Aicard et les Poèmes de Provence. Lecture rhétorique du poème liminaire
Michèle Gorenc
2003-09-01
Full Text Available Insistant sur l’influence de l’art oratoire sur l’œuvre poétique de Jean Aicard, l’article propose une lecture rhétorique du poème liminaire de son recueil Poèmes de Provence.
Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng
2016-05-01
The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses.
Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem
Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2000-01-01
Topology optimization is used to optimize the eigenvalues of plates. The results are intended especially for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) but call be seen as more general. The problem is not formulated as a case of reinforcement of an existing structure, so there is a problem related...... to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...... is a practical MEMS application; a probe used in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the AFM probe the optimization is complicated by a constraint on the stiffness and constraints on higher order eigenvalues....
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André da Conceição Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André Da Conceiçao Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice
Boyle, Latham
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...
Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking
Djamel Eddine Saidouni
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy or which if they fail are assigned the value .The third value mean unknown whether true or false because the partial state space lacks sufficient information needed for a precise answer concerning the complete state space .To solve this problem each node exchange the information needed to conclude the result about the complete state space. The experimental version of the algorithm is currently being implemented using the functional programming language Erlang.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K
2016-01-01
Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...
Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces
Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B
2011-01-01
The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...
Greedy Maximal Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Li, Qiao
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks, i.e., the schedules are computed by adding links greedily based on some priority vector. Two special cases are considered: 1) Longest Queue First (LQF) scheduling, where the priorities are computed using queue lengths, and 2) Static Priority (SP) scheduling, where the priorities are pre-assigned. We first propose a closed-form lower bound stability region for LQF scheduling, and discuss the tightness result in some scenarios. We then propose an lower bound stability region for SP scheduling with multiple priority vectors, as well as a heuristic priority assignment algorithm, which is related to the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance gain of the proposed heuristic algorithm is finally confirmed by simulations.
Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection
Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA
2016-01-01
MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.
A New Biflavone from Selaginella pulvinata Maxim
XU Kang-Ping; XU Zhi; DENG Yin-Hua; LI Fu-Shuang; ZHOU Ying-Jun; HU Gao-Yun; TAN Gui-Shan
2003-01-01
@@ Selaginella pulvinata Maxim. distributes all over the country of China and is used for the treatment for haemor rhage. [1] We studied on the chemical constituents of S. pulvinata in order to find the active compounds. Dried stems and leaves of S. pulvinata (6.5 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol twice. The extract was evaporated under vacuum and than suspended in water, extracted with petroleum and EtOAc sequentially. The EtOAc extract was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with CHCl3-MeOH. As a result, a novel biflavone, named pulvinatabiflavone, was obtained from fractions 75 ～ 78. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 5,5″, 4′″ trihydroxy-7,7″-dimethoxy-[4′-O-6″]-biflavone (compound 1).
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2015-01-01
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.
Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam
2009-07-01
Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.
Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben
2016-01-01
A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…
From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin
Eliazar, Iddo
2014-12-01
The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.
THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC
Amir GANJİ
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.
Maximal elements of non necessarily acyclic binary relations
Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza Martínez
1992-01-01
The existence of maximal elements for binary preference relations is analyzed without imposing transitivity or convexity conditions. From each preference relation a new acyclic relation is defined in such a way that some maximal elements of this new relation characterize maximal elements of the original one. The result covers the case whereby the relation is acyclic.
Zhiming Wang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A novel series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing 4-aminobenzenesul-fonamide and α-amides branched valproic acid or 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid moieties were synthesized and screened for their anticonvulsant activities in mice maximal electroshock seizure (MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ test. The activity experimental study showed that 2,2-dipropyl-N1-(4-sulfamoylphenylmalonamide (18b had the lowest median effective dose (ED50 of 16.36 mg/kg in MES test, and 2,2-dimethyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylcyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide (12c had the lowest ED50 of 22.50 mg/kg in scPTZ test, which resulted in the protective indexe (PI of 24.8 and 20.4, respectively. These promising data suggest the new compounds have good potential as new class of anticonvulsant agents with high effectiveness and low toxicity for the treatment of epilepsy.
Menthone aryl acid hydrazones: a new class of anticonvulsants.
Jain, Jainendra; Kumar, Y; Sinha, Reema; Kumar, Rajeev; Stables, James
2011-01-01
A series of ten compounds (Compounds J(1)-J(10)) of (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone was synthesized and characterized by thin layer chromatography and spectral analysis. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity after intraperitoneal (i.p) administration to mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) induced seizure method and minimal clonic seizure test. Minimal motor impairment was also determined for these compounds. Results obtained showed that four compounds out of ten afforded significant protection in the minimal clonic seizure screen at 6 Hz. Compound J(6), 4-Chloro-N-(2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexylidene) benzohydrazide was found to be the most active compound with MES ED(50) of 16.1 mg/kg and protective index (pI) of greater than 20, indicating that (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone possesses better and safer anticonvulsant properties than other reported menthone derivatives viz. menthone Schiff bases, menthone semicarbazides and thiosemicarbazides.
Design of benzothiazole-1,3,4-thiadiazole conjugates: synthesis and anticonvulsant evaluation.
Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahuja, Priya; Malik, Sachin; Arya, Satish K
2013-11-01
Various 2-[(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)amino]-N-[5-substituted-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]acetamides were synthesized with a prospective exploration of "lead hopping", using pharmacophoric elements for in vivo anticonvulsant activity. This yielded three potent candidates (5i, 5t, and 5u) in the preliminary screening employing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, showing minimal neurotoxicity. Their quantitative study indicated an increase of nearly 2-10 times for the MES test and 7- to 67-fold for the scPTZ test in the protective index, the keystone in drug discovery for anticonvulsant activity.
Evaluation of sedative and anticonvulsant activities of Unmadnashak Ghrita.
Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Dorle, Avinash K
2004-09-01
'Unmadnashak Ghrita' (UG) is a ayurvedic formulation containing Ferula narthex (6 g), Gardenia gummifera (6 g), Ellataria cardamom (6 g), Bacopa monneri (6 g), and cow's ghee (clarified butter fat) (76 g). In the present study, neuropharmacological activities of UG were evaluated for its gross behavioural effect, pentobarbitone sleeping time, spontaneous locomotor activity, antagonism to amphetamine induced hyperlocomotor activity, analgesic activity by tail flick test, rota-rod performance (motor coordination test), maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures, and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice. The formulation showed CNS-depressant activity in gross behavioural test, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and there was significant decrease in spontaneous locomotor count in mice. The formulation also antagonized the behavioral effects of CNS-stimulant drug amphetamine, and showed analgesic effect in mice. UG failed to affect the motor coordination test. The formulation also protected mice from MES and PTZ induced convulsions. These results suggest that UG has CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activity in mice.
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Ankur Shukla
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The synthesis of benzimidazoles derivative involves subsequent synthesis of 4-(2-chloro-ethoxy-benzaldehyde, 4 methyl benzaldehyde followed by benzimidazoles derivative by reaction between amines derivatives and o-phenylenediamine in dimethyl farmamide (DMF as solvent in the presence of iodine as a catalyst. Iodine is a commercial and environmentally benign catalyst. The yield of all benzimidazole derivatives was found to be in the range of 75 – 94%. The purity of the compounds was ascertained by melting point and TLC. The synthesized compounds were characterized by using IR,1H NMR, and MASS spectral data together with elemental analysis. The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were screened for analgesic and anticonvulsant activity in albino rat (100-200gm by using Writhing test and maximal electroshock (MES. Out of all compound studied only PS-3, PS-4, PS-5 and PS-6 showed significant analgesic activities and response against MES test.
Tripathi, Avinash Chandra; Gupta, Rajiv; Saraf, Shailendra K
2011-11-01
The ethanol extract of the dried, powdered hull portion of Ricinus communis seeds indicated the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolics, amongst others. Ricinine was isolated as an active constituent and characterised by various chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The anticonvulsant activity of the isolated compound was evaluated in mice using the maximal electroshock (MES) model. The isolated compound at a dose of 60 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, orally, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the extensor tonus phase of convulsion by MES-induced seizures in albino mice when compared with the standard drug diazepam (30 mg kg⁻¹ body weight, orally). The results of this study support the folkloric use of the plant in epileptic remedies.
