Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations of Maximal Symmetry
P G L Leach; R R Warne; N Caister; V Naicker; N Euler
2010-02-01
Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries’, i.e. those not considered to be generic to scalar equations of maximal symmetry, can be recast into a form which is applicable to all such equations of maximal symmetry. Some properties of these symmetries are demonstrated.
Maximally parallel attribute on P Systems:Properties and applications
Chunyi Huang; Xiaoju Dong
2008-01-01
In this paper,we investigate the maximally parallel attribute of P Systems.Some properties of P Systems are introduced,which are the filter property and the enumeration property.The two properties are applied to solving the sorting problem and the Hamilton cycle problem.respectively.
Sahadevan, R.; Prakash, P.
2017-01-01
We show how invariant subspace method can be extended to time fractional coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and construct their exact solutions. Effectiveness of the method has been illustrated through time fractional Hunter-Saxton equation, time fractional coupled nonlinear diffusion system, time fractional coupled Boussinesq equation and time fractional Whitman-Broer-Kaup system. Also we explain how maximal dimension of the time fractional coupled nonlinear partial differential equations can be estimated.
Algebraic Properties of First Integrals for Scalar Linear Third-Order ODEs of Maximal Symmetry
K. S. Mahomed
2013-01-01
Full Text Available By use of the Lie symmetry group methods we analyze the relationship between the first integrals of the simplest linear third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs and their point symmetries. It is well known that there are three classes of linear third-order ODEs for maximal cases of point symmetries which are 4, 5, and 7. The simplest scalar linear third-order equation has seven-point symmetries. We obtain the classifying relation between the symmetry and the first integral for the simplest equation. It is shown that the maximal Lie algebra of a first integral for the simplest equation y′′′=0 is unique and four-dimensional. Moreover, we show that the Lie algebra of the simplest linear third-order equation is generated by the symmetries of the two basic integrals. We also obtain counting theorems of the symmetry properties of the first integrals for such linear third-order ODEs. Furthermore, we provide insights into the manner in which one can generate the full Lie algebra of higher-order ODEs of maximal symmetry from two of their basic integrals.
Generation and Identification of Ordinary Differential Equations of Maximal Symmetry Algebra
J. C. Ndogmo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An effective method for generating linear ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in their most general form is found, and an explicit expression for the point transformation reducing the equation to its canonical form is obtained. New expressions for the general solution are also found, as well as several identification and other results and a direct proof of the fact that a linear ordinary differential equation is iterative if and only if it is reducible to the canonical form by a point transformation. New classes of solvable equations parameterized by an arbitrary function are also found, together with simple algebraic expressions for the corresponding general solution.
On the maximal cut of Feynman integrals and the solution of their differential equations
Primo, Amedeo
2016-01-01
The standard procedure for computing scalar multi-loop Feynman integrals consists in reducing them to a basis of so-called master integrals, derive differential equations in the external invariants satisfied by the latter and, finally, try to solve them as a Laurent series in $\\epsilon = (4-d)/2$, where $d$ are the space-time dimensions. The differential equations are, in general, coupled and can be solved using Euler's variation of constants, provided that a set of homogeneous solutions is known. Given an arbitrary differential equation of order higher than one, there exist no general method for finding its homogeneous solutions. In this paper we show that the maximal cut of the integrals under consideration provides one set of homogeneous solutions, simplifying substantially the solution of the differential equations.
On the maximal cut of Feynman integrals and the solution of their differential equations
Amedeo Primo
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The standard procedure for computing scalar multi-loop Feynman integrals consists in reducing them to a basis of so-called master integrals, derive differential equations in the external invariants satisfied by the latter and, finally, try to solve them as a Laurent series in ϵ=(4−d/2, where d are the space–time dimensions. The differential equations are, in general, coupled and can be solved using Euler's variation of constants, provided that a set of homogeneous solutions is known. Given an arbitrary differential equation of order higher than one, there exists no general method for finding its homogeneous solutions. In this paper we show that the maximal cut of the integrals under consideration provides one set of homogeneous solutions, simplifying substantially the solution of the differential equations.
Z. Denton
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we investigate integro-differential initial value problems with Riemann Liouville fractional derivatives where the forcing function is a sum of an increasing function and a decreasing function. We will apply the method of lower and upper solutions and develop two monotone iterative techniques by constructing two sequences that converge uniformly and monotonically to minimal and maximal solutions. In the first theorem we will construct two natural sequences and in the second theorem we will construct two intertwined sequences. Finally, we illustrate our results with an example.
Embedding and Maximal Regular Differential Operators in Sobolev-Lions Spaces
Veli B. SHAKHMUROV
2006-01-01
This study focuses on vector-valued anisotropic Sobolev-Lions spaces associated with Banach spaces E0, E. Several conditions are found that ensure the continuity and compactness of embedding operators that are optimal regular in these spaces in terms of interpolations of spaces E0 and E. In particular, the most regular class of interpolation spaces Eα between E0, E depending on α and the order of space are found and the boundedness of differential operators Dα from this space to Eα -valued Lp,γ spaces is proved. These results are applied to partial differential-operator equationswith parameters to obtain conditions that guarantee the maximal Lp,γ regularity and R-positivity uniformly with respect to these parameters.
Polyakov, Felix
2017-02-01
Neuroscientific studies of drawing-like movements usually analyze neural representation of either geometric (e.g., direction, shape) or temporal (e.g., speed) parameters of trajectories rather than trajectory's representation as a whole. This work is about identifying geometric building blocks of movements by unifying different empirically supported mathematical descriptions that characterize relationship between geometric and temporal aspects of biological motion. Movement primitives supposedly facilitate the efficiency of movements' representation in the brain and comply with such criteria for biological movements as kinematic smoothness and geometric constraint. The minimum-jerk model formalizes criterion for trajectories' maximal smoothness of order 3. I derive a class of differential equations obeyed by movement paths whose nth-order maximally smooth trajectories accumulate path measurement with constant rate. Constant rate of accumulating equi-affine arc complies with the 2/3 power-law model. Candidate primitive shapes identified as equations' solutions for arcs in different geometries in plane and in space are presented. Connection between geometric invariance, motion smoothness, compositionality and performance of the compromised motor control system is proposed within single invariance-smoothness framework. The derived class of differential equations is a novel tool for discovering candidates for geometric movement primitives.
The vortex-finding property of maximal center (and other) gauges
Faber, M.; Greensite, J.; Olejnik, S.; Yamada, D.
1999-10-01
The authors argue that the vortex-finding property of maximal center gauge, i.e. the ability of this gauge to locate center vortices inserted by hand on any given lattice, is the key to its success in extracting the vortex content of thermalized lattice configurations. The authors explain how this property comes about, and why it is expected not only in maximal center gauge, but also in an infinite class of gauge conditions based on adjoint-representation link variables. In principle, the vortex-finding property can be foiled by Gribov copies. This fact is relevant to a gauge-fixing procedure devised by Kovacs and Tomboulis, where they show that the loss of center dominance, found in their procedure, is explained by a corresponding loss of the vortex-finding property. The dependence of center dominance on the vortex-finding property is demonstrated numerically in a number of other gauges.
Veli B SHAKHMUROV
2008-01-01
The unique continuation theorems for the anisotropic partial differential-operator equations with variable coefficients in Banach-valued Lp-spaces are studied. To obtain the uniform maximal regularity and the Carleman type estimates for parameter depended differential-operator equations, the sufficient conditions are founded. By using these facts, the unique continuation properties are established. In the application part, the unique continuation properties and Carleman estimates for finite or infinite systems of quasielliptic partial differential equations are studied.
无
2008-01-01
Excellent mechanical property of the anti-compression or high collapse pressure has become an essential feature of new coronary stents. How to determine the design parameters of stent becomes the key to improve the stent quality. An integrated approach using radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimization of anti-compression mechanical property of stent is presented in this paper. First, finite element simulation and RBFNN are used to map the complex non-linear relationship between the collapse pressure and stent design parameters. Then GA is employed with the fitness function based on an RBFNN model for arriving at optimum configuration of the stent by maximizing the collapse pressure. The results of numerical experiment demonstrate that the combination of RBFNN and GA is an effective approach for the mechanical properties optimization of stent.
Xavier DE DONATO RODRÍGUEZ
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss and analyze two reductive arguments due to Jaegwon Kim and Theodore Sider respectively. According to the first one, strong supervenience would imply necessary coextension of properties (i.e., reduction. According to the second, this would be also the case of global supervenience. Kim and Sider make essential use of their respective notions of maximal properties, which we analyze here in the light of a natural and interesting interpretation of the underlying theory of properties. Under this interpretation, in terms of model theory (see § 4, we obtain different possibilities of formal relations between the superveniencie theses and reduction, depending on the logic we use. Under at least one interesting interpretation, the arguments of Kim and Sider are not correct and we become the conclusion that these arguments are not valid in general.
最大扇设计性质研究%Research on the Properties of Maximal Fan Designs
邓志民; 杨贵军; 朱同林
2006-01-01
The properties of maximal fan designs in relation to structural characters and maximal number of maximal fan designs are obtained. The results have a helpful role for understanding further and searching effec tively maximal fan designs.%研究了最大扇设计有关结构特征和最大个数的性质.所得结论对进一步认识和有效寻找最大扇设计有较大的帮助.
Differential impact of visual feedback on plantar- and dorsi-flexion maximal torque output.
Toumi, Anis; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie
2016-05-01
The effect of visual feedback on enhancing isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) was evaluated. Twelve adults performed plantar-flexion and dorsi-flexion MVCs in 3 conditions (no visual feedback, visual feedback, and visual feedback with target). There was no significant effect of visual conditions on dorsi-flexion MVC but there was an effect on plantar-flexion. Irrespective of whether a target was evident, visual feedback increased plantar-flexion MVC by ∼15%. This study highlights the importance of optimal feedback to enhance MVC.
Laud, Leslie E
2011-01-01
Seven easy steps to differentiating math instruction for busy teachers Staff development expert Leslie Laud provides a clear roadmap for using formative assessment to differentiate mathematics instruction for students in Grades 4-10. She presents a comprehensive framework of seven research-based practices that show teachers how to: Get started and establish norms Implement formative assessment Create tiered lessons Manage a multitasking classroom effectively Tested, reviewed, and enhanced by experienced math teachers, the book includes practical examples, reproducibles, and student activ
Tumuluru, Jaya
2013-01-10
Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated
Veli; B; SHAKHMUROV
2008-01-01
The unique continuation theorems for the anisotropic partial differential-operator equations with variable coeffcients in Banach-valued Lp-spaces are studied.To obtain the uniform maximal regularity and the Carleman type estimates for parameter depended differential-operator equations,the suffcient conditions are founded.By using these facts,the unique continuation properties are established.In the application part,the unique continuation properties and Carleman estimates for finite or infinite systems of quasielliptic partial differential equations are studied.
Kihara, Tasuku [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ichikawa, Saki [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Akihisa, Toshihiro [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Woo, Je Tae [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)
2011-03-11
Research highlights: {yields} Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. {yields} Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. {yields} Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. {yields} Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.
Poncé, S.; Margine, E. R.; Verdi, C.; Giustino, F.
2016-12-01
The EPW (Electron-Phonon coupling using Wannier functions) software is a Fortran90 code that uses density-functional perturbation theory and maximally localized Wannier functions for computing electron-phonon couplings and related properties in solids accurately and efficiently. The EPW v4 program can be used to compute electron and phonon self-energies, linewidths, electron-phonon scattering rates, electron-phonon coupling strengths, transport spectral functions, electronic velocities, resistivity, anisotropic superconducting gaps and spectral functions within the Migdal-Eliashberg theory. The code now supports spin-orbit coupling, time-reversal symmetry in non-centrosymmetric crystals, polar materials, and k and q-point parallelization. Considerable effort was dedicated to optimization and parallelization, achieving almost a ten times speedup with respect to previous releases. A computer test farm was implemented to ensure stability and portability of the code on the most popular compilers and architectures. Since April 2016, version 4 of the EPW code is fully integrated in and distributed with the Quantum ESPRESSO package, and can be downloaded through QE-forge at http://qe-forge.org/gf/project/q-e.
Lee, Jong Jin; Seok, Ju Won; Uh, Jae Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)
2005-07-01
In patients with recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy presents an awkward situation in terms of treatment decision making. Maximal safe dose (MSD) administration base on bone marrow radiation allows the delivery of a large amount I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue within the safety margin. We investigated the efficacy of MSD in differentiated thyroid cancers, which had persisted after conventional fixed dose therapy. Forty-six patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had non-responsible residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy were enrolled in this study. The postoperative pathology consisted of 43 papillary carcinomas and 3 follicular carcinomas. MSD was calculated according the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center protocol using blood samples. MSDs were administered at intervals of at least 6 months. Treatment responses were evaluated using I-131 whole body scan (WBS) and serum thyroglobulin measurements. Mean calculated MSD was 12.5{+-}2.1 GBq. Of the 46 patients, 6 (13.0%) showed complete remission, 15 (32.6%) partial response, 19 (41.3%) stable disease, and 6 (13.0%) disease progression. Thus, about a half of the patients showed complete or partial remission, and of these patients, 14 (67%) showed response after a single MSD administration and 6 (29%) showed response after the second dose of MSD administrations. Twenty-nine patients (63%) experienced transient cytopenia after therapy, and recovered spontaneously with the exception of one. MSD administration is an effective method even in the patients who failed to be treated by conventional fixed dose therapy. MSD therapy of I-131 can be considered in the patients who failed by fixed dose therapy.
The Incidence of Differential Commercial Property Taxes: Empirical Evidence
Man, Joyce Y.
1995-01-01
Analysis of the effects of property tax differentials on commercial real estate values in and around cities. Examination of sales data from the Phoenix area (1985-88) shows that effective property tax differentials have a significant negative effect on commercial real estate.
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.
2016-08-01
Using the general solution of the differential equation x¨(t) +g1(t) x˙ +g2(t) x = 0 , a generic basis of the point-symmetry algebra sl(3 , R) is constructed. Deriving the equation from a time-dependent Lagrangian, the basis elements corresponding to Noether symmetries are deduced. The generalized Lewis invariant is constructed explicitly using a linear combination of Noether symmetries. The procedure is generalized to the case of systems of second-order ordinary differential equations with maximal sl(n + 2 , R) -symmetry, and its possible adaptation to the inhomogeneous non-linear case illustrated by an example.
Categorical properties of topological and differentiable stacks
Carchedi, D.J.
2011-01-01
The focus of this PhD research is on the theory of topological and differentiable stacks. There are two main themes of this research. The first, is the creation of the theory of compactly generated stacks, which solve many categorical shortcomings of the theory of classical topological stacks. In pa
Wittink, H.; Verschuren, O.; Terwee, C.; Groot, J. de; Kwakkel, G.; Port, I. van de
2017-01-01
Objective: To systematically review and critically appraise the literature on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols for measuring aerobic capacity, VO2max, in persons after stroke. Data sources: PubMed, Embase and Cinahl were searched from inception up to 15 June 2016. A
The Painlevé property for partial differential equations
Weiss, John; Tabor, M.; Carnevale, George
1983-03-01
In this paper we define the Painlevé property for partial differential equations and show how it determines, in a remarkably simple manner, the integrability, the Bäcklund transforms, the linearizing transforms, and the Lax pairs of three well-known partial differential equations (Burgers' equation, KdV equation, and the modified KdV equation). This indicates that the Painlevé property may provide a unified description of integrable behavior in dynamical systems (ordinary and partial differential equations), while, at the same time, providing an efficient method for determining the integrability of particular systems.
Gao, Z J; Merlitz, H; Pagni, P J; Chen, Z
2014-01-01
Transient processes generally constitute part of energy-system cycles. If skillfully manipulated, they actually are capable of assisting systems to behave beneficially to suit designers' needs. In the present study, behaviors related to both thermal conductivities ($\\kappa$) and heat capacities ($c_{v}$) are analyzed. Along with solutions of the temperature and the flow velocity obtained by means of theories and simulations, three findings are reported herein: $(1)$ effective $\\kappa$ and effective $c_{v}$ can be controlled to vary from their intrinsic material-property values to a few orders of magnitude larger; $(2)$ a parameter, tentatively named as "nonlinear thermal bias", is identified and can be used as a criterion in estimating energies transferred into the system during heating processes and effective operating ranges of system temperatures; $(3)$ When a body of water, such as the immense ocean, is subject to the boundary condition of cold bottom and hot top, it may be feasible to manipulate transien...
Electrical Property Characterization of Neural Stem Cells in Differentiation.
Yang Zhao
Full Text Available Electrical property characterization of stem cells could be utilized as a potential label-free biophysical approach to evaluate the differentiation process. However, there has been a lack of technology or tools that can quantify the intrinsic cellular electrical markers (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm for a large amount of stem cells or differentiated cells. In this paper, a microfluidic platform enabling the high-throughput quantification of Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm from hundreds of single neural stem cells undergoing differentiation was developed to explore the feasibility to characterize the neural stem cell differentiation process without biochemical staining. Experimental quantification using biochemical markers (e.g., Nestin, Tubulin and GFAP of neural stem cells confirmed the initiation of the differentiation process featured with gradual loss in cellular stemness and increased cell markers for neurons and glial cells. The recorded electrical properties of neural stem cells undergoing differentiation showed distinctive and unique patterns: 1 in the suspension culture before inducing differentiation, a large distribution and difference in σcytoplasm among individual neural stem cells was noticed, which indicated heterogeneity that may result from the nature of suspension culture of neurospheres; and 2 during the differentiation in adhering monolayer culture, significant changes and a large difference in Cspecific membrane were located indicating different expressions of membrane proteins during the differentiation process, and a small distribution difference in σcytoplasm was less significant that indicated the relatively consistent properties of cytoplasm during the culture. In summary, significant differences in Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm were observed during the neural stem cell differentiation process, which may potentially be used as label
Brendle, Joerg
2016-01-01
We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.
Baranauskas, Marissa N; Miller, Brian; Olson, Jordan T; Boltz, Michelle; Richardson, Laura; Juravich, Matthew; Otterstetter, Ronald
2017-07-01
Although current sports nutrition recommendations advocate for a high carbohydrate (CHO) intake among endurance athletes, recent research has suggested that training with low CHO availability may augment adaptations to aerobic training. The purpose of this study was to observe the dietary habits of collegiate distance runners and to investigate the effects of habitual CHO intake on aerobic performance [VO2max(post)] during a competitive season. During an 8-week trial period, 12 (N = 12) collegiate track athletes recorded their self-selected dietary intake via 24-hour recall. Analysis of CHO intake was conducted by a registered dietitian. Pre [VO2max (pre)] and post [VO2max (post)] season aerobic capacity assessments were performed using a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with 2 covariates controlling for VO2max (pre) and CHO intake compared to the variance in VO2max (pre) and VO2max (post) by sex. The average CHO was 4.11 ± 1.03 g/kg body mass (BM), with only one female athlete meeting dietary recommendations, consuming ≥ 6 g/kg BM. Male distance runners on average had a lower CHO than females. After adjusting for VO2max (pre) and CHO, there were statistically significant differences between VO2max (post) group means by sex with a difference of 12.62 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-23.12, p = 0.02), with CHO accounting for 18% of the variance in VO2max (post). Collegiate distance runners exhibited marked improvements in maximal aerobic capacity during the in-season while consuming a marginally low-CHO diet, with a predominant effect in males. Therefore, CHO intakes below current recommendations for endurance athletes might not be detrimental to aerobic training adaptations.
Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO
2005-01-01
A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.
Chow, Sy-Miin; Lu, Zhaohua; Sherwood, Andrew; Zhu, Hongtu
2016-03-01
The past decade has evidenced the increased prevalence of irregularly spaced longitudinal data in social sciences. Clearly lacking, however, are modeling tools that allow researchers to fit dynamic models to irregularly spaced data, particularly data that show nonlinearity and heterogeneity in dynamical structures. We consider the issue of fitting multivariate nonlinear differential equation models with random effects and unknown initial conditions to irregularly spaced data. A stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed and its performance is evaluated using a benchmark nonlinear dynamical systems model, namely, the Van der Pol oscillator equations. The empirical utility of the proposed technique is illustrated using a set of 24-h ambulatory cardiovascular data from 168 men and women. Pertinent methodological challenges and unresolved issues are discussed.
Deterministic Differential Properties of the Compression Function of BMW
Guo, Jian; Thomsen, Søren Steffen
2011-01-01
In this paper, we give some determinstic differential properties for the compression function of SHA-3 candidate Blue Midnight Wish (tweaked version for round 2). The computational complexity is about 20 compression function calls. This applies to security parameters 0/16, 1/15, and 2/14. The eff....../14. The efficient differentials can be used to find pseudo-preimages of the compression function with marginal gain over brute force. However, none of these attacks threaten the security of the BMW hash functions....
K B Athreya
2009-09-01
It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Linda Lai
2010-01-01
This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...
Structural properties of scaffolds： Crucial parameterstowards stem cells differentiation
2015-01-01
Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field thatapplies the principles of engineering and life-sciencesfor regeneration of damaged tissues. Stem cells haveattracted much interest in tissue engineering as a cellsource due to their ability to proliferate in an undifferentiatedstate for prolonged time and capability ofdifferentiating to different cell types after induction.Scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineeringas a substrate that can mimic the native extracellularmatrix and the properties of scaffolds have been shownto affect the cell behavior such as the cell attachment,proliferation and differentiation. Here, we focus on therecent reports that investigated the various aspectsof scaffolds including the materials used for scaffoldfabrication, surface modification of scaffolds, topographyand mechanical properties of scaffolds towards stemcells differentiation effect. We will present a moredetailed overview on the effect of mechanical propertiesof scaffolds on stem cells fate.
Ellinwood, Nicholas; Dobrev, Dobromir; Morotti, Stefano; Grandi, Eleonora
2017-09-01
The KV1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (IKur) and is predominantly expressed in atria vs. ventricles, has emerged as a promising target to treat atrial fibrillation (AF). However, while numerous KV1.5-selective compounds have been screened, characterized, and tested in various animal models of AF, evidence of antiarrhythmic efficacy in humans is still lacking. Moreover, current guidelines for pre-clinical assessment of candidate drugs heavily rely on steady-state concentration-response curves or IC50 values, which can overlook adverse cardiotoxic effects. We sought to investigate the effects of kinetics and state-dependent binding of IKur-targeting drugs on atrial electrophysiology in silico and reveal the ideal properties of IKur blockers that maximize anti-AF efficacy and minimize pro-arrhythmic risk. To this aim, we developed a new Markov model of IKur that describes KV1.5 gating based on experimental voltage-clamp data in atrial myocytes from patient right-atrial samples in normal sinus rhythm. We extended the IKur formulation to account for state-specificity and kinetics of KV1.5-drug interactions and incorporated it into our human atrial cell model. We simulated 1- and 3-Hz pacing protocols in drug-free conditions and with a [drug] equal to the IC50 value. The effects of binding and unbinding kinetics were determined by examining permutations of the forward (kon) and reverse (koff) binding rates to the closed, open, and inactivated states of the KV1.5 channel. We identified a subset of ideal drugs exhibiting anti-AF electrophysiological parameter changes at fast pacing rates (effective refractory period prolongation), while having little effect on normal sinus rhythm (limited action potential prolongation). Our results highlight that accurately accounting for channel interactions with drugs, including kinetics and state-dependent binding, is critical for developing safer and more effective pharmacological anti
Cui, Guo-hong; Shao, Shui-jin; Yang, Jia-jun; Liu, Jian-ren; Guo, Hai-dong
2016-03-01
maximize the therapeutic benefits of NSC transplantation for AD through improving the survival and differentiation of transplanted stem cells and promoting the effects of neuroprotection, anti-neuroinflammatory and paracrine action. Our results may have important clinical implications for the design of future NSC-based strategies using the biomaterials for various neurodegenerative diseases including AD.
Cruz Uribe, David; Pérez Moreno, Carlos
2000-01-01
We give several extrapolation theorems for pairs of weights of the form (w, Mkw) and (w, (Mw/w)r w), where w is any non-negative function, r>1, and Mk is the kth iterate of the Hardy–Littlewood maximal operator. As an application we show that our results can be used to extend and sharpen results for square functions and singular integral operators by Chang et al. (1985, Comment. Math. Helv.60, 217–246), Chanillo and Wheeden (1987, Indiana Univ. Math. J.36, 277–294), Wilson (1987, Duke Math. J...
Differential surface properties of commercial crystalline telmisartan samples.
Laad, Preksha; Shete, Ganesh; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind Kumar
2013-05-13
The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in surface chemistry of commercially available telmisartan (TMS) samples in Indian market and to correlate them to the surface molecular environment. Comprehensive characterization of material properties of four TMS samples from different sources showed that all samples exhibited same polymorphic form, but different particle shape, particle size distribution, surface energetics and surface chemistry. Wettability and surface free energy were determined using sessile drop contact angle technique. TMS samples exhibited significant variations in their wetting behavior. The role of crystal shape, particle size distribution, surface energetics and surface chemistry in controlling TMS powder wettability was collectively explored by contact angle experiments. Evaluation of work of adhesion (Wa), immersion (Wi) and spreading (Ws) indicated that samples had differential wetting behavior. The surface chemistry was elucidated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface polarity index was determined by XPS and expressed as (oxygen+nitrogen)-to-(carbon) atomic concentration ratio. It was found to be different for all four TMS samples. Crystal morphology of TMS polymorph A was predicted using Bravais-Friedel Donnay-Harker (BFDH) method. Molecular lipophilic surface potential (MLSP) data for TMS showed the varied surface lipophilic environment throughout the molecule. Hence it can be concluded that the differential abundance of surface elements play an important role in controlling the biopharmaceutical performance of TMS powder samples.
Differential area profiles: decomposition properties and efficient computation.
Ouzounis, Georgios K; Pesaresi, Martino; Soille, Pierre
2012-08-01
Differential area profiles (DAPs) are point-based multiscale descriptors used in pattern analysis and image segmentation. They are defined through sets of size-based connected morphological filters that constitute a joint area opening top-hat and area closing bottom-hat scale-space of the input image. The work presented in this paper explores the properties of this image decomposition through sets of area zones. An area zone defines a single plane of the DAP vector field and contains all the peak components of the input image, whose size is between the zone's attribute extrema. Area zones can be computed efficiently from hierarchical image representation structures, in a way similar to regular attribute filters. Operations on the DAP vector field can then be computed without the need for exporting it first, and an example with the leveling-like convex/concave segmentation scheme is given. This is referred to as the one-pass method and it is demonstrated on the Max-Tree structure. Its computational performance is tested and compared against conventional means for computing differential profiles, relying on iterative application of area openings and closings. Applications making use of the area zone decomposition are demonstrated in problems related to remote sensing and medical image analysis.
Some properties of the intersections of maximal subalgebras in Lie color algebras%李Color代数极大子代数的基本性质
宋华; 王晨迪
2012-01-01
In this paper,we develop initially the theory on the intersections of maximal subalgebras for Lie color algebras,obtain their some properties and give some necessary and sufficient conditions for solvable Lie color algebras and nilpotent Lie color algebras,respectively.%主要把Frattini子代数的性质推广到李Color代数,得到了它们的若干性质,并利用其性质分别给出可解和幂零李Color代数的几个充分必要条件.
Certain Ergodic Properties of a Differential System on a Compact Differentiable Manifold
LIAO Shan-tao
2006-01-01
Let Mn be an n-dimensional compact C∞-differentiable manifold,n≥2,and let S be a C1 -differential system on Mn.The system induces a one-parameter C1 transformation group φt(-∞＜t＜∞) over Mn and,thus,naturally induces a one-parameter transformation group of the tangent bundle of Mn.The aim of this paper,in essence,is to study certain ergodic properties of this latter transformation group.Among various results established in the paper,we mention here only the following,which might describe quite well the nature of our study.(A) Let M be the set of regular points in Mn of the differential system S.With respect to a given C∞ Riemannian metric of Mn,we consider the bundle (ζ)# of all (n-2) spheres Qxn-2,x∈M,where Qxn-2 for each x consists of all unit tangent vectors of Mn orthogonal to the trajectory through x.Then,the differential system S gives rise naturally to a one-parameter transformation group Ψt#(-∞＜t＜∞) of (ζ)#.For an l-frame α=(u1,u2,…,ul) of Mn at a point x in M,1 ≥l≥n-1,each ui being in (ζ)#,we shall denote the volume of the parallelotope in the tangent space of Mn at x with edges u1,u2,…,ut by v(α),and let η*α(t)=v(Ψ#t (u1),Ψ#t(u2),…,Ψ#t (ul)).This is a continuous real function of t.Let I*+(α)=-limT→∞1/T∫T0η*α(t)dt,I*-(α)=-limT→-∞1/T∫T0η*α(t)dt.α is said to be positively linearly independent of the mean if I+*(α)＞0.Similarly,α is said to be negatively linearly independent of the mean if I_ *(a)＞0.A point x of M is said to possess positive generic index κ=κ+*(x) if,at x,there is a κ-frame α= (u1,u2,…,Uκ),ui ∈(ζ)#,of Mn having the property of being positively linearly independent in the mean,but at x,every l-frame β=(v1,v2,…,vl),vi ∈(ζ)#,of Mn with l＞κ does not have the same property.Similarly,we define the negative generic index κ_*(x) of x.For a nonempty closed subset F of Mn consisting of regular points of S,invariant under φt(-∞＜t＜∞),let the (positive and
Implications of the Hopf algebra properties of noncommutative differential calculi
1996-01-01
We define a noncommutative algebra of four basic objects within a differential calculus on quantum groups: functions, 1-forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations, as the cross-product algebra associated with Woronowicz's (differential) algebra of functions and forms. This definition properly takes into account the Hopf algebra structure of the Woronowicz calculus. It also provides a direct proof of the Cartan identity.
Implications of the Hopf algebra properties of noncommutative differential calculi
Vladimirov, A.A.
1996-01-01
We define a noncommutative algebra of four basic objects within a differential calculus on quantum groups: functions, 1-forms, Lie derivatives and inner derivations, as the cross-product algebra associated with Woronowicz's (differential) algebra of functions and forms. This definition properly takes into account the Hopf algebra structure of the Woronowicz calculus. It also provides a direct proof of the Cartan identity.
Zak, Michail
2008-01-01
A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).
Lee, Jin-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook
2016-05-06
Diverse intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical factors have a strong influence on the regulation of stem cell fate. In this work, we examined recent literature on the effects of mechanical environments on stem cells, especially on differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We provide a brief review of intrinsic mechanical properties of single MSC and examined the correlation between the intrinsic mechanical property of MSC and the differentiation ability. The effects of extrinsic mechanical factors relevant to the differentiation of MSCs were considered separately. The effect of nanostructure and elasticity of the matrix on the differentiation of MSCs were summarized. Finally, we consider how the extrinsic mechanical properties transfer to MSCs and then how the effects on the intrinsic mechanical properties affect stem cell differentiation.
Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,
Dalia L. Diab
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.
Lectures on the theory of group properties of differential equations
Ovsyannikov, LV
2013-01-01
These lecturers provide a clear introduction to Lie group methods for determining and using symmetries of differential equations, a variety of their applications in gas dynamics and other nonlinear models as well as the author's remarkable contribution to this classical subject. It contains material that is useful for students and teachers but cannot be found in modern texts. For example, the theory of partially invariant solutions developed by Ovsyannikov provides a powerful tool for solving systems of nonlinear differential equations and investigating complicated mathematical models. Readers
Profit maximization mitigates competition
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
1996-01-01
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
Weinstein, Randi B.; Eleid, Noura; LeCesne, Catherine; Durando, Bianca; Crawford, Julie T.; Heffner, Michelle; Layton, Christle; O'Keefe, Matthew; Robinson, Jennifer; Rudinsky, Suzy; Henriksen, Erik J.; Tischler, Marc E.
2002-01-01
Analogs of human insulin have been used to discriminate between responses of metabolic and mitogenic (growth-related) pathways. This study compared the stimulatory effects of human insulin (HI) and 2 analogs (X2, B-Asp(9), B-Glu(27) and H2, A-His(8),B-His(4),B-Glu(10), B-His(27)) on glucose uptake and protein synthesis in rat soleus muscle in situ. Glucose uptake, estimated by intramuscular (IM) injection of 2-deoxy[1,2-3H]glucose with or without insulin, was maximally increased at 10(-6) mol/L for HI and X2 and 10(-7) mol/L for H2. HI had a larger effect (318%) than either X2 (156%) or H2 (124%). The half-maximal effect (ED(50)) values for HI, X2, and H2 were 3.3 x10(-8) mol/L, 1.7 x 10(-7) mol/L, and 1.6 x 10(-9) mol/L, respectively. Protein synthesis, estimated by protein incorporation of [(3)H]phenylalanine injected into muscles with or without insulin, was maximally increased at 10(-5) mol/L for HI and 10(-6) for X2 and H2. HI had a larger effect in stimulating protein synthesis (34%) than either X2 (25%) or H2 (19.8%). The ED(50) values for HI, X2, and H2 were 3.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, 3.2 x 10(-7) mol/L, and 1.0 x 10(-9) mol/L, respectively. The biological potency of each analog (ED(50)insulin/ED(50)analog) showed X2 to be less potent than HI for both glucose uptake (0.2) and protein synthesis (0.9), whereas H2 is more potent than HI with ratios of 20 and 300, respectively. These data suggest that this approach for studying insulin responsiveness in a single muscle in situ may be a useful tool for investigating insulin signaling in muscle in vivo. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Asymptotic stability properties of θ-methods for delay differential equations
无
2001-01-01
Deals with the asymptotic stability properties of θ- methods for the pantograph equation and the linear delay differential-algebraic equation with emphasis on the linear θ- methods with variable stepsize schemes for the pantograph equation, proves that asymptotic stability is obtained if and only if θ ＞ 1/2, and studies further the one-leg θ- method for the linear delay differential-algebraic equation and establishes the sufficient asymptotic-ally differential-algebraic stable condition θ = 1.
Properties of Differential Scattering Section Based on Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Effect
无
2002-01-01
Properties of damping electrons in collision with photons based on multi-photon nonlinear Compton effect are investigated. The expressions of the differential scattering section are derived. Several useful conclusions are drawn.
The Symmetry of Singular Hamiltonian Differential Operators and Properties of Deficiency Indices
Jian Gang QI
2006-01-01
The symmetry of singular Hamiltonian differential operators is proved under the standard "definiteness condition", which is strictly weaker than the densely definite condition used by A. M.Krall. Meanwhile, some properties of deficiency indices are given.
SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SECOND ORDER DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS ON TWO-STEP NILPOTENT LIE GROUPS
Niu Pengcheng
2000-01-01
In this paper, spectral properties of certain left invariant differential operators on two-step nilpotent Lie groups are completely described by using the theory of unitary irreducible representations and the Plancherel formulae on nilpotent Lie groups.
Some Properties of Stochastic Differential Equations Driven by the G-Brownian Motion
Qian LIN
2013-01-01
In this paper,we study the property of continuous dependence on the parameters of stochastic integrals and solutions of stochastic differential equations driven by the G-Brownian motion.In addition,the uniqueness and comparison theorems for those stochastic differential equations with non-Lipschitz coefficients are obtained.
Some analytical properties of solutions of differential equations of noninteger order
S. M. Momani
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The analytical properties of solutions of the nonlinear differential equations x(α(t=f(t,x, α∈ℝ, 0<α≤1 of noninteger order have been investigated. We obtained two results concerning the frame curves of solutions. Moreover, we proved a result on differential inequality with fractional derivatives.
Meguro,Tadamichi
1986-08-01
Full Text Available Maximal expiratory volume-time and flow-volume (MEVT and MEFV curves were drawn for young male nonsmoking healthy adults and for young male nonsmoking asthmatic patients. Eleven parameters, two MEVT (%FVC and FEV1.0%, six MEFV (PFR, V75, V50, V25, V10 and V50/V25, and three MTC parameters (MTC75-50, MTC50-25 and MTC25-RV were used for the multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis in this study consisted of correlation coefficient matrix computation, the test for mean values in the multivariates, and the linear discriminant analysis using the all possible selection procedure (APSP. Correlation coefficients among flow rate parameters and flow rate related parameters in high lung volumes were different between the two groups. In the eleven-parameter discriminant analysis by APSP using single parameters, PFR, V75 (flow rate at 75% of forced vital capacity, and FEV1.0% were considered to be the effective parameters. In the seven-parameter discriminant analysis using the parameter groups, the group of all parameters and the %FVC and flow rate-related parameter group were considered to be the effective numerical alternatives to MEFV curves discriminating between healthy adults and asthmatic patients.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
An Optimization Problem for Predicting the Maximal Effect of Degradation of Mechanical Structures
Achtziger, W.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Taylor, J. E.
2000-01-01
matrices, b is a vector, and x, y are the vectors of unknowns. The linear objective function to be maximized is (x, y) bar right arrow b(T)x. In a first step we investigate the problem properties such as existence of solutions and the differentiability of related marginal functions. As a by-product...
Stability properties of autonomous homogeneous polynomial differential systems
Samardzija, Nikola
A geometrical approach is used to derive a generalized characteristic value problem for dynamic systems described by homogeneous polynomials. It is shown that a nonlinear homogeneous polynomial system possesses eigenvectors and eigenvalues, quantities normally associated with a linear system. These quantities are then employed in studying stability properties. The necessary and sufficient conditions for all forms of stabilities characteristic of a two-dimensional system are provided. This result, together with the classical theorem of Frommer, completes a stability analysis for a two-dimensional homogeneous polynomial system.
Application of Electrical Properties to Differentiate Lard from Tallow and Palm Oil
Sucipto
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to differentiate lard from tallow and palm oil based on its electrical properties, namely conductance, impedance and capacitance. These properties were measured at spectra frequencies of 4.20 to 5.00 MHz in room temperature (26-27 oC. Statistic multivariate that consist on principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA were used to evaluate the data. The results showed that lard and tallow can be differentiated using whole parameters electrical properties of materials. On the other hand, lard and palm oil can only be differentiated using part of the material electrical properties. Good performance of differentiation process was obtained using PCA model at 4.91 to 4.98 MHz. The first two components of PCA, which was derived from conductance, impedance and capacitance, contributed more than 90% of the total variances. CA showed that lard and tallow are different groups based on the Euclidean distance of each electrical properties. This technique can be potentially developed as an electrical sensor for differentiation lard to tallow and palm oil.
Application of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations to Reservoir Property Modelling
Potsepaev, R.
2010-09-06
Existing algorithms of geostatistics for stochastic modelling of reservoir parameters require a mapping (the \\'uvt-transform\\') into the parametric space and reconstruction of a stratigraphic co-ordinate system. The parametric space can be considered to represent a pre-deformed and pre-faulted depositional environment. Existing approximations of this mapping in many cases cause significant distortions to the correlation distances. In this work we propose a coordinate free approach for modelling stochastic textures through the application of stochastic partial differential equations. By avoiding the construction of a uvt-transform and stratigraphic coordinates, one can generate realizations directly in the physical space in the presence of deformations and faults. In particular the solution of the modified Helmholtz equation driven by Gaussian white noise is a zero mean Gaussian stationary random field with exponential correlation function (in 3-D). This equation can be used to generate realizations in parametric space. In order to sample in physical space we introduce a stochastic elliptic PDE with tensor coefficients, where the tensor is related to correlation anisotropy and its variation is physical space.
Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity
Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy
2006-01-01
The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.
刘安平; 何猛省
2002-01-01
By making use of the integral inequalities and some results of the functional differential equations, oscillatory properties of solutions of certain nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations of neutral type with multi-delays were investigated and a series of sufficient conditions for oscillations of the equations were established. The results fully indicate that the oscillations are caused by delay and hence reveal the difference between these equations and those equations without delay.
Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...
Jain Rupali S.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigate the qualitative properties such as existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data of mild solutions of first and second order nonlocal semilinear functional differential equations with delay in Banach spaces. Our analysis is based on semigroup theory and modified version of Banach contraction theorem.
Andrew M. Parker
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.
Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.
PROPERTIES OF PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEONATAL RAT RETINAL PROGENITOR CELLS IN VITRO
Kang Qianyan; Liu Yong; Zhao Jianjun; Qiu Fen; Chen Xinlin; Tian Yumei; Hu Ming
2006-01-01
Objective To investigate the properties of proliferation and differentiation of neonatal rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro. Methods RPCs were isolated from neonatal SD rats neural retina and cultured in DMEM/F12+N2 with EGF and bFGF (suspension medium )or 10%FBS without EGF and bFGF (differentiation medium). The cells grew as suspended spheres or adherent monolayers, depending on different culture conditions. The neural stem cells or retinal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, retinal ganglion cells, rod photoreceptors and the proliferating cells were evaluated with immunofluorescence analysis by Nestin or Pax6, Map2, GFAP, Thy-1, Rhodopsin and BrdU antibodies respectively. Results RPCs could propagate and differentiate in suspension or differentiation medium and express the markers of Nestin (92.86%) or Pax6 (86.75%), Map2 (38.54%), GFAP (20.93%), Thy-1 (27.66%) and Rhodopsin(13.33%)in suspension medium; however, Nestin (60.27%), Pax6 (52%), Map2 (34.94%), GFAP (38.17%), Thy-1(30.84%) and Rhodopsin (34.67%) in differentiation medium. 96.4% of the population in the neurospheres was BrdU-positive cells. The cells could spontaneously adherent forming some subspheres and retinal specific cell types. Conclusion Neonatal rat RPCs possess the high degree of proliferation and can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, retinal ganglion cells and rod photoreceptors in vitro. There are different proportions for RPCs to differentiate into specific cell types.
Fu Freddie H
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The human anterior cruciate ligament (hACL and medial collateral ligament (hMCL of the knee joint are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. It has been known that, while injuries to the MCL typically heal with conservative treatment, ACL injuries usually do not heal. As adult stem cells repair injured tissues through proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that the hACL and hMCL contain stem cells exhibiting unique properties that could be responsible for the differential healing capacity of the two ligaments. Methods To test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. Results We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4. Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. However, hACL-SCs differed from hMCL-SCs in that the size and number of hACL-SC colonies in culture were much smaller and grew more slowly than hMCL-SC colonies. Moreover, fewer hACL-SCs in cell colonies expressed stem cell markers STRO-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct-4 than hMCL-SCs. Finally, hACL-SCs had less multi-differentiation potential than hMCL-SCs, evidenced by differing extents of adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis in the respective induction media. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that hACL-SCs are intrinsically different from hMCL-SCs. We suggest that the differences in their properties contribute to the known disparity in healing capabilities between the two ligaments.
Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration
Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand
2012-01-01
We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.
Raymon, H K; Thode, S; Zhou, J; Friedman, G C; Pardinas, J R; Barrere, C; Johnson, R M; Sah, D W
1999-07-01
A renewable source of human sensory neurons would greatly facilitate basic research and drug development. We had established previously conditionally immortalized human CNS cell lines that can differentiate into functional neurons (). We report here the development of an immortalized human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) clonal cell line, HD10.6, with a tetracycline-regulatable v-myc oncogene. In the proliferative condition, HD10.6 cells have a doubling time of 1.2 d and exhibit a neuronal precursor morphology. After differentiation of clone HD10.6 for 7 d in the presence of tetracycline, v-myc expression was suppressed, and >50% of the cells exhibited typical neuronal morphology, stained positively for neuronal cytoskeletal markers, and fired action potentials in response to current injection. Furthermore, this cell line was fate-restricted to a neuronal phenotype; even in culture conditions that promote Schwann cell or smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest stem cells, HD10.6 differentiated exclusively into neurons. Moreover, differentiated HD10.6 cells expressed sensory neuron-associated transcription factors and exhibited capsaicin sensitivity. Taken together, these data indicate that we have established an immortalized human DRG cell line that can differentiate into sensory neurons with nociceptive properties. The cell line HD10.6 represents the first example of a human sensory neuronal line and will be valuable for basic research, as well as for the discovery of novel drug targets and clinical candidates.
Rudiger Bubner
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.
Elschner, Robert; de Melo, Alessandro Marques; Bunge, Christian-Alexander; Petermann, Klaus
2007-01-15
We studied the amplitude and phase noise suppression properties of an all-optical regenerator for differential phase-shift keying data. A detailed analytical investigation is performed and compared with numerical simulations for different working points. The results show that both amplitude and phase can be regenerated. However, simultaneous amplitude and phase noise suppression is possible only if the phase degradation is stronger than the amplitude degradation, for instance, due to nonlinear phase noise.
Differential flatness properties and multivariable adaptive control of ovarian system dynamics
Rigatos, Gerasimos
2016-12-01
The ovarian system exhibits nonlinear dynamics which is modeled by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The paper proposes adaptive fuzzy control based on differential flatness theory for the complex dynamics of the ovarian system. It is proven that the dynamic model of the ovarian system, having as state variables the LH and the FSH hormones and their derivatives, is a differentially flat one. This means that all its state variables and its control inputs can be described as differential functions of the flat output. By exploiting differential flatness properties the system's dynamic model is written in the multivariable linear canonical (Brunovsky) form, for which the design of a state feedback controller becomes possible. After this transformation, the new control inputs of the system contain unknown nonlinear parts, which are identified with the use of neurofuzzy approximators. The learning procedure for these estimators is determined by the requirement the first derivative of the closed-loop's Lyapunov function to be a negative one. Moreover, Lyapunov stability analysis shows that H-infinity tracking performance is succeeded for the feedback control loop and this assures improved robustness to the aforementioned model uncertainty as well as to external perturbations. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control scheme is confirmed through simulation experiments.
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Structure-preserving properties of three differential schemes for oscillator system
秦于越; 邓子辰; 胡伟鹏
2014-01-01
A numerical method for the Hamiltonian system is required to preserve some structure-preserving properties. The current structure-preserving method satisfies the requirements that a symplectic method can preserve the symplectic structure of a finite dimension Hamiltonian system, and a multi-symplectic method can preserve the multi-symplectic structure of an infinite dimension Hamiltonian system. In this paper, the structure-preserving properties of three differential schemes for an oscillator system are investigated in detail. Both the theoretical results and the numerical results show that the results obtained by the standard forward Euler scheme lost all the three geo-metric properties of the oscillator system, i.e., periodicity, boundedness, and total energy, the symplectic scheme can preserve the first two geometric properties of the oscillator system, and the St¨ormer-Verlet scheme can preserve the three geometric properties of the oscillator system well. In addition, the relative errors for the Hamiltonian function of the symplectic scheme increase with the increase in the step length, suggesting that the symplectic scheme possesses good structure-preserving properties only if the step length is small enough.
Kowalski, Janina; Gan, Jian; Jonas, Peter; Pernía-Andrade, Alejandro J
2016-05-01
The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. Previous studies suggested that the main types of principal neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs), CA3 pyramidal neurons, and CA1 pyramidal neurons, differ in their activity pattern, with sparse firing in GCs and more frequent firing in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. It has been assumed but never shown that such different activity may be caused by differential synaptic excitation. To test this hypothesis, we performed high-resolution whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in anesthetized rats in vivo. In contrast to previous in vitro data, both CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons fired action potentials spontaneously, with a frequency of ∼3-6 Hz, whereas GCs were silent. Furthermore, both CA3 and CA1 cells primarily fired in bursts. To determine the underlying mechanisms, we quantitatively assessed the frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic input, the passive membrane properties, and the active membrane characteristics. Surprisingly, GCs showed comparable synaptic excitation to CA3 and CA1 cells and the highest ratio of excitation versus hyperpolarizing inhibition. Thus, differential synaptic excitation is not responsible for differences in firing. Moreover, the three types of hippocampal neurons markedly differed in their passive properties. While GCs showed the most negative membrane potential, CA3 pyramidal neurons had the highest input resistance and the slowest membrane time constant. The three types of neurons also differed in the active membrane characteristics. GCs showed the highest action potential threshold, but displayed the largest gain of the input-output curves. In conclusion, our results reveal that differential firing of the three main types of hippocampal principal neurons in vivo is not primarily caused by differences in the characteristics of the synaptic input, but by the distinct properties of synaptic integration and input-output transformation.
Janusz Brzozowski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Limit Properties of Solutions of Singular Second-Order Differential Equations
Weinmüller Ewa
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the properties of the differential equation , a.e. on , where , and satisfies the -Carathéodory conditions on for some . A full description of the asymptotic behavior for of functions satisfying the equation a.e. on is given. We also describe the structure of boundary conditions which are necessary and sufficient for to be at least in . As an application of the theory, new existence and/or uniqueness results for solutions of periodic boundary value problems are shown.
Maximizing band gaps in plate structures
Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...
The geometry of differential difference equations
Helminck, G.F.; Post, G.F.
1994-01-01
To each maximal commuting subalgebra h of glm(C) is associated a system of differential difference equations, generalizing several known systems. Starting from a Grassmann manifold, solutions are constructed, their properties are discussed and the relation with other systems is given. Finally it is shown how to express these solutions in T-functions.
Liu, Chang; Le Blanc, J C Yves; Schneider, Bradley B; Shields, Jefry; Federico, James J; Zhang, Hui; Stroh, Justin G; Kauffman, Gregory W; Kung, Daniel W; Ieritano, Christian; Shepherdson, Evan; Verbuyst, Mitch; Melo, Luke; Hasan, Moaraj; Naser, Dalia; Janiszewski, John S; Hopkins, W Scott; Campbell, J Larry
2017-02-22
The microsolvated state of a molecule, represented by its interactions with only a small number of solvent molecules, can play a key role in determining the observable bulk properties of the molecule. This is especially true in cases where strong local hydrogen bonding exists between the molecule and the solvent. One method that can probe the microsolvated states of charged molecules is differential mobility spectrometry (DMS), which rapidly interrogates an ion's transitions between a solvated and desolvated state in the gas phase (i.e., few solvent molecules present). However, can the results of DMS analyses of a class of molecules reveal information about the bulk physicochemical properties of those species? Our findings presented here show that DMS behaviors correlate strongly with the measured solution phase pKa and pKb values, and cell permeabilities of a set of structurally related drug molecules, even yielding high-resolution discrimination between isomeric forms of these drugs. This is due to DMS's ability to separate species based upon only subtle (yet predictable) changes in structure: the same subtle changes that can influence isomers' different bulk properties. Using 2-methylquinolin-8-ol as the core structure, we demonstrate how DMS shows promise for rapidly and sensitively probing the physicochemical properties of molecules, with particular attention paid to drug candidates at the early stage of drug development. This study serves as a foundation upon which future drug molecules of different structural classes could be examined.
Social group utility maximization
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
The maximal process of nonlinear shot noise
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2009-05-01
In the nonlinear shot noise system-model shots’ statistics are governed by general Poisson processes, and shots’ decay-dynamics are governed by general nonlinear differential equations. In this research we consider a nonlinear shot noise system and explore the process tracking, along time, the system’s maximal shot magnitude. This ‘maximal process’ is a stationary Markov process following a decay-surge evolution; it is highly robust, and it is capable of displaying both a wide spectrum of statistical behaviors and a rich variety of random decay-surge sample-path trajectories. A comprehensive analysis of the maximal process is conducted, including its Markovian structure, its decay-surge structure, and its correlation structure. All results are obtained analytically and in closed-form.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
Parniakov, Oleksii; Bals, Olivier; Barba, Francisco J; Mykhailyk, Viacheslav; Lebovka, Nikolai; Vorobiev, Eugene
2016-05-31
Over the last years, both food researchers and food industry have shown an increased interest in finding techniques that can estimate the modifications in quality, nutritional and thermophysical properties of food products during processing and/or storage. For instance, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has attracted the interest of the scientific community because only a small amount of sample is needed for the analysis. Moreover, it does not require any specific sample preparation and it is a repeatable and reliable method. In addition, DSC methodology needs a short time of experiments compared to other techniques used for the same purpose. At this stage of investigation, there is a need to evaluate the commonly accepted and new emerging DSC applications in order to establish the optimum conditions of emerging processing. This paper reviews the current and new insights of DSC technique for the estimation of quality, nutritional and thermophysical properties of food products during conventional and emerging processing and/or subsequent storage. The estimation of the different properties in several food matrices after processing and/or storage is also discussed.
Roberts Jason A
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the reliability of some numerical methods in preserving the stability properties of the linear stochastic functional differential equation , where α, β, σ, τ ≥ 0 are real constants, and W(t is a standard Wiener process. The areas of the regions of asymptotic stability for the class of methods considered, indicated by the sufficient conditions for the discrete system, are shown to be equal in size to each other and we show that an upper bound can be put on the time-step parameter for the numerical method for which the system is asymptotically mean-square stable. We illustrate our results by means of numerical experiments and various stability diagrams. We examine the extent to which the continuous system can tolerate stochastic perturbations before losing its stability properties and we illustrate how one may accurately choose a numerical method to preserve the stability properties of the original problem in the numerical solution. Our numerical experiments also indicate that the quality of the sufficient conditions is very high.
Khani, Mohammad-Mehdi; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Rostami, Mostafa; Peirovi, Habibollah; Janmaleki, Mohsen
2014-07-01
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells appropriate for a variety of tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. Mechanical properties of hMSCs during differentiation are associated with their particular metabolic activity and regulate cell function due to alternations in cytoskeleton and structural elements. The objective of this study is to evaluate elastic and viscoelastic properties of hMSCs during long term cultivation in control and transforming growth factor-β1 treatment groups using micropipette aspiration technique. The mean Young's modulus (E) of the control samples remained nearly unchanged during 6 days of cultivation, but that of the test samples showed an initial reduction compared to its relevant control sample after 2 days of treatment by biological growth factor, followed by a significant rise after 4 and 6 days. The viscoelastic creep tests showed that both instantaneous and equilibrium moduli significantly increased with the treatment time and reached to maximum values of 622.9 ± 114.2 and 144.3 ± 11.6 Pa at the sixth day, respectively, while increase in apparent viscosity was not statistically significant. Such change of mechanical properties of hMSCs during specific lineage commitment contributes to regenerative medicine as well as stem-cell-based therapy in which biophysical signals regulate stem cell fate.
HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization
Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.
ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY PROPERTIES OF θ-METHODS FOR THE MULTI-PANTOGRAPH DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
Dong-song Li; Ming-zhu Liu
2004-01-01
This paper deals with the asymptotic stability analysis of θ - methods for multi-pantograph delay differential equation u'(t)=λu(t)+lΣi=1μiu(qit),0＜ql＜ql-1＜…＜ql＜1,/u(0)=u0.Here λ,μ1,…,μl,u0∈C.In recent years stability properties of numerical methods for this kind of equation has been studied by numerous authors. Many papers are concerned with meshes with fixed stepsize. In general the developed techniques give rise to non-ordinary recurrence relation. In this work, instead, we study constrained variable stpesize schemes, suggested by theoretical and computational reasons, which lead to a non-stationary difference equation.A general theorem is presented which can be used to obtain the characterization of the stability regions of θ - methods.
Symplectic Covariance Properties for Shubin and Born-Jordan Pseudo-Differential Operators
de Gosson, Maurice A
2011-01-01
Among all classes of pseudo-differential operators only the Weyl operators enjoy the property of symplectic covariance with respect to conjugation by elements of the metaplectic group. In this paper we show that there is, however, a weaker form of symplectic covariance for Shubin's {\\tau}-dependent operators, in which the intertwiners no longer are metaplectic, but still are invertible non-unitary operators. We also study the case of Born--Jordan operators, which are obtained by averaging the {\\tau}-operators over the interval [0,1] (such operators have recently been studied by Boggiatto and his collaborators). We show that metaplectic covariance still hold for these operators, with respect top a subgroup of the metaplectic group.
Khachfe, Hassan M; Atkinson, David
2013-04-01
Thermal and stability properties of B17, the 17% N-terminal domain of apo B, were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry spectroscopy, where the thermal characteristics of the polypeptide were studied and analyzed. The heat capacity data of B17 showed that the protein undergoes two transitions between 50 and 90 °C, with T m's at 65.9 and 74.8 °C. While the first transition showed immediate reversibility, the second one-with the higher T m-necessitated a longer cooling (several days) period for its reversibility to be observed and both transitions could be seen in the heat capacity profile of B17. Moreover, the van't Hoff enthalpies determined via calorimetric measurements agreed with the values calculated from the CD analysis reported previously.
Antonova, Irina V.; Kurkina, Irina I.; Nebogatikova, Nadezhda A.; Komonov, Alexander I.; Smagulova, Svetlana A.
2017-02-01
The band structure and electric properties of films created from a partially fluorinated graphene suspension are analyzed in this paper. As may be inferred from the structural study, graphene islands (quantum dots) are formed in these films. Various types of negative differential resistance (NDR) and a step-like increase in the current are found for films created from the fluorinated graphene suspension. NDR resulting from the formation of the potential barrier system in the film and corresponding to the theoretical prediction is observed for a relatively low fluorination degree. The origin of the NDR varies with an increase in the fluorination degree of the suspension. The observation of NDR in the fluorinated films widens the range of application of such films, including as active device layers fabricated using 2D printed technologies on rigid and flexible substrates.
Fuquan Jiang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the properties of Green’s function for the nonlinear fractional differential equation boundary value problem: D0+αu(t+f(t,u(t+e(t=0,0
The electric properties and the current-controlled differential negative resistance of cBN crystal
2008-01-01
The electric properties of nonintentionally doped n-cubic boron nitride(cBN) crystal are investigated.The cBN crystal was transformed from hexagonal-boron nitride(h-BN) under high pressure(HP) and high temperature(HT) using magnesium powder as catalyst.At room temperature,the current-voltage(I-V) characteristics of cBN crystal are measured and found to be nonlinear.When the electric field is in the range of(1―1.5)×105 V/cm,the avalanche breakdown occurs inside the whole cBN crystal.At this same time,the bright blue-violet with the wavelength of 380―400 nm from the cBN crystal is observed.When measuring the I-V curve after breakdown of cBN crystal,the current-controlled differential negative resistance phenomenon is observed.The breakdown is repeatable.
Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default
Lim, Thomas
2008-01-01
We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.
Burga, Laura N; Tung, Nadine M; Troyan, Susan L; Bostina, Mihnea; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Fountzilas, Helena; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Miron, Alexander; Yassin, Yosuf A; Lee, Bernard T; Wulf, Gerburg M
2009-02-15
Female BRCA1 mutation carriers have a nearly 80% probability of developing breast cancer during their life-time. We hypothesized that the breast epithelium at risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers harbors mammary epithelial cells (MEC) with altered proliferation and differentiation properties. Using a three-dimensional culture technique to grow MECs ex vivo, we found that the ability to form colonies, an indication of clonality, was restricted to the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive fraction in MECs but not in HCC1937 BRCA1-mutant cancer cells. Primary MECs from BRCA1 mutation carriers (n = 9) had a 28% greater ability for clonal growth compared with normal controls (n = 6; P = 0.006), and their colonies were significantly larger. Colonies in controls and BRCA1 mutation carriers stained positive for BRCA1 by immunohistochemistry, and 79% of the examined single colonies from BRCA1 carriers retained heterozygosity for BRCA1 (ROH). Colonies from BRCA1 mutation carriers frequently showed high epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (71% EGFR positive versus 44% in controls) and were negative for estrogen receptor (ERalpha; 32% ER negative, 44% mixed, 24% ER positive versus 90% ER positive in controls). Expression of CK14 and p63 were not significantly different. Microarray studies revealed that colonies from BRCA1-mutant PMECs anticipate expression profiles found in BRCA1-related tumors, and that the EGFR pathway is up-regulated. We conclude that BRCA1 haploinsufficiency leads to an increased ability for clonal growth and proliferation in the PMECs of BRCA1 mutation carriers, possibly as a result of EGFR pathway activation. These altered growth and differentiation properties may render BRCA1-mutant PMECs vulnerable to transformation and predispose to the development of ER-negative, EGFR-positive breast cancers.
Altered goblet cell differentiation and surface mucus properties in Hirschsprung disease.
Jay R Thiagarajah
Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC leads to significant mortality and morbidity, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. Changes in the colonic epithelium related to goblet cells and the luminal mucus layer have been postulated to play a key role. Here we show that the colonic epithelium of both aganglionic and ganglionic segments are altered in patients and in mice with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR. Structurally, goblet cells were altered with increased goblet cell number and reduced intracellular mucins in the distal colon of biopsies from patients with HSCR. Endothelin receptor B (Ednrb mutant mice showed increased goblet cell number and size and increased cell proliferation compared to wild-type mice in aganglionic segments, and reduced goblet cell size and number in ganglionic segments. Functionally, compared to littermates, Ednrb-/- mice showed increased transepithelial resistance, reduced stool water content and similar chloride secretion in the distal colon. Transcript levels of goblet cell differentiation factors SPDEF and Math1 were increased in the distal colon of Ednrb-/- mice. Both distal colon from Ednrb mice and biopsies from HSCR patients showed reduced Muc4 expression as compared to controls, but similar expression of Muc2. Particle tracking studies showed that mucus from Ednrb-/- mice provided a more significant barrier to diffusion of 200 nm nanoparticles as compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that aganglionosis is associated with increased goblet cell proliferation and differentiation and subsequent altered surface mucus properties, prior to the development of inflammation in the distal colon epithelium. Restoration of normal goblet cell function and mucus layer properties in the colonic epithelium may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of HAEC.
