Effects of Movement Velocity and Maximal Concentric and Eccentric Actions on the Bilateral Deficit
Dickin, D. Clark; Too, Danny
2006-01-01
This study was performed to examine the effects of movement velocity and maximal concentric and eccentric actions on the bilateral deficit. Eighteen female participants performed maximal unilateral and bilateral knee extensions concentrically and eccentrically across six movement velocities (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180[degrees]/s). Repeated…
Hahn, D; Bakenecker, P; Zinke, F
2016-12-28
Torque production during maximal voluntary explosive contractions is considered to be a functionally more relevant neuromuscular measure than steady-state torque, but little is known about accelerated concentric contractions. This study investigated torque, muscle activity, and fascicle behavior during isometric and fast concentric contractions of quadriceps femoris. Ten participants performed maximal voluntary explosive isometric, isovelocity, and additional concentric knee extensions at angular accelerations ranging from 700 to 4000° s(-2) that resulted in an angular velocity of 300° s(-1) at 40° knee flexion. Concentric torque at 40° knee flexion was corrected for inertia, and the corresponding isometric torque was matched to the time when the target knee angle of 40° was reached during concentric contractions. Electromyography of quadriceps femoris and hamstrings and ultrasound of vastus lateralis were measured to determine muscle activity, fascicle length, and fascicle velocity (FV). The faster the acceleration, the more torque was produced during concentric contractions at 40° knee flexion, which was accompanied by a reduction in FV. In comparison with isometric conditions, concentric quadriceps muscle activity was increased and torque during accelerations ≥3000° s(-2) equaled the time-matched isometric torque. Our results provide novel evidence that acceleration influences torque production during maximal voluntary explosive concentric contractions. This is suggested to be due to series elasticity and reduced force depression.
Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance
Paulo H. Marchetti
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.
Method for producing diene hydrocarbons
Tsaylingol' d, A.L.; Abayev, G.N.; Mikhaylov, R.K.; Stepanov, G.A.; Troitskiy, A.P.
1980-04-28
A method is claimed for producing diene hydrocarbons by oxidational dehydration of paraffin or olefin hydrocarbons in a fluidized bed of a concentrate with circulation of the latter between the zones of the reaction of regeneration with the help of circulation stand pipes. To increase the efectiveness of the process, it is proposed to circulate the concentrate between the zones of reaction and regeneration, sequentially disposed in a common apparatus with a difference in the concentration of the concentrate in the circulation stand pipes disposed in the same apparatus and the zone of the reaction equal to 20-700 kg/m/sup 3/. For example, the process of oxidational dehydration of butane through the proposed system is conducted in an apparatus with a diameter of 1,000 mm, a circulation stand pipe diameter of 500 mm, a linear gas speed in the reaction zone of 0.6 m/s, and in the circulation stand pipe of 0.15 m/s. The concentration of the concentrate in the dehydration zone is 640 kg/m/sup 3/ and in the stand pipe, 970 kg/m/sup 3/. The volumetric ratio of the n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/:air, air:vapor vapor in the form of a condensate is 1:7.2:4.5:5.5. The output of the butadiene is: in the passed butane, 32.9% and in the broken down butane, 52.5%. The butane conversion is 62.6%. The losses of the concentrate with the contact gas and with the regeneration gases is 1/3 as much for the supplied butane, than in a known method. The method makes it possible to reduce the air expenditure by 60%, to reduce the concentrate losses by 2-3 times and to simplify the industrial system.
Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.
1988-01-01
Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.
Xu, Mengjie; Chen, Guangming; Zhang, Cunhai; Zhang, Shaozhi
2017-01-01
The concentration of maximally freeze-concentrated solutions [Formula: see text] and the corresponding glass transition temperature [Formula: see text] and ante-melting temperature [Formula: see text] of lyoprotectant solutions, are critical parameters for developing lyophilization process. Usually, the lyoprotectant solutions are multicomponent solutions composed of electrolytes, sugars, proteins, polymers, and other chemicals. In this article, the Wg(') values of several multicomponent solutions including trehalose/NaCl, bovine serum albumin/NaCl, and hydroxyethyl starch/NaCl with water were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. A linear relationship between the unfrozen water fraction Wun and the initial solute concentrations Wi was found: Wun = ∑(ai·Wi), which suggested that in the multicomponent solutions each solute could hydrate a certain amount of water ai (g water/g solute) that could not be frozen. The hypothesis was compared with more literature data. For the same solute in different solutions, variation in the fitted coefficient ai is noticed and discussed. If a "universal" value ai for each solute is adopted, both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for a multicomponent solution could be predicted if Couchman-Karasz equation is adopted for calculating glass transition temperature at the same time. The prediction discrepancies for [Formula: see text] with experimental data were less than 2°C. The finding is discussed about its molecular basis and applicability. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pansare, Swapnil K; Patel, Sajal Manubhai
2016-08-01
Glass transition temperature is a unique thermal characteristic of amorphous systems and is associated with changes in physical properties such as heat capacity, viscosity, electrical resistance, and molecular mobility. Glass transition temperature for amorphous solids is referred as (T g), whereas for maximally freeze concentrated solution, the notation is (T g'). This article is focused on the factors affecting determination of T g' for application to lyophilization process design and frozen storage stability. Also, this review provides a perspective on use of various types of solutes in protein formulation and their effect on T g'. Although various analytical techniques are used for determination of T g' based on the changes in physical properties associated with glass transition, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most commonly used technique. In this article, an overview of DSC technique is provided along with brief discussion on the alternate analytical techniques for T g' determination. Additionally, challenges associated with T g' determination, using DSC for protein formulations, are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical industry perspective on determination of T g' for protein formulations as it relates to design and development of lyophilization process and/or for frozen storage; however, a comprehensive review of glass transition temperature (T g, T g'), in general, is outside the scope of this work.