Maciej Dawidowski
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A series of novel stereochemically pure derivatives of the investigative broad-spectrum anticonvulsant ADD408003 was designed and synthesized. Five-center four-component (U-5C-4CR and four-center three-component (U-4C-3CR variants of Ugi reaction were used in the key step of the synthetic pathways. The compounds obtained were evaluated for the anticonvulsant activitiy in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES, subcutaneous Metrazole (scMET and minimal clonic seizure (6 Hz animal models of epilepsy. The efficacies of most derivatives in the 6 Hz model of pharmacoresistant partial seizures were markedly higher than in the ‘classical’ MES and scMET models. The most active compounds, (4R,8aR-3a, and (4S,8aS-6 displayed median effective doses (ED50 of 47.90 and 126.19 mg/kg, respectively, for the 6 Hz test.
Visvanathen Karthick
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, a series of novel 2-(substituted benzylidene-7-(4-chlorophenyl-5-(furan-2-yl-2H-thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-3(7H-one derivatives (4a–i were designed and synthesized to meet the structural requirements essential for antiepileptic activity. Antiepileptic screening was performed by maximal electroshock (MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ seizures tests and neurotoxicity was determined by the rotorod test. Among the synthesized compounds 4f, 4g and 4h were found active in both MES and scPTZ models. In the view of results the most active compounds carry fluoro > chloro > bromo substituent’s at the para position in the phenyl ring. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of IR, 1H NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis.
Foroumadi A.
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Several novel 2-amino-5-[4-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxyphenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives 4a-d were synthesized and their anticonvulsant activity was determined by evaluation of the ability of theses compounds to protect mice against convulsion induced by a lethal doses of pentylentetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES. The result of anticonvulsant data shows that among the synthesized compounds, 5-[4-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxyphenyl]-N-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine 4c was the most active compound in both MES and PTZ tests with an ED50 of 20.11 and 35.33 mg/kg, respectively.
Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.
Luan, Mo; Li, Hong
2017-05-01
The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.
Gestión de calidad en PyMEs manufactureras certificadas con ISO 9001-2000
María del Rosario Demuner Flores
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A las PyMEs se les exige contar con gestión de calidad para ser parte de la cadena de proveeduría de la industria automotriz; sin embargo, parece que se certifican con ISO solamente para cumplir el requisito, sin considerar otros beneficios. Por ello el objetivo de esta investigación de corte cualitativo es identificar las manifestaciones de la gestión de calidad en la organización, de acuerdo con los criterios que establece el modelo EFQM1, mediante un estudio de caso múltiple que integra cinco PyMEs manufactureras de autopartes ubicadas en Toluca, México y que cuentan con una certificación ISO 9001-2000 desde hace tres años o más. Los hallazgos revelan la importancia de los criterios del EFQM en el siguiente orden: 1. Liderazgo; 2. Proceso, productos y servicios; 3. Personas; 4. Resultados (especialmente los que son clave en el desempeño del negocio; y 5. Alianzas y recursos. Identifica como oportunidades de mejora la cultura de calidad, la administración del tiempo, la tecnificación de estrategias a largo plazo y el compromiso con la gestión ambiental. Se concluye que la gestión de calidad ha contribuido a mejorar notablemente la administración de las empresas que se presentan como estudio de caso- Además, ha generado confianza en los empresarios para conducirlos a incursionar en otras industrias tan exigentes como la automotriz; a concebir una idea global de negocios e incursionar en el mercado extranjero; a lograr alianzas, desarrollar patentes y productos sustitutos. Quienes se certifican con la idea, no solo de cumplir un requisito sino también de ser competitivas, deben optimizar y controlar la gestión de calidad como un recurso interno, dándole seguimiento mediante los componentes del EFQM.
EXPLANATORY VARIANCE IN MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE
Jacalyn J. Robert McComb
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females, ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants' head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF, height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27 of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF.
Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice
Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2016-08-01
We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2014-03-01
Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Network channel allocation and revenue maximization
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika
2017-02-01
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Armin Töpfer
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children
Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide
2017-01-01
[Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644
Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.
Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A
2014-03-01
Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo.
Les pensions dans les pays de l'OCDE 2009 panorama des systèmes de retraite
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris
2009-01-01
Les politiques menées en matière de pensions et de retraite ont connu des évolutions considérables au cours des dernières années, les pouvoirs publics s’efforçant de concilier deux objectifs : assurer des revenus suffisants aux retraités et garantir la viabilité financière à long terme des systèmes de retraite face au vieillissement de la population. Panorama des Pensions 2009 propose un cadre de référence cohérent permettant de comparer les politiques adoptées dans ce domaine par les différents pays de l’OCDE, ainsi qu’un ensemble de données fiables. Cette troisième édition renferme des informations actualisées sur les principales caractéristiques des pensions versées au sein des pays de l’OCDE et contient des projections relatives aux revenus que percevront demain les salariés d’aujourd’hui. Elle offre également une gamme élargie d’indicateurs, parmi lesquels figurent des données chiffrées concernant les actifs, les performances des investissements, l’ampleur des...
Psiholoģiskā trillera iezīmes filmās "Would you rather" un "The forest"
Bite, Linda
2016-01-01
Bakalaura darba tēma ir psiholoģiskā trillera iezīmes filmās ‘’Ko tu labāk’’ un ‘Mežs’’. Darbs sastāv no teorētiskās daļas, kur tika apskatīta teorija par filmām, šausmu kino, šausmu apakš-žanriem, naratīvu un psihoanalīzi. Darbā tika aprakstīta arī metodoloģija ar kuras palīdzību tika veikts pētījums, kas ir semiotiskā analīze un fokusgrupas pētījums. Darbā tika noteikta pētījuma problēma- kas ir tie elementi, kas ļauj atšķirt šausmu filmu no psiholoģiskā trillera. Pētījuma mērķis ir noskai...
Mécanique fondements et applications : avec 300 exercices et problèmes résolus
Pérez, José-Philippe
1997-01-01
Cet ouvrage fait partie de ceux que l'on acquiert dès le début de ses études et que l'on conserve comme ouvrage de référence. Ce cours rassemble en un seul volume les notions fondamentales de la mécanique. Il est construit en 32 chapitres volontairement assez courts mais très pédagogiques, illustrés d'environ 300 exercices et problèmes corrigés. La première partie concerne la mécanique du point matériel soumis à des forces. La seconde présente la mécanique des N points matériels en interaction. La troisième, plus technique, développe la mécanique générale des solides indéformables. Enfin la quatrième porte sur les bases de la mécanique des fluides.
Relativité fondements et applications : avec 150 exercices et problèmes résolus
Pérez, José-Philippe
1999-01-01
Cet ouvrage rassemble, en un seul volume, les fondements de la relativité auxquels ont été ajoutés quelques compléments, de nombreux exemples d'illustration et 150 exercices et problèmes résolus. Il est structuré en dix chapitres, dont les trois derniers (physique nucléaire, électromagnétisme et relativité, gravitation et relativité) peuvent être considérés comme des prolongements culturels. Il s'adresse aux étudiants des trois premières années d'études supérieures : DEUG, ENSI-DEUG et licences. En effet leurs connaissances, que ce soit en mathématiques, en mécanique, en électromagnétisme ou en optique, suffisent largement pour comprendre les fondements et les applications physiques de cette théorie du XXe siècle. En raison de son découpage en leçons structurées, quasi autonomes, et de l'accent mis sur le développement des idées, ce livre devrait également intéresser les candidats aux concours d'enseignement (CAPES et agrégation).
Discovery of a Multiply-Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy in Early HerMES Herschel/SPIRE Data
Conley, A; Vieira, J D; Solares, E A González; Kim, S; Aguirre, J E; Amblard, A; Auld, R; Baker, A J; Beelen, A; Blain, A; Blundell, R; Bock, J; Bradford, C M; Bridge, C; Brisbin, D; Burgarella, D; Carpenter, J M; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Christopher, N; Clements, D L; Cox, P; Djorgovski, S G; Dowell, C D; Eales, S; Earle, L; Ellsworth-Bowers, T P; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Frayer, D; Fu, H; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Gurwell, M A; Halpern, M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Kamenetzky, J; Krips, M; Levenson, L; Lupu, R; Mahabal, A; Maloney, P D; Maraston, C; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Matsuhara, H; Mortier, A M J; Murphy, E; Naylor, B J; Neri, R; Nguyen, H T; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Riechers, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Scott, K; Serra, P; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Verma, A; Viero, M P; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Wiebe, D; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zeimann, G; Zemcov, M; Zmuidzinas, J
2011-01-01
We report the discovery of a bright ($f(250\\mum) > 400$ mJy), multiply-lensed submillimeter galaxy \\obj\\ in {\\it Herschel}/SPIRE Science Demonstration Phase data from the HerMES project. Interferometric 880\\mum\\ Submillimeter Array observations resolve at least four images with a large separation of $\\sim 9\\arcsec$. A high-resolution adaptive optics $K_p$ image with Keck/NIRC2 clearly shows strong lensing arcs. Follow-up spectroscopy gives a redshift of $z=2.9575$, and the lensing model gives a total magnification of $\\mu \\sim 11 \\pm 1$. The large image separation allows us to study the multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the lensed source unobscured by the central lensing mass. The far-IR/millimeter-wave SED is well described by a modified blackbody fit with an unusually warm dust temperature, $88 \\pm 3$ K. We derive a lensing-corrected total IR luminosity of $(1.43 \\pm 0.09) \\times 10^{13}\\, \\mathrm{L}_{\\odot}$, implying a star formation rate of $\\sim 2500\\, \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\, \\mathrm{y...