Berneman Zwi N
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimization of the current dendritic cell (DC culture protocol in order to promote the therapeutic efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy is warranted. Alternative differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs using granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin (IL-15 has been propagated as an attractive strategy in that regard. The applicability of these so-called IL-15 DCs has not yet been firmly established. We therefore developed a novel pre-clinical approach for the generation of IL-15 DCs with potent immunostimulatory properties. Methods Human CD14+ monocytes were differentiated with GM-CSF and IL-15 into immature DCs. Monocyte-derived DCs, conventionally differentiated in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4, served as control. Subsequent maturation of IL-15 DCs was induced using two clinical grade maturation protocols: (i a classic combination of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, prostaglandin E2 and (ii a Toll-like receptor (TLR7/8 agonist-based cocktail (R-848, interferon-γ, TNF-α and prostaglandin E2. In addition, both short-term (2-3 days and long-term (6-7 days DC culture protocols were compared. The different DC populations were characterized with respect to their phenotypic profile, migratory properties, cytokine production and T cell stimulation capacity. Results The use of a TLR7/8 agonist-based cocktail resulted in a more optimal maturation of IL-15 DCs, as reflected by the higher phenotypic expression of CD83 and costimulatory molecules (CD70, CD80, CD86. The functional superiority of TLR7/8-activated IL-15 DCs over conventionally matured IL-15 DCs was evidenced by their (i higher migratory potential, (ii advantageous cytokine secretion profile (interferon-γ, IL-12p70 and (iii superior capacity to stimulate autologous, antigen-specific T cell responses after passive peptide pulsing. Aside from a less pronounced production of bioactive IL-12p70, short
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK
Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims
Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Ryu, Jiwon; Peters, Ann; Chang, Qing; Li, Tong; Park, Tea Soon; Burridge, Paul W; Talbot, Conover C; Asnaghi, Laura; Martin, Lee J; Zambidis, Elias T; Koliatsos, Vassilis E
2014-12-15
Although the majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic, about 5% of cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern as familial AD (FAD) and manifest at an early age. Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene account for the majority of early-onset FAD. Here, we describe the generation of virus-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients harboring the FAD PSEN1 mutation A246E and fibroblasts from healthy age-matched controls using nonintegrating episomal vectors. We have differentiated these hiPSC lines to the neuronal lineage and demonstrated that hiPSC-derived neurons have mature phenotypic and physiological properties. Neurons from mutant hiPSC lines express PSEN1-A246E mutations themselves and show AD-like biochemical features, that is, amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) indicated by an increase in β-amyloid (Aβ)42/Aβ40 ratio. FAD hiPSCs harboring disease properties can be used as humanized models to test novel diagnostic methods and therapies and explore novel hypotheses for AD pathogenesis.
Chaudhury, Salma; Holland, Christopher; Porter, David; Tirlapur, Uday K; Vollrath, Fritz; Carr, Andrew J
2011-12-01
The cause of the high failure rates often observed following rotator cuff tendon repairs, particularly massive tears, is not fully understood. Collagen structural changes have been shown to alter tendon thermal and mechanical properties. This study aimed to form a quantitative rather than qualitative assessment, of whether differences in collagen structure and integrity existed between small biopsies of normal, small, and massive rotator cuff tears using differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal properties were measured for 28 human biopsies taken intra-operatively from normal, small, and massive rotator cuff tendon tears in this powered study. Denaturation temperatures are represented by T(onset) (°C) and T(peak) (°C). The T(onset) is proposed to represent water-amide hydrogen bond breakage and resulting protein backbone mobility. T(peak) reportedly corresponds to the temperature at which the majority of proteins fall out of solution. Denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) should correlate with the amount of triple helical structure that is denatured. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy allowed quantitative validation. Small and massive rotator cuff tears had significantly higher T(onset), T(peak), and ΔH compared to controls. Polarized light microscopy of torn tendons confirmed greater collagen structural disruption compared to controls. These novel findings suggest greater quantifiable collagen structural disruption in rotator cuff tears, compared to controls. This study offers insight into possible mechanisms for the reduced strength of torn tendons and may explain why repaired tendons fail to heal.
General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng
2005-01-01
We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....
Maximal switchability of centralized networks
Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-08-01
We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot, beeping nodes receive no feedback, while silent nodes can only differentiate between none of its neighbors beeping, or at least one of its neighbors beeping. We start by proving a lower bound that shows that in this model, it is not possible to locally converge to an MIS in sub-polynomial time. We then study four different relaxations of the model which allow us to circumvent the lower bound and find an MIS in polylogarithmic time. First, we show that if a polynomial upper bound on the network size is known, it is possi...
Swanepoel, Konrad J
2011-01-01
A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
佟达; 张燕; 宋魁彦
2012-01-01
以天然林五角槭的木材解剖性质为研究对象，分析其株内木材材质径向变异规律，对幼龄材与成熟材进行初步界定。结果表明：细胞壁厚、壁腔比、胞壁率和径、弦向直径幼龄期波动较大，成熟期波动减弱；木纤维长度符合Pan．shinⅠ模型，幼龄材拟合度较好；组织比量符合Y=acebx变异模型；幼龄材和成熟材的界定年限为28～33a之间。%Taking wood anatomical property, of A. mono Maxim natural forest as research object, its radial variation rules of wood properties was analyzed, which could give an initial confirmation of the boundary between juvenile wood and mature wood. Results show that the fiber wall thickness, cell wall to cavity ratio, fiber wall ratio, radial diameter and tangential diameter of juvenile wood have greater fluctuate than that of mature wood. Wood fiber length belongs to Panshin I Pattern with a high fitting degree in juvenile wood. Tissues radio satisfies the model of y = aebx. The boundary area of juvenile wood and mature wood is between 28a to 33a.
Relative advantage, queue jumping, and welfare maximizing wealth distribution
2006-01-01
Suppose individuals get utilities from the total amount of wealth they hold and from their wealth relative to those immediately below them. This paper studies the distribution of wealth that maximizes an additive welfare function made up of these utilities. It interprets wealth distribution in a control theory framework to show that the welfare maximizing distribution may have unexpected properties. In some circumstances it requires that inequality be maximized at the poorest and richest ends...
Dietrich, Olaf; Levin, Johannes; Ahmadi, Seyed-Ahmad; Plate, Annika; Reiser, Maximilian F; Bötzel, Kai; Giese, Armin; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit
2017-04-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging behavior of ferrous (Fe(2+)) and ferric (Fe(3+)) iron ions in order to develop a noninvasive technique to quantitatively differentiate between both forms of iron. MRI was performed at 3 T in a phantom consisting of 21 samples with different concentrations of ferrous and ferric chloride solutions (between 0 and 10 mmol/L). A multi-echo spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence with eight echoes was used for both T 2* and quantitative susceptibility measurements. The transverse relaxation rate, R 2* = 1/T 2*, was determined by nonlinear exponential fitting based on the mean signals in each sample. The susceptibilities, χ, of the samples were calculated after phase unwrapping and background field removal by fitting the spatial convolution of a unit dipole response to the measured internal field map. Relaxation rate changes, ΔR 2*(c Fe), and susceptibility changes, Δχ(c Fe), their linear slopes, as well as the ratios ΔR 2*(c Fe) / Δχ(c Fe) were determined for all concentrations. The linear slopes of the relaxation rate were (12.5 ± 0.4) s(-1)/(mmol/L) for Fe(3+) and (0.77 ± 0.09) s(-1)/(mmol/L) for Fe(2+) (significantly different, z test P relaxation behaviors in MRI but similar susceptibility patterns. These properties can be used to differentiate ferrous and ferric samples.
Maximal subgroups of finite groups
S. Srinivasan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.
Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
2000-01-01
of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...
Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2013-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Maximizing entropy over Markov processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2014-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Athanasios A. Pantelous
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In some interesting applications in control and system theory, linear descriptor (singular matrix differential equations of higher order with time-invariant coefficients and (non- consistent initial conditions have been used. In this paper, we provide a study for the solution properties of a more general class of the Apostol-Kolodner-type equations with consistent and nonconsistent initial conditions.
D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.
2007-01-01
In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…
D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.
2007-01-01
In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…
Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.
Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M
2011-01-01
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance.
Study of differential properties of fibrochondrocytes and hyaline chondrocytes in growing rabbits.
Huang, L; Li, M; Li, H; Yang, C; Cai, X
2015-02-01
We aimed to build a culture model of chondrocytes in vitro, and to study the differential properties between fibrochondrocytes and hyaline chondrocytes. Histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin so that we could analyse the histological structure of the fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Condylar fibrochondrocytes and femoral hyaline chondrocytes were cultured from four, 4-week-old, New Zealand white rabbits. The production of COL2A1, COL1OA1, SOX9 and aggrecan was detected by real time-q polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunoblotting and the differences between them were compared statistically. Histological structures obviously differed between fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. COL2A1 and SOX9 were highly expressed within cell passage 2 (P2) of both fibrochondrocytes and hyaline chondrocytes, and reduced significantly after cell passage 4 (P4). The mRNA expressions of COL2A1 (p=0.05), COL10A1 (p=0.04), SOX9 (p=0.03), and aggrecan (p=0.04) were significantly higher in hyaline chondrocytes than in fibrochondrocytes, whereas the expression of COL1A1 (p=0.02) was the opposite. Immunoblotting showed similar results. We have built a simple and effective culture model of chondrocytes in vitro, and the P2 of chondrocytes is recommended for further studies. Condylar fibrocartilage and femoral hyaline cartilage have unique biological properties, and the regulatory mechanisms of endochondral ossification for the condyle should be studied independently in the future. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Class of Maximal Functions with Oscillating Kernels
Ahmad AL-SALMAN
2007-01-01
The author studies the Lp mapping properties of a class of maximal functions that are related to oscillatory singular integral operators. Lp estimates, as well as the corresponding weighted estimates of such maximal functions, are obtained. Moreover, several applications of our results are highlighted.
ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
Yulan Jiao
2010-01-01
In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1
maximal operator.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
The Derivation, Properties and Value of Kepler's Combined Differential Photometric Precision
Christiansen, Jessie L; Barclay, Thomas S; Burke, Christopher J; Caldwell, Douglas A; Clarke, Bruce D; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey C; Stumpe, Martin C; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E; Twicken, Joseph D; Van Cleve, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
The Kepler Mission is searching for Earth-size planets orbiting solar-like stars by simultaneously observing >160,000 stars to detect sequences of transit events in the photometric light curves. The Combined Differential Photometric Precision (CDPP) is the metric that defines the ease with which these weak terrestrial transit signatures can be detected. An understanding of CDPP is invaluable for evaluating the completeness of the Kepler survey and inferring the underlying planet population. This paper describes how the Kepler CDPP is calculated, and introduces tables of rms CDPP on a per-target basis for 3-, 6-, and 12-hour transit durations, which are now available for all Kepler observations. Quarter 3 is the first typical set of observations at the nominal length and completeness for a quarter, from 2009 September 18 to 2009 December 16, and we examine the properties of the rms CDPP distribution for this data set. Finally, we describe how to employ CDPP to calculate target completeness, an important use ca...
Kimura, Noriyuki; Nishimura, Nana; Iwama, Nagako; Aihara, Yoshito; Ogawa, Yasuki; Miyaguchi, Yuji
2017-10-01
The thermal property of bovine intramuscular adipose tissue (IAT) was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compared with the melting point temperature (MP) of the fat extract of IAT, which was measured using the slip point method. The beef samples were classified according to the beef marbling score (BMS). Beef with a high BMS contained less protein than that with middle or low BMS. Beef with a high BMS contained significantly more fat than that with a low BMS (P < 0.05). The endothermic point temperature (EP) of IAT, measured by DSC, was significantly higher than the MP of IAT fat (P < 0.05). The EP showed no significant difference among the three marbling grade groups. Although the MP was correlated with the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content of IAT (R(2) = 0.505), there was no correlation between the EP and the MUFA (R(2) = 0.040). However, the EP of IAT treated with collagenase was relatively highly correlated with the MP (R(2) = 0.655). Thus, these results suggested that DSC analysis would give us the practical thermal information regarding the melt-in the-mouth of beef such as the gelatinization of collagen, along with the melting of fat in IAT. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Kwiatkowski JL
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Janet L Kwiatkowski The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Hematology and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Regular red cell transfusion therapy ameliorates disease-related morbidity and can be lifesaving in patients with various hematological disorders. Transfusion therapy, however, causes progressive iron loading, which, if untreated, results in endocrinopathies, cardiac arrhythmias and congestive heart failure, hepatic fibrosis, and premature death. Iron chelation therapy is used to prevent iron loading, remove excess accumulated iron, detoxify iron, and reverse some of the iron-related complications. Three chelators have undergone extensive testing to date: deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone (although the latter drug is not currently licensed for use in North America where it is available only through compassionate use programs and research protocols. These chelators differ in their modes of administration, pharmacokinetics, efficacy with regard to organ-specific iron removal, and adverse-effect profiles. These differential properties influence acceptability, tolerability and adherence to therapy, and, ultimately, the effectiveness of treatment. Chelation therapy, therefore, must be individualized, taking into account patient preferences, toxicities, ongoing transfusional iron intake, and the degree of cardiac and hepatic iron loading. Keywords: transfusion, iron, chelation, magnetic resonance imaging
Wu, Fuke; Yin, George; Mei, Hongwei
2017-02-01
This work is devoted to stochastic functional differential equations (SFDEs) with infinite delay. First, existence and uniqueness of the solutions of such equations are examined. Because the solutions of the delay equations are not Markov, a viable alternative for studying further asymptotic properties is to use solution maps or segment processes. By examining solution maps, this work investigates the Markov properties as well as the strong Markov properties. Also obtained are adaptivity and continuity, mean-square boundedness, and convergence of solution maps from different initial data. This paper then examines the ergodicity of underlying processes and establishes existence of the invariant measure for SFDEs with infinite delay under suitable conditions.
Properties of Caputo Operator and Its Applications to Linear Fractional Differential Equations
B. R. Sontakke,
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the power of two mostly used definitions for fractional differentiation, namely, the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional operator to solve some linear fractionalorder differential equations. The emphasis is given to the most popular Caputo fractional operator which is more suitable for the study of differential equations of fractional order..Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the procedure of solution of couple of fractional differential equations having Caputo operator using Laplace transformation. Itshows that the Laplace transforms is a powerful and efficient technique for obtaining analytic solution of linear fractional differential equations
Sums of Laplace eigenvalues - rotationally symmetric maximizers in the plane
Laugesen, R S
2010-01-01
The sum of the first $n \\geq 1$ eigenvalues of the Laplacian is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, maximal among parallelograms for the square, and maximal among ellipses for the disk, provided the ratio $\\text{(area)}^3/\\text{(moment of inertia)}$ for the domain is fixed. This result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues, and similar conclusions are derived for Robin boundary conditions and Schr\\"odinger eigenvalues of potentials that grow at infinity. A key ingredient in the method is the tight frame property of the roots of unity. For general convex plane domains, the disk is conjectured to maximize sums of Neumann eigenvalues.
Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon
2010-01-01
Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.
Dimitrova, Zlatinka I
2013-01-01
We present a brief overview of integrability of nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations with a focus on the Painleve property: an ODE of second order has the Painleve property if the only movable singularities connected to this equation are single poles. The importance of this property can be seen from the Ablowitz-Ramani-Segur conhecture that states that a nonlinear PDE is solvable by inverse scattering transformation only if each nonlinear ODE obtained by exact reduction of this PDE has the Painleve property. The Painleve property motivated motivated much research on obtaining exact solutions on nonlinear PDEs and leaded in particular to the method of simplest equation. A version of this method called modified method of simplest equation is discussed below.
Groups Satisfying the Maximal Condition on Non-modular Subgroups
Maria De Falco; Carmela Musella
2005-01-01
In this paper, (generalized) soluble groups for which the set of non-modular subgroups verifies the maximal condition and groups for which the set of non-permutable subgroups satisfies the same property are classified.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Lai, Linda
2010-01-01
... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...
Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?
Linda Lai
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Some Properties of Solutions of a Functional-Differential Equation of Second Order with Delay
Veronica Ana Ilea
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Existence, uniqueness, data dependence (monotony, continuity, and differentiability with respect to parameter, and Ulam-Hyers stability results for the solutions of a system of functional-differential equations with delays are proved. The techniques used are Perov’s fixed point theorem and weakly Picard operator theory.
Maximizing ROI with yield management
Neil Snyder
2001-01-01
.... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...
Tran, Phong A.; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil; Reynolds, Eric C.; Pantarat, Namfon; Biswas, Dhee P.; O'Connor, Andrea J.
2016-01-01
Antimicrobial agents that have no or low cytotoxicity and high specificity are desirable to have no or minimal side effects. We report here the low cytotoxicity of polyvinyl alcohol-stabilized selenium (Se) nanoparticles and their differential effects on growth of S. aureus, a gram-positive bacterium and E. coli, a gram-negative bacterium. The nanoparticles were synthesised through redox reactions in an aqueous environment at room temperature and were characterised using UV visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanoparticles showed low toxicity toward fibroblasts which remained more than 70% viable at Se concentrations as high as 128 ppm. The nanoparticles also exhibited very low haemolysis with only 18% of maximal lysis observed at a Se concentration of 128 ppm. Importantly, the nanoparticles showed strong growth inhibition toward S. aureus at a concentration as low as 1 ppm. Interestingly, growth of E. coli was unaffected at all concentrations tested. This study therefore strongly suggests that these nanoparticles should be investigated further to understand this differential effect as well as for potential advanced antimicrobial applications such as S. aureus infection—resisting, non-cytotoxic coatings for medical devices.
Zhidkov, E P
2000-01-01
We consider a nonlinear integro-differential equation on a segment with zero Dirichlet boundary conditions and a normalization condition, containing a spectral parameter, which can arise in the mean field approximation for a quantum-mechanical description of a solid. We prove the existence of a countable set of solutions and investigate properties of these solutions. The main result consists in proving the property of being a Bary basis for a sequence of solutions of the problem, possessing a given behavior, the existence of which is proved.
Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?
John List; Charles Mason
2009-01-01
Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Endometrial stromal cells (EMSCs obtained from porcine uterus (n = 6 were positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44 and CD90, and negative for epithelial marker CD9 and hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45 analyzed by flow cytometry. Further the cells were positive for expression of mesenchymal markers, CD105, CD140b, and CD144 by PCR. Pluripotent markers OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG were positively expressed in EMSCs analyzed by Western blotting and PCR. Further, differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was confirmed by cytochemical staining and lineage specific gene expression by quantitative realtime-PCR. Adipocyte (FABP, LPL, AP2 and osteocyte specific genes (ON, BG, RUNX2 in differentiated EMSCs showed significant (p < 0.05 increase in expression compared to undifferentiated control cells. Neurogenic transdifferentiation of EMSCs exhibited distinctive dendritic morphology with axon projections and neuronal specific genes, NFM, NGF, MBP, NES, B3T and MAP2 and proteins, B3T, NFM, NGF, and TRKA were positively expressed in neuronal differentiated cells. Functional analysis of neuronal differentiated EMSCs displayed voltage-dependence and kinetics for transient outward K+ currents (Ito, at holding potential of −80 mV, Na+ currents and during current clamp, neuronal differentiated EMSCs was more negative than that of control EMSCs. Porcine EMSCs is a suitable model for studying molecular mechanism of transdifferentiation, assessment of electrophysiological properties and their efficiency during in vivo transplantation.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
Wu, A M; Song, S C; Sugii, S; Herp, A
1997-01-01
Differentiating the binding properties of applied lectins should facilitate the selection of lectins for characterization of glycoreceptors on the cell surface. Based on the binding specificities studied by inhibition assays of lectin-glycan interactions, over twenty Gal and/or GalNAc specific lectins have been divided into eight groups according to their specificity for structural units (lectin determinants), which are the disaccharide as all or part of the determinants and of GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the peptide chain. A scheme of codes for lectin determinants is illustrated as follows: (1) F (GalNAc alpha 1-->3GalNAc), Forssman specific disaccharide--Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (2) A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3 Gal), blood group A specific disaccharide--Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides (CFT), Soy bean (SBL), Vicia villosa-A4 (VVL-A4), and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (3) Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the protein core)--Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4), Salvia sclarea (SSL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). (4) T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), the mucin type sugar sequences on the human erythrocyte membrane(T alpha), T antigen or the disaccharides at the terminal nonreducing end of gangliosides (T beta)--Peanut (PNA), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Sophora japonica (SJL), Artocarpus lakoocha (Artocarpin) lectins and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA).(5) I and II (Gal beta 1-->3(4)GlcNAc)--the disaccharide residue at the nonreducing end of the carbohydrate chains derived from either N- or O-glycosidic linkage--Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Datura stramonium (TAL, Thorn apple), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL, Coral tree), and Geodia cydonium (GCL). (6) B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal), human blood group B specific disaccharide--Griffonia(Banderiaea) simplicifolia B4 (GSI-B4). (7) E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal), receptors for pathogenic E
PROPERTIES OF PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEONATAL RAT RETINAL PROGENITOR CELLS IN VITRO
无
2006-01-01
Neural stem or progenitor cells are i mmature,multipotent cells that have the capacityto differenti-ate into the three CNSlineages(neurons,astrocytesand oligodendrocytes)[1].Neuronal degeneration isthe cause of visual i mpair ment associated with prev-alent ocular diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa,age-related macular degeneration,retinal detach-ment and glaucoma[2].Transplantation of culturedneural stemcells/progenitors may helprestore visionby repopulating the damaged retina and replacingthe degenerati...
A. Garmroodi Asil
2017-09-01
To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.
Sahu, Mousumi; Mallick, Bibekanand
2016-10-01
The differentiation of human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) is accompanied by the formation of different intermediary cells, gradually losing its stemness and acquiring differentiation. The precise mechanisms underlying hESCs integrity and its differentiation into fibroblast (Fib) are still elusive. Here, we aimed to assess important genes and co-expression sub-networks responsible for stemness, early differentiation of hESCs into embryoid bodies (EBs) and its lineage specification into Fibs. To achieve this, we compared transcriptional profiles of hESCs-EBs and EBs-Fibs and obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs) exclusive to hESCs-EBs (early differentiation), EBs-Fibs (late differentiation) and common DEGs in hESCs-EBs and EBs-Fibs. Then, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) followed by overrepresentation study and identified key genes for each gene category. The regulations of these genes were studied by integrating ChIP-Seq data of core transcription factors (TFs) and histone methylation marks in hESCs. Finally, we identified co-expression sub-networks from key genes of each gene category using k-clique sub-network extraction method. Our study predicted seven genes edicting core stemness properties forming a co-expression network. From the pathway analysis of sub-networks of hESCs-EBs, we hypothesize that FGF2 is contributing to pluripotent transcription network of hESCs in association with DNMT3B and JARID2 thereby facilitating cell proliferation. On the contrary, FGF2 is found to promote cell migration in Fibs along with DDR2, CAV1, DAB2, and PARVA. Moreover, our study identified three k-clique sub-networks regulating TGF-β signaling pathway thereby promoting EBs to Fibs differentiation by: (i) modulating extracellular matrix involving ITGB1, TGFB1I1 and GBP1, (ii) regulating cell cycle remodeling involving CDKN1A, JUNB and DUSP1 and (iii) helping in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involving THBS1, INHBA and LOX. This study put
BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL SINGULAR INTEGRALS
CHEN JIECHENG; ZHU XIANGRONG
2005-01-01
The authors study the singular integrals under the Hormander condition and the measure not satisfying the doubling condition. At first, if the corresponding singular integral is bounded from L2 to itseff, it is proved that the maximal singu lar integral is bounded from L∞ to RBMO except that it is infinite μ-a.e. on Rd. A sufficient condition and a necessary condition such that the maximal singular integral is bounded from L2 to itself are also obtained. There is a small gap between the two conditions.
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Maximally entangled state can be a mixed state
Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Liu, W M
2009-01-01
We present mixed maximally entangled states in d\\otimes d' (d'\\geq 2d) spaces. This result is beyond the generally accepted fact that all maximally entangled states are pure. These states possess important properties of the pure maximally entangled states in $d\\otimes d$ systems, for example, they can be used as a resource for faithful teleportation, their local distinguishability property is also the same as the pure states case. On the other hand, one advantage of these mixed maximally entangled states is that the decoherence induced by certain noisy quantum channel does not destroy their entanglement. Thus one party of these mixed states can be sent through this channel to arbitrary distance while still keeping them as a valuable resource for quantum information processing. We also propose a scheme to prepare these states and confirm their advantage in NMR physical system.
ANTI-PERIODIC SOLUTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSIONS IN BANACH SPACES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Liu Guifang; Liu Yiliang
2012-01-01
We deal with anti-periodic problems for differential inclusions with nonmonotone perturbations.The main tools in our study are the maximal monotone property ofthe derivative operator with anti-periodic conditions and the theory of pseudomonotone perturbations of maximal monotone mappings.We then apply our results to evolution hemivariational inequalities and parabolic equations with nonmonotone discontinuities,which generalize and extend previously known theorems.
Efe, Ipek
2017-01-01
Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique is one of the most sensitive techniques to study about the electric and magnetic fields at the individual lattice points. It benefits from the hyperfine interactions between the probe atom and its neighborhood. Multiferroic materials have been intensively studied to promote and understand the possibility of controlling magnetic properties by electric fields instead of magnetic fields which opens the path to faster, smaller, and more energy-efficient spintronic devices, such as memory elements, high-frequency magnetic devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for data-storage technologies. BiFeO3 is one of the famous and important multiferroic materials since it shows both antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature. In this study, we report on the first time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements carried out on polycrystalline BiFeO3 samples using the nuclear probe 181Hf(181Ta) after implantati...
Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications
Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.
Spectral Properties of Integral Differential Operators Applied in Linear Antenna Modeling
Bekers, D.J.; Eijndhoven, S.J.L. van
2012-01-01
The current on a linear strip or wire solves an equation governed by a linear integro-differential operator that is the composition of the Helmholtz operator and an integral operator with a logarithmically singular displacement kernel. Investigating the spectral behaviour of this classical operator,
Hasar, Ugur Cem; Barroso, Joaquim J; Sabah, Cumali; Kaya, Yunus; Ertugrul, Mehmet
2012-12-17
We apply a complete uncertainty analysis, not studied in the literature, to investigate the dependences of retrieved electromagnetic properties of two MM slabs (the first one with only split-ring resonators (SRRs) and the second with SRRs and a continuous wire) with single-band and dual-band resonating properties on the measured/simulated scattering parameters, the slab length, and the operating frequency. Such an analysis is necessary for the selection of a suitable retrieval method together with the correct examination of exotic properties of MM slabs especially in their resonance regions. For this analysis, a differential uncertainty model is developed to monitor minute changes in the dependent variables (electromagnetic properties of MM slabs) in functions of independent variables (scattering (S-) parameters, the slab length, and the operating frequency). Two complementary approaches (the analytical approach and the dispersion model approach) each with different strengths are utilized to retrieve the electromagnetic properties of various MM slabs, which are needed for the application of the uncertainty analysis. We note the following important results from our investigation. First, uncertainties in the retrieved electromagnetic properties of the analyzed MM slabs drastically increase when values of electromagnetic properties shrink to zero or near resonance regions where S-parameters exhibit rapid changes. Second, any low-loss or medium-loss inside the MM slabs due to an imperfect dielectric substrate or a finite conductivity of metals can decrease these uncertainties near resonance regions because these losses hinder abrupt changes in S-parameters. Finally, we note that precise information of especially the slab length and the operating frequency is a prerequisite for accurate analysis of exotic electromagnetic properties of MM slabs (especially multiband MM slabs) near resonance regions.
Understanding maximal repetitions in strings
Crochemore, Maxime
2008-01-01
The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.
The Derivation, Properties and Value of Kepler's Combined Differential Photometric Precision
Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Barclay, Thomas S.; Burke, Christopher J.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Jeffrey C. Smith; Stumpe, Martin C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
The Kepler Mission is searching for Earth-size planets orbiting solar-like stars by simultaneously observing >160,000 stars to detect sequences of transit events in the photometric light curves. The Combined Differential Photometric Precision (CDPP) is the metric that defines the ease with which these weak terrestrial transit signatures can be detected. An understanding of CDPP is invaluable for evaluating the completeness of the Kepler survey and inferring the underlying planet population. T...
Kowalski, Janina; Gan, Jian; Jonas, Peter; Pernía‐Andrade, Alejandro J.
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and memory. Previous studies suggested that the main types of principal neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs), CA3 pyramidal neurons, and CA1 pyramidal neurons, differ in their activity pattern, with sparse firing in GCs and more frequent firing in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. It has been assumed but never shown that such different activity may be caused by differential synaptic excitation. To test this hypothesis, we performed high...
Bishop, S. A.; Ayoola, E. O.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we establish results on continuous mappings of the space of the matrix elements of an arbitrary nonempty set of pseudo solutions of non Lipschitz quantum Stochastic differential inclusion (QSDI) into the space of the matrix elements of its solutions. we show that under the non Lipschitz condition, the space of the matrix elements of solutions is still an absolute retract, contractible, locally and integrally connected in an arbitrary dimension. The results here generalize existing results in the literature.
Immink, G. K.
1994-10-01
This paper is concerned with applications of the Mellin transformation in the study of homogeneous linear differential and difference equations with polynomial coefficients. We begin by considering a differential equation (D) with regular singularities at O and ∞ and arbitrary singularities in the rest of the complex plane, and the difference equation (Δ‧) obtained from (D) by a variant of the formal Mellin transformation. We define fundamental systems of solutions of (Δ‧), analytic in either a right or a left half plane. by the use of Mellin transforms of microsolutions of (D). The relations between these fundamental systems are expressed in terms of central connection matrices of (D). Second, we study the differential equation (D1) obtained from (D) by means of a formal Laplace transformation and the difference equation (Δ1) obtained from (D1) by a formal Mellin transformation. We use Mellin transforms of "ordinary" solutions of (D1) with moderate growth at ∞ to construct fundamental systems of solutions of (Δ1). The relation between these fundamental systems involves certain Stokes multipliers and a formal monodromy matrix of (D1).
Demographic changes and marker properties affect detection of human population differentiation
Sanichwankul Kittipong
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating genetically between populations is valuable for admixture and population stratification detection and in understanding population history. This is easy to achieve for major continental populations, but not for closely related populations. It has been claimed that a large marker panel is necessary to reliably distinguish populations within a continent. We investigated whether empirical genetic differentiation could be accomplished efficiently among three Asian populations (Hmong, Thai, and Chinese using a small set of highly variable markers (15 tetranucleotide and 17 dinucleotide repeats. Results Hmong could be differentiated from Thai and Chinese based on multi-locus genotypes, but Thai and Chinese were indistinguishable from each other. We found significant evidence for a recent population bottleneck followed by expansion in the Hmong that was not present in the Thai or Chinese. Tetranucleotide repeats were less useful than dinucleotide repeat markers in distinguishing between major continental populations (Asian, European, and African while both successfully distinguished Hmong from Thai and Chinese. Conclusion Demographic history contributes significantly to robust detection of intracontinental population structure. Populations having experienced a rapid size reduction may be reliably distinguished as a result of a genetic drift -driven redistribution of population allele frequencies. Tetranucleotide markers, which differ from dinucleotide markers in mutation mechanism and rate, are similar in information content to dinucleotide markers in this situation. These factors should be considered when identifying populations suitable for gene mapping studies and when interpreting interpopulation relationships based on microsatellite markers.