Development of Quantum Chemical Method to Calculate Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 ).
Bag, Arijit; Ghorai, Pradip Kr
2016-05-01
Till date theoretical calculation of the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of a compound is based on different Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models which are empirical methods. By using the Cheng-Prusoff equation it may be possible to compute IC50 , but this will be computationally very expensive as it requires explicit calculation of binding free energy of an inhibitor with respective protein or enzyme. In this article, for the first time we report an ab initio method to compute IC50 of a compound based only on the inhibitor itself where the effect of the protein is reflected through a proportionality constant. By using basic enzyme inhibition kinetics and thermodynamic relations, we derive an expression of IC50 in terms of hydrophobicity, electric dipole moment (μ) and reactivity descriptor (ω) of an inhibitor. We implement this theory to compute IC50 of 15 HIV-1 capsid inhibitors and compared them with experimental results and available other QASR based empirical results. Calculated values using our method are in very good agreement with the experimental values compared to the values calculated using other methods.
MAXIMAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SENSITIVE COMPONENTS IN BURDEN, SUBJECT TO REACTIONARY MECHANICAL ALLOYING
F. G. Lovshenko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of detection of maximal content of reacting substances in burden, undergoing processing in mechanoreactor, providing safety of realization of the reaction mechanical alloying, is solved on the basis of the modern conceptions on mechanism of self-distributing high-temperature synthesis with using method of thermodynamic modeling.
Karrasch, Nicole M; Hubbell, John A E; Aarnes, Turi K; Bednarski, Richard M; Lerche, Phillip
2015-01-01
This study compared cardiorespiratory variables in dorsally recumbent horses anesthetized with guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine and spontaneously breathing 50% or maximal (> 90%) oxygen (O2) concentrations...
Tallis, Jason; James, Rob S; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J
2013-03-01
The use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid to promote endurance has been widely studied, with human literature showing the greatest benefit during submaximal muscle activities. Recent evidence suggests that the acute treatment of skeletal muscle with physiological concentrations of caffeine (70 μM maximum) will directly potentiate force production. The aims of the present study are: firstly, to assess the effects of a physiological concentration (70 μM) of caffeine on endurance in maximally activated mouse soleus (relatively slow) muscle; and secondly, to examine whether endurance changes when muscle is activated submaximally during caffeine treatment. Maximally stimulated soleus muscle treated with 70 μM caffeine resulted in a significant (17.6 %) decrease in endurance. In contrast, at a submaximal stimulation frequency, caffeine treatment significantly prolonged endurance (by 19.2 %). Findings are activation-dependent such that, during high frequency stimulation, caffeine accelerates fatigue, whereas, during low frequency stimulation, caffeine delays fatigue.
A Conversation with Zoltan P. Dienes
Sriraman, Bharath; Lesh, Richard
2007-01-01
The name of Zoltan P. Dienes (1916- ) stands with those of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Edward Begle, and Robert Davis as a legendary figure whose work left a lasting impression on the field of mathematics education. Dienes' name is synonymous with the multibase blocks that he invented for the teaching of place value. Among numerous other things,…
A Conversation with Zoltan P. Dienes
Sriraman, Bharath; Lesh, Richard
2007-01-01
The name of Zoltan P. Dienes (1916- ) stands with those of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Edward Begle, and Robert Davis as a legendary figure whose work left a lasting impression on the field of mathematics education. Dienes' name is synonymous with the multibase blocks that he invented for the teaching of place value. Among numerous other things,…
Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James
2015-11-01
Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carole Cometti
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The presents study investigated the effects of between-set interventions on neuromuscular function of the knee extensors during six sets of 10 isokinetic (120°·s-1 maximal concentric contractions separated by three minutes. Twelve healthy men (age: 23.9 ± 2.4 yrs were tested for four different between-set recovery conditions applied during two minutes: passive recovery, active recovery (cycling, electromyostimulation and stretching, in a randomized, crossover design. Before, during and at the end of the isokinetic session, torque and thigh muscles electromyographic activity were measured during maximal voluntary contractions and electrically-evoked doublets. Activation level was calculated using the twitch interpolation technique. While quadriceps electromyographic activity and activation level were significantly decreased at the end of the isokinetic session (-5.5 ± 14.2 % and -2.7 ± 4.8 %; p < 0.05, significant decreases in maximal voluntary contractions and doublets were observed after the third set (respectively -0.8 ± 12.1% and -5.9 ± 9.9%; p < 0.05. Whatever the recovery modality applied, torque was back to initial values after each recovery period. The present results showed that fatigue appeared progressively during the isokinetic session with peripheral alterations occurring first followed by central ones. Recovery interventions between sets did not modify fatigue time course as compared with passive recovery. It appears that the interval between sets (3 min was long enough to provide recovery regardless of the interventions
Lerche Phillip