Hodomihou, NR.; Feder, F.; Masse, D.; Agbossou, KE.; Amadji, GL.; Ndour-Badiane, Y.; Doelsch, E.
2016-01-01
Description du sujet. Le maraichage est particulièrement développé au sein de l'agriculture urbaine et périurbaine dans la région de Dakar. L'application répétée de matières organiques dans ces agrosystèmes engendre sur le long terme de forts apports d'éléments traces métalliques (ETM). Objectifs. L'objectif est de diagnostiquer la contamination en ETM de ces agrosystèmes. Méthode. Pour quatre sites, nous comparons les teneurs en Cu, Zn, Pb et Cd des parcelles cultivées depuis longtemps et de...
Evolution des systèmes d'irrigation et gestion de la salinité des terres irriguées
Marlet, Serge
2004-01-01
International audience; Le développement de l'irrigation s'est, dans la majorité des situations, accompagné de l'apparition de processus de salinisation, de sodisation ou d'alcalinisation des sols à des degrés d'importance divers. Si les situations apparaissent très variées en raison des caractéristiques du milieu naturel et des modalités de gestion de l'eau et des systèmes de culture, ces dégradations résultent pour l'essentiel de modes de gestion inappropriés dans les systèmes irrigués. En ...
C. Soulas
2003-01-01
Les systèmes dit 'intermédiaires' apparus dans les années 1990 constituent une nouvelle famille de transports guidés sur pneus de surface, qui regroupe trois filières plus ou moins proches du bus/trolleybus ou du tramway classiques. Chacune de ces filières est actuellement représentée en France par un système industriel : TRANSLOHR, CIVIS ET TVR. Il apparait au préalable intéressant de faire quelques parallèles entre ces nouveaux systèmes et une autre catégorie apparue une vingtaine d'années ...
Conception optimale des Systèmes Instrumentés de Sécurité en présence d'incertitudes
Sallak, Mohamed; Aubry, Jean-François; Simon, Christophe
2008-01-01
National audience; Les Systèmes Instrumentés de Sécurité (SIS) sont des systèmes utilisés pour assurer la sécurité fonctionnelle des installations. Pour concevoir les SIS, deux normes de sécurité sont généralement utilisées : l'IEC 61508 et l'IEC 61511. Cependant, les fiabilistes ont beaucoup de difficultés à mettre en œuvre les prescriptions de ces deux normes pour la conception des SIS qui doivent satisfaire à un niveau d'Intégrité de Sécurité (SIL) exigé. En outre, dans la plupart des trav...
Sallak, Mohamed; Simon, Christophe; Aubry, Jean-François
2008-01-01
Cet article propose une méthodologie de conception optimale des Systèmes Instrumentés de Sécurité (SIS) afin de satisfaire au niveau d'Intégrité de Sécurité (SIL) exigé par les normes de sécurité IEC 61508 et IEC 61511. L'étude proposée s'inscrit dans le contexte de l'allocation conjointe de la disponibilité et de la redondance des SIS. Elle est basée sur la modélisation des SIS par des systèmes séries parallèles sous forme de blocs diagrammes de fiabilité. La méthode d'optimisation choisie e...
Sûreté de fonctionnement des systèmes commandés en réseau : influences des fautes transitoires
Ghostine, Rony; Thiriet, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Jean-François
2008-01-01
10 pages; National audience; Ce travail a pour but de proposer une approche pour l'évaluation de la fiabilité dans les systèmes commandés en réseau. L'aspect dynamique des systèmes commandés en plus de l'utilisation des réseaux de communications, font que les méthodes traditionnelles de la sûreté de fonctionnement sont difficilement utilisables. En absence d'une solution analytique notre approche est basée sur la modélisation et la simulation, elle consiste à modéliser le fonctionnement du sy...
Consideraciones sobre la normativa aplicable en la preparación de información contable de PyMEs
2012-01-01
El propósito de la investigación es analizar la situación actual y el impacto futuro de las normas para la preparación de información financiera en las PyMEs en Argentina, a efectos de realizar propuestas específicas y aportar herramientas que contribuyan en la implementación de las mismas.
Bernard Helly
2000-05-01
Full Text Available Une équipe pluridisciplinaire tente d’identifier la répartition des sites observables ou enfouis dans la plaine de Larissa. L’analyse d’image Landsat TM a permis d’identifier l’extension réelle des épandages, des systèmes de failles mais aussi des trames anthropiques qu’aucun autre document n’illustre.
Siwayanan, Parthiban; Aziz, Ramlan; Bakar, Nooh Abu; Ya, Hamdan; Jokiman, Ropien; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan
2014-01-01
Phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders (SDDP) comprising binary anionic surfactants of palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) were produced using a 5 kg/h-capacity co-current pilot spray dryer (CSD). Six phosphate-free detergent (PFD) formulations comprising C16MES/LABSA in various ratios under pH 7-8 were studied. Three PFD formulations having C16MES/LABSA in respective ratios of 0:100 (control), 20:80 and 40:60 ratios were selected for further evaluation based on their optimum detergent slurry concentrations. The resulting SDDP from these formulations were analysed for its detergency stability (over nine months of storage period) and particle characteristics. C16MES/LABSA of 40:60 ratio was selected as the ideal PFD formulation since its resulting SDDP has consistent detergency stability (variation of 2.3% in detergency/active over nine months storage period), excellent bulk density (0.37 kg/L), fine particle size at 50% cumulative volume percentage (D50 of 60.48 μm), high coefficient of particle size uniformity (D60/D10 of 3.86) and large spread of equivalent particle diameters. In terms of surface morphology, the SDDP of the ideal formulation were found to have regular hollow particles with smooth spherical surfaces. Although SDDP of the ideal formulation have excellent characteristics, but in terms of flowability, these powders were classified as slightly less free flowing (Hausner ratio of 1.27 and Carr's index of 21.3).
2011-04-19
Abril es el Mes Nacional de ConcientizaciÃ³n sobre las Enfermedades de TransmisiÃ³n Sexual (ETS). Las ETS pueden afectar a cualquier persona. Muchas ETS no tienen sÃntomas, por lo que es importante hacerse pruebas de detecciÃ³n. Created: 4/19/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Date Released: 4/20/2011.
Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs
无
2000-01-01
Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.
Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets
Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda
2009-03-01
The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.
Relative advantage, queue jumping, and welfare maximizing wealth distribution
2006-01-01
Suppose individuals get utilities from the total amount of wealth they hold and from their wealth relative to those immediately below them. This paper studies the distribution of wealth that maximizes an additive welfare function made up of these utilities. It interprets wealth distribution in a control theory framework to show that the welfare maximizing distribution may have unexpected properties. In some circumstances it requires that inequality be maximized at the poorest and richest ends...
Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes
Parker, Andrew M.; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Ambiel, Rodolfo Augusto Matteo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available O estudo visou verificar a adequação da Escala de Motivos para Evasão do Ensino Superior via rating scale model e investigar a presença de funcionamento diferencial dos itens (DIF de acordo com o tipo das instituições dos participantes da pesquisa, pública ou particular. Participaram da pesquisa 327 estudantes universitários, de universidades públicas e particulares, de todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. As idades variaram entre 17 e 58 anos, sendo 80,1% do sexo feminino. O instrumento utilizado foi a Escala de Motivos para Evasão do Ensino Superior (M-ES. Os resultados apontaram que em relação à adequação do instrumento as análises foram satisfatórias e que houve a presença de funcionamento diferencial em alguns itens, sendo que a maior parte dos itens com presença de DIF tiveram como grupo privilegiado os alunos de instituição pública. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com a literatura e novos estudos são sugeridos
Álvaro Martín Parada Gómez
2002-12-01
Full Text Available Muchas investigaciones han estudiado en los últimos años el tema de competitividad en las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas conocidas como PyMES. Múltiples factores son los que explican la competitividad de éstas empresas, así como la competitividad de sectores productivos y naciones. En economías pequeñas como la de Costa Rica factores internos (empresa tales como: limitada capacidad tecnológica, tradicionales técnicas de mercadeo, recurso humano poco calificado, incipiente gestión gerencial, entre otros, explican el bajo nivel competitivo de las PyMES. Además, un conjunto de factores externos como la política macroeconómica, conflictos y pugnas entre diferentes grupos sociales así como presencia de mercados imperfectos se han constituido en elementos condicionantes de la competitividad. El presente artículo ofrece un marco de referencia, el cual pretende clarificar el concepto de competitividad, desde diferentes referentes teóricos y sugiere modestos lineamientos estratégicos para el mejoramiento de la productividad, eficiencia y calidad de las PyMES en el mercado local e internacional.
Agnieszka Nowicka
2008-01-01
Full Text Available De nos jours, l’anglais est l’une des langues les plus utilisées dans la communication internationale. Les locuteurs qui recourent à l’anglais en tant que lingua franca maîtrisent cette langue de façon inégale. Cependant, dans ce type d’échanges les locuteurs ne sont pas confrontés uniquement à des problèmes d’origine linguistique. Notre but, dans le présent article, est de réfléchir, tout d’abord, à la question de comment les différences socio-culturelles, au niveau des styles d’interaction, peuvent influencer la communication. Ensuite, on se focalisera sur les différentes façons dont les locuteurs réagissent aux problèmes de cette nature lorsqu’ils apparaissent dans l’interaction et, finalement, on démontrera comment ces problèmes sont négociés par les locuteurs. Nous recourrons à l’analyse conversationnelle afin d’analyser des extraits d’interactions en anglais qui serviront d’illustration.
Sums of magnetic eigenvalues are maximal on rotationally symmetric domains
Laugesen, Richard S; Roy, Arindam
2011-01-01
The sum of the first n energy levels of the planar Laplacian with constant magnetic field of given total flux is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, under normalization of the ratio (moment of inertia)/(area)^3 on the domain. The result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, with an analogue for Robin (or de Gennes) boundary conditions too. The square similarly maximizes the eigenvalue sum among parallelograms, and the disk maximizes among ellipses. More generally, a domain with rotational symmetry will maximize the magnetic eigenvalue sum among all linear images of that domain. These results are new even for the ground state energy (n=1).
Sums of Laplace eigenvalues - rotationally symmetric maximizers in the plane
Laugesen, R S
2010-01-01
The sum of the first $n \\geq 1$ eigenvalues of the Laplacian is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, maximal among parallelograms for the square, and maximal among ellipses for the disk, provided the ratio $\\text{(area)}^3/\\text{(moment of inertia)}$ for the domain is fixed. This result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues, and similar conclusions are derived for Robin boundary conditions and Schr\\"odinger eigenvalues of potentials that grow at infinity. A key ingredient in the method is the tight frame property of the roots of unity. For general convex plane domains, the disk is conjectured to maximize sums of Neumann eigenvalues.
Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors
Pedro Caruso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9% presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049. There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
Equilibres de phases dans les systèmes fluides petroliers-eau Phase Equilibria in Oil-Water Systems
Peneloux A.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Nous présentons quelques résultats obtenus à partir du logiciel FHYD qui permet le traitement des mélanges eau-fluides pétroliers, avec la détermination de la nature des phases (huile-gaz-eau-hydrate thermodynamiquement stables dans des conditions données de température et de pression, ainsi que de la quantité, de la composition de ces différentes phases et de leurs propriétés. Ce logiciel permet le tracé automatique des diagrammes de phases et nous présentons des exemples, depuis les systèmes binaires (eau-éthane, ternaires (eau-méthane-propane jusqu'aux fluides les plus complexes. La présence de sels (chlorure de sodium dissous est envisagée, ainsi que le calcul des conditions de dépôt du sel solide. Des exemples de problèmes pétroliers sont cités (gaz de séparateur saturé en eau, huile saturée en eau dans les conditions de gisement, huile en présence d'eau salée. Les estimations sur les quantités d'hydrate formées et leurs compositions sont comparées à des données expérimentales et aux résultats obtenus par d'autres logiciels. Le programme FHYD pourrait permettre une représentation plus réaliste de l'évolution des fluides pétroliers et des propriétés de transport de leurs différentes phases dans les modèles de simulation des conduites polyphasiques. This article presents a selection of results obtained with the FHYD program. This software allows simulation of mixtures composed of petroleum fluids and water, with determination of the nature of thermodynamically stable phases (oil-gas-water-hydrate under given conditions of temperature and pressure, along with the quantity, composition and properties of these different phases. Additionally, the program can automatically produce phase diagrams. Several examples of these have been included here, ranging from binary systems (water-ethane and ternary systems (water-methane-propane to the most complex petroleum fluids. The presence of dissolved salts
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
Eichhöfer, Andreas; Buth, Gernot; Dolci, Francesco; Fink, Karin; Mole, Richard A; Wood, Paul T
2011-07-14
The first examples of polymeric homoleptic iron chalcogenolato complexes (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] and (1)(∞)[Fe(SeMes)(2)] (Ph = phenyl = C(6)H(5), Mes = mesityl = C(6)H(2)-2,4,6-(CH(3))(3)) have been both prepared by reaction of [Fe(N(SiMe(3))(2))(2)] with two equivalents of HSeR (R = Ph, Mes) while (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] was found to be also easily accessible through reactions of either FeCl(2), Fe(OOCCH(3))(2) or FeCl(3) with PhSeSiMe(3) in THF. In the crystal, the two compounds form one-dimensional chains with bridging selenolate ligands comprising distinctly different Fe-Se-Fe bridging angles, namely 71.15-72.57° in (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] and 91.80° in (1)(∞)[Fe(SeMes)(2)]. Magnetic measurements supported by DFT calculations reveal that this geometrical change has a pronounced influence on the antiferromagnetic exchange interactions of the unpaired electrons along the chains in the two different compounds with a calculated magnetic exchange coupling constant of J = -137 cm(-1) in (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] and J = -20 cm(-1) in (1)(∞)[Fe(SeMes)(2)]. In addition we were able to show that the ring molecule [Fe(SePh)(2)](12) which is a structural isomer of (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] behaves magnetically similar to the latter one. Investigations by powder XRD reveal that the ring molecule is only a metastable intermediate which converts in THF completely to form (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)]. Thermal gravimetric analysis of (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] under vacuum conditions shows that the compound is thermally labile and already starts to decompose above 30 °C in a two step process under cleavage of SePh(2) to finally form at 250 °C tetragonal PbO-type FeSe. The reaction of (1)(∞)[Fe(SePh)(2)] with the Lewis base 1,10-phenanthroline yielded, depending on the conditions, the octahedral monomeric complexes [Fe(SePh)(2)(1,10-phen)(2)] and [Fe(1,10-phen)(3)][Fe(SePh)(4)]. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
L’avenir des sabliers. Sur des poèmes de Sélim Baghli et de Farid Laroussi
Pierre Popovic
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Autant la poésie de Sélim Baghli peut être hachée, hésitante, inquiète d’elle-même, autant celle de Farid Laroussi frappe d’estoc, est assurée et ferme. Quand les vers de Baghli cooptent Verlaine, la prose de Laroussi affiche plus d’une accointance avec celle de Rimbaud. Cet article ne se propose pas de produire un brillant paradoxe à la manière des critiques littéraires vaporeux, mais d’essayer de comprendre comment des poèmes de Baghli et de Laroussi, en mettant à leur manière en scène un sujet qui résiste aux ravages du passé tout en étant dans le temps de l’après-coup, se trouvent plus ou moins travaillés par le thème de « l’Algérie malgré tout ». As much as Sélim Baghli’s poetry can be choppy, faltering, and self-conscious, Farid Laroussi’s is direct, self-assured and firm. Where Baghli’s verses co-opt Verlaine, Laroussi’s prose has a clear link to Rimbaud. This article does not attempt to illuminate an obvious paradox in the hazy style of literary critique, but instead it attempts to understand how the poems of Baghli and Laroussi portray, in their own way, a subject that resists the ravages of the past all the while existing in the post-coup era, finding themselves more or less shaped by the theme of “Algeria in spite of it all.”