Adaptive properties of differential learning rates for positive and negative outcomes.
Cazé, Romain D; van der Meer, Matthijs A A
2013-12-01
The concept of the reward prediction error-the difference between reward obtained and reward predicted-continues to be a focal point for much theoretical and experimental work in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. Models that rely on reward prediction errors typically assume a single learning rate for positive and negative prediction errors. However, behavioral data indicate that better-than-expected and worse-than-expected outcomes often do not have symmetric impacts on learning and decision-making. Furthermore, distinct circuits within cortico-striatal loops appear to support learning from positive and negative prediction errors, respectively. Such differential learning rates would be expected to lead to biased reward predictions and therefore suboptimal choice performance. Contrary to this intuition, we show that on static "bandit" choice tasks, differential learning rates can be adaptive. This occurs because asymmetric learning enables a better separation of learned reward probabilities. We show analytically how the optimal learning rate asymmetry depends on the reward distribution and implement a biologically plausible algorithm that adapts the balance of positive and negative learning rates from experience. These results suggest specific adaptive advantages for separate, differential learning rates in simple reinforcement learning settings and provide a novel, normative perspective on the interpretation of associated neural data.
Note on maximal distance separable codes
YANG Jian-sheng; WANG De-xiu; JIN Qing-fang
2009-01-01
In this paper, the maximal length of maximal distance separable(MDS)codes is studied, and a new upper bound formula of the maximal length of MDS codes is obtained. Especially, the exact values of the maximal length of MDS codes in some parameters are given.
Cianfrini Marta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Laminar natural convection of Al2O3 + H2O nanofluids inside square cavities differentially heated at sides is studied numerically. A computational code based on the SIMPLE-C algorithm is used for the solution of the system of the mass, momentum and energy transfer governing equations. Assuming that the nanofluid behaves like a single-phase fluid, these equations are the same as those valid for a pure fluid, provided that the thermophysical properties appearing in them are the nanofluid effective properties. The thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid are calculated by means of a couple of empirical equations based on a wide variety of experimental data reported in the literature. The other effective properties are evaluated by the conventional mixing theory. Simulations are performed for different values of the nanoparticle volume fraction in the range 0-0.06, the diameter of the suspended nanoparticles in the range 25-100 nm, the temperature of the cooled sidewall in the range 293-313 K, the temperature of the heated sidewall in the range 298-343 K, and the Rayleigh number of the base fluid in the range 103-107. All computations are executed in the hypothesis of temperature-dependent effective properties. The main result obtained is the existence of an optimal particle loading for maximum heat transfer, that is found to increase as the size of the suspended nanoparticles is decreased, and the nanofluid average temperature is increased.
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
2014-07-22
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Bhakuni Vinod
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background α-isopropylmalate synthase (MtαIPMS, an enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of the leucine biosynthetic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a potential drug target for the anti-tuberculosis drugs. Cations induce differential effect of activation and inhibition of MtαIPMS. To date no concrete mechanism for such an opposite effect of similarly charged cations on the functional activity of enzyme has been presented. Results Effect of cations on the structure and function of the MtαIPMS has been studied in detail. The studies for the first time demonstrate that different cations interact specifically at different sites in the enzyme and modulate the enzyme structure differentially. The inhibitors Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions interact directly with the catalytic domain of the enzyme and induce unfolding/denaturation of the domain. The activator K+ also interacts with the catalytic TIM barrel domain however, it does not induce any significant effect on the enzyme structure. Studies with isolated catalytic TIM barrel domain showed that it can carry out the catalytic function on its own but probably requires the non-catalytic C-terminal domain for optimum functioning. An important observation was that divalent cations induce significant interaction between the regulatory and the catalytic domain of MtαIPMS thus inducing structural cooperativity in the enzyme. This divalent cation induced structural cooperativity might result in modulation of activity of the catalytic domain by regulatory domain. Conclusion The studies for the first time demonstrate that different cations bind at different sites in the enzyme leading to their differential effects on the structure and functional activity of the enzyme.
Lee-Miller, Trevor; Marneweck, Michelle; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M
2016-01-01
Studies on anticipatory planning of object manipulation showed initial task failure (i.e., object roll) when visual object shape cues are incongruent with other visual cues, such as weight distribution/density (e.g., symmetrically shaped object with an asymmetrical density). This suggests that shape cues override density cues. However, these studies typically only measured forces, with digit placement constrained. Recent evidence suggests that when digit placement is unconstrained, subjects modulate digit forces and placement. Thus, unconstrained digit placement might be modulated on initial trials (since it is an explicit process), but not forces (since it is an implicit process). We tested whether shape and density cues would differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit placement and forces during initial trials of a two-digit object manipulation task. Furthermore, we tested whether shape cues would override density cues when cues are incongruent. Subjects grasped and lifted an object with the aim of preventing roll. In Experiment 1, the object was symmetrically shaped, but with asymmetrical density (incongruent cues). In Experiment 2, the object was asymmetrical in shape and density (congruent cues). In Experiment 3, the object was asymmetrically shaped, but with symmetrical density (incongruent cues). Results showed differential modulation of digit placement and forces (modulation of load force but not placement), but only when shape and density cues were congruent. When shape and density cues were incongruent, we found collinear digit placement and symmetrical force sharing. This suggests that congruent and incongruent shape and density cues differentially influence anticipatory planning of digit forces and placement. Furthermore, shape cues do not always override density cues. A continuum of visual cues, such as those alluding to shape and density, need to be integrated.
All-loop Analysis of UV Divergences in Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories
Borlakov, A T; Tolkachev, D M; Vlasenko, D E
2016-01-01
We consider the leading and subleading UV divergences for the four-point on-shell scattering amplitudes in D=6,8,10 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in the planar limit. These theories belong to the class of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories and presumably possess distinguished properties beyond perturbation theory. In the previous works, we obtained the recursive relations that allow one to get the leading and subleading divergences in all loops in a pure algebraic way. The all loop summation of the leading divergences is performed with the help of the differential equations which are the generalization of the RG equations for non-renormalizable theories. Here we mainly focus on solving and analyzing these equations. We discuss the properties of the obtained solutions and interpretation of the results.
Properties of exact solution of second-order differential equation with pantograph delay
李冬松; 白红; 刘明珠
2002-01-01
This paper is concerned with properties of exact solution of pantograph delay equation y′′(t)＝ay′(t)+by(t)+cy(qt), 0＜q＜1. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness of the exact solution of equations are proved, and then the condition is investigated which guarantee the exact solution is asymptotic stable.
Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils, animal fats and other lipid feedstocks. Fuel properties and performance of biodiesel during cold weather are influenced by factors related to lipid feedstock as well as small concentrations of monoacylglycerols and other minor constit...
Psychometric properties of the Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised in Turkish adults.
Işık, Erkan; Bulduk, Sabiha
2015-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine the validity and reliability of (Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 2003, 29, 209) Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R; Skowron & Schmit, 2003) in Turkish adults. The DSI-R was translated, independently back-translated, and revised. Two independent samples of adults over the age of 25 were used. The original 46-item DSI-R was not supported by the data derived from Sample 1 (n = 221). However, a revised 20-item, four-factor model fit the data well. This 20-item model was subsequently cross-validated with a second sample of Turkish adults (n = 187). Scale scores showed adequate internal consistency, 5-week test-retest reliability, and satisfactory convergent and criterion-related validity. It was concluded that Turkish DSI-R (DSI-T) is a valid and reliable measure to assess an individual's differentiation level. In light of the findings, implications for the use of the DSI-T and ideas for future research are discussed. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
王俊标; 赵红丹; 徐春玲; 陈秋连; 梁彩霞; 郑友兰
2012-01-01
目的研究刺五加叶不同部位在不同浓度下的体外抗氧化活性。方法采用清除ABTS＋自由基、DPPH自由基评价法和测定还原性法,利用紫外分光光度计法测定刺五加叶的总提液、10%、30%和50%大孔吸附树脂醇洗脱部位在不同浓度下的抗氧化能力。结果刺五加叶不同部位抗氧化活性的强弱顺序为：30%部位〉10%部位〉总提液〉50%部位,随着各部位浓度的增加,抗氧化能力增强。ABTS＋自由基和DPPH自由基模型中,在浓度为0.64mg/mL时,30%的部位对ABTS＋DPPH自由基模最大清除率分别达到99.541%、95.331%,与同浓度VC的清除率接近,其次浓度0.64mg/mL的10%部位的最大清除率分别达到96.324%、88.033%。在还原性法测定中30%部位在浓度为0.64mg/mL时,吸光度为2.269,与VC较接近,同浓度时10%部位的吸光度为2.155,次于30%部位。结论刺五加叶抗氧化能力较好,各种评定方法结合分析,其30%部位最好,可以开发为抗氧化剂,为进一步研究和开发刺五加叶提供了科学依据。%Objective Study on different Fractions of Acanthopanax Senticosus(Rupr.etMaxim.) Harms Leaves at different concentrations,and determine its antioxidative activities.Methods The antioxidative activities of Acanthopanax Senticosus compared with VC were investigated employing various methods established in vitro systems such as DPPH(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical ABTS(2,2-azo-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging assay and reducing power assay measured by ultraviolet spectro-photometer.Results The elution fractions of Acanthopanax Senticosus exhibited significant antioxidant properties on ABTS free radical,DPPH radical scavenging systems,and good reduction.The inhibition of freeing radical scavenging ability of the different elution fractions from strong to weak is: 30%fraction10%fraction the total extracts50%fraction.The antioxidant properties of different fractions depended
Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864
2011-01-01
We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.
无
2000-01-01
This note contains three main results.Firstly,a complete solution of the Linear Non-Homogeneous Matrix Differential Equations (LNHMDEs) is presented that takes into account both the non-zero initial conditions of the pseudo state and the nonzero initial conditions of the input.Secondly,in order to characterise the dynamics of the LNHMDEs correctly,some important concepts such as the state,slow state (smooth state) and fast state (impulsive state) are generalized to the LNHMDE case and the solution of the LNHMDEs is separated into the smooth (slow) response and the fast (implusive) response.As a third result,a new characterization of the impulsive free initial conditions of the LNHMDEs is given.
Ellora Sen
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Hypoxic preconditioning reprogrammes the brain's response to subsequent H/I (hypoxia-ischaemia injury by enhancing neuroprotective mechanisms. Given that astrocytes normally support neuronal survival and function, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a hypoxic preconditioning stimulus would activate an adaptive astrocytic response. We analysed several functional parameters 24 h after exposing rat pups to 3 h of systemic hypoxia (8% O2. Hypoxia increased neocortical astrocyte maturation as evidenced by the loss of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic proteinpositive cells with radial morphologies and the acquisition of multipolar GFAP-positive cells. Interestingly, many of these astrocytes had nuclear S100B. Accompanying their differentiation, there was increased expression of GFAP, GS (glutamine synthetase, EAAT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter-1; also known as GLAST, MCT-1 (monocarboxylate transporter-1 and ceruloplasmin. A subsequent H/I insult did not result in any further astrocyte activation. Some responses were cell autonomous, as levels of GS and MCT-1 increased subsequent to hypoxia in cultured forebrain astrocytes. In contrast, the expression of GFAP, GLAST and ceruloplasmin remained unaltered. Additional experiments utilized astrocytes exposed to exogenous dbcAMP (dibutyryl-cAMP, which mimicked several aspects of the preconditioning response, to determine whether activated astrocytes could protect neurons from subsequent excitotoxic injury. dbcAMP treatment increased GS and glutamate transporter expression and function, and as hypothesized, protected neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. Taken altogether, these results indicate that a preconditioning stimulus causes the precocious differentiation of astrocytes and increases the acquisition of multiple astrocytic functions that will contribute to the neuroprotection conferred by a sublethal preconditioning stress.
Differential cytotoxic properties of Helleborus niger L. on tumour and immunocompetent cells.
Schink, Michael; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Bertrams, Julia; Duckstein, Sarina M; Müller, Margit B; Huber, Roman; Stintzing, Florian C; Gründemann, Carsten
2015-01-15
In Romanian folk medicine, Helleborus niger L. is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or viral infections and in complementary therapy, especially in anthroposophic medicine (AM), where the plant is administered as an adjuvant to treat malignant diseases. In the present study, we investigated the differential cytotoxic effects of H. niger on human tumour and healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Protoanemonin and saponins, as significant constituents of H. niger extracts, were quantified in five individual batches using validated HPLC methods. Further, the impact of H. niger on proliferation capacity (MTT assay) as well as on apoptosis and necrosis induction in a panel of tumour cell lines and human lymphocytes (combined annexin V and propidium iodide staining) was monitored. In addition, NK cell function (degranulation-CD107a assay and IFN-gamma secretion) was also investigated since these immunocompetent cells are important for the control of malignancies within the human body. Extracts of H. niger induced proliferation inhibition not only of lymphoblastic leukaemia cells (MOLT4; IC50: 171 µg/mL) but also of myosarcoma (SK-UT-1b; IC50: 304 µg/mL) and melanoma cells (HT-144; IC50: 569 µg/mL) due to the induction of apoptosis. Purified T cells or NK cells were significantly affected through the presence of high H. niger concentrations while bulk lymphocytes were not affected. NK cells' anti-tumour functions expressed by degranulation capacity as well as IFN-y production were unaffected by the presence of the H. niger extract. Since protoanemonin and saponins have been reported in the literature to exert cytotoxic effects, their content was also determined. H. niger extracts exhibit differential cytotoxicity towards tumour cell lines and healthy human T- and NK-cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sandra J Hewett
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Hypoxic preconditioning reprogrammes the brain's response to subsequent H/I (hypoxia–ischaemia injury by enhancing neuroprotective mechanisms. Given that astrocytes normally support neuronal survival and function, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a hypoxic preconditioning stimulus would activate an adaptive astrocytic response. We analysed several functional parameters 24 h after exposing rat pups to 3 h of systemic hypoxia (8% O2. Hypoxia increased neocortical astrocyte maturation as evidenced by the loss of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells with radial morphologies and the acquisition of multipolar GFAP-positive cells. Interestingly, many of these astrocytes had nuclear S100B. Accompanying their differentiation, there was increased expression of GFAP, GS (glutamine synthetase, EAAT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter-1; also known as GLAST, MCT-1 (monocarboxylate transporter-1 and ceruloplasmin. A subsequent H/I insult did not result in any further astrocyte activation. Some responses were cell autonomous, as levels of GS and MCT-1 increased subsequent to hypoxia in cultured forebrain astrocytes. In contrast, the expression of GFAP, GLAST and ceruloplasmin remained unaltered. Additional experiments utilized astrocytes exposed to exogenous dbcAMP (dibutyryl-cAMP, which mimicked several aspects of the preconditioning response, to determine whether activated astrocytes could protect neurons from subsequent excitotoxic injury. dbcAMP treatment increased GS and glutamate transporter expression and function, and as hypothesized, protected neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity. Taken altogether, these results indicate that a preconditioning stimulus causes the precocious differentiation of astrocytes and increases the acquisition of multiple astrocytic functions that will contribute to the neuroprotection conferred by a sublethal preconditioning stress.
Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps
Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew
2016-01-01
The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885
XU Jin
2016-01-01
A maximal planar graph is called the recursive maximal planar graph if it can be obtained from 4 K by embedding a 3-degree vertex in some triangular face continuously. The uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture states that a planar graph is uniquely 4-colorable if and only if it is a recursive maximal planar graph. This conjecture, which has 43 years of history, is a very influential conjecture in graph coloring theory after the Four-Color Conjecture. In this paper, the structures and properties of dumbbell maximal planar graphs and recursive maximal planar graphs are studied, and an idea of proving the uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture is proposed based on the extending-contracting operation proposed in this series of article (2).
Asymptotics of robust utility maximization
Knispel, Thomas
2012-01-01
For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...
Maximal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana Sanwong; R.P. Sullivan
2007-01-01
In 1976 Howie proved that a finite congruence-free semigroup is a simple group if it has at least three elements but no zero elementInfinite congruence-free semigroups are far more complicated to describe, but some have been constructed using semigroups of transformations (for example, by Howie in 1981 and by Marques in 1983)Here, forcertain semigroups S of numbers and of transformations, we determine all congruences p on S such that S/p is congruence-free, that is, we describe all maximal congruences on such semigroups S.
On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio
2010-01-01
In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.
On the local existence of maximal slicings in spherically symmetric spacetimes
Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Ibanez, Jose MarIa; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio, E-mail: isabel.cordero@uv.e, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.e, E-mail: antonio.morales@uv.e [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)
2010-05-01
In this talk we show that any spherically symmetric spacetime admits locally a maximal spacelike slicing. The above condition is reduced to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. The solution may be accomplished analytical or numerically. We provide a general procedure to construct such maximal slicings.
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.
Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery
Jiang, Minghui
2009-01-01
In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...
Maximal right smooth extension chains
Huang, Yun Bao
2010-01-01
If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...
Arakel, Eric C.; Brandenburg, Sören; Uchida, Keita; Zhang, Haixia; Lin, Yu-Wen; Kohl, Tobias; Schrul, Bianca; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Efimov, Igor R.; Nichols, Colin G.; Lehnart, Stephan E.; Schwappach, Blanche
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT The copy number of membrane proteins at the cell surface is tightly regulated. Many ion channels and receptors present retrieval motifs to COPI vesicle coats and are retained in the early secretory pathway. In some cases, the interaction with COPI is prevented by binding to 14-3-3 proteins. However, the functional significance of this antagonism between COPI and 14-3-3 in terminally differentiated cells is unknown. Here, we show that ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which are composed of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, are stalled in the Golgi complex of ventricular, but not atrial, cardiomyocytes. Upon sustained β-adrenergic stimulation, which leads to activation of protein kinase A (PKA), SUR1-containing channels reach the plasma membrane of ventricular cells. We show that PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the C-terminus of Kir6.2 decreases binding to COPI and, thereby, silences the arginine-based retrieval signal. Thus, activation of the sympathetic nervous system releases this population of KATP channels from storage in the Golgi and, hence, might facilitate the adaptive response to metabolic challenges. PMID:24569881
Cristian Covarrubias
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of the nanoscale structure of bioceramics on their in vitro bioactivity and capacity to osteogenically differentiate stem cell is studied. Nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (nHA, bioactive glass (nBG, nanoporous bioactive glass (MBG, and nanoporous bioactive glass nanospheres (nMBG are investigated. The nanometric particle size of bioceramics seems to be more determining in controlling the ability to induce bone-like apatite as compared to the nanoporous structure. At short incubation time, nBG also produces a bioactive extracellular medium capable of upregulating key osteogenic markers involved in the development of a mineralizing phenotype in DPSCs. The bioactive properties of nBG are promissory for accelerating the bone regeneration process in tissue engineering applications.
冯凤香
2013-01-01
The weak law of large lumbers,Lp convergence and complete convergence for maximal weighted sums of （φ） mixing random matrix sequences are discussed.The discussion generalizes corresponding limit results for independent random matrix sequences to （φ） mixing random matrix sequences.%讨论了(φ)混合阵列行加权和最大值的弱收敛性、Lp收敛性和完全收敛性定理,将独立阵列的相关极限定理推广到了(φ)混合随机阵列情形.
Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice
Boyle, Latham
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...
Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking
Djamel Eddine Saidouni
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy or which if they fail are assigned the value .The third value mean unknown whether true or false because the partial state space lacks sufficient information needed for a precise answer concerning the complete state space .To solve this problem each node exchange the information needed to conclude the result about the complete state space. The experimental version of the algorithm is currently being implemented using the functional programming language Erlang.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K
2016-01-01
Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...
Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J
2016-05-01
This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response.
Jacques, Vincent; Czarnik, Anthony W; Judge, Thomas M; Van der Ploeg, Lex H T; DeWitt, Sheila H
2015-03-24
Therapeutics developed and sold as racemates can exhibit a limited therapeutic index because of side effects resulting from the undesired enantiomer (distomer) and/or its metabolites, which at times, forces researchers to abandon valuable scaffolds. Therefore, most chiral drugs are developed as single enantiomers. Unfortunately, the development of some chirally pure drug molecules is hampered by rapid in vivo racemization. The class of compounds known as immunomodulatory drugs derived from thalidomide is developed and sold as racemates because of racemization at the chiral center of the 3-aminoglutarimide moiety. Herein, we show that replacement of the exchangeable hydrogen at the chiral center with deuterium allows the stabilization and testing of individual enantiomers for two thalidomide analogs, including CC-122, a compound currently in human clinical trials for hematological cancers and solid tumors. Using "deuterium-enabled chiral switching" (DECS), in vitro antiinflammatory differences of up to 20-fold are observed between the deuterium-stabilized enantiomers. In vivo, the exposure is dramatically increased for each enantiomer while they retain similar pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, the single deuterated enantiomers related to CC-122 exhibit profoundly different in vivo responses in an NCI-H929 myeloma xenograft model. The (-)-deuterated enantiomer is antitumorigenic, whereas the (+)-deuterated enantiomer has little to no effect on tumor growth. The ability to stabilize and differentiate enantiomers by DECS opens up a vast window of opportunity to characterize the class effects of thalidomide analogs and improve on the therapeutic promise of other racemic compounds, including the development of safer therapeutics and the discovery of new mechanisms and clinical applications for existing therapeutics.
Rigatos, Gerasimos
2016-12-01
It is shown that the model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis is a differentially flat one and this permits to transform it to the so-called linear canonical form. For the new description of the system's dynamics the transformed control inputs contain unknown terms which depend on the system's parameters. To identify these terms an adaptive fuzzy approximator is used in the control loop. Thus an adaptive fuzzy control scheme is implemented in which the unknown or unmodeled system dynamics is approximated by neurofuzzy networks and next this information is used by a feedback controller that makes the state variables (CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone, adenocortocotropic hormone - ACTH, cortisol) of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland axis model converge to the desirable levels (setpoints). This adaptive control scheme is exclusively implemented with the use of output feedback, while the state vector elements which are not directly measured are estimated with the use of a state observer that operates in the control loop. The learning rate of the adaptive fuzzy system is suitably computed from Lyapunov analysis, so as to assure that both the learning procedure for the unknown system's parameters, the dynamics of the observer and the dynamics of the control loop will remain stable. The performed Lyapunov stability analysis depends on two Riccati equations, one associated with the feedback controller and one associated with the state observer. Finally, it is proven that for the control scheme that comprises the feedback controller, the state observer and the neurofuzzy approximator, an H-infinity tracking performance can be succeeded.
Marzena Pytel-Kudela
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The analytical properties of dissolving operators related with the Cauchy problem for a class of nonautonomous partial differential equations in Hilbert spaces are studied using theory of bi-linear forms in respectively rigged Hilbert spaces triples. Theorems specifying the existence of a dissolving operator for a class of adiabatically perturbed nonautonomous partial differential equations are stated. Some applications of the results obtained are discussed.
王继红; 孟凡生
2014-01-01
On the analysis of the current condition of IP value management in Chinese international business enterprises, this paper studies the causes of this low effectiveness,discusses the basic process to maximize effectiveness of IP value management,and describes the methods of IP valuation and the means of IP operations with details. Finally,this paper proposes the concept of“Enterprise IP Value Management Effectiveness Feasibility Analysis Sheet”,which will be helpful for Chinese international business enterprises in the field of the IP value management effectiveness maximization.%分析我国企业国际化经营知识产权价值管理现状的基础上，深入研究了效率低下的原因，讨论知识产权价值管理效益最大化的基本流程，细述知识产权价值评估方法和知识产权运营手段，提出“企业知识产权价值管理效益实现可行性分析表”的构思，以此对我国国际化经营企业的知识产权价值管理效益最大化有一定启示。
Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees
Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying
2013-01-01
In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.
Liang LENG; De-Xing ZHANG
2013-01-01
Genetic differentiation of populations has been traditionally quantified by Wright's F-statistics,typically assuming mutation-migration-drift equilibrium.However,the equilibrium perspective can be unrealistic as many natural populations are likely not yet in equilibrium.Therefore,understanding the behaviors,robustness,and power of the differentiation indexes under non-equilibrium conditions has important implications.Here,we report an extensive examination of the properties of two major indexes GsT and D under non-equilibrium conditions by theoretical deduction under the infinite allele model (IAM) and simulation under the stepwise mutation model (SMM).Several properties of GST and D valid under both SMM and IAM,which have not been recognized under the equilibrium perspective,were unveiled.First,ifgene flow is very weak (e.g.,m ＜ 10 4),GsT,like D,also takes a fairly long time to reach equilibrium if mutation rate is not very large.When GST (D) is in equilibrium depends on when Hs and HT are both in equilibrium.Under IAM and complete isolation,this is determined by the product ofμ and t:GsT will not approach equilibrium as long as μt ＜ 1.Under SMM,10-4 appears to be the rough threshold migration rate; when m ＜ 10-4,GsT approaches equilibrium much slower and later than Hs,whereas the opposite is true when m ＞ 10 4.Second,contrary to the popular belief,μ ＜ m is neither an obligatory request for GST to be an effective differentiation measure nor a sufficient condition for using GST to estimate gene flow level (Nm),if GST is not yet approaching equilibrium.Third,under SMM (but not IAM) and complete isolation,when population size is large (e.g.,＞ 1000),mutation rate shows a great impact on GST but only a mild influence on D; hence D can be much less sensitive to mutation rate heterogeneity than GST in certain situations.Fourth,whatever the level of gene flow,drift plays a dominant role on GST,whereas gene flow appears to have a stronger influence on D when
Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation
Airton Castro
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.
The maximal D = 4 supergravities
Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)
2007-06-15
All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.
Maximizing profit using recommender systems
Das, Aparna; Ricketts, Daniel
2009-01-01
Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based solely on the customer's past purchases, product ratings and demographic data without considering the profitability the items being recommended. In this work we study the question of how a vendor can directly incorporate the profitability of items into its recommender so as to maximize its expected profit while still providing accurate recommendations. Our approach uses the output of any traditional recommender system and adjust them according to item profitabilities. Our approach is parameterized so the vendor can control how much the recommendation incorporating profits can deviate from the traditional recommendation. We study our approach under two settings and show that it achieves approximately 22% more profit than traditional recommendations.
The maximal D=5 supergravities
de Wit, Bernard; Trigiante, M; Wit, Bernard de; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario
2007-01-01
The general Lagrangian for maximal supergravity in five spacetime dimensions is presented with vector potentials in the \\bar{27} and tensor fields in the 27 representation of E_6. This novel tensor-vector system is subject to an intricate set of gauge transformations, describing 3(27-t) massless helicity degrees of freedom for the vector fields and 3t massive spin degrees of freedom for the tensor fields, where the (even) value of t depends on the gauging. The kinetic term of the tensor fields is accompanied by a unique Chern-Simons coupling which involves both vector and tensor fields. The Lagrangians are completely encoded in terms of the embedding tensor which defines the E_6 subgroup that is gauged by the vectors. The embedding tensor is subject to two constraints which ensure the consistency of the combined vector-tensor gauge transformations and the supersymmetry of the full Lagrangian. This new formulation encompasses all possible gaugings.
Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization
Abdallah, A Nait
2012-01-01
Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.
Differential antibacterial properties of the MurA inhibitors terreic acid and fosfomycin
Olesen, Sanne H.; Ingles, Donna J.; Yang, Yan; Schönbrunn, Ernst
2015-01-01
Terreic acid is a metabolite with antibiotic properties produced by the fungus Aspergillus terreus, but its cellular target remains unknown. We recently reported that terreic acid inactivates the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme MurA in vitro by covalent reaction with residue Cys115 in a similar manner as the MurA-specific antibiotic fosfomycin. To address if terreic acid also targets MurA in vivo, we conducted antibacterial studies using selected E. coli strains in parallel with fosfomycin. While overexpression of MurA conferred resistance to fosfomycin, it did not protect cells treated with terreic acid. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that the antibiotic action of terreic acid appears to be primarily bacteriostatic, as opposed to the bactericidal action observed for fosfomycin. Combined, the data suggest that MurA is not the molecular target of terreic acid and that the antibiotic activity of terreic acid proceeds through a different mechanism of action. The methodology applied here provides a reliable and convenient tool to rapidly assess the potential of newly discovered in vitro inhibitors to target residue Cys115 of MurA in the cell. PMID:23686727
Dhital, Sushil; Butardo, Vito M; Jobling, Stephen A; Gidley, Michael J
2015-01-22
The underlying mechanism of amylolysis of rice starch granules was investigated using isolated starch granules from wild-type, as well as SBEIIb mutant and down-regulated lines. Fused granule agglomerates isolated from mutant and transgenic lines were hydrolysed at similar rates by amylases, and had similar crystalline patterns and thermal properties as individual granules. Surface pores, a feature previously only reported for A-polymorphic starch granules, were also observed in B- and C-polymorphic rice starch granules. Although the microscopic patterns of hydrolysis among granules with different crystalline polymorphs were qualitatively similar, the extent and the rate of amylolysis were different, suggesting that B-type crystalline polymorphs are intrinsically more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis than A-type in rice starch granules. It is proposed that the slightly longer branch lengths of amylopectin which leads to the formation of more stable B-type double helical structures compared to their A-type counterparts is the major parameter, with other factors such as granule size, surface pores and interior channels having secondary roles, in determining the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch granules.
On differential characteristic classes
Ho, Man-Ho
2013-01-01
In this paper we give explicit formulas of differential characteristic classes of principal $G$-bundles with connections and prove their expected properties. In particular, we obtain explicit formulas for differential Chern classes, differential Pontryagin classes and differential Euler class. Furthermore, we show that the differential Chern class is the unique natural transformation from (Simons-Sullivan) differential $K$-theory to (Cheeger-Simons) differential characters that is compatible ...
Yap, Gaik Chin
2015-10-14
TCAAGCTTGA motifs (4.2 copies per 1 million genome sequence) than other Bifidobacterium genomes and was significantly overrepresented (P < 0.05) in the healthy communities. Conclusions: Our results report distinct immune-modulatory genomic properties of gut microbiotas in healthy infants as compared to children with eczema and provide new insights into potential roles of gut microbiotas in affecting human immune homeostasis.
Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems
Popescu Otilia
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.
Linear and nonlinear degenerate abstract differential equations with small parameter
Shakhmurov, Veli B.
2016-01-01
The boundary value problems for linear and nonlinear regular degenerate abstract differential equations are studied. The equations have the principal variable coefficients and a small parameter. The linear problem is considered on a parameter-dependent domain (i.e., on a moving domain). The maximal regularity properties of linear problems and the optimal regularity of the nonlinear problem are obtained. In application, the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for degenerate parabolic equation...