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 0.5 fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and >0.95 FiO2 on pulmonary gas exchange, shunt fraction and oxygen delivery (DO2 in dorsally recumbent horses during inhalant anesthesia. The use of 0.5 FiO2 has the potential to reduce absorption atelectasis (compared to maximal FiO2 and augment alveolar oxygen (O2 tensions (compared to ambient air thereby improving gas exchange and DO2. Our hypothesis was that 0.5 FiO2 would reduce ventilation-perfusion mismatching and increase the fraction of pulmonary blood flow that is oxygenated, thus improving arterial oxygen content and DO2. Results Arterial partial pressures of O2 were significantly higher than preanesthetic levels at all times during anesthesia in the >0.95 FiO2 group. Arterial partial pressures of O2 did not change from preanesthetic levels in the 0.5 FiO2 group but were significantly lower than in the >0.95 FiO2 group from 15 to 90 min of anesthesia. Alveolar to arterial O2 tension difference was increased significantly in both groups during anesthesia compared to preanesthetic values. The alveolar to arterial O2 tension difference was significantly higher at all times in the >0.95 FiO2 group compared to the 0.5 FiO2 group. Oxygen delivery did not change from preanesthetic values in either group during anesthesia but was significantly lower than preanesthetic values 10 min after anesthesia in the 0.5 FiO2 group. Shunt fraction increased in both groups during anesthesia attaining statistical significance at varying times. Shunt fraction was significantly increased in both groups 10 min after anesthesia but was not different between groups. Alveolar dead space ventilation increased after 3 hr of anesthesia in both groups. Conclusions Reducing FiO2 did not change alveolar dead space ventilation or shunt fraction in dorsally recumbent, mechanically ventilated horses during 3 hr of isoflurane anesthesia. Reducing FiO2 in
Garbouj, H; Selmi, M A; Sassi, R Haj; Yahmed, M Haj; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, A
2016-12-01
The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) has become the test most widely used by coaches and physical trainers for assessment of competitors' judo-specific physical aptitude and training programme prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the SJFT performance indices and both maximal aerobic power and the level of blood lactate concentrations in female judo athletes. Seventeen female judokas (age: 21.9±1.6 years, body mass: 74.6±27.4 kg, height: 164.5±8.6 cm; BMI: 27.1±8.0 kg · m(-2)) took part in this study. All participants performed the SJFT, 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), and 30 m straight sprint test (SST), from which we calculated both acceleration (10 m) and the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS: flying 20 m sprint). A blood sample was taken 3 min after the SJFT. The number of throws was significantly correlated with estimated VO2max (r=0.795, p=0.0001) and both acceleration (r=0.63, p =0.006) and MAnS (r=0.76, p=0.0004). Peak blood lactate recorded after the SJFT was 13.90±1.39 mmol · l(-1). No significant correlation was found between blood lactate concentration and the SJFT performance indices. The lack of significant correlation between blood lactate and SJFT performance suggests that lactic anaerobic metabolism has no effect on this type of judo-specific supra-maximal exercise. The observed results can provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with relevant information for the interpretation of SJFT performance and the prescription of specific training programmes for female judo athletes.
Machado, Fabiana A; Kravchychyn, Ana Claudia P; Peserico, Cecilia S; da Silva, Danilo F; Mezzaroba, Paulo V
2013-05-01
This study compared the responses during maximal incremental treadmill tests of 1-min, 2-min, and 3-min stage durations mainly in terms of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and peak blood lactate concentration (LApeak). Repeated-measures. Thirty-four male, recreational, endurance-trained runners (40±13 years) performed three tests on a motorized treadmill. The tests started at 8kmh(-1) with increments of 1kmh(-1) every 1min for the short-stage protocol, every 2min for the intermediate-stage protocol, and every 3min for the long-stage protocol. LApeak was defined for each subject as the highest value among the lactate concentrations determined at the end of each test and at the third, fifth and seventh minutes after test, during passive recovery. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of the stage duration on the HRmax (p=0.003) and LApeak (p=0.001). The HRmax was higher in the intermediate-stage compared to the short-stage protocol (184.8±12.7 vs. 181.8±12.1beatsmin(-1), p0.05). The LApeak was lower in the long-stage compared to the short-stage and intermediate-stage protocols (7.9±2.2 vs. 9.4±2.2 and 9.2±1.9mmolL(-1), respectively, pblood lactate reached peak concentration at the fifth minute after test for all the protocols. Thus, HRmax and LApeak depend on the stage duration of the incremental test, but the moment at which blood lactate reaches peak concentration is independent of the duration. Further, we suggest 2-min stage duration protocols to determine HRmax. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laluce, Cecilia; Tognolli, João Olimpio; de Oliveira, Karen Fernanda; Souza, Crisla Serra; Morais, Meline Rezende
2009-06-01
Aiming to obtain rapid fermentations with high ethanol yields and a retention of high final viabilities (responses), a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design combined with response surface methodology was employed using inoculum size, sucrose concentration, and temperature as independent variables. From this statistical treatment, two well-fitted regression equations having coefficients significant at the 5% level were obtained to predict the viability and ethanol production responses. Three-dimensional response surfaces showed that increasing temperatures had greater negative effects on viability than on ethanol production. Increasing sucrose concentrations improved both ethanol production and viability. The interactions between the inoculum size and the sucrose concentrations had no significant effect on viability. Thus, the lowering of the process temperature is recommended in order to minimize cell mortality and maintain high levels of ethanol production when the temperature is on the increase in the industrial reactor. Optimized conditions (200 g/l initial sucrose, 40 g/l of dry cell mass, 30 degrees C) were experimentally confirmed and the optimal responses are 80.8 +/- 2.0 g/l of maximal ethanol plus a viability retention of 99.0 +/- 3.0% for a 4-h fermentation period. During consecutive fermentations with cell reuse, the yeast cell viability has to be kept at a high level in order to prevent the collapse of the process.