Knapp, Caroline M; Westcott, Bethan H; Raybould, Melissa A C; McGrady, John E; Goicoechea, Jose M
2012-09-03
A carbon copy: The chemical activation of the heptaphosphide trianion with [Co(PEt(2)Ph)(2)(mes)(2)] (see picture; 1) yields the novel phospha-organometallic complex [Co(η(5)-P(5)){η(2)-P(2)H(mes)}](2-) (2). The reaction product maintains the nuclearity of the parent cluster, but extensive cage fragmentation takes place to yield a diamagnetic "inorganometallic" cobalt complex.
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.
2012-01-01
We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.
The Negative Consequences of Maximizing in Friendship Selection.
Newman, David B; Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Yamada, Junko; Nezlek, John B
2017-02-27
Previous studies have shown that the maximizing orientation, reflecting a motivation to select the best option among a given set of choices, is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. In the present studies, we examined whether these relationships extend to friendship selection and how the number of options for friends moderated these effects. Across 5 studies, maximizing in selecting friends was negatively related to life satisfaction, positive affect, and self-esteem, and was positively related to negative affect and regret. In Study 1, a maximizing in selecting friends scale was created, and regret mediated the relationships between maximizing and well-being. In a naturalistic setting in Studies 2a and 2b, the tendency to maximize among those who participated in the fraternity and sorority recruitment process was negatively related to satisfaction with their selection, and positively related to regret and negative affect. In Study 3, daily levels of maximizing were negatively related to daily well-being, and these relationships were mediated by daily regret. In Study 4, we extended the findings to samples from the U.S. and Japan. When participants who tended to maximize were faced with many choices, operationalized as the daily number of friends met (Study 3) and relational mobility (Study 4), the opportunities to regret a decision increased and further diminished well-being. These findings imply that, paradoxically, attempts to maximize when selecting potential friends is detrimental to one's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s
Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks
T. Kleinow; A. Pelsser
2008-01-01
We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a solv
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
On a discrete version of Tanaka's theorem for maximal functions
Bober, Jonathan; Hughes, Kevin; Pierce, Lillian B
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove a discrete version of Tanaka's Theorem \\cite{Ta} for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in dimension $n=1$, both in the non-centered and centered cases. For the discrete non-centered maximal operator $\\wM $ we prove that, given a function $f: \\Z \\to \\R$ of bounded variation,
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass
A Class of Maximal Functions with Oscillating Kernels
Ahmad AL-SALMAN
2007-01-01
The author studies the Lp mapping properties of a class of maximal functions that are related to oscillatory singular integral operators. Lp estimates, as well as the corresponding weighted estimates of such maximal functions, are obtained. Moreover, several applications of our results are highlighted.
ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
Yulan Jiao
2010-01-01
In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1
maximal operator.
Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers
V. Krizhanovski
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
CHROMATIC NUMBER OF SQUARE OF MAXIMAL OUTERPLANAR GRAPHS
Luo Xiaofang
2007-01-01
Let χ(G2) denote the chromatic number of the square of a maximal outerplanar graph G and Q denote a maximal outerplanar graph obtained by adding three chords and χ(G2) = Δ + 2 if and only if G is Q, where Δ represents the maximum degree of G.
SAR image target segmentation based on entropy maximization and morphology
柏正尧; 刘洲峰; 何佩琨
2004-01-01
Entropy maximization thresholding is a simple, effective image segmentation method. The relation between the histogram entropy and the gray level of an image is analyzed. An approach, which speeds the computation of optimal threshold based on entropy maximization, is proposed. The suggested method has been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image targets segmentation. Mathematical morphology works well in reducing the residual noise.
Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.
Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.
1982-01-01
To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)
On the maximal efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
Leiderschneider, Elly
2015-01-01
The center of mass (CM) energy in a collisional Penrose process - a collision taking place within the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole - can diverge under suitable extreme conditions (maximal Kerr, near horizon collision and suitable impact parameters). We present an analytic expression for the CM energy, refining expressions given in the literature. Even though the CM energy diverges, we show that the maximal energy attained by a particle that escapes the black hole's gravitational pull and reaches infinity is modest. We obtain an analytic expression for the energy of an escaping particle resulting from a collisional Penrose process, and apply it to derive the maximal energy and the maximal efficiency for several physical scenarios: pair annihilation, Compton scattering, and the elastic scattering of two massive particles. In all physically reasonable cases (in which the incident particles initially fall from infinity towards the black hole) the maximal energy (and the corresponding efficiency) are only one o...
Beryl Schlossman
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Video Senegal (From Some Night Traduction par l’auteur Victor’s home movies from Senegalaspire to the stasis of postcardsbut the women turn away and hideunder veils, their long legs stalkacross the screen and run fasterthan birds: migrating herons andindifferent pink flamingosstep toward the edge of the coast. Victor fait des films au Sénégal,ce pays qu’il aimerait figer commeun papillon de nuit ou une cartepostalemais les femmes se détournentse voilent, traversent l’écranrapidement se mette...
Théo Crassas
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Paris Volez jusqu’aux limites océaniques de votre organisme vivant, épanouissez-vous en quatre lignes de ciel, devenez jet naturel aux sonorités de mille jours, cherchez votre mouvement dans les travaux de votre poitrine et dans le dessin d’or de votre surface, faites jouer le jardin des cloches et des balançoires, mirez-vous au-delà de toute image secondaire, dans votre essence de Babyloniens, chassez celui qui a maudit vos édifices, frottez-vous sans mépris à la poussière des oiseaux en sur...
Berthon, P; Fellmann, N
2002-09-01
The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.
Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim
sajjad rahmatian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.
Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.
Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
2010-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.
Gonnard, P.; Eyraud, L.; Guillemot, M. M.
1994-07-01
For many years ultrasonic piezoelectric motors are the subject of a great number of papers and patents. The submitted structures yield a great variety of piezoceramics shapes, of the excitation mode and the applied electric fields. The main required properties of the active materials are presented on the basis of the figure of merit (coupling factor, electromechanical transformer ratio) and on the basis of losses and aging as well. The significant technological problems presented by some structures are analysed : reverse polarizations into a same ceramic, strong silkscreen printing, achievement of a strong, conductive and non absorbing, metal-ceramic bond,... At last an industrial outlet of piezoelectric motors will mainly depend on the upper cost limit of piezoceramics when built in great number. Such a cost will be bound to the required geometries and machining. Les moteurs piézoélectriques ultrasonores font depuis plusieurs années l'objet de très nombreuses publications et brevets. La diversité des structures proposées entraîne une grande variété des formes des céramiques piézoélectriques, de leur mode d'excitation et des champs électriques appliqués. Les principales performances requises des matériaux actifs sont présentées tant sur le plan des facteurs de mérites (facteur de couplage, rapport de transformation électromécanique, ... ) que sur celui des pertes ou du vieillissement. Les importants problèmes technologiques posés par certaines structures sont analysés : polarisations inversées dans une même céramique, sérigraphies résistantes, réalisation de liaisons céramiques-métal solides, conductrices et non amorties... Enfin le débouché industriel des moteurs piézoélectriques dépendra essentiellement du coût limite en fabrication de masse des éléments céramiques, piézoélectriques qui restera très lié aux géométries et aux usinages exigés.
The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA
2006-01-01
We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.
Maximal regularity of second order delay equations in Banach spaces
无
2010-01-01
We give necessary and sufficient conditions of Lp-maximal regularity(resp.B sp ,q-maximal regularity or F sp ,q-maximal regularity) for the second order delay equations:u″(t)=Au(t) + Gu’t + F u t + f(t), t ∈ [0, 2π] with periodic boundary conditions u(0)=u(2π), u′(0)=u′(2π), where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,F and G are delay operators on Lp([-2π, 0];X)(resp.Bsp ,q([2π, 0];X) or Fsp,q([-2π, 0;X])).
Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.
Hurst, J B
1996-09-01
Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.
People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.
De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
2014-10-01
Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically.
Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications
Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.
Évaluation des écosystèmes en début de millénaire: conclusions et retombées
Annie Cung
2009-06-01
Full Text Available L'évaluation des écosystèmes est l'un des pivots essentiels pour l'élaboration de moyens adaptés permettant de lutter contre la diminution massive de la biodiversité. Pour la première fois, elle a fait l'objet d'une analyse à l'échelle mondiale dans le cadre de l'Evaluation des écosystèmes en début de millénaire (EM. Le rassemblement de plus d’un millier de chercheurs et de plusieurs organismes internationaux durant quatre années ont permis de dessiner la carte nécessaire à toute action efficace. L'article expose les éléments principaux de l'EM : l'évaluation des écosystèmes en tant que tels, mais surtout des services écosystémiques, dans toutes leurs dimensions, en ce que leur évolution affecte le bien-être humain. Il analyse ensuite les quatre points principaux de l'apport de l'EM, des avantages de l'utilisation croissante des services écologiques à sa non viabilité. Des scénarios, modèles et outils sont proposés pour inverser la courbe négative d'appauvrissement de la biodiversité et des services écosystémiques dans un premier bilan des retombées de l'EM.