A note on maximal estimates for stochastic convolutions
Veraar, M.; Weis, L.
2011-01-01
In stochastic partial differential equations it is important to have pathwise regularity properties of stochastic convolutions. In this note we present a new sufficient condition for the pathwise continuity of stochastic convolutions in Banach spaces.
Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Wang, Yuqi; Pandey, Sona
2014-07-01
Signalling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-proteins are common to all eukaryotes. Plants have a limited number of each of the G-protein subunits, with the most elaborate G-protein network discovered so far in soya bean (Glycine max, also known as soybean) which has four Gα, four Gβ and ten Gγ proteins. Biochemical characterization of Gα proteins from plants suggests significant variation in their properties compared with the well-characterized non-plant proteins. Furthermore, the four soya bean Gα (GmGα) proteins exhibit distinct biochemical activities among themselves, but the extent to which such biochemical differences contribute to their in vivo function is also not known. We used the yeast gpa1 mutant which displays constitutive signalling and growth arrest in the pheromone-response pathway as an in vivo model to evaluate the effect of distinct biochemical activities of GmGα proteins. We showed that specific GmGα proteins can be activated during pheromone-dependent receptor-mediated signalling in yeast and they display different strengths towards complementation of yeast gpa1 phenotypes. We also identified amino acids that are responsible for differential complementation abilities of specific Gα proteins. These data establish that specific plant Gα proteins are functional in the receptor-mediated pheromone-response pathway in yeast and that the subtle biochemical differences in their activity are physiologically relevant.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B, E-mail: agrawal@iopb.res.i, E-mail: bpradhan@iopb.res.i [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 005 (India)
2010-06-11
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo [Theory Center, KEK,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particles and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Masato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Dietrich, Olaf [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Levin, Johannes [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich (Germany); Ahmadi, Seyed-Ahmad; Plate, Annika; Boetzel, Kai [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Giese, Armin [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Munich (Germany)
2017-04-15
The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging behavior of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) and ferric (Fe{sup 3+}) iron ions in order to develop a noninvasive technique to quantitatively differentiate between both forms of iron. MRI was performed at 3 T in a phantom consisting of 21 samples with different concentrations of ferrous and ferric chloride solutions (between 0 and 10 mmol/L). A multi-echo spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence with eight echoes was used for both T{sub 2}* and quantitative susceptibility measurements. The transverse relaxation rate, R{sub 2}* = 1/T{sub 2}*, was determined by nonlinear exponential fitting based on the mean signals in each sample. The susceptibilities, χ, of the samples were calculated after phase unwrapping and background field removal by fitting the spatial convolution of a unit dipole response to the measured internal field map. Relaxation rate changes, ΔR{sub 2}*(c{sub Fe}), and susceptibility changes, Δχ(c{sub Fe}), their linear slopes, as well as the ratios ΔR{sub 2}*(c{sub Fe}) / Δχ(c{sub Fe}) were determined for all concentrations. The linear slopes of the relaxation rate were (12.5 ± 0.4) s{sup -1}/(mmol/L) for Fe{sup 3+} and (0.77 ± 0.09) s{sup -1}/(mmol/L) for Fe{sup 2+} (significantly different, z test P < 0.0001). The linear slopes of the susceptibility were (0.088 ± 0.003) ppm/(mmol/L) for Fe{sup 3+} and (0.079 ± 0.006) ppm/(mmol/L) for Fe{sup 2+}. The individual ratios ΔR{sub 2}*/Δχ were greater than 40 s{sup -1}/ppm for all samples with ferric solution and lower than 20 s{sup -1}/ppm for all but one of the samples with ferrous solution. Ferrous and ferric iron ions show significantly different relaxation behaviors in MRI but similar susceptibility patterns. These properties can be used to differentiate ferrous and ferric samples. (orig.)
Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L
2017-01-01
In adult second language (L2) acquisition, individual differences are considerably large even among people with similar experiences. The neural mechanisms underlying this variability would include structural plasticity of language-related pathways. To elucidate such neuroplasticity, we focused on the transitional period of adolescence, which is associated with certain plasticity toward maturation following the sensitive period of language acquisition (≤12 years old). The adolescent brain would thus be influenced by age-dependent factors, as well as performances in L2. Here, we examined individual differences in L2 performances controlling the duration of experience to reveal the differential signatures of performances and age on the plasticity of structural properties in major language-related pathways. We recruited Japanese students at two ages, i.e., junior (age: 13-14) and senior (age: 16-17) high-school students, all of whom started to expose to English at age 12 or 13. We divided them into subgroups, so that either L2 performance [Junior (High)/Senior (Low)] or age [Senior (Low)/Senior (High)] was matched in group comparisons; the duration of L2 experience was also controlled between the Senior (Low) and Senior (High) groups. We then examined the thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the dorsal and ventral pathways, i.e., the arcuate fasciculus (Arcuate) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), respectively, using semi-automatic methods for selecting regions without branches. Regarding FA in the left Arcuate, the Senior (High) group showed significantly higher FA than the other two groups, indicating performance-related group differences. Further, FA in the left Arcuate was selectively correlated with the accuracy of a syntactic task. Regarding the thickness of the left Arcuate, the Senior (High) and Senior (Low) groups showed significantly larger thickness than the Junior (High) group, indicating age-related group differences. These
Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice
Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2016-08-01
We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika
2017-02-01
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Webers, Wigor A.
2007-03-01
The inverse theory of potential fields shows that the correspondence between the internal magnetic field of the Earth and its field sources is unique when the potential field is known in all points of the three-dimensional space including all points of the source region (cp., e.g. Diesselhorst, H., 1939. Magnetische Felder und Kräfte. Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Leipzig). Thus, to determine the sources of the field it is not sufficient to know the potential field in the space external to the sources. Moreover, field models derived from finite sets of potential field observations emphasize different source properties because of measurement errors. In this study, I argue that improved internal field models can be developed from multi-altitude magnetic observations by imposing more effective constraints on the poorly conditioned downward continuation problem. In particular, the convergence behaviour of spherical harmonic field models can be used to improve the downward continuation of the higher truncation index terms. A high quality approximation of the field continuation is essential when the field models are interpreted for relatively small field contributions such as from the lithospheric sources. The relations between the potential field and its sources including the problems of potential field continuations - upward and downward - are governed by the theory of ill-posed inverse problems (cp., e.g. Anger, G., 1990. Inverse Problems in Differential Equations. Akademie/Plenum Press, Berlin/London; Anger, G., Gorenflo, R., Jochmann, H., Moritz, H., Webers, W. (Eds.), 1993. Inverse Problems: Principles and Applications in Geophysics, Technology, and Medicine. Akademie, Berlin; Huestis, S.P., Parker, R.L., 1979. Upward and downward continuations as inverse problems. Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 57, 171-188; Rösler, R., 1981. Über die Fehlerfortpflanzung bei Potentialfeldtransformationen. Gerlands Beitr. Gephys. 90, 47-57).
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
Sampling and Representation Complexity of Revenue Maximization
Dughmi, Shaddin; Han, Li; Nisan, Noam
2014-01-01
We consider (approximate) revenue maximization in auctions where the distribution on input valuations is given via "black box" access to samples from the distribution. We observe that the number of samples required -- the sample complexity -- is tightly related to the representation complexity of an approximately revenue-maximizing auction. Our main results are upper bounds and an exponential lower bound on these complexities.
Lisonek, Petr
1996-01-01
our classifications confirmthe maximality of previously known sets, the results in E^7 and E^8are new. Their counterpart in dimension larger than 10is a set of unit vectors with only two values of inner products in the Lorentz space R^{d,1}.The maximality of this set again follows from a bound due...
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...
Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads
Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
2017-01-01
In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.
Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter
2014-06-07
Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Limiting distribution of maximal crossing and nesting of Poissonized random matchings
Baik, Jinho
2011-01-01
The notion of r-crossing and r-nesting of a complete match- ing was introduced and a symmetry property was proved by Chen, Deng, Du, Stanley and Yan in 2007. We consider random matchings of large size and study the maximal crossing and the maximal nesting. It is known that the marginal distribution of each of them converges to the GOE Tracy-Widom distribution. We show that the maximal crossing and the maximal nesting becomes independent asymptotically, and eval- uate the joint distribution for the Poissonized random matchings explic- itly to the first correction term. This leads to an evaluation of the asymptotic of the covariance. Furthermore, we compute the explicit second correction term of the distributions function of two ob jects: (a) the length of the longest increasing subsequence of Poissonized random permutation and (b) the maximal crossing, and hence also the maximal nesting, of Poissonized random matching.
Simón, María V; De Genaro, Pablo; Abrahan, Carolina E; de los Santos, Beatriz; Rotstein, Nora P; Politi, Luis E
2012-02-01
Using stem cells to replace lost neurons is a promising strategy for treating retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Among their multiple functions, Müller glial cells are retina stem cells, with a robust regenerative potential in lower vertebrates, which is much more restricted in mammals. In rodents, most retina progenitors exit the cell cycle immediately after birth, differentiate as neurons, and then cannot reenter the cell cycle. Here we demonstrate that, in mixed cultures with Müller glial cells, rat retina progenitor cells expressed stem cell properties, maintained their proliferative potential, and were able to preserve these properties and remain mitotically active after several consecutive passages. Notably, these progenitors retained the capacity to differentiate as photoreceptors, even after successive reseedings. Müller glial cells markedly stimulated differentiation of retina progenitors; these cells initially expressed Crx and then developed as mature photoreceptors that expressed characteristic markers, such as opsin and peripherin. Moreover, they were light responsive, insofar as they decreased their cGMP levels when exposed to light, and they also showed high-affinity glutamate uptake, a characteristic of mature photoreceptors. Our present findings indicate that, in addition to giving rise to new photoreceptors, Müller glial cells might instruct a pool of undifferentiated cells to develop and preserve stem cell characteristics, even after successive reseedings, and then stimulate their differentiation as functional photoreceptors. This complementary mechanism might contribute to enlarge the limited regenerative capacity of mammalian Müller cells.
Some problems on super-diffusions and one class of nonlinear differential equations
王永进; 任艳霞
1999-01-01
The historical superprocesses are considered on bounded regular domains with a complete branching form, as a probabilistic argument, the limit property of superprocesses is studied when the domains enlarge to the whole space. As an important application of superprocess, the representation of solutions of involved differential equations is used in term of historical superprocesses. The differential equations including the existence of nonnegative solution, the closeness of solutions and probabilistic representations to the maximal and minimal solutions are discussed, which helps develop the well-known results on nonlinear differential equations.
Conrad, Andreas; Frank, Uwe
2008-05-01
EPs 7630 is an aqueous-ethanolic extract of the roots of PELARGONIUM SIDOIDES that displays well-documented benefits in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). IN VITRO and animal investigations have revealed various anti-infective properties of EPs 7630. The present review sums up recently published IN VITRO investigations that have shown positive effects on the activity of human peripheral blood phagocytes (PBP) and differential modulation of the interactions between group A streptococci and the host's epithelial barrier.
Neuromuscular fatigue after maximal exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Vallier, J M; Gruet, M; Mely, L; Pensini, M; Brisswalter, J
2011-04-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite their ventilatory limitation, would develop neuromuscular fatigue of quadriceps muscles following a maximal cycling exercise. Eleven adults with CF (age=26.8±6.9years; forced expiratory volume in 1s=54.1±12.8% predicted) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects performed a maximal incremental cycle test with respiratory gas exchange measurements. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis muscle were recorded before and after exercise. Neural and contractile properties of the quadriceps were also investigated using femoral nerve electrical stimulation. Patients had lower exercise capacity, peak oxygen uptake and MVC than controls. MVC fell significantly postexercise in both groups (CF: -20±10%, controls: -19±6%; ppattern (-38.4±14.4%, -42.1±14.7% and -15±20.4%) but the statistical significance was not reached for the maximal rate of twitch torque relaxation. In conclusion, CF patients demonstrated lower limb fatigue following symptom-limited cycle exercise, which was comparable to that exhibited by healthy controls. This fatigue may be due to contractile impairments and not to transmission failure. Further studies should be conducted in a larger sample to confirm these preliminary results.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...
HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL
HR Division
2000-01-01
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Maximizing throughput by evaluating critical utilization paths
Weeda, P.J.
1991-01-01
Recently the relationship between batch structure, bottleneck machine and maximum throughput has been explored for serial, convergent and divergent process configurations consisting of two machines and three processes. In three of the seven possible configurations a multiple batch structure maximize
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...
Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.
Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C
2004-04-01
We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups
M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2002-01-01
Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach
M.Rajalakshmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.
Natural selection and the maximization of fitness.
Birch, Jonathan
2016-08-01
The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the 'new' interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, on which the theorem is exactly true for any evolving population that satisfies some minimal assumptions. The second is the Formal Darwinism project, which forges links between gene frequency change and optimal strategy choice. In both cases, I argue that the results fail to establish a biologically significant maximization principle. I conclude that it may be a mistake to look for universal maximization principles justified by theory alone. A more promising approach may be to find maximization principles that apply conditionally and to show that the conditions were satisfied in the evolution of particular traits.
Integral circulant graphs of prime power order with maximal energy
Sander, Jürgen W; 10.1016/j.laa.2011.05.039
2011-01-01
The energy of a graph is the sum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. We study the energy of integral circulant graphs, also called gcd graphs, which can be characterized by their vertex count n and a set D of divisors of n in such a way that they have vertex set Zn and edge set {{a, b} : a, b in Zn; gcd(a - b, n) in D}. Using tools from convex optimization, we study the maximal energy among all integral circulant graphs of prime power order ps and varying divisor sets D. Our main result states that this maximal energy approximately lies between s(p - 1)p^(s-1) and twice this value. We construct suitable divisor sets for which the energy lies in this interval. We also characterize hyperenergetic integral circulant graphs of prime power order and exhibit an interesting topological property of their divisor sets.
WEIGHTED INEQUALITIES FOR THE GEOMETRIC MAXIMAL OPERATOR ON MARTINGALE SPACES
无
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors introduce two operators-geometrical maximal operator Mo and the closely related limiting operator M*O, then they give sufficient conditions under which the equality MO = M*O holds, and characterize the equivalent relations between the weak or strong type weighted inequality and the property of W∞-weight or W*∞-weight for the geometrical maximal operator in the case of two-weight condition. What should be mentioned is that the new operator-the geometrical minimal operator is equal to the limitation of the minimal operator sequence, and the results for the minimal operator proved in [12] makes the proof elegant and evident.
Maximal injective and mixing masas in group factors
Jolissaint, Paul
2010-01-01
We present families of pairs of finite von Neumann algebras $A\\subset M$ where $A$ is a maximal injective masa in the type $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factor $M$ with separable predual. Our results make use of the strong mixing and the asymptotic orthogonality properties of $A$ in $M$ and are borrowed from ideas of S. Popa who proved that if $G$ is a non abelian free group and if $a$ is one of its generators, then the von Neumann algebra generated by $a$ is maximal injective in the factor $L(G)$. Our results apply to pairs $H
Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter
2007-01-01
Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub-maximal
Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability
Phelps, Robert R
1993-01-01
The improved and expanded second edition contains expositions of some major results which have been obtained in the years since the 1st edition. Theaffirmative answer by Preiss of the decades old question of whether a Banachspace with an equivalent Gateaux differentiable norm is a weak Asplund space. The startlingly simple proof by Simons of Rockafellar's fundamental maximal monotonicity theorem for subdifferentials of convex functions. The exciting new version of the useful Borwein-Preiss smooth variational principle due to Godefroy, Deville and Zizler. The material is accessible to students who have had a course in Functional Analysis; indeed, the first edition has been used in numerous graduate seminars. Starting with convex functions on the line, it leads to interconnected topics in convexity, differentiability and subdifferentiability of convex functions in Banach spaces, generic continuity of monotone operators, geometry of Banach spaces and the Radon-Nikodym property, convex analysis, variational princ...
Impossibility of Differentially Private Universally Optimal Mechanisms
Brenner, Hai
2010-01-01
The notion of a universally utility-maximizing privacy mechanism was recently introduced by Ghosh, Roughgarden, and Sundararajan [STOC 2009]. These are mechanisms that guarantee optimal utility to a large class of information consumers, simultaneously, while preserving Differential Privacy [Dwork, McSherry, Nissim, and Smith, TCC 2006]. Ghosh et al. have demonstrated, quite surprisingly, a case where such a universally-optimal differentially-private mechanisms exists, when the information consumers are Bayesian. This result was recently extended by Gupte and Sundararajan [PODS 2010] to risk-averse consumers. Both positive results deal with mechanisms (approximately) computing a single count query (i.e., the number of individuals satisfying a specific property in a given population), and the starting point of our work is a trial at extending these results to similar settings, such as sum queries with non-binary individual values, histograms, and two (or more) count queries. We show, however, that universally-o...
Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca
2010-01-01
, under the assumption that the original constraint-based approach has these properties. Practically, as a concrete case study, we have integrated this technique into OFMC, a state-of-the-art model-checker for security protocol analysis, and demonstrated its effectiveness by extensive experimentation. Our......We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...
Graustein, William C
2006-01-01
This first course in differential geometry presents the fundamentals of the metric differential geometry of curves and surfaces in a Euclidean space of three dimensions. Written by an outstanding teacher and mathematician, it explains the material in the most effective way, using vector notation and technique. It also provides an introduction to the study of Riemannian geometry.Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, the text presupposes a knowledge of calculus. The first nine chapters focus on the theory, treating the basic properties of curves and surfaces, the mapping of
V. Ovsianko
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper reveals a brand-new direction in simulation of frame and continual structures while calculating static and dynamic loads and stability. An electronic model has been synthesized for an investigated object and then it has been analyzed not with the help of specialized analog computing techniques but by means of high-performance software package for electronic circuit calculation using a personal computer.The given paper contains exact algebraic equations corresponding to differential equations for lateral bending calculation of frame structures without and with due account of viscoelastic material properties in compliance with the Kelvin model.The exact algebraic equation for a beam on elastic supports (or elastic Winkler foundation has been derived for quartic differential equation.The paper presents a number of exact algebraic equations which are equivalent to differential equations for transverse-longitudinal bending calculation of frame structures without and with due account of viscoelastic material properties when lateral and longitudinal loads are applied in the form of impulses with any periods of their duration and any interchangeability.
Louihi, M.; Hbid, M. L.; Arino, O.
2002-05-01
We present an approach for the resolution of a class of differential equations with state-dependent delays by the theory of strongly continuous nonlinear semigroups. We show that this class determines a strongly continuous semigroup in a closed subset of C0, 1. We characterize the infinitesimal generator of this semigroup through its domain. Finally, an approximation of the Crandall-Liggett type for the semigroup is obtained in a dense subset of (C, ‖·‖∞). As far as we know this approach is new in the context of state-dependent delay equations while it is classical in the case of constant delay differential equations.
Pansare, Swapnil K; Patel, Sajal Manubhai
2016-08-01
Glass transition temperature is a unique thermal characteristic of amorphous systems and is associated with changes in physical properties such as heat capacity, viscosity, electrical resistance, and molecular mobility. Glass transition temperature for amorphous solids is referred as (T g), whereas for maximally freeze concentrated solution, the notation is (T g'). This article is focused on the factors affecting determination of T g' for application to lyophilization process design and frozen storage stability. Also, this review provides a perspective on use of various types of solutes in protein formulation and their effect on T g'. Although various analytical techniques are used for determination of T g' based on the changes in physical properties associated with glass transition, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most commonly used technique. In this article, an overview of DSC technique is provided along with brief discussion on the alternate analytical techniques for T g' determination. Additionally, challenges associated with T g' determination, using DSC for protein formulations, are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical industry perspective on determination of T g' for protein formulations as it relates to design and development of lyophilization process and/or for frozen storage; however, a comprehensive review of glass transition temperature (T g, T g'), in general, is outside the scope of this work.
Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms
Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais
2002-01-01
In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...
Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements
M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu
2017-04-01
In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.
Li, Yajun
2011-04-01
Rectilinear propagation of light rays in homogeneous isotropic media makes it possible for optical generation of ruled surfaces as the ray is deflected by a rotatable mirror. Scan patterns on a plane or curved surface are merely curves on the ruled surface. Based on this understanding, structures of the scan fields produced by mirror-scanning devices of different configurations are investigated in terms of differential geometry. Expressions of the first and second fundamental coefficients and the first and second Gauss differential forms are given for an investigation of the intrinsic properties of the optically generated ruled surfaces. The Plücker ruled conoid is then generalized for mathematical modeling of the scan fields produced by single-mirror scanning devices of different configurations. Part II will be devoted to a study of multi-mirror scanning systems for optical generation of well-known ruled surfaces such as helicoids and hyperbolic paraboloids.
Henrich, Silke; Crossett, Ben; Christopherson, Richard I
2007-10-01
The human cell lines CCRF-CEM (T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia), HL-60 (acute myeloid leukemia), MEC-1 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and Raji (Burkitt's B-cell lymphoma) have been analysed for differences in their nuclear proteomes. Using 2-D DIGE, 55 nuclear proteins have been identified that are differentially expressed (p<0.025) between the four cell lines, including proteins associated with transcription, proliferation, DNA repair and apoptosis. Of these 55 proteins, 22 were over-expressed in just one cell line, and four were down-regulated in one cell line. Proteins uniquely over-expressed between myeloid and lymphoid cell lines include those that may have use as markers for diagnosis, disease progression and B-cell maturation and differentiation. Expression of various proliferation-associated nuclear proteins correlated with relative growth rates of the cell lines, giving these proteins potential diagnostic applications for distinction of chronic versus acute subtypes of haematological malignancies. Identification of these differentially expressed nuclear proteins should facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying leukocyte differentiation and transformation to leukemias and lymphomas. The nuclear expression profiles should enable classification of subtypes of leukemia, and identify potential nuclear protein targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Anders Peter Larsen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr, is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr. Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr has been described. We hypothesized that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr can be reproduced by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Furthermore, the functional consequences of differential expression of ERG1 isoforms were explored as a potential mechanism underlying native heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD and restitution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results show that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr can be reproduced in heterologous expression systems by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Characterization of the macroscopic kinetics of ERG1 currents demonstrated that these were dependent on the relative abundance of ERG1a and ERG1b. Furthermore, we used a computational model of the ventricular cardiomyocyte to show that both APD and the slope of the restitution curve may be modulated by varying the relative abundance of ERG1a and ERG1b. As the relative abundance of ERG1b was increased, APD was gradually shortened and the slope of the restitution curve was decreased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that differential expression of ERG1 isoforms may explain regional heterogeneity of I(Kr kinetics. The data demonstrate that subunit dependent changes in channel kinetics are important for the functional properties of ERG1 currents and hence I(Kr. Importantly, our results suggest that regional differences in the relative abundance of ERG1 isoforms may represent a potential mechanism underlying the heterogeneity of both APD and APD restitution observed in mammalian hearts.
Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim
Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN
2015-01-01
3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Absence of parasympathetic reactivation after maximal exercise.
de Oliveira, Tiago Peçanha; de Alvarenga Mattos, Raphael; da Silva, Rhenan Bartels Ferreira; Rezende, Rafael Andrade; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout
2013-03-01
The ability of the human organism to recover its autonomic balance soon after physical exercise cessation has an important impact on the individual's health status. Although the dynamics of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise has been studied, little is known about heart rate variability after this type of exercise. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of heart rate and heart rate variability recovery after maximal exercise in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy male subjects (21·7 ± 3·4 years; 24·0 ± 2·1 kg m(-2) ) participated in the study. The experimental protocol consisted of an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer, until maximal voluntary exhaustion. After the test, recovery R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min. From the absolute differences between peak heart rate values and the heart rate values at 1 and 5 min of the recovery, the heart rate recovery was calculated. Postexercise heart rate variability was analysed from calculations of the SDNN and RMSSD indexes, in 30-s windows (SDNN(30s) and RMSSD(30s) ) throughout recovery. One and 5 min after maximal exercise cessation, the heart rate recovered 34·7 (±6·6) and 75·5 (±6·1) bpm, respectively. With regard to HRV recovery, while the SDNN(30s) index had a slight increase, RMSSD(30s) index remained totally suppressed throughout the recovery, suggesting an absence of vagal modulation reactivation and, possibly, a discrete sympathetic withdrawal. Therefore, it is possible that the main mechanism associated with the fall of HR after maximal exercise is sympathetic withdrawal or a vagal tone restoration without vagal modulation recovery. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Maximal and Minimal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana SANWONG; Boorapa SINGHA; R.P.SULLIVAN
2009-01-01
In 2006,Sanwong and Sullivan described the maximal congruences on the semigroup N consisting of all non-negative integers under standard multiplication,and on the semigroup T(X) consisting of all total transformations of an infinite set X under composition. Here,we determine all maximal congruences on the semigroup Zn under multiplication modulo n. And,when Y X,we do the same for the semigroup T(X,Y) consisting of all elements of T(X) whose range is contained in Y. We also characterise the minimal congruences on T(X,Y).
Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics
1987-03-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Matsumura, I; Kanakura, Y; Kato, T; Ikeda, H; Horikawa, Y; Ishikawa, J; Kitayama, H; Nishiura, T; Tomiyama, Y; Miyazaki, H; Matsuzawa, Y
1996-10-15
Thrombopoietin (TPO) is implicated as a primary regulator of megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. However, the biologic effects of TPO on human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells are largely unknown. To determine if recombinant human (rh) TPO has proliferation-supporting and differentiation-inducing activities in AML cells, 15 cases of AML cells that were exclusively composed of undifferentiated leukemia cells and showed growth response to rhTPO in a short-term culture (72 hours) were subjected to long-term suspension culture with or without rhTPO. Of 15 cases, rhTPO supported proliferation of AML cells for 2 to 4 weeks in 4 cases whose French-American-British subtypes were M0, M2, M4, and M7, respectively. In addition to the proliferation-supporting activity, rhTPO was found to induce AML cells to progress to some degree of megakaryocytic differentiation at both morphologic and surface-phenotypic level in 2 AML cases with M0 and M7 subtypes. The treatment of AML cells with rhTPO resulted in rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the TPO-receptor, c-mpl, and STAT3 in all of cases tested. By contrast, the expression of erythroid/megakaryocyte-specific transcription factors (GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2) was markedly induced or enhanced in only 2 AML cases that showed megakaryocytic differentiation in response to rhTPO. These results suggested that, at least in a fraction of AML cases, TPO could not only support the proliferation of AML cells irrespective of AML subtypes, but could also induce megakaryocytic differentiation, possibly through activation of GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2.
A duality result between the minimal surface equation and the maximal surface equation
ALÍAS LUIS J.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this note we show how classical Bernstein's theorem on minimal surfaces in the Euclidean space can be seen as a consequence of Calabi-Bernstein's theorem on maximal surfaces in the Lorentz-Minkowski space (and viceversa. This follows from a simple but nice duality between solutions to their corresponding differential equations.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.
Schmitt, David E.
This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…
MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM OF ABSTRACT ECONOMY
刘心歌; 蔡海涛
2001-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for a new type of preference correspondences which are Qθ-majorized is given. Then some existence theorems of equilibrium for abstract economy and qualitative game in which the constraint or preference correspondences are Qθ-majorized are obtained in locally convex topological vector spaces.
DNA solution of the maximal clique problem.
Ouyang, Q; Kaplan, P D; Liu, S; Libchaber, A
1997-10-17
The maximal clique problem has been solved by means of molecular biology techniques. A pool of DNA molecules corresponding to the total ensemble of six-vertex cliques was built, followed by a series of selection processes. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main qu
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing throughput in an automated test system
朱君
2007-01-01
@@ Overview This guide is collection of whitepapers designed to help you develop test systems that lower your cost, increase your test throughput, and can scale with future requirements. This whitepaper provides strategies for maximizing system throughput. To download the complete developers guide (120 pages), visit ni. com/automatedtest.
The gaugings of maximal D=6 supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2008-01-01
We construct the most general gaugings of the maximal D = 6 supergravity. The theory is ( 2, 2) supersymmetric, and possesses an on-shell SO( 5, 5) duality symmetry which plays a key role in determining its couplings. The field content includes 16 vector fields that carry a chiral spinor representat
WEIGHTED BOUNDEDNESS OF A ROUGH MAXIMAL OPERATOR
无
2000-01-01
In this note the authors give the weighted Lp-boundedness fora class of maximal singular integral operators with rough kernel.The result in this note is an improvement and extension ofthe result obtained by Chen and Lin in 1990.
Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.
Brown, Ronald A.
1992-01-01
Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2003-01-01
The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem
Shinji Yamashita
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.
Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2008-01-01
For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Maximally entangled mixed states made easy
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2006-01-01
We show that, contrarily to a recent claim [M. Ziman and V. Bu\\v{z}ek, Phys. Rev. A. \\textbf{72}, 052325 (2005)], it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local nonunital quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems
ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang
2009-01-01
We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults.
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults
Mako eOkanda
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
MacGregor, K B; Skumanich, Andrew; Metcalfe, T S
2007-01-01
We conduct a systematic examination of the properties of models for chemically homogeneous, differentially rotating, main-sequence stars of mass 1-2 M_sun. The models were constructed using a code based on a reformulation of the self-consistent field method of computing the equilibrium stellar structure for a specified conservative internal rotation law. [abridged] Relative to nonrotating stars of the same mass, these models all have reduced luminosities and effective temperatures, and flattened photospheric shapes (i.e., decreased polar radii) with equatorial radii that can be larger or smaller, depending on the degree of differential rotation. For a fixed ratio of the axial rotation rate to the surface equatorial rotation rate, increasingly rapid rotation generally deepens convective envelopes, shrinks convective cores, and can lead to the presence of a convective core (envelope) in a 1 M_sun (2 M_sun) model, a feature that is absent in a nonrotating star of the same mass. The positions of differentially ro...
Mittal, Sandeep; Kumar, Veeresh; Dhiman, Nitesh; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Pasricha, Renu; Pandey, Alok Kumar
2016-12-01
Goraphene derivatives (GD) are currently being evaluated for technological and biomedical applications owing to their unique physico-chemical properties over other carbon allotrope such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). But, the possible association of their properties with underlying in vitro effects have not fully examined. Here, we assessed the comparative interaction of three GD - graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced GO (TRGO) and chemically reduced GO (CRGO), which significantly differ in their lateral size and functional groups density, with phenotypically different human lung cells; bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549). The cellular studies demonstrate that GD significantly ineternalize and induce oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity in both cells. The toxicity intensity was in line with the reduced lateral size and increased functional groups revealed more toxicity potential of TRGO and GO respectively. Further, A549 cells showed more susceptibility than BEAS-2B which reflected cell type dependent differential cellular response. Molecular studies revealed that GD induced differential cell death mechanism which was efficiently prevented by their respective inhibitors. This is prior study to the best of our knowledge involving TRGO for its safety evaluation which provided invaluable information and new opportunities for GD based biomedical applications.