Sulfonation of vulcanized ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer membranes
Barroso-Bujans, F. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fbarroso@ictp.csic.es; Verdejo, R.; Lozano, A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Manchado, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2008-10-15
In the present work, sulfonation of previously vulcanized ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) membranes was developed in a swelling solvent with acetyl sulfate. This procedure avoids the need to pre-dissolve the raw polymer. The reaction conditions were optimized in terms of solvent type, reaction time, acetyl sulfate concentration and film thickness to obtain the maximum degree of sulfonation of the polymer. The sulfonation procedure presented in this study yields a degree of sulfonation comparable to the chlorosulfonic acid procedure. Sulfonic acid groups were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantified by titrations. Proton conductivity and water uptake were measured by means of impedance spectroscopy and swelling measurements, respectively, and were correlated with the degree of sulfonation. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of sulfonated EPDM increased with the degree of sulfonation, while elongation at break remained constant. Thermal stability of the sulfonated EPDM was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy.
Karrasch, Nicole M; Hubbell, John A E; Aarnes, Turi K; Bednarski, Richard M; Lerche, Phillip
2015-04-01
This study compared cardiorespiratory variables in dorsally recumbent horses anesthetized with guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine and spontaneously breathing 50% or maximal (> 90%) oxygen (O2) concentrations. Twelve healthy mares were randomly assigned to breathe 50% or maximal O2 concentrations. Horses were sedated with xylazine, induced to recumbency with ketamine-diazepam, and anesthesia was maintained with guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine to effect. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, respiratory rate, lithium dilution cardiac output (CO), inspired and expired O2 and carbon dioxide partial pressures, and tidal volume were measured. Arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were collected prior to sedation (baseline), during 30 minutes of anesthesia, 10 minutes after disconnection from O2, and 30 minutes after standing. Shunt fraction, O2 delivery, and alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressures difference [P(A-a)O2] were calculated. Recovery times were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups in cardiorespiratory parameters or in P(A-a)O2 at baseline or 30 minutes after standing. Oxygen partial pressure difference in the 50% group was significantly less than in the maximal O2 group during anesthesia.
1,2-Selective Hydrosilylation of Conjugated Dienes
Parker, Sarah Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Selective 1,2-hydrosilylation of 1,3-dienes is a challenging problem to solve for transition metal catalysis. Butadiene, specifically, would be a useful substrate because 3-butenylsilane products have promise as superior coupling reagents for hybrid organic/inorganic materials synthesis. In this thesis, we describe the first selective 1,2-hydrosilylation of conjugated dienes, including butadiene.
Abe, Yuta; Kamiya, Koki; Osaki, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Hirotaka; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji
2015-08-21
This paper describes a simple microfluidic device that can generate nonlinear concentration gradients. We changed the "width" of channels that can drastically shorten the total microfluidic channel length and simplify the microfluidic network design rather than the "length" of channels. The logarithmic concentration gradients generated by the device were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. Using this device, we evaluated a probable IC50 value of the ABC transporter proteins by the competitive transport assays at five different logarithmic concentrations. This probable IC50 value was in good agreement with an IC50 value (0.92 μM) obtained at the diluted concentrations of seven points.
Brendle, Joerg
2016-01-01
We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.