Jiang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Xiao-Han; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xue-Jie; Chen, Wen-Fang
2016-09-01
Icaritin, a natural derivative of Icariin, is the major bioactive component of Epimedium Genus. The present study tested the hypothesis that the neuroprotective effects of Icaritin against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced toxicity involved activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway in MES23.5 cells. Our results revealed that Icaritin pretreatment attenuated the MPP(+)-induced decrease of cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion. Co-pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor LY294002, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB-1 could completely block the protective effects of Icaritin. Moreover, Icaritin pretreatment down-regulated MPP(+)-induced increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Further study revealed that Icaritin pretreatment could restore the decreased protein expression of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) induced by MPP(+) and these effects could be completely abolished by LY294002, PD98059 or JB-1. Additionally, Icaritin treatment alone time-dependently enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in MES23.5 cells. The activation of Akt and ERK1/2 by Icaritin could be completely blocked by JB-1, LY294002 or PD98059. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IGF-1 receptor mediated activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in the protective effects of Icaritin against MPP(+)-induced toxicity in MES23.5 cells.
Abdelhadi AIT HOUSSA
2017-09-01
scale use of seawater in agriculture or finding new salinity tolerant cultivars. In Morocco, we should think of desalinization with renewable energies (solar, wind and the use of this water mainly in coastal areas where climate, land quality, sun and wind are adequate to these projects. To anticipate the future of food security of the country, attention should be given to the use of readily available resources to overcome the structural deficit in wheat starch and animal protein. The study suggests the use of other starch sources that Morocco can produce easily such as potato. For animal protein, we suggest fisheries resources which are still underused by the population. Résumé On présente une étude prospective concernant l’impact probable des changements climatiques sur les systèmes de culture et d’élevage au Maroc. D’après le constat de terrain et dans les limites de ce que signifie ce genre d’étude, l’effet direct du réchauffement climatique peut conduire à terme (et c’est déjà le cas dans certaines contrées à la nécessité d’une redistribution variétale pour des espèces exigeantes en froid comme les rosacées. Des variétés de pomme, telle que le groupe des Golden, risquent de disparaître des montagnes pour laisser la place à d’autres moins exigeantes comme le groupe des Gala. Le bananier et l’avocatier risquent de migrer vers les régions un peu plus continentales, l’olivier et les agrumes un peu plus vers le pied de la montagne. Le réchauffement climatique peut aussi obliger à faire évoluer les systèmes d’élevage et de culture en faisant déplacer la frontière de la sécheresse un peu plus vers le centre et le nord du pays; l’aride serait peut-être envahi par la désertification, le semi-aride passerait en partie à l’étage aride et le Bour dit favorable en partie dans le semi-aride. Comme corollaire à ce changement, il faudrait s’attendre à une perte de potentiel de ressources en eau qui obligerait
Maximally entangled state can be a mixed state
Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Liu, W M
2009-01-01
We present mixed maximally entangled states in d\\otimes d' (d'\\geq 2d) spaces. This result is beyond the generally accepted fact that all maximally entangled states are pure. These states possess important properties of the pure maximally entangled states in $d\\otimes d$ systems, for example, they can be used as a resource for faithful teleportation, their local distinguishability property is also the same as the pure states case. On the other hand, one advantage of these mixed maximally entangled states is that the decoherence induced by certain noisy quantum channel does not destroy their entanglement. Thus one party of these mixed states can be sent through this channel to arbitrary distance while still keeping them as a valuable resource for quantum information processing. We also propose a scheme to prepare these states and confirm their advantage in NMR physical system.
Groups Satisfying the Maximal Condition on Non-modular Subgroups
Maria De Falco; Carmela Musella
2005-01-01
In this paper, (generalized) soluble groups for which the set of non-modular subgroups verifies the maximal condition and groups for which the set of non-permutable subgroups satisfies the same property are classified.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-01-01
.... Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs...
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Kwiat, P G; Munro, W J; Verstraete, F; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Nemoto, Kae; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-01-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy.
Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G
2013-08-01
We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.
Maximal induced paths and minimal percolating sets in hypercubes
Anil M. Shende
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$, the \\emph{$r$-bootstrap percolation} process can be described as follows: Start with an initial set $A$ of "infected'' vertices. Infect any vertex with at least $r$ infected neighbours, and continue this process until no new vertices can be infected. $A$ is said to \\emph{percolate in $G$} if eventually all the vertices of $G$ are infected. $A$ is a \\emph{minimal percolating set} in $G$ if $A$ percolates in $G$ and no proper subset of $A$ percolates in $G$. An induced path, $P$, in a hypercube $Q_n$ is maximal if no induced path in $Q_n$ properly contains $P$. Induced paths in hypercubes are also called snakes. We study the relationship between maximal snakes and minimal percolating sets (under 2-bootstrap percolation in hypercubes. In particular, we show that every maximal snake contains a minimal percolating set, and that every minimal percolating set is contained in a maximal snake.
Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael
2010-09-01
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
Méthodologie pour l'identification des systèmes mécaniques articulés : Application au compacteur
2006-01-01
Si l'identification du modèle dynamique des systèmes mécaniques articulés est maintenant un processus bien maîtrisé dans le domaine de la robotique, son application aux engins de chantiers est peu courante. Ce papier présente l'identification du modèle dynamique d'un compacteur en insistant plus sur la méthodologie que sur les équations. La méthodologie comprend trois étapes d'égale importance : planification de mouvements, analyse de chaque mouvement, puis seulement, identification des param...
Gaillard, Pauline,; Liechti, Clara; Rossier, Jean-Michel
2014-01-01
A l’heure actuelle, la population vieillissante, en fulgurante croissance, développe des pathologies chroniques et des démences liées à l’âge. La démence la plus répandue est la maladie d’Alzheimer. Celle-ci s’accompagne de symptômes comportementaux et psychologiques (SCPD) qui engendrent une difficulté dans la prise en charge. Bien souvent, la gestion des manifestations se fait par le biais de médicaments lourds en effets secondaires. La musicothérapie peut être une alternative....
Proposition de hiérarchisation des 45 graphèmes de base de l’orthographe du français
Pérez Manuel
2014-07-01
L’association de ces trois variables nous a conduit à établir une hiérarchisation des 45 graphèmes de base du français tels que délimités par Catach et al. (1995. Cette hiérarchisation pourrait nous permettre de mieux comprendre les difficultés empiriques rencontrées par des élèves aux connaissances orthographiques non encore automatisées, et constituer ainsi une aide pour les enseignants dans leur réflexion sur la nécessaire progression des apprentissages orthographiques lexicaux.
Oracle ERP and MES Interface Analysis and Implementation%Oracle ERP系统与MES系统的接口分析与实现
洪松湘
2009-01-01
企业资源计划系统(ERP)是制造企业的计划层系统,制造执行系统(MES)是制造企业的生产控制层系统.ERP向MES传送计划信息,MES向ERP传回实际执行情况的信息,本丈针对两者的接口进行分析,并针对Oracle ERP与MES接口实现做一个说明.
Clément, Jean
1986-01-01
Comme tous les pays du Sahel, le Niger est affronté à de graves problèmes de désertification et de déboisement dont les causes sont diverses : sécheresses successives,intensification du paturage provoquée par l'accroissement des troupeaux, consommation accrue de bois de feu... Sur la base d'une population totale de 6 OOO OOO habitants, la consommation de bois de feu peut être estimée à environ 4 OOO OOO m3 qu'il faut comparer aux 3 OOO OOO m3 d'accroissement en volume annuel des peuplements n...
Synthèse d’arômes et désacidification d’une huile acide en milieu sans solvant
Karra-chaabouni Maha
2002-07-01
Full Text Available La neutralisation partielle de l’huile de grignon a été réalisée par estérification des acides gras libres, catalysé par le lipozyme™ en milieu sans solvant organique et à 40 °C. Le taux d’acidité de cette huile est passé alors de 30 à 13%. Le même enzyme a été utilisé pour synthétiser des arômes naturels en absence de solvant organique.