Existence of Solution for Fractional Differential Problem with a Parameter
Shi Ai-ling; Zhang Shu-qin
2014-01-01
We apply the method of lower and upper solutions combined with mono-tone iterations to fractional differential problem with a parameter. The existence of minimal and maximal solutions is proved for the fractional differential problem with a parameter.
Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization
Sun, Ruoyan
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.
Piele, Philip K.
Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…
Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval
Dahab, Eiman Abou El
2014-01-01
The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization
Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew
2012-01-01
Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...
Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.
Choey, M; Weigend, A S
1997-08-01
While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.
Maximally Symmetric Spacetimes emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations
Bravetti, A; Quevedo, H
2015-01-01
In this work we prove that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity emerge from the geometric structure of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic fluctuation theory. To present our argument, we begin by showing that the pseudo-Riemannian structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space is a solution to the vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity with a cosmological constant. Then, we use the geometry of equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's Field Equations -- Minkowski, de-Sitter and Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes -- correspond to thermodynamic fluctuations. Moreover, we argue that these might be the only possible solutions that can be derived in this manner. Thus, the results presented here are the first concrete examples of spacetimes effectively emerging from the thermodynamic limit over an unspecified microscopic theory without any further assumptions.
Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity
Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Conservation laws, differential identities, and constraints of partial differential equations
Zharinov, V. V.
2015-11-01
We consider specific cohomological properties such as low-dimensional conservation laws and differential identities of systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). We show that such properties are inherent to complex systems such as evolution systems with constraints. The mathematical tools used here are the algebraic analysis of PDEs and cohomologies over differential algebras and modules.
Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique
2011-01-01
This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...
Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests
Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric
2014-01-01
We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...
Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings
Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna
2014-01-01
We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...
Zhai, Yong; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Taylor, Leeandrew Jacques-Asa; Erlkamp, Mirko; Grobelny, Sebastian; Czeslik, Claus; Watkins, Erik; Winter, Roland
2012-03-20
The polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) is a major tetraether lipid component in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Using differential scanning and pressure perturbation calorimetry as well as ultrasound velocity and density measurements, we have determined the compressibilities and volume fluctuations of PLFE liposomes derived from different cell growth temperatures (T(g) = 68, 76, and 81 °C). The compressibility and volume fluctuation values of PLFE liposomes, which are substantially less than those detected from diester lipid membranes (e.g., DPPC), exhibit small but significant differences with T(g). Among the three T(g)s employed, 76 °C leads to the least compressible and most tightly packed PLFE membranes. This temperature is within the range for optimal cell growth (75-80 °C). It is known that a decrease in T(g) decreases the number of cyclopentane rings in archael tetraether lipids. Thus, our data enable us to present the new view that membrane packing in PLFE liposomes varies with the number of cyclopentane rings in a nonlinear manner, reaching maximal tightness when the tetraether lipids are derived from cells grown at optimal T(g)s. In addition, we have studied the effects of pressure on total layer thickness, d, and neutron scattering length density, ρ(n), of a silicon-D(2)O interface that is covered with a PLFE membrane using neutron reflectometry (NR). At 55 °C, d and ρ(n) are found to be rather insensitive to pressure up to 1800 bar, suggesting minor changes of the thickness of the membrane's hydrophobic core and headgroup orientation upon compression only.
Ruiz, Mario; Sanchez, Diego; Correnti, Colin; Strong, Roland K; Ganfornina, Maria D
2013-08-01
Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded β-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior. Using tryptophan fluorescence titration, we screened the binding of 15 potential lipid partners for NLaz, ApoD and Laz and uncovered several novel ligands with apparent dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Retinoic acid (RA), retinol, fatty acids and sphingomyelin are shared ligands. Sterols, however, showed a species-specific binding pattern: cholesterol did not show strong binding to human ApoD, whereas NLaz and Laz did bind ergosterol. Among the lipocalin-specific ligands, we found that ApoD selectively binds the endocannabinoid anandamide but not 2-acylglycerol, and that NLaz binds the pheromone 7-tricosene, but not 7,11-heptacosadiene or 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate. To test the functional relevance of lipocalin ligand binding at the cellular level, we analyzed the effect of ApoD, Laz and NLaz preloaded with RA on neuronal differentiation. Our results show that ApoD is necessary and sufficient to allow for RA differentiating activity. Both human ApoD and Drosophila NLaz successfully deliver RA to immature neurons, driving neurite outgrowth. We conclude that ApoD, NLaz and Laz bind selectively to a different but overlapping set of lipid ligands. This multispecificity can explain their varied physiological functions.
Wagner, Larry E; Yule, David I
2012-07-15
An elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels as a result of InsP3 receptor (InsP3R) activity represents a ubiquitous signalling pathway controlling a wide variety of cellular events. InsP3R activity is tightly controlled by the levels of the primary ligands, InsP3, Ca2+ and ATP. Importantly, InsP3Rs are regulated by Ca2+ i in a biphasic manner. Ca2+ release through all InsP3R family members is also modulated dramatically by ATP, albeit with sub-type-specific properties. To ascertain if a common mechanism can account for ATP and Ca2+ regulation of these InsP3R family members, we examined the effects of [ATP] on the Ca2+ dependency of rat InsP3R-1 (rInsP3R-1) and mouse InsP3R-2 (mInsP3R-2) activity expressed in DT40-3KO cells. We used the on-nucleus patch clamp recording technique with various [ATP], [InsP3] and [Ca2+] in the patch pipette and measured single InsP3R channel activity in stably transfected DT40 cells. Under identical conditions, at saturating [InsP3] and [ATP], the activity of rInsP3R-1 and mInsP3R-2 was essentially identical in terms of single channel conductance, maximal achievable open probability (Po) and the [Ca2+] required for activation and inhibition of activity. However, in contrast to rInsP3R-1 at saturating [InsP3], the activity of mInsP3R-2 was unaffected by [ATP]. At lower [InsP3], ATP had dramatic effects on mInsP3R-2 Po, but unlike the rInsP3R-1, this did not occur by altering the relative Ca2+ dependency, but by simply increasing the maximally achievable Po at a particular [InsP3] and [Ca2+]. [InsP3] did not alter the biphasic regulation of activity by Ca2+ in either rInsP3R-1 or mInsP3R-2. Analysis of the single channel kinetics indicated that Ca2+ and ATP modulate the Po predominately by facilitating extended bursting activity of the channel but the underlying biophysical mechanism appears to be distinct for each receptor. Subtype-specific regulation of InsP3R channel activity probably contributes to the fidelity of Ca2+ signalling in
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.
Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia
2017-01-01
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in
Huang, E. Y.; Madireddi, M. T.; Gopalkrishnan, R. V.; Leszczyniecka, M.; Su, Z. Z.; Lebedeva, I. V.; Kang, D. C.; Jian, H.; Lin, J. J.; Alexandre, D.; Chen, Y.; Vozhilla, N.; Mei, M. X.; Christiansen, K. A.; Sivo, F.; Goldstein, N. I.; Chada, S.; Huberman, E.; Pestka, S.; Fisher, P. B.; Biochip Technology Center; Columbia Univ.; Introgen Therapeutics Inc.; UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
2001-10-25
Abnormalities in cellular differentiation are frequent occurrences in human cancers. Treatment of human melanoma cells with recombinant fibroblast interferon (IFN-beta) and the protein kinase C activator mezerein (MEZ) results in an irreversible loss in growth potential, suppression of tumorigenic properties and induction of terminal cell differentiation. Subtraction hybridization identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7), as a gene induced during these physiological changes in human melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of mda-7 by means of a replication defective adenovirus results in growth suppression and induction of apoptosis in a broad spectrum of additional cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, osteosarcoma and carcinomas of the breast, cervix, colon, lung, nasopharynx and prostate. In contrast, no apparent harmful effects occur when mda-7 is expressed in normal epithelial or fibroblast cells. Human clones of mda-7 were isolated and its organization resolved in terms of intron/exon structure and chromosomal localization. Hu-mda-7 encompasses seven exons and six introns and encodes a protein with a predicted size of 23.8 kDa, consisting of 206 amino acids. Hu-mda-7 mRNA is stably expressed in the thymus, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. De novo mda-7 mRNA expression is also detected in human melanocytes and expression is inducible in cells of melanocyte/melanoma lineage and in certain normal and cancer cell types following treatment with a combination of IFN-beta plus MEZ. Mda-7 expression is also induced during megakaryocyte differentiation induced in human hematopoietic cells by treatment with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate). In contrast, de novo expression of mda-7 is not detected nor is it inducible by IFN-beta+MEZ in a spectrum of additional normal and cancer cells. No correlation was observed between induction of mda-7 mRNA expression and growth suppression following treatment with IFN-beta+MEZ and
Miguel G. Villarreal-Cervantes
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Mobile robots with omnidirectional wheels are expected to perform a wide variety of movements in a narrow space. However, kinematic mobility and dexterity have not been clearly identified as an objective to be considered when designing omnidirectional redundant robots. In light of this fact, this article proposes to maximize the dexterity of the mobile robot by properly locating the omnidirectional wheels. In addition, four hybrid differential evolution (DE algorithm based on the synergetic integration of different kinds of mutation and crossover are presented. A comparison of metaheuristic and gradient-based algorithms for kinematic dexterity maximization is also presented.
Engelund, Morten Buch; Chauvigné, François; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster
2013-01-01
of aqp8aa, aqp8ab and aqp8b genes found in other teleosts. The permeability properties were studied by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the expression levels examined by qPCR, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, and immunoblotting of membrane fractions from intestines...... of SW challenged smolts. All three Aqp8 paralogs were permeable to water and urea, whereas Aqp8ab and -8b were, surprisingly, also permeable to glycerol. The mRNA tissue distribution of each paralog was distinct although some tissues, such as the intestine showed redundant expression of more than one...
Parshin, D. V.; Ufimtseva, I. V.; Cherevko, A. A.; Khe, A. K.; Orlov, K. Yu; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Chupakhin, A. P.
2016-06-01
The present paper discusses the method of identification (diseased/healthy) human cerebral vessels by using of mathematical model. Human cerebral circulation as a single tuned circuit, which consists of blood flow, elastic vessels and elastic brain gel tissue is under consideration. Non linear Van der Pol-Duffing equation is assumed as mathematical model of cerebrovascular circulation. Hypothesis of vascular pathology existence in some position of blood vessel, based on mathematical model properties for this position is formulated. Good reliability of hypothesis is proved statistically for 7 patients with arterial aneurysms.
An information-theoretic analysis of return maximization in reinforcement learning.
Iwata, Kazunori
2011-12-01
We present a general analysis of return maximization in reinforcement learning. This analysis does not require assumptions of Markovianity, stationarity, and ergodicity for the stochastic sequential decision processes of reinforcement learning. Instead, our analysis assumes the asymptotic equipartition property fundamental to information theory, providing a substantially different view from that in the literature. As our main results, we show that return maximization is achieved by the overlap of typical and best sequence sets, and we present a class of stochastic sequential decision processes with the necessary condition for return maximization. We also describe several examples of best sequences in terms of return maximization in the class of stochastic sequential decision processes, which satisfy the necessary condition.
Filizola, Marta; Villar, Hugo O.; Loew, Gilda H.
2001-04-01
Compounds that bind with significant affinity to the opioid receptor types, δ, μ, and κ, with different combinations of activation and inhibition at these three receptors could be promising behaviorally selective agents. Working on this hypothesis, the chemical moieties common to three different sets of opioid receptor agonists with significant affinity for each of the three receptor types δ, μ, or κ were identified. Using a distance analysis approach, common geometric arrangements of these chemical moieties were found for selected δ, μ, or κ opioid agonists. The chemical and geometric commonalities among agonists at each opioid receptor type were then compared with a non-specific opioid recognition pharmacophore recently developed. The comparison provided identification of the additional requirements for activation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptors. The distance analysis approach was able to clearly discriminate κ-agonists, while global molecular properties for all compounds were calculated to identify additional requirements for activation of δ and μ receptors. Comparisons of the combined geometric and physicochemical properties calculated for each of the three sets of agonists allowed the determination of unique requirements for activation of each of the three opioid receptors. These results can be used to improve the activation selectivity of known opioid agonists and as a guide for the identification of novel selective opioid ligands with potential therapeutic usefulness.
Santos, Ana L; Baptista, Inês; Gomes, Newton C M; Henriques, Isabel; Almeida, Adelaide; Correia, António; Cunha, Angela
2014-02-01
The surface microlayer (SML) is characterized by different physicochemical properties from underlying waters (UW). However, whether these differences in abiotic factors underlie the distinct sensitivity of bacterioneuston (i.e. SML bacteria) and bacterioplankton to environmental stressors remains to be addressed. We investigated the contribution of abiotic factors to the UV-B sensitivity of bacterioneuston and bacterioplankton. Nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphate) emerged as important determinants of bacterial UV-B sensitivity. The role of particles, nutrients, and dissolved organic components on bacterial UV-B sensitivity was further evaluated using dilution cultures. Filtered samples were twofold more UV sensitive than unfiltered samples, suggesting a UV-protective effect of particles. High nutrient concentrations attenuated bacterial UV-B sensitivity (up to 40%), compared with unamended conditions, by influencing bacterial physiology and/or community composition. Suspending cells in natural water, particularly from the SML, also attenuated UV-B sensitivity (up to 23%), compared with suspension in an artificial mineral solution. Bioassays using Pseudomonas sp. strain NT5I1.2B revealed that chemical water properties influence UV-induced oxidative damage. UV-B sensitivity was associated with high cell-specific activities. The chemical environment of the SML and UW influences UV-B effects on the corresponding bacterial communities. Maintaining low cell activities might be advantageous in stressful environments, like the SML.
Quanz, Sascha P; Geissler, Kerstin; Meyer, Michael R; Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang; Wolf, Sebastian
2011-01-01
We present polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) data of the circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD100546 obtained with VLT/NACO. We resolve the disk in polarized light in the H and Ks filter between ~0.1-1.4" (i.e., ~10-140 AU). The innermost disk regions are directly imaged for the first time and the mean apparent disk inclination and position angle are derived. The surface brightness along the disk major axis drops off roughly with S(r) ~ r^-3 but has a maximum around 0.15" suggesting a marginal detection of the main disk inner rim at ~15 AU. We find a significant brightness asymmetry along the disk minor axis in both filters with the far side of the disk appearing brighter than the near side. This enhanced backward scattering and a low total polarization degree of the scattered disk flux of 14%(+19%/-8%) suggests that the dust grains on the disk surface are larger than typical ISM grains. Empirical scattering functions reveal the backward scattering peak at the largest scattering angles and ...
Weak incidence algebra and maximal ring of quotients
Surjeet Singh
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Let X, X′ be two locally finite, preordered sets and let R be any indecomposable commutative ring. The incidence algebra I(X,R, in a sense, represents X, because of the well-known result that if the rings I(X,R and I(X′,R are isomorphic, then X and X′ are isomorphic. In this paper, we consider a preordered set X that need not be locally finite but has the property that each of its equivalence classes of equivalent elements is finite. Define I*(X,R to be the set of all those functions f:X×X→R such that f(x,y=0, whenever x⩽̸y and the set Sf of ordered pairs (x,y with x
Ramírez-Ramírez, Dalia; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes Andrea; Mayani, Héctor; Estrada-Parra, Sergio
2016-01-01
Reconstitution of the hematopoietic system during immune responses and immunological and neoplastic diseases or upon transplantation depends on the emergent differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells within the bone marrow. Although in the last decade the use of dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) as supportive therapy in both infectious and malignant settings has increased, its activity on the earliest stages of human hematopoietic development remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined the ability of DLE to promote replenishment of functional lymphoid lineages from CD34+ cells. Our findings suggest that DLE increases their differentiation toward a conspicuous CD56+CD16+CD11c+ NK-like cell population endowed with properties such as IFNy production, tumor cell cytotoxicity, and the capability of inducing γδ T lymphocyte proliferation. Of note, long-term coculture controlled systems showed the bystander effect of DLE-stromal cells by providing NK progenitors with signals to overproduce this cell subset. Thus, by direct effect on progenitor cells and through activation and remodeling of the supporting hematopoietic microenvironment, DLE may contribute a robust innate immune response by promoting the emerging lymphopoiesis of functional CD11c+ NK cells in a partially TLR-related manner. Unraveling the identity and mechanisms of the involved DLE components may be fundamental to advance the NK cell-based therapy field. PMID:27847830
Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yang, Yan-Wei; Lin, Ping-Ting; Yu, Hao-Han; Sun, Xiang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-Hua
2016-10-01
Effective pulp-capping materials must have antibacterial properties and induce dentin bridge formation; however, many current materials do not satisfy clinical requirements. Accordingly, the effects of an experiment pulp-capping material (Exp) composed of an antibacterial resin monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC) on the viability, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined. Based on a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, hDPSCs exposed to Exp extracts showed limited viability at 24 and 48 h, but displayed comparable viability to the control at 72 h. hDPSC treatment with Exp extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration according to in vitro scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. Exp significantly upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The hDPSCs cultured with Exp exhibited higher ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro compared with the control group. The novel material showed comparable cytocompatibility to control cells and promoted the adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, indicating excellent biocompatibility. This new direct pulp-capping material containing MAE-DB and PC shows promise as a potential alternative to conventional materials for direct pulp capping.
Yu, Fan; Dong, Yan; Yang, Yan-wei; Lin, Ping-ting; Yu, Hao-han; Sun, Xiang; Sun, Xue-fei; Zhou, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Ji-hua
2016-01-01
Effective pulp-capping materials must have antibacterial properties and induce dentin bridge formation; however, many current materials do not satisfy clinical requirements. Accordingly, the effects of an experiment pulp-capping material (Exp) composed of an antibacterial resin monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC) on the viability, adhesion, migration, and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were examined. Based on a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, hDPSCs exposed to Exp extracts showed limited viability at 24 and 48 h, but displayed comparable viability to the control at 72 h. hDPSC treatment with Exp extracts enhanced cellular adhesion and migration according to in vitro scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. Exp significantly upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The hDPSCs cultured with Exp exhibited higher ALP activity and calcium deposition in vitro compared with the control group. The novel material showed comparable cytocompatibility to control cells and promoted the adhesion, migration, and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, indicating excellent biocompatibility. This new direct pulp-capping material containing MAE-DB and PC shows promise as a potential alternative to conventional materials for direct pulp capping. PMID:27698421
Boone, Marc; Suppa, Mariano; Miyamoto, Makiko; Marneffe, Alice; Jemec, Gregor; Del Marmol, Veronique
2016-06-01
High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have recently been defined. We assessed in vivo optical properties (IV-OP) of BCC, by HD-OCT. Moreover their critical values for BCC subtype differentiation were determined. The technique of semi-log plot whereby an exponential function becomes linear has been implemented on HD-OCT signals. The relative attenuation factor (µraf ) at different skin layers could be assessed.. IV-OP of superficial BCC with high diagnostic accuracy (DA) and high negative predictive values (NPV) were (i) decreased µraf in lower part of epidermis and (ii) increased epidermal thickness (E-T). IV-OP of nodular BCC with good to high DA and NPV were (i) less negative µraf in papillary dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) significantly decreased E-T and papillary dermal thickness (PD-T). In infiltrative BCC (i) high µraf in reticular dermis compared to normal adjacent skin and (ii) presence of peaks and falls in reticular dermis had good DA and high NPV. HD-OCT seems to enable the combination of in vivo morphological analysis of cellular and 3-D micro-architectural structures with IV-OP analysis of BCC. This permits BCC sub-differentiation with higher accuracy than in vivo HD-OCT analysis of morphology alone.
Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia
2014-10-01
Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.
Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Orädd, Greger; Bagatolli, Luis
2009-01-01
The composition of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films has evolved to support a complex lateral structure, including segregation of ordered/disordered phases maintained up to physiological temperatures. In this study, we have analyzed the temperature-dependent dynamic properties of native...... surfactant membranes and membranes reconstituted from two surfactant hydrophobic fractions (i.e., all the lipids plus the hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C, or only the total lipid fraction). These preparations show micrometer-sized fluid ordered/disordered phase coexistence, associated with a broad...... from the two types of surfactant hydrophobic extract. These latter results suggest that lipid dynamics are similar in the coexisting fluid phases observed by fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, it is found that surfactant proteins significantly reduce the average intramolecular lipid mobility...
Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment
Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs. The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n=23 performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT, time to achieve it (tPTI, contractile impulse (CI, root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS, and rate of torque development (RTD, in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m, RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s−1versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s−1, and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms. We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Hwang, Pai-An; Hung, Yu-Lan; Phan, Nam Nhut; Hieu, Bui-Thi-Ngoc; Chang, Po-Ming; Li, Kuan-Lun; Lin, Yen-Chang
2016-08-01
Osteoporosis has been reported as a hidden death factor in aged people. So far, prevention and treatment therapies for osteoporosis only slow down the progress but do not treat the disease. Fucoidan has been recognized its roles in anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant and antiviral activities. To date, low molecular weight (LMW) fucoidan role in bone loss disease has been not determined yet. Therefore, this study aims to figure out potential effects of LMW fucoidan in osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo. LMW fucoidan was extracted from fresh Sargassum hemiphyllum showing a significant increase in 7F2 cell viability to 150.33 ± 6.50 % relative to normal fucoidan (130.12 ± 5.74 %). The expression of level BMP-2, ALP, osteocalcin significantly increased with 2.28 ± 0.06, 2.18 ± 0.12 and 2.06 ± 0.07 fold, respectively. The RT-PCR assay showed that LMW fucoidan increased mRNA expression of BMP-2, ALP, osteocalcin, COL I, BSP and osteonectin. Furthermore, the bone density and bone ash weight were considerably boosted by the oral administration of 280 mg/kg LMW fucoidan and 100 mg/kg calcium carbonate in C57BL/6J female aged mice. The present finding indicated that LMW fucoidan triggered osteogenic differentiation in vitro, and had an anabolic effect on bone mineralization in vivo. Dietary intake of LMW fucoidan from S. hemiphyllum suggested playing a role in the enhancement of bone loss with increasing age.
Franck, Thierry; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Robert, Thierry; Ghitti, Gianangelo; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Serteyn, Didier
2013-11-25
We investigated the antioxidant activities of some phenolic acid derivatives on a cell free system and on cellular and enzymatic models involved in inflammation. The stoichiometric antioxidant activities of phenolic acid derivatives were studied by measuring their capacity to scavenge the radical cation 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by stimulated neutrophils. The anticatalytic antioxidant capacity of the molecules was evaluated on the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an oxidant enzyme present in and released by the primary granules of neutrophils. The ROS produced by PMA-stimulated neutrophils were measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and the potential interaction of the molecules with MPO was investigated without interferences due to medium by Specific Immuno-Extraction Followed by Enzyme Detection (SIEFED). The antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds were correlated to their redox potentials measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and discussed in relation to their molecular structure. The ability of the phenolic molecules to scavenge ABTS radicals and ROS derived from neutrophils was inversely correlated to their increased redox potential. The number of hydroxyl groups (three) and their position (catechol) were essential for their efficacy as stoichiometric antioxidants or scavengers. On MPO activity, the inhibitory capacity of the molecules was not really correlated with their redox potential. Likewise, for the inhibition of MPO activity the number of OH groups and mainly the elongation of the carboxylic group were essential, probably by facilitating the interaction with the active site or the structure of the enzyme. The redox potential measurement, combined with ABTS and CL techniques, seems to be a good technique to select stoichiometric antioxidants but not anticatalytic ones, as seen for MPO, what rather involves a direct interaction with
Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.
Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R
2002-11-01
Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...
ON THE SPACES OF THE MAXIMAL POINTS
梁基华; 刘应明
2003-01-01
For a continuous domain D, some characterization that the convex powerdomain CD is adomain hull of Max(CD) is given in terms of compact subsets of D. And in this case, it isproved that the set of the maximal points Max(CD) of CD with the relative Scott topology ishomeomorphic to the set of all Scott compact subsets of Max(D) with the topology induced bythe Hausdorff metric derived from a metric on Max(D) when Max(D) is metrizable.
Understanding of English Contracts though Relation Maxims
XU Chi-ying; JIANG Li-hui
2013-01-01
Contract is the legal evidence of the concerning parties of business. And this lead to its unique characteristics:technical terms, archaism, borrowed words, juxtaposition, and abbreviation. The understanding of contracts is of vital importance for each party, because it concerns the share of interests. In order to avoid ambiguity that some words or sentence in English contracts may lead to, and achieve“best relevance and least effort”of communication, this paper, by applying relation maxim, deeply analyze how to understand English contracts though selection of words, modification, the complexity and simplicity of sentence.
Maximizing results in reconstruction of cheek defects.
Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
2009-07-01
The face is exceedingly important, as it is the medium through which individuals interact with the rest of society. Reconstruction of cheek defects after trauma or surgery is a continuing challenge for surgeons who wish to reliably restore facial function and appearance. Important in aesthetic facial reconstruction are the aesthetic unit principles, by which the face can be divided in central facial units (nose, lips, eyelids) and peripheral facial units (cheeks, forehead, chin). This article summarizes established options for reconstruction of cheek defects and provides an overview of several modifications as well as tips and tricks to avoid complications and maximize aesthetic results.
Maximizing policy learning in international committees
Nedergaard, Peter
2007-01-01
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
Maximally Supersymmetric Planar Yang-Mills Amplitudes at Five Loops
Bern, Z; Johansson, H; Kosower, D A
2007-01-01
We present an ansatz for the planar five-loop four-point amplitude in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of loop integrals. This ansatz exploits the recently observed correspondence between integrals with simple conformal properties and those found in the four-point amplitudes of the theory through four loops. We explain how to identify all such integrals systematically. We make use of generalized unitarity in both four and D dimensions to determine the coefficients of each of these integrals in the amplitude. Maximal cuts, in which we cut all propagators of a given integral, are an especially effective means for determining these coefficients. The set of integrals and coefficients determined here will be useful for computing the five-loop cusp anomalous dimension of the theory which is of interest for non-trivial checks of the AdS/CFT duality conjecture. It will also be useful for checking a conjecture that the amplitudes have an iterative structure allowing for their all-loop resummation, w...
A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings
Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore
2015-11-01
Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density “random-close packing” polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.
Maximizing switching current of superconductor nanowires via improved impedance matching
Zhang, Labao; Yan, Xiachao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Chen, Jian; Kang, Lin; Wu, Peiheng
2017-02-01
The temporary resistance triggered by phase slips will result in the switching of a superconductor nanowire to a permanent normal state, decreasing the switching current. In this letter, we propose an improved impedance matching circuit that releases the transition triggered by phase slips to the load resistor through the radio frequency (RF) port of a bias tee. The transportation properties with different load resistors indicate that the switching current decreases due to the reflection caused by impedance mismatching, and it is maximized by optimized impedance matching. Compared to the same setup without the impedance matching circuit, the switching current was increased from 8.0 μA to 12.2 μA in a niobium nitride nanowire after releasing the temporary transition triggered by phase slips. The leakage process with impedance matching outputs a voltage pulse, which enables the user to directly register the transition triggered by phase slips. The technique for maximizing the switching current has a potential practical application in superconductor devices, and the technique for counting phase slips may be applied to explore the behavior of phase slips.
Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs.
Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank
2016-04-26
Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported.
Yamashita, Nayuta; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Fitzgerald, Emily; Riemenschneider, Andrea; Ungar, Peter S
2016-09-01
Determining the proximate causes of tooth wear remains a major focus of dental study. Here we compare the diets of three ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations and examine how different dietary components may contribute to patterns of wear-related tooth shape. Casts were made from dental impressions collected between 2003 and 2010 from lemurs in the gallery and spiny/mixed forests of the Bezá Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR; Parcels 1 and 2) and the spiny/mixed forests of Tsimanampesotse National Park (TNP), Madagascar. Tooth shape variables (occlusal relief and slope, angularity) were analyzed using dental topographic analysis. Focal observations and food mechanical properties (FMPs: toughness, hardness, elastic modulus) were conducted and tested, respectively, during wet and dry seasons from 2008 to 2012. We found that FMPs correlate with patterns of dental topography in these three populations. Specifically, food toughness and elastic modulus correlate with the dental variables, but hardness does not. Average food toughness and elastic modulus, but not hardness, are highest in BMSR Parcel 2, followed by BMSR Parcel 1 and TNP. Occlusal relief and slope, which serve as proxies for tooth wear, show the greatest wear in Parcel 2 and the least in TNP. Angularity is also more pronounced in TNP. Further, dental topographic patterns correspond to reliance on Tamarindus indica (tamarind) fruit. Both BMSR populations consume tamarind at high frequencies in the dry season, but the fruits are rare at TNP and only occasionally consumed. Thus, high seasonal tamarind consumption and its mechanical values help explain the low dental relief and slope among BMSR lemurs. By investigating the ecology of a single widespread species across a variety of habitats, we have been able to link specific components of diet to patterns of dental topography in this species. This provides a context for interpreting wear-related tooth shape changes more generally, illustrating that
Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting
Gillam, W D
2011-01-01
Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.
Maximal coherence in a generic basis
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2016-12-01
Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.
Symmetry and approximability of submodular maximization problems
Vondrak, Jan
2011-01-01
A number of recent results on optimization problems involving submodular functions have made use of the multilinear relaxation of the problem. These results hold typically in the value oracle model, where the objective function is accessible via a black box returning f(S) for a given S. We present a general approach to deriving inapproximability results in the value oracle model, based on the notion of symmetry gap. Our main result is that for any fixed instance that exhibits a certain symmetry gap in its multilinear relaxation, there is a naturally related class of instances for which a better approximation factor than the symmetry gap would require exponentially many oracle queries. This unifies several known hardness results for submodular maximization, and implies several new ones. In particular, we prove that there is no constant-factor approximation for the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular function over the bases of a matroid. We also provide a closely matching approximation algorithm for...
陶秋香; 刘国林
2014-01-01
The properties and feasibility of L-band differential InSAR for detecting and monitoring mining-induced subsidence were systematically analyzed and demonstrated. The largest monitored subsidence gradient of 7.9×10-3 and magnitude of 91 cm were firstly derived by theoretical derivation. Then, the stronger phase maintaining capacity and weaker sensitivity to minor land subsidence compared with C-band DInSAR were illustrated by phase simulation of the actual mine subsidence. Finally, the data processing procedure of two-pass DInSAR was further refined to accurately observe subsidence of a coalfield of Jining in Northern China using 7 ALOS PALSAR images. The largest monitored subsidence magnitude of 39.22 cm and other properties were better investigated by testing results interpretation and subsidence analysis, and the absolute difference varying from 0.5 mm to 17.9 mm was obtained by comparison with leveling-measured subsidence. All of results show that L-band DInSAR technique can investigate the location, amount, area and other detailed subsidence information with relatively higher accuracy.
Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A
2017-04-01
Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.
Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions
Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, Ontario K1N8M2 (Canada); Zyczkowski, Karol [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2010-07-09
For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.
Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions
Collins, Benoit; Zyczkowski, Karol
2010-01-01
For any graph consisting of $k$ vertices and $m$ edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of $2m$ subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bi-partite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated to a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by thes...
The unique maximal GF-regular submodule of a module.
Abduldaim, Areej M; Chen, Sheng
2013-01-01
An R-module A is called GF-regular if, for each a ∈ A and r ∈ R, there exist t ∈ R and a positive integer n such that r(n)tr(n)a = r(n)a. We proved that each unitary R-module A contains a unique maximal GF-regular submodule, which we denoted by M GF(A). Furthermore, the radical properties of A are investigated; we proved that if A is an R-module and K is a submodule of A, then MGF(K) = K∩M GF(A). Moreover, if A is projective, then MGF(A) is a G-pure submodule of A and MGF(A) = M(R) · A.
Accurate and efficient maximal ball algorithm for pore network extraction
Arand, Frederick; Hesser, Jürgen
2017-04-01
The maximal ball (MB) algorithm is a well established method for the morphological analysis of porous media. It extracts a network of pores and throats from volumetric data. This paper describes structural modifications to the algorithm, while the basic concepts are preserved. Substantial improvements to accuracy and efficiency are achieved as follows: First, all calculations are performed on a subvoxel accurate distance field, and no approximations to discretize balls are made. Second, data structures are simplified to keep memory usage low and improve algorithmic speed. Third, small and reasonable adjustments increase speed significantly. In volumes with high porosity, memory usage is improved compared to classic MB algorithms. Furthermore, processing is accelerated more than three times. Finally, the modified MB algorithm is verified by extracting several network properties from reference as well as real data sets. Runtimes are measured and compared to literature.
Boregowda, Rajeev K; Mi, YiLing; Bu, Hongyin; Baenziger, Jacques U
2005-12-01
We have cloned two GalNAc-4-sulfotransferases, GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2, that transfer sulfate to terminal beta1,4-linked GalNAc. In conjunction with the action of protein-specific beta1,4GalNAc-transferases, GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2 account for the presence of terminal beta1,4-linked GalNAc-4-SO(4) on glycoproteins such as lutropin, thyrotropin (TSH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), carbonic anhydratase-VI (CA-VI), and tenascin-R. GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2 can be distinguished by their differing specificity for oligosaccharide acceptors and temperature lability. The differences in properties have been used to show that the levels of GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2 activity are proportionate to the levels of their respective transcripts. Furthermore, we have found that both transcript and activity levels of GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2 vary widely among different tissues indicating that the regulation of their expression differs. Differences in specificity and the regulation of expression may account for existence of two GalNAc-4-sulfotransferases in vivo. The highest levels of both GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2 transcripts are present in the pituitary of the mouse with multiple cell types that produce glycoproteins terminating with GalNAc-4-SO(4). Genetic ablation of both GalNAc-4-ST1 and GalNAc-4-ST2 may be necessary to alter the pattern and/or extent of sulfate addition to terminal beta1,4GalNAc in tissues such as pituitary.
Heath, Matthew; DeSimone, Jesse C
2016-11-01
The saccade literature has consistently reported that the presentation of a distractor remote to a target increases reaction time (i.e., the remote distractor effect: RDE). As well, some studies have shown that a proximal distractor facilitates saccade reaction time. The lateral inhibition hypothesis attributes the aforementioned findings to the inhibition/facilitation of target selection mechanisms operating in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus (SC). Although the impact of remote and proximal distractors has been extensively examined in the saccade literature, a paucity of work has examined whether such findings generalize to reaching responses, and to our knowledge, no work has directly contrasted reaching RTs for remote and proximal distractors. To that end, the present investigation had participants complete reaches in target only trials (i.e., TO) and when distractors were presented at "remote" (i.e., the opposite visual field) and "proximal" (i.e., the same visual field) locations along the same horizontal meridian as the target. As well, participants reached to the target's veridical (i.e., propointing) and mirror-symmetrical (i.e., antipointing) location. The basis for contrasting pro- and antipointing was to determine whether the distractor's visual- or motor-related activity influence reaching RTs. Results demonstrated that remote and proximal distractors, respectively, increased and decreased reaching RTs and the effect was consistent for pro- and antipointing. Accordingly, results evince that the RDE and the facilitatory effects of a proximal distractor are effector independent and provide behavioral support for the contention that the SC serves as a general target selection mechanism. As well, the comparable distractor-related effects for pro- and antipointing trials indicate that the visual properties of remote and proximal distractors respectively inhibit and facilitate target selection.
李停
2015-01-01
Firm’s R&D strategy selection is relevant to internal and external characteristics,such as com-petition intensity and intellectual property right. Assuming the pursuit of social welfare maximization,the paper builds two-step Cournot duopoly model to analyse how competition intensity and spillover affect firm’s R&D strategy and policy implication. The study finds spillover effect and social welfare are not monotonic relation-·78· ship simply,and reducing IPR protection can enhance social welfare in special circumstance. For the same spillover effect,the higher degree of product differentiation,the higher of social welfare,which supports Schumpeter’s Hypotheses. The paper questions the exsiting universal patent protection system,and suggests that the ideal IPR protection should take market competition and technology characteristic into consideration. The authorities should combine IPR protection with competition policy in order to encourage innovation and im-prove social welfare.%企业R&D策略选择取决于竞争强度与知识溢出效应的大小，知识溢出效应大小又与知识产权保护强度密切相关。建立两阶段双寡头Cournot模型，分析市场竞争程度和知识溢出效应对企业R&D策略选择的影响及其背后的政策含义。研究发现：知识溢出效应高低与社会福利大小不存在简单的一一对应关系。竞争程度高、产品差别化小的行业，强度高的知识产权保护将减弱知识溢出效应和增强企业创新动力；竞争强度低、产品差别化大的行业，较低的知识产权保护有助于知识溢出，并提高社会的总体福利水平。对现行普适的不分行业特质的专利保护期制度提出质疑，并认为理想的知识产权保护期应与市场的竞争程度、技术等行业内外部特征相适应。为鼓励创新、提高社会福利水平，实践中需将知识产权保护和竞争政策有机结合起来，发挥政策合力。
Jianrong Chen; Xiaodan Jiang; Ruxiang Xu; Peng Jin; Yuxi Zou; Lianshu Ding
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: It has been proved by many experimental studies from the aspects of morphology and immunocytochemistry in recent years that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can in vitro induce and differentiate into the cells possessing the properties of nerve cells. But the functions of BMSCs-derived neural stem cells(NSCs) and the differentiated neuron-like cells are still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe whether bone marrow-derived NSCs can secrete norepinephrine (NE) under the condition of in vitro culture, induce and differentiation, and analyze the biochemical properties of BMSCs-derived NSCs.DESIGN: A non-randomized and controlled experimental observation.SETTING: Institute of Neuromedicine of Chinese PLA, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the Institute of Neuromedicine of Chinese PLA, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University. The bone marrow used in the experiment was collected from 1.5-month-old healthy New Zealand white rabbits.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Institute of Neuromedicine of Chinese PLA, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University. The bone marrow used in the experiment was collected from 1.5 month-old healthy New Zealand white rabbits. BMSCs of rabbits were isolated and performed in vitro culture, induce and differentiation with culture medium of NSCs and differentiation-inducing factor, then identified with immunocy-tochemical method. Experimental grouping: ①Negative control group: L-02 hepatic cell and RPMI1640 culture medium were used. ② Background culture group: Only culture medium of NSCs as culture solution was added into BMSCs to perform culture, and 0.1 volume fraction of imported fetal bovine serum was supplemented 72 hours later. ③Differentiation inducing factor group: After culture for 72 hours, retinoic acid and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors were added in the culture medium of BMSCs and NSCs as corresponding inducing factors. The
Maximal hypersurfaces and foliations of constant mean curvature in general relativity
Marsden, Jerrold E.; Tipler, Frank J.
1980-12-01
We prove theorems on existence, uniqueness and smoothness of maximal and constant mean curvature compact spacelike hypersurfaces in globally hyperbolic spacetimes. The uniqueness theorem for maximal hypersurfaces of Brill and Flaherty, which assumed matter everywhere, is extended to spacetimes that are vacuum and non-flat or that satisfy a generic-type condition. In this connection we show that under general hypotheses, a spatially closed universe with a maximal hypersurface must be Wheeler universe; i.e. be closed in time as well. The existence of Lipschitz achronal maximal volume hypersurfaces under the hypothesis that candidate hypersurfaces are bounded away from the singularity is proved. This hypothesis is shown to be valid in two cases of interest: when the singularities are of strong curvature type, and when the singularity is a single ideal point. Some properties of these maximal volume hypersurfaces and difficulties with Avez' original arguments are discussed. The difficulties involve the possibility that the maximal volume hypersurface can be null on certain portions; we present an incomplete argument which suggests that these hypersurfaces are always smooth, but prove that an a priori bound on the second fundamental form does imply smoothness. An extension of the perturbation theorem of Choquet-Bruhat, Fischer and Marsden is given and conditions under which local foliations by constant mean curvature hypersurfaces can be extended to global ones is obtained.
Bradley Whitehead
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Exosomes have been implicated in tumour progression and metastatic spread. Little is known of the effect of mechanical and innate immune interactions of malignant cell-derived exosomes on endothelial integrity, which may relate to increased extravasation of circulating tumour cells and, therefore, increased metastatic spread. Methods: Exosomes isolated from non-malignant immortalized HCV-29 and isogenic malignant non-metastatic T24 and malignant metastatic FL3 bladder cells were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis and quantitative nanomechanical mapping atomic force microscopy (QNM AFM to determine size and nanomechanical properties. Effect of HCV-29, T24 and FL3 exosomes on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayer integrity was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER measurements and transport was determined by flow cytometry. Complement activation studies in human serum of malignant and non-malignant cell-derived exosomes were performed. Results: FL3, T24 and HCV-29 cells produced exosomes at similar concentration per cell (6.64, 6.61 and 6.46×104 exosomes per cell for FL3, T24 and HCV-29 cells, respectively and of similar size (120.2 nm for FL3, 127.6 nm for T24 and 117.9 nm for HCV-29, respectively. T24 and FL3 cell-derived exosomes exhibited a markedly reduced stiffness, 95 MPa and 280 MPa, respectively, compared with 1,527 MPa with non-malignant HCV-29 cell-derived exosomes determined by QNM AFM. FL3 and T24 exosomes induced endothelial disruption as measured by a decrease in TEER in HUVEC monolayers, whereas no effect was observed for HCV-29 derived exosomes. FL3 and T24 exosomes traffic more readily (11.6 and 21.4% of applied exosomes, respectively across HUVEC monolayers than HCV-29 derived exosomes (7.2% of applied exosomes. Malignant cell-derived exosomes activated complement through calcium-sensitive pathways in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions: Malignant
Mathematical analysis differentiation and integration
Aramanovich, IG; Lyusternik, LA; Sneddon, I N
1965-01-01
Mathematical Analysis: Differentiation and Integration is devoted to two basic operations of mathematical analysis, differentiation and integration. The problems directly connected with the operations of differentiation and integration of functions of one or several variables are discussed, together with elementary generalizations of these operations. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins by considering the differentiation of functions of one variable and of n variables, paying particular attention to derivatives and differentials as well as their properties. The next chapter d
On Maximal and Minimal Fuzzy Sets in I-Topological Spaces
Samer Al Ghour
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of maximal fuzzy open sets is introduced. Some basic properties and relationships regarding this notion and other notions of I-topology are given. Moreover, some deep results concerning the known minimal fuzzy open sets concept are given.
Maximally Minimal Preons in Four Dimensions
Grover, J; Sabra, W A; Grover, Jai; Gutowski, Jan B.; Sabra, Wafic A.
2006-01-01
Killing spinors of N=2, D=4 supergravity are examined using the spinorial geometry method, in which spinors are written as differential forms. Using this method, we show that there are no exactly 3/4 supersymmetric solutions of minimal N=2, D=4 gauged supergravity.
On maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories
Movshev, M
2004-01-01
We consider ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (10D SUSY YM theory) and its dimensional reductions, in particular, BFSS and IKKT models. We formulate these theories using algebraic techniques based on application of differential graded Lie algebras and associative algebras as well as of more general objects, L_{\\infty}- and A_{\\infty}- algebras. We show that using pure spinor formulation of 10D SUSY YM theory equations of motion and isotwistor formalism one can interpret these equations as Maurer-Cartan equations for some differential Lie algebra. This statement can be used to write BV action functional of 10D SUSY YM theory in Chern-Simons form. The differential Lie algebra we constructed is closely related to differential associative algebra Omega of (0, k)-forms on some supermanifold; the Lie algebra is tensor product of Omega and matrix algebra . We construct several other algebras that are quasiisomorphic to Omega and, therefore, also can be used to give BV formulation of 10D SUSY YM theory...
Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem
Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2000-01-01
Topology optimization is used to optimize the eigenvalues of plates. The results are intended especially for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) but call be seen as more general. The problem is not formulated as a case of reinforcement of an existing structure, so there is a problem related...... to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...... is a practical MEMS application; a probe used in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the AFM probe the optimization is complicated by a constraint on the stiffness and constraints on higher order eigenvalues....
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André da Conceição Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André Da Conceiçao Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces
Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B
2011-01-01
The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...
Greedy Maximal Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Li, Qiao
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks, i.e., the schedules are computed by adding links greedily based on some priority vector. Two special cases are considered: 1) Longest Queue First (LQF) scheduling, where the priorities are computed using queue lengths, and 2) Static Priority (SP) scheduling, where the priorities are pre-assigned. We first propose a closed-form lower bound stability region for LQF scheduling, and discuss the tightness result in some scenarios. We then propose an lower bound stability region for SP scheduling with multiple priority vectors, as well as a heuristic priority assignment algorithm, which is related to the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance gain of the proposed heuristic algorithm is finally confirmed by simulations.
Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection
Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA
2016-01-01
MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.
A New Biflavone from Selaginella pulvinata Maxim
XU Kang-Ping; XU Zhi; DENG Yin-Hua; LI Fu-Shuang; ZHOU Ying-Jun; HU Gao-Yun; TAN Gui-Shan
2003-01-01
@@ Selaginella pulvinata Maxim. distributes all over the country of China and is used for the treatment for haemor rhage. [1] We studied on the chemical constituents of S. pulvinata in order to find the active compounds. Dried stems and leaves of S. pulvinata (6.5 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol twice. The extract was evaporated under vacuum and than suspended in water, extracted with petroleum and EtOAc sequentially. The EtOAc extract was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with CHCl3-MeOH. As a result, a novel biflavone, named pulvinatabiflavone, was obtained from fractions 75 ～ 78. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 5,5″, 4′″ trihydroxy-7,7″-dimethoxy-[4′-O-6″]-biflavone (compound 1).
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2015-01-01
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.
Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam
2009-07-01
Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.
The Radial Masa in a Free Group Factor is Maximal Injective
Cameron, Jan; Ravichandran, Mohan; White, Stuart
2008-01-01
The radial (or Laplacian) masa in a free group factor is the abelian von Neumann algebra generated by the sum of the generators (of the free group) and their inverses. The main result of this paper is that the radial masa is a maximal injective von Neumann subalgebra of a free group factor. We establish this result by showing that sequences centralising the radial masa have an orthogonality property in the ultrapower, using a basis introduced by R\\u{a}dulescu. We also investigate tensor products of maximal injective algebras. Given two inclusions $B_i\\subset M_i$ of type $\\mathrm{I}$ von Neumann algebras in finite von Neumann algebras such that each $B_i$ is maximal injective in $M_i$, we show that the tensor product $B_1 \\vnotimes B_2$ is maximal injective in $M_1 \\vnotimes M_2$ provided at least one of the inclusions satisfies the asymptotic orthogonality property we establish for the radial masa. In particular it follows that finite tensor products of generator and radial masas will be maximal injective in...
Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben
2016-01-01
A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…
From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin
Eliazar, Iddo
2014-12-01
The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.
THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC
Amir GANJİ
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.
Maximal elements of non necessarily acyclic binary relations
Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza Martínez
1992-01-01
The existence of maximal elements for binary preference relations is analyzed without imposing transitivity or convexity conditions. From each preference relation a new acyclic relation is defined in such a way that some maximal elements of this new relation characterize maximal elements of the original one. The result covers the case whereby the relation is acyclic.
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)
Maximal Attractors for the m-Dimensional Cahn-Hilliard System
Wei Nian ZHANG
2004-01-01
In this paper we discuss maximal attractors of the m-dimensional Cahn-Hilliard System in the product spaces (L2(Ω))m and (H2(Ω))m in terms of D. Henry's general theory and from the viewpoint of compactness and absorptivity of semigroups as R. Temam did. After giving the existence and uniqueness of global solutions, we technically restrict our discussion to some subspaces, give estimates with a new graph norm, and obtain the existence of maximal attractors and some properties of them.
Solutions of Maximal Compatible Granules and Approximations in Rough Set Models
Chen Wu,
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract—This paper emphasizes studying on a new method to rough set theory by obtaining granules with maximal compatible classes as primitive ones in which any two objects are mutually compatible, proposes the upper and lower approximation computations to extend rough set models for further building multi-granulation rough set theory in incomplete information systems, discusses the properties and relationships of granules and approximations, designs algorithms to solve maximal compatible classes, the lower and upper approximations. It verifies the correctness of algorithms by an example.
Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.
Luan, Mo; Li, Hong
2017-05-01
The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.
Leung, Chui-Fan; Chow, Hak-Fun
2017-02-14
Two isomeric bottlebrush polyamides P-1 and A-1 having the same repeating monomer dipole units aligned along the polymer backbone in pseudo-parallel and pseudo-anti-parallel, respectively, were synthesized and characterized. Both polymers can form thermoreversible gels with aromatic solvents but P-1 was found to show inferior gelation strength as compared to that of A-1. Furthermore, despite their close structural resemblance, a 1:1 mixture of the P-1 and A-1 polymers was shown to exhibit self-sorting in the gel state. Gel formation was found to be a kinetically trapped process via H-bonding, π-π stacking interactions and side chain interdigitation. The differential gelation and self-sorting properties can be explained by the local dipole-dipole interactions originated from the different modes of backbone dipole alignment. In single gel systems, the antiparallel-aligned dipoles in A-1 facilitated a more compact molecular packing due to the enthalpically more favorable polymer chain association. On the other hand, the parallel-aligned dipoles in P-1 gave rise to a less stable head-to-head packing, which had difficulties to convert to the more stable head-to-tail packing in a kinetically trapped environment. In the mixed gel system, it is the unfavorable hetero-polymer mismatch dipole-dipole interaction that inhibited the mixing of the A-1 and P-1 polymers and led to self-sorting.
Putlyaeva, Lidia V.; Demin, Denis E.; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Fridman, Marina V.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Kuprash, Dmitry V.; Schwartz, Anton M.
2017-01-01
We studied functional effect of rs12722489 single nucleotide polymorphism located in the first intron of human IL2RA gene on transcriptional regulation. This polymorphism is associated with multiple autoimmune conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis). Analysis in silico suggested significant difference in the affinity of estrogen receptor (ER) binding site between alternative allelic variants, with stronger predicted affinity for the risk (G) allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that purified human ERα bound only G variant of a 32-bp genomic sequence containing rs12722489. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that endogenous human ERα interacted with rs12722489 genomic region in vivo and DNA pull-down assay confirmed differential allelic binding of amplified 189-bp genomic fragments containing rs12722489 with endogenous human ERα. In a luciferase reporter assay, a kilobase-long genomic segment containing G but not A allele of rs12722489 demonstrated enhancer properties in MT-2 cell line, an HTLV-1 transformed human cell line with a regulatory T cell phenotype. PMID:28234966
Effects of Core-Musculature Fatigue on Maximal Shoulder Strength.
Rosemeyer, James R; Hayes, Bradley T; Switzler, Craig L; Hicks-Little, Charlie A
2015-11-01
Core stability has been shown to affect lower-extremity motion, but activation of the core has also been observed just before movements of the upper extremity. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effects that core musculature has on upper-extremity strength. To determine the effects of core fatigue on maximal shoulder strength. Crossover study. Sports-medicine research laboratory. 23 participants (15 male and 8 female, age 21.3 ± 2.5 y, height 174.5 ± 10.3 cm, weight 71.3 ± 12.0 kg). All participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions in 3 different planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse) of shoulder-joint motion. A core-fatiguing protocol was conducted, and the same 3 shoulder-strength tests were repeated and compared with the initial measurements. Strength measures were recorded in kilograms with a dynamometer. Results showed a significant decrease in strength in the frontal (-0.56 ± 1.06 kg, P = .020) and transverse (-0.89 ± 1.49 kg, P = .012) planes but not in the sagittal plane (-0.20 ± 0.98 kg, P > .05). Furthermore, regardless of the specific strength test measured, results revealed that the 1st (-7.05% ± 11.65%, P = .012) and 2nd (-5.71% ± 12.03%, P = .042) strength-test measurements after the fatiguing protocol were significantly decreased, while the 3rd strength-test measurement (-4.19% ± 12.48%, P = .140) did not show statistical significance. These results indicate that decrease in core stability may have an influence on shoulder strength. The literature suggests that the core is designed for endurance, and this study helps validate its recovery properties. Further research is needed to determine the significance of this effect and how injury rates coincide.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption is Reduced in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice
Samer Al-Samir
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We have measured maximal oxygen consumption (V’O2,max of mice lacking one or two of the established mouse red-cell CO2 channels AQP1, AQP9 and Rhag. We intended to study whether these proteins, by acting as channels for O2, determine O2 exchange in the lung and in the periphery. We found that V’O2,max as determined by the Helox technique is reduced by ~ 16%, when AQP1 is knocked out, but not when AQP9 or Rhag are lacking. This figure holds for animals respiring normoxic as well as hypoxic gas mixtures. To see whether the reduction of V’O2,max is due to impaired O2 uptake in the lung, we measured carotid arterial O2 saturation (SO2 by pulse oximetry. Neither under normoxic (inspiratory O2 21% nor under hypoxic conditions (11% O2 is there a difference in SO2 between AQP1null and WT mice, suggesting that AQP1 is not critical for O2 uptake in the lung. The fact that the % reduction of V’O2,max is identical in normoxia and hypoxia indicates moreover that the limitation of V’O2,max is not due to an O2 diffusion problem, neither in the lung nor in the periphery. Instead, it appears likely that AQP1null animals exhibit a reduced V’O2,max due to the reduced wall thickness and muscle mass of the left ventricles of their hearts, as reported previously. We conclude that very likely the properties of the hearts of AQP1 knockout mice cause a reduced maximal cardiac output and thus cause a reduced V’O2,max, which constitutes a new phenotype of these mice.
EXPLANATORY VARIANCE IN MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE
Jacalyn J. Robert McComb
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females, ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants' head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF, height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27 of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2014-03-01
Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Network channel allocation and revenue maximization
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Armin Töpfer
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children
Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide
2017-01-01
[Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644
Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.
Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A
2014-03-01
Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo.
Bell diagonal states with maximal abelian symmetry
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2010-01-01
We provide a simple class of 2-qudit states for which one is able to formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for separability. As a byproduct we generalize well known construction provided by Horodecki et al. for d=3. It is hoped that these states with known separability/entanglement properties may be used to test various notions in entanglement theory.
Universally Utility-Maximizing Privacy Mechanisms
Ghosh, Arpita; Sundararajan, Mukund
2008-01-01
A mechanism for releasing information about a statistical database with sensitive data must resolve a trade-off between utility and privacy. Privacy can be rigorously quantified using the framework of {\\em differential privacy}, which requires that a mechanism's output distribution is nearly the same (in a strong sense) whether or not a given database row is included or excluded. In this paper, we pursue much strong and general utility guarantees. We seek a mechanism that guarantees near-optimal utility to every potential user, independent of its side information. Formally, we model the side information of a potential user as a prior distribution over query results. An interaction between a user and a mechanism induces a posterior distribution, and we define the utility of the mechanism for this user as the accuracy of this posterior, as quantified via a user-specific loss function. A differentially private mechanism $M$ is (near-)optimal for a given user $u$ if $u$ derives (almost) as much utility from $M$ a...
Hyponormal differential operators with discrete spectrum
Zameddin I. Ismailov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we first describe all the maximal hyponormal extensions of a minimal operator generated by a linear differential-operator expression of the first-order in the Hilbert space of vector-functions in a finite interval. Next, we investigate the discreteness of the spectrum and the asymptotical behavior of the modules of the eigenvalues for these maximal hyponormal extensions.
Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs
无
2000-01-01
Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.
Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets
Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda
2009-03-01
The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.
Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes
Parker, Andrew M.; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Bell diagonal states with maximal Abelian symmetry
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2010-12-01
We provide a simple class of 2-qudit states for which one is able to formulate necessary and sufficient conditions for separability. As a by-product, we generalize the well-known construction provided by Horodecki [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1056 82, 1056 (1999)] for d=3. It is hoped that these states with known separability and entanglement properties may be used to test various notions in entanglement theory.
Sums of magnetic eigenvalues are maximal on rotationally symmetric domains
Laugesen, Richard S; Roy, Arindam
2011-01-01
The sum of the first n energy levels of the planar Laplacian with constant magnetic field of given total flux is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, under normalization of the ratio (moment of inertia)/(area)^3 on the domain. The result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, with an analogue for Robin (or de Gennes) boundary conditions too. The square similarly maximizes the eigenvalue sum among parallelograms, and the disk maximizes among ellipses. More generally, a domain with rotational symmetry will maximize the magnetic eigenvalue sum among all linear images of that domain. These results are new even for the ground state energy (n=1).
Stochastic partial differential equations
Chow, Pao-Liu
2014-01-01
Preliminaries Introduction Some Examples Brownian Motions and Martingales Stochastic Integrals Stochastic Differential Equations of Itô Type Lévy Processes and Stochastic IntegralsStochastic Differential Equations of Lévy Type Comments Scalar Equations of First Order Introduction Generalized Itô's Formula Linear Stochastic Equations Quasilinear Equations General Remarks Stochastic Parabolic Equations Introduction Preliminaries Solution of Stochastic Heat EquationLinear Equations with Additive Noise Some Regularity Properties Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Equations Parabolic Equations with Grad
Differential topology an introduction
Gauld, David B
2006-01-01
Offering classroom-proven results, Differential Topology presents an introduction to point set topology via a naive version of nearness space. Its treatment encompasses a general study of surgery, laying a solid foundation for further study and greatly simplifying the classification of surfaces.This self-contained treatment features 88 helpful illustrations. Its subjects include topological spaces and properties, some advanced calculus, differentiable manifolds, orientability, submanifolds and an embedding theorem, and tangent spaces. Additional topics comprise vector fields and integral curv
Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors
Pedro Caruso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9% presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049. There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
Parametric image alignment using enhanced correlation coefficient maximization.
Evangelidis, Georgios D; Psarakis, Emmanouil Z
2008-10-01
In this work we propose the use of a modified version of the correlation coefficient as a performance criterion for the image alignment problem. The proposed modification has the desirable characteristic of being invariant with respect to photometric distortions. Since the resulting similarity measure is a nonlinear function of the warp parameters, we develop two iterative schemes for its maximization, one based on the forward additive approach and the second on the inverse compositional method. As it is customary in iterative optimization, in each iteration, the nonlinear objective function is approximated by an alternative expression for which the corresponding optimization is simple. In our case we propose an efficient approximation that leads to a closed-form solution (per iteration) which is of low computational complexity, the latter property being particularly strong in our inverse version. The proposed schemes are tested against the Forward Additive Lucas-Kanade and the Simultaneous Inverse Compositional (SIC) algorithm through simulations. Under noisy conditions and photometric distortions, our forward version achieves more accurate alignments and exhibits faster convergence whereas our inverse version has similar performance as the SIC algorithm but at a lower computational complexity.
The Maximal Runaway Temperature of Earth-like Planets
Shaviv, Nir J; Wehrse, Rainer
2012-01-01
We generalize the problem of the semi-gray model to cases in which a non-negligible fraction of the stellar radiation falls on the long-wavelength range, and/or that the planetary long-wavelength emission penetrates into the transparent short wavelength domain of the absorption. Second, applying the most general assumptions and independently of any particular properties of an absorber, we show that the greenhouse effect saturates and any Earth-like planet has a maximal temperature which depends on the type of and distance to its main-sequence star, its albedo and the primary atmospheric components which determine the cutoff frequency below which the atmosphere is optically thick. For example, a hypothetical convection-less planet similar to Venus, that is optically thin in the visible, could have at most a surface temperature of 1200-1300K irrespective of the nature of the greenhouse gas. We show that two primary mechanisms are responsible for the saturation of the runaway greenhouse effect, depending on the ...
Automated quantum conductance calculations using maximally-localised Wannier functions
Shelley, Matthew; Mostofi, Arash A; Marzari, Nicola
2011-01-01
A robust, user-friendly, and automated method to determine quantum conductance in disordered quasi-one-dimensional systems is presented. The scheme relies upon an initial density- functional theory calculation in a specific geometry after which the ground-state eigenfunctions are transformed to a maximally-localised Wannier function (MLWF) basis. In this basis, our novel algorithms manipulate and partition the Hamiltonian for the calculation of coherent electronic transport properties within the Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Furthermore, we describe how short- ranged Hamiltonians in the MLWF basis can be combined to build model Hamiltonians of large (>10,000 atom) disordered systems without loss of accuracy. These automated algorithms have been implemented in the Wannier90 code[Mostofi et al, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 685 (2008)], which is interfaced to a number of electronic structure codes such as Quantum-ESPRESSO, AbInit, Wien2k, SIESTA and FLEUR. We apply our methods to an Al atomic chain with a Na defect...
Network architecture underlying maximal separation of neuronal representations
Ron A Jortner
2013-01-01
Full Text Available One of the most basic and general tasks faced by all nervous systems is extracting relevant information from the organism’s surrounding world. While physical signals available to sensory systems are often continuous, variable, overlapping and noisy, high-level neuronal representations used for decision-making tend to be discrete, specific, invariant, and highly separable. This study addresses the question of how neuronal specificity is generated. Inspired by experimental findings on network architecture in the olfactory system of the locust, I construct a highly simplified theoretical framework which allows for analytic solution of its key properties. For generalized feed-forward systems, I show that an intermediate range of connectivity values between source- and target-populations leads to a combinatorial explosion of wiring possibilities, resulting in input spaces which are, by their very nature, exquisitely sparsely populated. In particular, connection probability ½, as found in the locust antennal-lobe–mushroom-body circuit, serves to maximize separation of neuronal representations across the target Kenyon-cells, and explains their specific and reliable responses. This analysis yields a function expressing response specificity in terms of lower network-parameters; together with appropriate gain control this leads to a simple neuronal algorithm for generating arbitrarily sparse and selective codes and linking network architecture and neural coding. I suggest a way to easily construct ecologically meaningful representations from this code.