Klein, Janet D; Wang, Yanhua; Mistry, Abinash; LaRocque, Lauren M; Molina, Patrick A; Rogers, Richard T; Blount, Mitsi A; Sands, Jeff M
2016-05-01
Urea has a critical role in urinary concentration. Mice lacking the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) and urea transporter A3 (UT-A3) have very low levels of urea permeability and are unable to concentrate urine. To investigate the role of UT-A1 in the concentration of urine, we transgenically expressed UT-A1 in knockout mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 using a construct with a UT-A1 gene that cannot be spliced to produce UT-A3. This construct was inserted behind the original UT-A promoter to yield a mouse expressing only UT-A1 (UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-)). Western blot analysis demonstrated UT-A1 in the inner medulla of UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and wild-type mice, but not in UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice, and an absence of UT-A3 in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice. Immunohistochemistry in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice also showed negative UT-A3 staining in kidney and other tissues and positive UT-A1 staining only in the IMCD. Urea permeability in isolated perfused IMCDs showed basal permeability in the UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice was similar to levels in wild-type mice, but vasopressin stimulation of urea permeability in wild-type mice was significantly greater (100% increase) than in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice (8% increase). Notably, basal urine osmolalities in both wild-type and UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice increased upon overnight water restriction. We conclude that transgenic expression of UT-A1 restores basal urea permeability to the level in wild-type mice but does not restore vasopressin-stimulated levels of urea permeability. This information suggests that transgenic expression of UT-A1 alone in mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 is sufficient to restore urine-concentrating ability.
Kraemer, William J; Boyd, Brittny M; Hooper, David R; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Newton, Robert U; Vingren, Jakob L; Häkkinen, Keijo; White, Mark T; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M
2014-09-01
The optimal time of day for training has become an important question for many strength and conditioning specialists, and this study was designed to add some insights into this complex question. The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine physical performance within the temporal context of the relationship between physical performance, epinephrine, and melatonin concentrations in the early morning (0530 hours) and late (1500 hours) afternoon in elite collegiate male track and field athletes (jumpers and sprinters). Subjects had a mean (±SD) age, height, and body mass of 20.4 (±1.6) years, 185.8 (±9.4) cm, and 77.9 (±8.5) kg, respectively. Blood was obtained before each AM and PM testing session. Mean plasma melatonin concentrations were 34.9 ± 22.7 pg·ml and 4.8 ± 3.3 pg·ml for the AM vs. PM trials, respectively, demonstrating a significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference between time points. Mean resting plasma epinephrine concentrations for AM (171.7 ± 33.7 pmol·L) and PM (127.6 ± 47.8 pmol·L) also differed significantly between trails at the different times. In addition, significant differences were observed with respect to foot quickness in the AM (5.14 ± 1.06 seconds) and PM (4.39 ± 0.76 seconds). Mean peak power output for vertical jump power was 5,407.1 ± 1,272.9 W, 5,384.6 ± 888.3 W for AM vs. PM trials, respectively, which were not significantly different. The results of this investigation indicate that time of day did not negatively impact whole body physical performance in trained track athletes but did impact the quality of quickness. Thus in the morning, whole body power performances may be enhanced through adrenergic arousal when melatonin is elevated. However, this was not the case for movements requiring quickness and accuracy of movement. To compensate for the "sleepiness" associated with high concentrations of melatonin, being secreted from the pineal gland representing a continued "sleepiness" effect on the body, early
Pregna-5,17(20)-dien-21-oyl amides affecting sterol and triglyceride biosynthesis in Hep G2 cells.
Stulov, Sergey V; Mankevich, Olga V; Dugin, Nikita O; Novikov, Roman A; Timofeev, Vladimir P; Misharin, Alexander Yu
2013-04-01
Synthesis of series [17(20)Z]- and [17(20)E]-pregna-5,17(20)-dien-21-oyl amides, containing polar substituents in amide moiety, based on rearrangement of 17α-bromo-21-iodo-3β-acetoxypregn-5-en-20-one caused by amines, is presented. The titled compounds were evaluated for their potency to regulate sterol and triglyceride biosynthesis in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells in comparison with 25-hydroxycholesterol. Three [17(20)E]-pregna-5,17(20)-dien-21-oyl amides at a concentrations of 5 μM inhibited sterol biosynthesis and stimulated triglyceride biosynthesis; their regulatory potency was dependent on the structure of amide moiety; the isomeric [17(20)Z]-pregna-5,17(20)-dien-21-oyl amides were inactive.
K B Athreya
2009-09-01
It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.
Iridium-catalyzed annulation of salicylimines with 1,3-dienes.
Ebe, Yusuke; Nishimura, Takahiro
2014-07-01
Iridium-catalyzed annulation of salicylimines with 1,3-dienes gave high yields of the corresponding 4-aminochromanes with high stereoselectivity. The use of a chiral diene ligand enabled the asymmetric reaction to give 4-aminochromanes with high enantioselectivity.
MacNeill Stuart A
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein LigA. Results To characterise the enzymatic properties of the LigN protein, wild-type and three mutant forms of the LigN protein were separately expressed in recombinant form in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. Non-isotopic DNA ligase activity assays using λ DNA restriction fragments with 12 bp cos cohesive ends were used to show that LigN activity was dependent on addition of divalent cations and salt. No activity was detected in the absence of KCl, whereas maximum activity could be detected at 3.2 M KCl, close to the intracellular KCl concentration of Hfx.volcanii cells. Conclusion LigN is unique amongst characterised DNA ligase enzymes in displaying maximal DNA strand joining activity at high (> 3 M salt levels. As such the LigN enzyme has potential both as a novel tool for biotechnology and as a model enzyme for studying the adaptation of proteins to high intracellular salt levels.