2002-01-01
Muchas investigaciones han estudiado en los últimos años el tema de competitividad en las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas conocidas como PyMES. Múltiples factores son los que explican la competitividad de éstas empresas, así como la competitividad de sectores productivos y naciones. En economías pequeñas como la de Costa Rica factores internos (empresa) tales como: limitada capacidad tecnológica, tradicionales técnicas de mercadeo, recurso humano poco calificado, incipiente gestión gerencial, en...
Prise en compte de la performance des proof tests sur celle des systèmes instrumentés de sécurité
Mechri, Walid; Simon, Christophe; Bicking, Frédérique; Ben Othman, Kamel
2015-01-01
International audience; Cet article propose une approche pour analyser l'effet des proof tests dans l'évaluation de la performance des systèmes instrumentés de sécurité (SIS). L'analyse est basée sur les chaînes de Markov multiphases intégrant plusieurs paramètres tels que les défaillances de causes communes (DCC), le taux de couverture de diagnostic, les proofs tests, etc. Nous accordons une attention particulière à la performance et à l'efficacité des proof tests. Les concepts de base des c...
La violence : une manière problématique d'interpréter les problèmes sociaux.
Bresson, Maryse
2009-01-01
La notion de violence(s), appliquée aux politiques sociales peut se décliner au sens d'une violence symbolique de ces politiques. Ce n'est toutefois pas l'angle d'analyse choisi dans ce texte, qui vise à éclairer l'usage du terme violence(s) comme descriptif de la conduite des populations " à problèmes " et plus particulièrement, des jeunes urbains. La violence, dans le langage courant, est un terme qui mobilise des images plurielles de force brutale et de contrainte, physique ou morale. Souv...
Barbosa Saucedo, Edgar Alejandro
2013-01-01
La presente investigación parte de la necesidad de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (PyMEs) del estado Mexicano de Tamaulipas de incrementar su competitividad a través de nuevas estrategias que les permitan a medida de sus posibilidades realizar mejoras en sus procesos y generar el valor que sus clientes están buscando. Seis Sigma y Lean (Manufactura Esbelta) son estrategias aplicadas en organizaciones que en su mayoría son grandes y cuentan con recursos, sistemas y una visión para implementa...
Barbosa Saucedo, Edgar Alejandro
2013-01-01
343 p. La presente investigaci??n parte de la necesidad de las peque??as y medianas empresas (PyMEs) del estado Mexicano de Tamaulipas de incrementar su competitividad a trav??s de nuevas estrategias que les permitan a medida de sus posibilidades realizar mejoras en sus procesos y generar el valor que sus clientes est??n buscando. Seis Sigma y Lean (Manufactura Esbelta) son estrategias aplicadas en organizaciones que en su mayor??a son grandes y cuentan con recursos, sistemas y una visi??n...
Dufour-Berrocosa, Emilie; Cotté, Samuel
2010-01-01
Les symptômes comportementaux et psychiatriques de la démence (SCPD), aussi appelés behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD), se manifestent couramment chez les personnes âgées touchées par la maladie d’Alzheimer. Parmi ces symptômes, on trouve par exemple l’agitation, l’agressivité ou l’apathie. Ce travail vise à mettre en évidence des pistes d’interventions infirmières, non pharmacologiques, en vue de réduire ce phénomène car il génère un inconfort important chez les personnes...
Dufour-Berrocosa, Emilie; Cotté, Samuel
2010-01-01
Les symptômes comportementaux et psychiatriques de la démence (SCPD), aussi appelés behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD), se manifestent couramment chez les personnes âgées touchées par la maladie d’Alzheimer. Parmi ces symptômes, on trouve par exemple l’agitation, l’agressivité ou l’apathie. Ce travail vise à mettre en évidence des pistes d’interventions infirmières, non pharmacologiques, en vue de réduire ce phénomène car il génère un inconfort important chez les personnes...
A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.
Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2015-02-01
A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.
IMRank: Influence Maximization via Finding Self-Consistent Ranking
Cheng, Suqi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Huang, Junming; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-01-01
Influence maximization, fundamental for word-of-mouth marketing and viral marketing, aims to find a set of seed nodes maximizing influence spread on social network. Early methods mainly fall into two paradigms with certain benefits and drawbacks: (1)Greedy algorithms, selecting seed nodes one by one, give a guaranteed accuracy relying on the accurate approximation of influence spread with high computational cost; (2)Heuristic algorithms, estimating influence spread using efficient heuristics,...
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization
Mygind, Niels
2004-01-01
including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....
Maximal speed of particles in super-Lévy process
LIN Zheng-yan; CHENG Zong-mao
2008-01-01
We introduce a super-Lévy process and study maximal speed of all particles process is a measure on the set of paths.We study the maximal speed of all particles during a given time period,which turns out to be a function of the packing dimension of the time period.We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of a-fast patlls in the support and the range of the historical super-lévy process.
Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees
Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying
2013-01-01
In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.
Lesion of the tuberomammillary nucleus E2-region attenuates postictal seizure protection in rats.
Jin, Chun-Lei; Zhuge, Zheng-Bing; Wu, Deng-Chang; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Jian-Hong; Chen, Zhong
2007-03-01
Postictal seizure protection (PSP) is an endogenous anticonvulsant phenomenon that follows an epileptic seizure and inhibits the induction of further seizures. The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), located in the posterior hypothalamus, consists of five subregions and is the sole source of histaminergic neurons in the brain. To determine whether the TM is involved in PSP in rats, we tested the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the TM E2-region on seizures induced by intermittent maximal electroshock (MES). The TM E2-region lesions significantly attenuated PSP during the intermittent MES procedure. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (100 microg), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, mimicked the attenuation of PSP induced by the lesion of TM E2-region. In addition, neurochemical experiments revealed that the TM E2-region lesions markedly decreased basal histamine levels in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and hypothalamus, but had no significant effect on basal glutamate and GABA levels. Moreover, intermittent MES induced a persistent decrease of brain histamine levels in both sham-operated and lesioned rats. These results indicate that through its intrinsic histaminergic system, the TM may exert powerful inhibitory function during the intermittent MES procedure and actively participate in the mechanisms of PSP.
Maurice Schiff
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models. The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models.
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.
Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D
2000-10-01
The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines
Publicisation contrôlée de problèmes territoriaux autour de l’eau
Valérie Deldrève
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Dans les Pertuis charentais sur le littoral atlantique, la répartition de la ressource en eau est publicisée tandis que la qualité des eaux arrivant sur les zones ostréicoles semble aujourd’hui occultée. La comparaison de ces deux enjeux, à partir de travaux relatifs à la construction des problèmes publics, fait apparaître que la publicisation d’un problème territorial ne se réduit ni à sa prise en charge par l’action publique ni à sa médiatisation, pas plus qu’à sa discussion sur une scène locale. Ces différentes voies interfèrent lors d’un processus rendu fragile par le contrôle que peuvent exercer certains acteurs. Il est aussi rendu incertain par le travail de signification à l’œuvre au moment de la mise en relation de divers champs sociaux structurant arènes ou médias.Publicizinga territorial problem about water in a controlled way. The case of the Charente Pertuis in FranceIn the Charente Pertuis site on the Atlantic coast, the issue of water resources distribution is publicized whereas the problem of water quality entering the oyster farming areas seems to be hidden. Based on the theoretical perspective of the social construction of public problems, the comparison of these two issues shows that publicizing a territorial issue can not be reduced to its public action, its media coverage or its discussion in a local scene. These different paths interfere in a process that can be weakened by stakeholders’ control. The end of the process becomes uncertain and depends on the work of significance that is produced when the different social fields of public arenas and medias meet each other.Organizar el debato publico de los problemas territoriales respeto al aguaEn los Pertuis de Charente, situados en el litoral atlàntico, el tema de la distribución del recurso de la cantidad de agua es del dominio pùblico mientras que el de la calidad de las aguas que llegan a las zonas ostrícolas parece hoy día ocultado
Systèmes multimatériaux – Assemblage par collage Multimaterial systems – Adhesive bonding
Zuanna C. Dalla
2013-11-01
Full Text Available L'assemblage par collage multimatériaux (métal/composite, métal/verre, métal/plastiques, verre/plastiques… offre de nombreux avantages par rapport aux techniques d'assemblages traditionnelles (pas d'affaiblissement des matériaux par la température, tenues en fatigue et à la corrosion améliorées, esthétisme, étanchéité…. Cependant la qualité et la durabilité à long terme des assemblages collés dépendent d'une bonne conception de ces assemblages : Le choix de préparations de surfaces efficaces, robustes, facilement industrialisables et respectueuses de l'environnement, Le choix d'adhésifs aptes à répondre au cahier des charges fonctionnel de l'assemblage (performances mécaniques, thermiques, chimiques… dont la mise en œuvre est compatible avec les contraintes d'industrialisation (cadences, temps de manipulation des pièces, environnement du poste collage…, Le dessin et le dimensionnement de la liaison de façon à transmettre les efforts mécaniques spécifiés dans la plage de températures de fonctionnement des pièces collées (en tenant compte des dilatations différentielles des matériaux assemblés. Cette démarche sera développée en donnant l'état de l'art actuel et les avancées les plus récentes sur les trois thèmes cités ci-dessus. Adhesive-bonding offers many advantages over traditional joining techniques (no weakening of materials by temperature, required fatigue and improved corrosion resistance, aesthetics, sealing… for multimaterial assembly (metal/composite, metal/glass, metal/plastic, glass/plastic…. However the quality and long term durability of bonded assemblies depend on a correct design of the joint: Choice of eco-efficient surfaces preparations, robust, and easily processed, Choice of adhesive in good adequation with the functional specifications of the assembly (mechanical performance, thermal, chemical… whose implementation is compatible with industrialization constraints
Systèmes éducatifs et inégalités scolaires : une perspective internationale
Georges Felouzis
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Cet article s’interroge sur les différentes solutions qu’apportent les systèmes éducatifs à la question des inégalités de compétence des élèves. Nous partons du modèle théorique de Ralph Turner, élaboré en 1960, pour montrer qu’aux deux principes de reproduction sociale qu’il propose (cooptation sociale et concurrence ouverte, nous proposons d’ajouter un troisième modèle, celui des marchés scolaires. L’enquête Pisa 2003 constitue la base empirique de cet article. Nous analysons la répartition des élèves dans chacun des 41 pays de l’enquête pour en mesurer les effets sur les inégalités scolaires. Les pays les plus ségrégatifs en fonction des filières et des établissements sont aussi les plus inégalitaires. Nous montrons ensuite comment les filières et/ou les établissements retraduisent dans le champ scolaire les inégalités sociales et les conséquences sur l’ampleur des inégalités.School and educational inequalities. International perspectivesWe address in this paper a classical question: the construction of educational inequalities. We ask this question the following way: how does the school turns social inequalities into educational inequalities ? To answer this question we are mobilizing two main sources. At the theorical level, we are inspired by the analyze of Ralph Turner (1960 improved by the progress of research on educational market. At the empirical level, we use the Pisa survey (Pisa 2003. We conclude about three basic forms of education: an "open contest", a "social cooptation" and a "school market".Sistemas educativos y desigualdades sociales. Perspectivas internacionalesEn este artículo el autor pasa revista a las diferentes soluciones que aportan los sistemas educativos con respecto a la cuestión de las desigualdades del nivel de los alumnos. El punto de partida es el modelo teórico establecido por R.T., elaborado en 1960, para añadir a los dos principios de reproducci
Postmodernisma iezīmes Andželas Kārteres stāstu izlasē "Asiņainais kambaris"
Mierkalne, Laura
2016-01-01
Šajā pētījumā aplūkotas postmodernisma iezīmes Andželas Kārteres stāstu izlasē Asiņainais kambaris. Padziļināti tiek apskatīta intertekstualitāte, stilizācija, un fragmentācija, un to izpausmes, lai secinātu kā šīs iezīmes veido postmodernisma stāstu. Šis pētījums izstrādāts veicot ar postmodernisma tēmu saistīto teorētisko materiālu un A.Kārteres stāstu analīzi. Pētījuma aktualitāti ietekmē, pirmkārt, postmodernisma literatūras problemātika – sarežģītā literatūras perioda definīcijas izstrād...
DUTARTRE A.
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Les introductions de macrophytes aquatiques et riverains sur le territoire métropolitain restent difficiles à évaluer, dans la mesure où les agents d'introduction sont multiples. Le devenir de ces introductions reste extrêmement variable, entre une régression rapide et une expansion génératrice de nuisances. Un premier bilan est néanmoins présenté pour les espèces aquatiques. Tous les types de milieux aquatiques sont concernés par ces introductions. La plupart des types biologiques végétaux, des algues aux arbres, sont susceptibles d'être introduits. Les facteurs potentiellement responsables lors d'expansions importantes de macrophytes sont discutés en regard de leurs caractéristiques biologiques et des hydrosystèmes récepteurs. Dans les cas d'expansions importantes, la gestion des milieux touchés est complexe. L'absence de réglementation adaptée aux risques environnementaux encourus est patente. Elle s'ajoute à un manque d'analyse globale des systèmes, à la méconnaissance et à l'imperfection des moyens adéquats permettant de limiter les risques environnementaux induits par ces introductions.
企业生产执行系统的构建与实施%Construction and Implementation of MES for Enterprises
王新亭; 张怀京
2012-01-01
生产制造执行系统（MES）是近年来在国际上迅速发展,面向生产管理技术与实时信息系统新理念,它体现了既重视计划又重视执行的管理思想,既可向上传输现场信息又可向下承接管理信息,使整个信息系统集成为一个整体。结合企业生产执行系统生产部分的实施过程,来讲述MES系统的实施对提升企业精细化管理的重要意义。%MES is developing rapidly in the international these years and it is a new concept about production management skills and timely information system.The manage thought of it is not only pay attention to planning but also implementing,not only can pass site information upward but also manage information downward.The information system can be integration.This article combines the company production implementing system production parts＇ implementing process to talk about the significance of carrying out MES to improve the lean management in an enterprise.
Bigras Marc
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Dans le présent article nous étudions les mécanismes de transmission des difficultés socioaffectives entre les systèmes conjugal et parental sous l'effet d'une part de stress contextuels comme la pauvreté des familles et, d'autre part, des caractéristiques personnelles des membres de ces familles comme le sexe et l'âge de l'enfant. Un échantillon de couples avec ou sans enfant permet dans une première étude d'estimer l'impact de la présence de l'enfant sur le couple alors que deux autres études posent la question complémentaire de l'impact du couple sur l'enfant. Les résultats de ces études contribuent à démontrer l'interdépendance entre le couple et l'enfant alors que chaque membre de la famille peut-être une source d'influence sur les autres. Nous argumentons qu'une réponse aversive à des problèmes extrafamiliaux favorise des stress intrafamiliaux mais que cela se révèle surtout selon les caractéristiques des membres de la famille.
Wu, Qiuli; Cao, Xiou; Yan, Dong; Wang, Dayong; Aballay, Alejandro
2015-12-01
Increasing evidence indicates that immune responses to microbial infections may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of Caenorhabditis elegans causes a number of neural changes that are hallmarks of neurodegeneration. Using an unbiased genetic screen to identify genes involved in the control of P. aeruginosa-induced neurodegeneration, we identified mes-1, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like protein that is required for unequal cell divisions in the early embryonic germ line. We showed that sterile but not fertile mes-1 animals were resistant to neurodegeneration induced by P. aeruginosa infection. Similar results were observed using animals carrying a mutation in the maternal effect gene pgl-1, which is required for postembryonic germ line development, and the germ line-deficient strains glp-1 and glp-4. Additional studies indicated that the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required for resistance to P. aeruginosa-induced neurodegeneration in germ line-deficient strains. Thus, our results demonstrate that P. aeruginosa infection results in neurodegeneration phenotypes in C. elegans that are controlled by the germ line in a cell-nonautonomous manner.
Fouchier Catherine
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Languedoc area, in Southern France, is prone to autumnal flash floods which are characteristic of the Mediterranean climate. To cope with this threat, the local authorities have chosen to build several dams on the main dangerous rivers of the area. We have focused on the flood mitigation facilities of two operators: the City of Nîmes and the Gardons Rivers Managing authority. After the catastrophic flash flood of October 1988, the city of Nîmes built flood mitigation dams on many of its high-risk streams. These flood barriers worked several times during the intense rainfalls of autumn 2014. The on-site conclusions drawn from these floods and the computation carried out with hydrological models confirmed how well the dams functioned. In 2010, the Gardons Rivers Managing authority built a flood mitigation dam on the Esquielle River to protect the village of Saint-Geniès-de-Malgoirès. The spillway of this dam worked for the first time in the autumn of 2014. We analyzed one of the major floods monitored on that occasion at its outlet. The goals of this study are: (i to evaluate dams efficiency and (ii to test, on a catchment which was not used for its calibration, the AIGA flash flood warning method, which was developed by IRSTEA.