Maximal aggregation of polynomial dynamical systems.
Cardelli, Luca; Tribastone, Mirco; Tschaikowski, Max; Vandin, Andrea
2017-09-19
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with polynomial derivatives are a fundamental tool for understanding the dynamics of systems across many branches of science, but our ability to gain mechanistic insight and effectively conduct numerical evaluations is critically hindered when dealing with large models. Here we propose an aggregation technique that rests on two notions of equivalence relating ODE variables whenever they have the same solution (backward criterion) or if a self-consistent system can be written for describing the evolution of sums of variables in the same equivalence class (forward criterion). A key feature of our proposal is to encode a polynomial ODE system into a finitary structure akin to a formal chemical reaction network. This enables the development of a discrete algorithm to efficiently compute the largest equivalence, building on approaches rooted in computer science to minimize basic models of computation through iterative partition refinements. The physical interpretability of the aggregation is shown on polynomial ODE systems for biochemical reaction networks, gene regulatory networks, and evolutionary game theory.
Beginning partial differential equations
O'Neil, Peter V
2011-01-01
A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres
BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR SECOND ORDER IMPULSIVE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
无
2006-01-01
The author employs the method of upper and lower solutions together with the monotone iterative technique to obtain the existence theorem of minimal and maximal solutions for a boundary value problem of second order impulsive differential equation.
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.
2012-01-01
We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.
The Negative Consequences of Maximizing in Friendship Selection.
Newman, David B; Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Yamada, Junko; Nezlek, John B
2017-02-27
Previous studies have shown that the maximizing orientation, reflecting a motivation to select the best option among a given set of choices, is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. In the present studies, we examined whether these relationships extend to friendship selection and how the number of options for friends moderated these effects. Across 5 studies, maximizing in selecting friends was negatively related to life satisfaction, positive affect, and self-esteem, and was positively related to negative affect and regret. In Study 1, a maximizing in selecting friends scale was created, and regret mediated the relationships between maximizing and well-being. In a naturalistic setting in Studies 2a and 2b, the tendency to maximize among those who participated in the fraternity and sorority recruitment process was negatively related to satisfaction with their selection, and positively related to regret and negative affect. In Study 3, daily levels of maximizing were negatively related to daily well-being, and these relationships were mediated by daily regret. In Study 4, we extended the findings to samples from the U.S. and Japan. When participants who tended to maximize were faced with many choices, operationalized as the daily number of friends met (Study 3) and relational mobility (Study 4), the opportunities to regret a decision increased and further diminished well-being. These findings imply that, paradoxically, attempts to maximize when selecting potential friends is detrimental to one's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s
Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks
T. Kleinow; A. Pelsser
2008-01-01
We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a solv
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
On a discrete version of Tanaka's theorem for maximal functions
Bober, Jonathan; Hughes, Kevin; Pierce, Lillian B
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove a discrete version of Tanaka's Theorem \\cite{Ta} for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in dimension $n=1$, both in the non-centered and centered cases. For the discrete non-centered maximal operator $\\wM $ we prove that, given a function $f: \\Z \\to \\R$ of bounded variation,
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass
Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers
V. Krizhanovski
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.
CHROMATIC NUMBER OF SQUARE OF MAXIMAL OUTERPLANAR GRAPHS
Luo Xiaofang
2007-01-01
Let χ(G2) denote the chromatic number of the square of a maximal outerplanar graph G and Q denote a maximal outerplanar graph obtained by adding three chords and χ(G2) = Δ + 2 if and only if G is Q, where Δ represents the maximum degree of G.
SAR image target segmentation based on entropy maximization and morphology
柏正尧; 刘洲峰; 何佩琨
2004-01-01
Entropy maximization thresholding is a simple, effective image segmentation method. The relation between the histogram entropy and the gray level of an image is analyzed. An approach, which speeds the computation of optimal threshold based on entropy maximization, is proposed. The suggested method has been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image targets segmentation. Mathematical morphology works well in reducing the residual noise.
Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.
Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.
1982-01-01
To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)
Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping?--A simulation study.
Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bobbert, Maarten F; Casius, L J Richard; De Clercq, Dirk
2008-02-01
This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with a forward dynamic musculo-skeletal model. This model consisted of four interconnected rigid segments, actuated by six Hill-type muscle actuators. The only independent input of the model was the stimulation of muscles as a function of time. This input was optimized using an objective function, in which targeting a specific sub-maximal height value was combined with minimizing the amount of muscle work produced. The characteristic changes in motion pattern observed in humans jumping to different target heights were reproduced by the model. As the target height was lowered, two major changes occurred in the motion pattern. First, the countermovement amplitude was reduced; this helped to save energy because of reduced dissipation and regeneration of energy in the contractile elements. Second, the contribution of rotation of the heavy proximal segments of the lower limbs to the vertical velocity of the centre of gravity at take-off was less; this helped to save energy because of reduced ineffective rotational energies at take-off. The simulations also revealed that, with the observed movement adaptations, muscle work was reduced through improved relative use of the muscle's elastic properties in sub-maximal jumping. According to the results of the simulations, the stereotyped motion pattern observed in sub-maximal jumping is consistent with the idea that in sub-maximal jumping, subjects are trying to achieve the targeted jump height with minimal energy expenditure.
Zhengxing LI; Jinke HAI
2013-01-01
Recall that a subgroup H of a finite group G is called a TI-subgroup if H ∩ Hg =1or H for each g ∈ G.Suppose that G is a finite group whose second maximal subgroups are TI-subgroups.It is shown that every class-preserving Coleman automorphism of G is an inner automorphism.As an immediate consequence of this result,we obtain that the normalizer property holds for G.
Asymptotically false-positive-maximizing attack on non-binary Tardos codes
Simone, Antonino
2011-01-01
We use a method recently introduced by Simone and Skoric to study accusation probabilities for non-binary Tardos fingerprinting codes. We generalize the pre-computation steps in this approach to include a broad class of collusion attack strategies. We analytically derive properties of a special attack that asymptotically maximizes false accusation probabilities. We present numerical results on sufficient code lengths for this attack, and explain the abrupt transitions that occur in these results.
Maximal abelian and Curci-Ferrari gauges in momentum subtraction at three loops
Bell, J M
2015-01-01
The vertex structure of QCD fixed in the maximal abelian gauge (MAG) and Curci-Ferrari gauge is analysed at two loops at the fully symmetric point for the 3-point functions corresponding to the three momentum subtraction (MOM) renormalization schemes. Consequently the three loop renormalization group functions are determined for each of these three schemes in each gauge using properties of the renormalization group equation.
Bär, Christian
2014-01-01
Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.
Maximizing the usefulness of food microbiology research.
Roberts, T A
1997-01-01
Funding for food microbiology research often follows disease outbreaks: botulism from vacuum-packed white-fish chubs, listeriosis from soft cheeses, or illness due to Salmonella Enteritidis or Escherichia coli. As a consequence of research, detection, identification, and subtyping methods improve, and more is learned about pathogenicity and virulence. Research also explores the organisms' capacity to multiply or survive in food and to be killed by established or novel processes. However, rarely is there a critical overview of progress or trustworthy statements of generally agreed-on facts. That information is not maintained in a form that can readily be used by regulatory departments and the food industry to ensure a safe food supply. A centralized system is urgently needed that is accessible electronically and carries information in a standardized format on the essential properties of the organisms, including pathogenicity, methods of detection, enumeration and identification, alternative prevention and control methods, and growth and survival characteristics.
Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro
Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi
2012-12-01
To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-ɛ-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.
On the maximal efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
Leiderschneider, Elly
2015-01-01
The center of mass (CM) energy in a collisional Penrose process - a collision taking place within the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole - can diverge under suitable extreme conditions (maximal Kerr, near horizon collision and suitable impact parameters). We present an analytic expression for the CM energy, refining expressions given in the literature. Even though the CM energy diverges, we show that the maximal energy attained by a particle that escapes the black hole's gravitational pull and reaches infinity is modest. We obtain an analytic expression for the energy of an escaping particle resulting from a collisional Penrose process, and apply it to derive the maximal energy and the maximal efficiency for several physical scenarios: pair annihilation, Compton scattering, and the elastic scattering of two massive particles. In all physically reasonable cases (in which the incident particles initially fall from infinity towards the black hole) the maximal energy (and the corresponding efficiency) are only one o...
Poker, Gilad; Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir
2014-11-06
Translation is an important stage in gene expression. During this stage, macro-molecules called ribosomes travel along the mRNA strand linking amino acids together in a specific order to create a functioning protein. An important question, related to many biomedical disciplines, is how to maximize protein production. Indeed, translation is known to be one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell, and it is natural to assume that evolution shaped this process so that it maximizes the protein production rate. If this is indeed so then one can estimate various parameters of the translation machinery by solving an appropriate mathematical optimization problem. The same problem also arises in the context of synthetic biology, namely, re-engineer heterologous genes in order to maximize their translation rate in a host organism. We consider the problem of maximizing the protein production rate using a computational model for translation-elongation called the ribosome flow model (RFM). This model describes the flow of the ribosomes along an mRNA chain of length n using a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It also includes n + 1 positive parameters: the ribosomal initiation rate into the mRNA chain, and n elongation rates along the chain sites. We show that the steady-state translation rate in the RFM is a strictly concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of maximizing the translation rate under a suitable constraint always admits a unique solution, and that this solution can be determined using highly efficient algorithms for solving convex optimization problems even for large values of n. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimal translation rate can be computed based only on the optimal initiation rate and the elongation rate of the codons near the beginning of the ORF. We discuss some applications of the theoretical results to synthetic biology, molecular evolution, and functional genomics.
Lingxin Wang
Full Text Available β subunits of mammalian sodium channels play important roles in modulating the expression and gating of mammalian sodium channels. However, there are no orthologs of β subunits in insects. Instead, an unrelated protein, TipE in Drosophila melanogaster and its orthologs in other insects, is thought to be a sodium channel auxiliary subunit. In addition, there are four TipE-homologous genes (TEH1-4 in D. melanogaster and three to four orthologs in other insect species. TipE and TEH1-3 have been shown to enhance the peak current of various insect sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, limited information is available on how these proteins modulate the gating of sodium channels, particularly sodium channel variants generated by alternative splicing and RNA editing. In this study, we compared the effects of TEH1 and TipE on the function of three Drosophila sodium channel splice variants, DmNav9-1, DmNav22, and DmNav26, in Xenopus oocytes. Both TipE and TEH1 enhanced the amplitude of sodium current and accelerated current decay of all three sodium channels tested. Strikingly, TEH1 caused hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage-dependence of activation, fast inactivation and slow inactivation of all three variants. In contrast, TipE did not alter these gating properties except for a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation of DmNav26. Further analysis of the gating kinetics of DmNav9-1 revealed that TEH1 accelerated the entry of sodium channels into the fast inactivated state and slowed the recovery from both fast- and slow-inactivated states, thereby, enhancing both fast and slow inactivation. These results highlight the differential effects of TipE and TEH1 on the gating of insect sodium channels and suggest that TEH1 may play a broader role than TipE in regulating sodium channel function and neuronal excitability in vivo.
Two Notes on Numerical Differentiation Formulae
ZHENG Hua-sheng
2012-01-01
Some new conclusions on asymptotic properties and inverse problems of numerical differentiation formulae have been drawn in this paper.In the first place,several asymptotic properties of intermediate points of numerical differentiation formulae are presented by using Taylor's formula.And then,based on the ideas of algebraic accuracy,several inverse problems of numerical differentiation formulae are given.
Berthon, P; Fellmann, N
2002-09-01
The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.
Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M
2017-01-01
Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals
Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim
sajjad rahmatian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.
Muscle Damage following Maximal Eccentric Knee Extensions in Males and Females.
K M Hicks
Full Text Available To investigate whether there is a sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage.Vastus Lateralis and patella tendon properties were measured in males and females using ultrasonography. During maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions (12 reps x 6 sets, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions torque were recorded every 10° of knee joint angle (20-90°. Isometric torque, Creatine Kinase and muscle soreness were measured pre, post, 48, 96 and 168 hours post damage as markers of exercise induced muscle damage.Patella tendon stiffness and Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening were significantly higher in males compared to females (p0.05. Creatine Kinase levels post exercise induced muscle damage were higher in males compared to females (p<0.05, and remained higher when maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, relative to estimated quadriceps anatomical cross sectional area, was taken as a covariate (p<0.05.Based on isometric torque loss, there is no sex difference in exercise induced muscle damage. The higher Creatine Kinase in males could not be explained by differences in maximal voluntary eccentric knee extension torque, Vastus Lateralis fascicle lengthening and patella tendon stiffness. Further research is required to understand the significant sex differences in Creatine Kinase levels following exercise induced muscle damage.
Dividend Maximization when Cash Reserves Follow a Jump-diffusion Process
LI LI-LI; FENG JIN-GHAI; SONG LI-XIN
2009-01-01
This paper deals with the dividend optimization problem for an insur-ance company, whose surplus follows a jump-diffusion process. The objective of the company is to maximize the expected total discounted dividends paid out until the time of ruin. Under concavity assumption on the optimal value function, the paper states some general properties and, in particular, smoothness results on the optimal value function, whose analysis mainly relies on viscosity solutions of the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations. Based on these properties, the explicit expression of the optimal value function is obtained. And some numerical calculations are presented as the application of the results.
Absolutely Maximally Entangled states, combinatorial designs and multi-unitary matrices
Goyeneche, Dardo; Latorre, José I; Riera, Arnau; Życzkowski, Karol
2015-01-01
Absolutely Maximally Entangled (AME) states are those multipartite quantum states that carry absolute maximum entanglement in all possible partitions. AME states are known to play a relevant role in multipartite teleportation, in quantum secret sharing and they provide the basis novel tensor networks related to holography. We present alternative constructions of AME states and show their link with combinatorial designs. We also analyze a key property of AME, namely their relation to tensors that can be understood as unitary transformations in every of its bi-partitions. We call this property multi-unitarity.
MAXIMAL SUBSPACES FOR SOLUTIONS OF THE SECOND ORDER ABSTRACT CAUCHY PROBLEM
无
2007-01-01
For a continuous, increasing function ω: R+ → R+\\{0} of finite exponential type, this paper introduces the set Z(A, ω) of all x in a Banach space X for which the second order abstract differential equation (2) has a mild solution such that [ω(t)]-1u(t,x) is uniformly continues on R+, and show that Z(A, ω) is a maximal Banach subspace continuously embedded in X, where A ∈ B(X) is closed. Moreover, A|z(A,ω) generates an O(ω(t))strongly continuous cosine operator function family.
Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.
Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
2010-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.
The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA
2006-01-01
We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.
Maximal regularity of second order delay equations in Banach spaces
无
2010-01-01
We give necessary and sufficient conditions of Lp-maximal regularity(resp.B sp ,q-maximal regularity or F sp ,q-maximal regularity) for the second order delay equations:u″(t)=Au(t) + Gu’t + F u t + f(t), t ∈ [0, 2π] with periodic boundary conditions u(0)=u(2π), u′(0)=u′(2π), where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,F and G are delay operators on Lp([-2π, 0];X)(resp.Bsp ,q([2π, 0];X) or Fsp,q([-2π, 0;X])).
Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.
Hurst, J B
1996-09-01
Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.
People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.
De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
2014-10-01
Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically.
Modified differential equations
Chartier, Philippe; Hairer, Ernst; Vilmart, Gilles
2007-01-01
Motivated by the theory of modified differential equations (backward error analysis) an approach for the construction of high order numerical integrators that preserve geometric properties of the exact flow is developed. This summarises a talk presented in honour of Michel Crouzeix.
Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni
2013-10-01
Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.
Shale Gas Well Completions and Maximizing Gas Recoveries
Michael D. Burnaman; Stephen Smith; Wenwu Xia
2009-01-01
It is shown that stress fields within the earth are the principle control for hydraulic fracture direction in horizontal shale gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is a process of increasing permeability within gas shales and involves a sophisticated organization of technology, good planning and proper management of equipment over a very short time period to be successful.The direction and extent of the induced fractures can be determined in near real-time at the well site via application of earthquake seismology theory in a now common process known as frac mapping. Next to the horizontal lateral azimuth, the total volume of slurry pumped into the well is a major factor in determining well EURs. Vertical fracture growth can be controlled and is important in concentration of the slurry within the main zone target zone that has the high TOC and porosity. Cemented casing with perforations is currently the most used method for zone isolation. New open-hole sleeve packers may eventually provide more flexibility in fracture design while also providing a means for refracturing multi-stage fractured horizontal wells, a technique not now commonly available. Multi-Stage fracture design requires incorporating rock properties with fracturing effect simulations and then verifying results using 3D reservoir simulations. Maximizing the gas recovery factors and EURs can be accomplished through use of closely spaced laterals with inter-fingered fracture stages and exploiting the stress shadow fracturing phenomenon.Even greater EURs may be possible if the wells can be refractured thereby opening up additional permeability channels. Shale gas development has progressed in an environmentally sensitive manner within the U.S. and will continue in this manner.During the past ten years, all of these technologies have been either newly developed or were the advancement of existingtechnology with modifications. The opportunity exists to take these proven technologies to other areas of the world
Maximizing information exchange between complex networks
West, Bruce J.; Geneston, Elvis L.; Grigolini, Paolo
2008-10-01
modern research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching.
Maximizing information exchange between complex networks
West, Bruce J. [Mathematical and Information Science, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, NC 27708 (United States); Physics Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: bwest@nc.rr.com; Geneston, Elvis L. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Physics Department, La Sierra University, 4500 Riverwalk Parkway, Riverside, CA 92515 (United States); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Istituto di Processi Chimico Fisici del CNR, Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi, 56124, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' Universita' di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)
2008-10-15
modern research overarching all of the traditional scientific disciplines. The transportation networks of planes, highways and railroads; the economic networks of global finance and stock markets; the social networks of terrorism, governments, businesses and churches; the physical networks of telephones, the Internet, earthquakes and global warming and the biological networks of gene regulation, the human body, clusters of neurons and food webs, share a number of apparently universal properties as the networks become increasingly complex. Ubiquitous aspects of such complex networks are the appearance of non-stationary and non-ergodic statistical processes and inverse power-law statistical distributions. Herein we review the traditional dynamical and phase-space methods for modeling such networks as their complexity increases and focus on the limitations of these procedures in explaining complex networks. Of course we will not be able to review the entire nascent field of network science, so we limit ourselves to a review of how certain complexity barriers have been surmounted using newly applied theoretical concepts such as aging, renewal, non-ergodic statistics and the fractional calculus. One emphasis of this review is information transport between complex networks, which requires a fundamental change in perception that we express as a transition from the familiar stochastic resonance to the new concept of complexity matching.
Kosinski, Antoni A
2007-01-01
The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-01-01
.... Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs...
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Kwiat, P G; Munro, W J; Verstraete, F; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Nemoto, Kae; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-01-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy.
Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G
2013-08-01
We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.
Maximal induced paths and minimal percolating sets in hypercubes
Anil M. Shende
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$, the \\emph{$r$-bootstrap percolation} process can be described as follows: Start with an initial set $A$ of "infected'' vertices. Infect any vertex with at least $r$ infected neighbours, and continue this process until no new vertices can be infected. $A$ is said to \\emph{percolate in $G$} if eventually all the vertices of $G$ are infected. $A$ is a \\emph{minimal percolating set} in $G$ if $A$ percolates in $G$ and no proper subset of $A$ percolates in $G$. An induced path, $P$, in a hypercube $Q_n$ is maximal if no induced path in $Q_n$ properly contains $P$. Induced paths in hypercubes are also called snakes. We study the relationship between maximal snakes and minimal percolating sets (under 2-bootstrap percolation in hypercubes. In particular, we show that every maximal snake contains a minimal percolating set, and that every minimal percolating set is contained in a maximal snake.
Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael
2010-09-01
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.
A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.
Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2015-02-01
A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.
IMRank: Influence Maximization via Finding Self-Consistent Ranking
Cheng, Suqi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Huang, Junming; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-01-01
Influence maximization, fundamental for word-of-mouth marketing and viral marketing, aims to find a set of seed nodes maximizing influence spread on social network. Early methods mainly fall into two paradigms with certain benefits and drawbacks: (1)Greedy algorithms, selecting seed nodes one by one, give a guaranteed accuracy relying on the accurate approximation of influence spread with high computational cost; (2)Heuristic algorithms, estimating influence spread using efficient heuristics,...
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization
Mygind, Niels
2004-01-01
including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....
Maximal speed of particles in super-Lévy process
LIN Zheng-yan; CHENG Zong-mao
2008-01-01
We introduce a super-Lévy process and study maximal speed of all particles process is a measure on the set of paths.We study the maximal speed of all particles during a given time period,which turns out to be a function of the packing dimension of the time period.We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of a-fast patlls in the support and the range of the historical super-lévy process.
van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha
2009-10-01
A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.
Harwood, B; Choi, I; Rice, C L
2012-12-15
Fatigability is highly task dependent wherein motor unit (MU) discharge rates and recruitment thresholds are affected differently depending on whether contractions are performed at maximal or submaximal intensities. Although much is described for isometric tasks, the behavior of MU properties during the production of maximal velocity dynamic contractions following submaximal fatiguing contractions is unknown. In seven young men, we evaluated changes in MU recruitment thresholds and MU discharge rates of the anconeus muscle during both submaximal and maximal dynamic elbow extensions following a submaximal dynamic fatiguing protocol of moderate intensity to velocity task failure. Velocity and power of the maximal dynamic contractions declined ∼45 and ∼55%, respectively, but these variables were unchanged for the submaximal target velocity contractions. Discharge rates of the 12 MUs at task failure were unchanged for submaximal dynamic contractions, but were decreased ∼20% for maximal dynamic and ballistic isometric contractions at task failure. MU recruitment thresholds of submaximal dynamic contractions decreased 52% at task failure, but were similar throughout the fatiguing protocol for maximal contractions. These findings support the concept of a common neural mechanism responsible for the relative declines in MU discharge rate associated with submaximal fatigability in both isometric and dynamic contractions.
Carathéodory系统的最大解%Maximal Solutions of Carathéodory Systems
马学敏
2012-01-01
By using the Henstock-Kurzweil integral,the maximal solutions and its properties of continuous and bounded variation solutions for Carathéodory systems are discussed.%利用Henstock-kurzweil积分,讨论了Carathéodory系统的连续有界变差解的最大解及其性质.
J.A. Bergstra; A. Ponse
2008-01-01
A meadow is a zero totalised field (0^{-1}=0), and a cancellation meadow is a meadow without proper zero divisors. In this paper we consider differential meadows, i.e., meadows equipped with differentiation operators. We give an equational axiomatization of these operators and thus obtain a finite b
ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Sacrophaga peregrina (flesh fly), which is involved in differentiation of imaginal discs. The protein has a potential insecticidal activity, since recombinant baculoviruses engineered to express ScathL have an enhanced ability to kill lepidoptera...
Maximal admissible faces and asymptotic bounds for the normal surface solution space
Burton, Benjamin A
2010-01-01
The enumeration of normal surfaces is a key bottleneck in computational three-dimensional topology. The underlying procedure is the enumeration of admissible vertices of a high-dimensional polytope, where admissibility is a powerful but non-linear and non-convex constraint. The main results of this paper are significant improvements upon the best known asymptotic bounds on the number of admissible vertices, using polytopes in both the standard normal surface coordinate system and the streamlined quadrilateral coordinate system. To achieve these results we examine the layout of admissible points within these polytopes. We show that these points correspond to well-behaved substructures of the face lattice, and we study properties of the corresponding "admissible faces". Key lemmata include upper bounds on the number of maximal admissible faces of each dimension, and a bijection between the maximal admissible faces in the two coordinate systems mentioned above.
Viability of bi-maximal solution of the Zee mass matrix
Brahmachari, B; Brahmachari, Biswajoy; Choubey, Sandhya
2002-01-01
We know $L_e-L_\\mu-L_\\tau$ symmetry gives $m^2_1= m^2_2 >> m^2_3$ pattern in Zee model. $\\Delta m^2_\\odot$ emerges from a small breaking of this symmetry. Because this symmetry is broken very weakly $\\theta_\\odot$ does not deviate much from $\\tan^2 \\theta_\\odot=1$ which is its value in the symmetric limit. This gives a mismatch with LMA solution where mixing is large but not exactly maximal. We confront this property of Zee mass matrix by phenomenologically analyzing recent results from solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments at various confidence levels. We conclude that LOW type solution is compatible with the Zee mass matrix at 99% confidence level when atmospheric neutrino deficit is explained by maximal $\
General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables
Laversanne-Finot, A.; Ketterer, A.; Barros, M. R.; Walborn, S. P.; Coudreau, T.; Keller, A.; Milman, P.
2017-04-01
The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions.
A correspondence between maximal abelian sub-algebras and linear logic fragments
SEILLER, THOMAS
2016-01-01
We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry of interact......We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry...... of interaction (Girard 2011. Theoretical Computer Science 412 (20) 1860–1883). The expressivity of the logic soundly interpreted in this model is dependent on properties of a MASA which is a parameter of the interpretation. We also unveil the essential role played by MASAs in previous geometry of interaction...
Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators
Johnsen, Jon
2011-01-01
As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra. The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u...
Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators
Johnsen, Jon
As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra.The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u...
Barbu, Viorel
2016-01-01
This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.
Maurice Schiff
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models. The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models.
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.
Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D
2000-10-01
The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines
Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Hansen, Philip; Aagaard, Per; Svantesson, Ulla; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter
2004-11-01
The human triceps surae muscle-tendon complex is a unique structure with three separate muscle compartments that merge via their aponeuroses into the Achilles tendon. The mechanical function and properties of these structures during muscular contraction are not well understood. The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which differential displacement occurs between the aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (Sol) muscles during plantar flexion. Eight subjects (mean +/- SD; age 30 +/- 7 yr, body mass 76.8 +/- 5.5 kg, height 1.83 +/- 0.06 m) performed maximal isometric ramp contractions with the plantar flexor muscles. The experiment was performed in two positions: position 1, in which the knee joint was maximally extended, and position 2, in which the knee joint was maximally flexed (125 degrees ). Plantarflexion moment was assessed with a strain gauge load cell, and the corresponding displacement of the MG and Sol aponeuroses was measured by ultrasonography. Differential shear displacement of the aponeurosis was quantified by subtracting displacement of Sol from that of MG. Maximal plantar flexion moment was 36% greater in position 1 than in position 2 (132 +/- 20 vs. 97 +/- 11 N.m). In position 1, the displacement of the MG aponeurosis at maximal force exceeded that of the Sol (12.6 +/- 1.7 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.5 mm), whereas in position 2 displacement of the Sol was greater than displacement of the MG (9.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 7.9 +/- 1.2 mm). The amount and "direction" of shear between the aponeuroses differed significantly between the two positions across the entire range of contraction, indicating that the Achilles tendon may be exposed to intratendinous shear and stress gradients during human locomotion.
Friedman, Avner
2006-01-01
This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest
Teachers Use of a Differentiated Curriculum for Gifted Students
Marotta-Garcia, Christina
2011-01-01
Teachers have the responsibility to educate a diverse group of students in heterogeneous classes. One way in which teachers meet this challenge is to differentiate the curriculum to meet the needs, interests, and abilities of each student. One particular group of students in need of a differentiated curriculum to maximize learning potential is the…
Sista, Subhash [CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Wen, Cuie [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Hodgson, Peter D. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Pande, Gopal, E-mail: gpande@ccmb.res.in [CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)
2013-04-01
It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that take place at the cell–material interface of implants used for bone repair. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material is fundamental in deciding the fate of the cells that come in contact with it. In this study, we compared the relative gene expression of markers that are known to be associated with cell adhesion and differentiation in MC3T3 osteoblast cells, at various time points after plating the cells on surfaces of titanium (Ti) and its two alloys, titanium–zirconium (TiZr) and titanium–niobium (TiNb) by using Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Our analysis indicated that expression of adhesion supporting genes was higher on TiZr surface as compared to Ti and TiNb. The behavior of these genes is possibly driven by a higher surface energy of TiZr. However no significant difference in the expression of differentiation related genes could be seen between the two alloys, although on both substrates it was higher as compared to unalloyed Ti. We propose that substrate composition of the alloys can influence the adhesion and differentiation related gene expression and that Ti alloys are better substrates for inducing osteogenesis as compared to unalloyed Ti. - Highlights: ► Methodology for comparing gene expression in osteoblasts plated on Ti, TiZr or TiNb ► Alloys with higher surface energy (TiZr) induce cell adhesion genes more efficiently ► Alloyed Ti is superior to unalloyed Ti to induce osteoblast differentiation genes.
Sista, Subhash; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter D; Pande, Gopal
2013-04-01
It is important to understand the cellular and molecular events that take place at the cell-material interface of implants used for bone repair. An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the initial stages of osteoblast interactions with the surface of the implant material is fundamental in deciding the fate of the cells that come in contact with it. In this study, we compared the relative gene expression of markers that are known to be associated with cell adhesion and differentiation in MC3T3 osteoblast cells, at various time points after plating the cells on surfaces of titanium (Ti) and its two alloys, titanium-zirconium (TiZr) and titanium-niobium (TiNb) by using Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Our analysis indicated that expression of adhesion supporting genes was higher on TiZr surface as compared to Ti and TiNb. The behavior of these genes is possibly driven by a higher surface energy of TiZr. However no significant difference in the expression of differentiation related genes could be seen between the two alloys, although on both substrates it was higher as compared to unalloyed Ti. We propose that substrate composition of the alloys can influence the adhesion and differentiation related gene expression and that Ti alloys are better substrates for inducing osteogenesis as compared to unalloyed Ti.
Shuichi Kitayama
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Vα24 invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are a subset of T lymphocytes implicated in the regulation of broad immune responses. They recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d on antigen-presenting cells and induce both innate and adaptive immune responses, which enhance effective immunity against cancer. Conversely, reduced iNKT cell numbers and function have been observed in many patients with cancer. To recover these numbers, we reprogrammed human iNKT cells to pluripotency and then re-differentiated them into regenerated iNKT cells in vitro through an IL-7/IL-15-based optimized cytokine combination. The re-differentiated iNKT cells showed proliferation and IFN-γ production in response to α-galactosylceramide, induced dendritic cell maturation and downstream activation of both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells, and exhibited NKG2D- and DNAM-1-mediated NK cell-like cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. The immunological features of re-differentiated iNKT cells and their unlimited availability from induced pluripotent stem cells offer a potentially effective immunotherapy against cancer.