Cyclization–endoperoxidation cascade reactions of dienes mediated by a pyrylium photoredox catalyst
Nathan J. Gesmundo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Triarylpyrylium salts were employed as single electron photooxidants to catalyze a cyclization–endoperoxidation cascade of dienes. The transformation is presumed to proceed via the intermediacy of diene cation radicals. The nature of the diene component was investigated in this context to determine the structural requirements necessary for successful reactivity. Several unique endoperoxide structures were synthesized in yields up to 79%.
Influence of the Diene Monomer on Devulcanization of EPDM Rubber
Verbruggen, M.A.L.; van der Does, L.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; van Duin, M.
2008-01-01
Ethylene–propylene–diene rubbers (EPDM) with 2-ethylidene-5-norbornene (ENB), dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), and 1,4-hexadiene (HD) as third monomers have been vulcanized with peroxide and with a conventional sulfur vulcanization recipe, and their devulcanization was subsequently investigated for
Diastereoselective Desymmetrization of Symmetric Dienes and its Synthetic Application
Kenji Nakahara
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The desymmetrization of symmetric compounds is a useful approach to obtain chiral building blocks. Readily available precursors with a prochiral unit could be converted into complex molecules with multiple stereogenic centers in a single step. In this review, recent advances in the desymmetrization of symmetric dienes in the diastereotopic group differentiating reaction and its synthetic application are presented.
Diene complexes of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium. Structure and reactivity
Blenkers, Johannes
1982-01-01
This thesis describes a study of synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of novel n4-diene complexes of group IVB transition metals in low valence states. In the study of the reactivity, emphasus is put on reactions with simple substrate molecules, e.g. CO, H2, olefins, isocanides; in particular
Influence of the diene monomer on devulcanization of EPDM rubber
Verbruggen, M.; Does, van der L.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Duin, van M.
2008-01-01
Ethylene–propylene–diene rubbers (EPDM) with 2-ethylidene-5-norbornene (ENB), dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), and 1,4-hexadiene (HD) as third monomers have been vulcanized with peroxide and with a conventional sulfur vulcanization recipe, and their devulcanization was subsequently investigated for recycli
Khanna, Sugandha; Dash, Philip R; Darbre, Philippa D
2014-09-01
Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foods and pharmaceuticals. Their oestrogenic activity, their measurement in human breast tissue and their ability to drive proliferation of oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells has opened a debate on their potential to influence breast cancer development. As proliferation is not the only hallmark of cancer cells, we have investigated the effects of exposure to parabens at concentrations of maximal proliferative response on migratory and invasive properties using three oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47-D, ZR-75-1). Cells were maintained short-term (1 week) or long-term (20 ± 2 weeks) in phenol-red-free medium containing 5% charcoal-stripped serum with no addition, 10(-8) M 17β-oestradiol, 1-5 × 10(-4) M methylparaben, 10(-5) M n-propylparaben or 10(-5) M n-butylparaben. Long-term exposure (20 ± 2 weeks) of MCF-7 cells to methylparaben, n-propylparaben or n-butylparaben increased migration as measured using a scratch assay, time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology: invasive properties were found to increase in matrix degradation assays and migration through matrigel on xCELLigence. Western immunoblotting showed an associated downregulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the long-term paraben-exposed cells which could be consistent with a mechanism involving epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Increased migratory activity was demonstrated also in long-term paraben-exposed T-47-D and ZR-75-1 cells using a scratch assay and time-lapse microscopy. This is the first report that in vitro, parabens can influence not only proliferation but also migratory and invasive properties of human breast cancer cells.
POLYMERIZATION MECHANISM OF DIENES WITH HOMOGENEOUS RARE EARTH CATALYSTS
JIN Yingtai; ZHANG Xitian; PEI Fengkui; WU Yue
1990-01-01
The reaction mechanisms ofdiene polymerization with homogeneous rare earth catalyst are studied by means of the spectra of 1H- NM R, one- and two- dimensions 13C-NMR. Based on the data of above NMR spectra, it is proposed that the polymerization reaction proceeds according to the following mechanism: η4-diene (cis- (→)trans- )and η3-allyl (syn- (→)anti- ).
Evaluation of some antioxidants in radiation vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene (EPDM) rubber
Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Basfar, A.A. E-mail: abasfar@kacst.edu.sa
2001-12-01
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the oxidation of {gamma}-ray vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) stabilized with various types of antioxidants. The antioxidants used were pentaerythrityl tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl(-4-hydroxyphenyl))propionate (Irganox 1010), Irganox 1035, Irganox 1520D, as primary antioxidants; Irganox B561 and Irganox B900, as synergistic blends; hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), i.e. Tinuvin 622 LD; N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (IPPD) and trimethyl quinoline (TMQ) and their mixtures. The measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions. The effects of antioxidant type and its selected concentration were determined and mechanism of reaction proposed.
Evaluation of some antioxidants in radiation vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene (EPDM) rubber
Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Basfar, A. A.
2001-12-01
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the oxidation of γ-ray vulcanized ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) stabilized with various types of antioxidants. The antioxidants used were pentaerythrityl tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl(-4-hydroxyphenyl))propionate (Irganox 1010), Irganox 1035, Irganox 1520D, as primary antioxidants; Irganox B561 and Irganox B900, as synergistic blends; hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), i.e. Tinuvin 622 LD; N-isopropyl- N-phenyl- p-phenylene diamine (IPPD) and trimethyl quinoline (TMQ) and their mixtures. The measurements were carried out under atmospheric conditions. The effects of antioxidant type and its selected concentration were determined and mechanism of reaction proposed.
Profit maximization mitigates competition
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
1996-01-01
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Chang, Thomas K.H.; Abbott, Frank S., E-mail: frank.abbott@ubc.ca
2012-11-01
Valproic acid (VPA) undergoes cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation to form 4-ene-VPA, which subsequently yields (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by β-oxidation. Another biotransformation pathway involves β-oxidation of VPA to form (E)-2-ene-VPA, which also generates (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation. Although the synthetic form of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is more hepatotoxic than VPA as shown in various experimental models, there is no conclusive evidence to implicate the in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA in VPA hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effects of modulating the in situ formation of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA on markers of oxidative stress (formation of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein; DCF), steatosis (accumulation of BODIPY 558/568 C{sub 12}), necrosis (release of lactate dehydrogenase; LDH), and on cellular total glutathione (GSH) levels in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes treated with VPA or (E)-2-ene-VPA. Treatment with either of these chemicals alone increased each of the toxicity endpoints. In VPA-treated hepatocytes, (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was detected only at trace levels, even after phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment and there was no effect on the toxicity of VPA. Furthermore, pretreatment with a cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), did not influence the extent of VPA toxicity in both PB-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated hepatocytes. However, in (E)-2-ene-VPA-treated hepatocytes, PB pretreatment greatly enhanced the levels of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and this was accompanied by a further enhancement of the effects of (E)-2-ene-VPA on DCF formation, BODIPY accumulation, LDH release, and GSH depletion. Pretreatment with 1-ABT reduced the concentrations of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and the extent of (E)-2-ene-VPA toxicity; however, this occurred in PB-pretreated hepatocytes, but not in control hepatocytes. In conclusion, in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is not responsible for the hepatocyte toxicity of VPA, whereas it
Teixeira, Miguel C; Raposo, Luís R; Palma, Margarida; Sá-Correia, Isabel
2010-04-01
Chemogenomics, the study of genomic responses to chemical compounds, has the potential to elucidate the basis of cellular resistance to those chemicals. This knowledge can be applied to improve the performance of strains of industrial interest. In this study, a collection of approximately 5,000 haploid single deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which each nonessential yeast gene was individually deleted, was screened for strains with increased susceptibility toward stress induced by high-glucose concentration (30% w/v), one of the main stresses occurring during industrial alcoholic fermentation processes aiming the production of alcoholic beverages or bio-ethanol. Forty-four determinants of resistance to high-glucose stress were identified. The most significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms enriched in this dataset are vacuolar organization, late endosome to vacuole transport, and regulation of transcription. Clustering the identified resistance determinants by their known physical and genetic interactions further highlighted the importance of nutrient metabolism control in this context. A concentration of 30% (w/v) of glucose was found to perturb vacuolar function, by reducing cell ability to maintain the physiological acidification of the vacuolar lumen. This stress also affects the active rate of proton efflux through the plasma membrane. Based on results of published studies, the present work revealed shared determinants of yeast resistance to high-glucose and ethanol stresses, including genes involved in vacuolar function, cell wall biogenesis (ANP1), and in the transcriptional control of nutrient metabolism (GCN4 and GCR1), with possible impact on the design of more robust strains to be used in industrial alcoholic fermentation processes.
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide
Asma Fray
2014-05-01
Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene (EPDM-g-PS copolymers were synthesized to obtain different structures of graft copolymers with different graft lengths and graft densities. The structure of synthesized EPDM-g-PS copolymers was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. These presynthesized graft copolymers were added (5 phr to styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM blends, prepared to maintain the following SAN/EPDM ratios a 95/5 and b 90/10. SAN/EPDM blends were characterized by the determination of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break while their morphology was inspected by scanning electronic microscopy, SEM. The obtained results show that various structures of EPDM-g-PS copolymers influence the miscibility in SAN/EPDM blends. Optimal concentration of side branches of graft copolymers provide the finest morphology and enhance mechanical properties.
Veaceslav Kulciţki
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Conjugate 1,4-addition of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS to a diene system, possessing a suitable oxygen functionality, leads to functionalized tetrahydrofuran derivatives, which can be further derivatized into different synthetic targets.
Patel, R N; Singh, Nripendra; Shukla, K K; Chauhan, U K
2005-01-01
The imidazolate-bridged binuclear copper(II)-copper(II) complex [(dien)Cu(mu-im)Cu(dien)](ClO(4))(3) and related mononuclear complexes [Cu(dien)(H(2)O)](ClO(4))(2), [Cu(dien)(Him)](ClO(4))(2) were synthesized with diethylenetriamine (dien) as capping ligand. The crystal structure of mononuclear [Cu(dien)(Him)](ClO(4))(2) and binuclear complex [(dien)Cu(mu-im)Cu(dien)](ClO(4))(3) have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The mononuclear complex [Cu(dien)(Him)](ClO(4))(2) crystallizes in the orthorhombic, Pca2(1) with a = 9.3420(9) A, b = 12.3750(9) A, c = 14.0830(9) A, beta = 90.000(7)(o) and Z = 4 and binuclear complex [(dien)Cu(mu-im)Cu(dien)](ClO(4))(3) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/a, with a = 15.017(7) A, b = 11.938(6) A, c = 15.386(6) A, beta = 110.30(4)(o) and Z = 4. The molecular structures show that copper(II) ions in an asymmetrically elongated octahedral coordination (type 4 + 1 + 1) and in binuclear complex Cu(1) atom has a asymmetrically elongated octahedral coordination (type type 4 + 1 + 1) and Cu(2) atom exhibits a square base pyramidal coordination (type 4 + 1). The bridging ligand (imidazolate ion, im) lies nearly on a straight line between two Cu(2+), which are separated by 5.812 A, slightly shorter than the value in copper-copper superoxide dismutase (Cu(2)-Cu(2)SOD). Magnetic measurements and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of the binuclear complex have shown an antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. From pH-dependent cyclic voltametry (CV) and electronic spectroscopic studies the complex has been found to be stable over a wide pH range (7.75-12.50).
Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...
Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes
Philipp Röse
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.
Mechanism of cleaving DNA through hydrolysis of a novel complex of Mg containing dien ligand
无
2000-01-01
A series of metal complexes were designed and synthesized and a novel binuclear magnesium complex has been selected, namely [Mg2(dien)Cl(OH2)2]Cl2·H2O (dien=diethylene-triamine), which can cleave the plasmid pBR322 DNA effectively in close to physiological condition without adding any external materials.Through biological and chemical methods, especially the comparative experiments, we find the interaction between the complex and DNA belongs to hydrolytic mechanism.
Spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes: synthesis and application in organic synthesis
Menchikov, L. G.; Nefedov, O. M.
2016-03-01
This review integrates and describes systematically the data in the field of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes published in the past 15 years. The changes in the development of studies that took place during this period are noted. The methods for the synthesis, the reactivity details and key chemical transformations of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes are considered, with the emphasis on applications of these compounds in organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 207 references.
Biaxial ordering of terminal diene groups in lipid membranes: an infrared linear dichroism study
Binder, H.; Gutberlet, T.; Anikin, A.
1999-11-01
The molecular order within the hydrophobic core of membranes of the diene lipid di-tetradecadienoylphosphatidylcholine was studied by means of infrared spectroscopy on multibilayer assemblies which orient macroscopically on the surface of an attenuated total reflection crystal. The relative humidity and temperature were used as variable parameters to demonstrate that there were profound differences in the melting transition of lipids possessing predominantly cis and trans diene groups. The cis isomer undergoes the phase transition at a vapor pressure which is increased by ∽0.15 GPa when compared with that of the trans isomer. The methylene wagging band progression gives no indication of differences between the acyl chain conformation of the cis and trans forms in the gel state. The frequencies of a number of absorption bands of the diene groups reveal that these moieties are predominantly in the s-trans conformation to accommodate a favorable packing within the bilayer. The linear dichroism of selected in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of the diene groups gives indications of the biaxial ordering of these moieties. We present the basic equations for the quantitative analysis of IR dichroism data of lamellar structures in terms of transverse and longitudinal molecular order parameters. It turns out that the planes of the rigid diene groups orient preferentially in a perpendicular direction with respect to the bilayer surface and parallel to each other forming in this way a layer of well-aligned diene groups in the bilayer center. This finding is confirmed by the results of X-ray measurements. We suggest that the partial interdigitation of the diene groups of the sn-1 acyl chains promotes the formation of the inverse H II phase and/or enables the formation of covalent bonds between both the monolayers upon polymerization of diene lipids.
Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO
2005-01-01
A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.
Andrew M. Parker
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.
Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.
Effect of three 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols on inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl
S. Kharchouf
2014-11-01
Full Text Available 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols P1−P3 synthesized from carvone P are tested as corrosion inhibitors of steel in 1 M HCl using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The addition of 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols reduced the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of inhibitors does not change the mechanism of hydrogen evolution and that they act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols tested adsorb on the steel surface according to Langmuir isotherm. From the adsorption isotherm some thermodynamic data for the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. EIS measurements show the increase of the charge-transfer resistance with the inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency (92% is obtained for P1 at 3 g/L. The corrosion rate decreases with the rise of temperature. The corresponding activation energies are determined.
Structure aggregation of carbon black in ethylene-propylene diene polymer
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The modulus of filled and unfilled Ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM vulcanizates was used to predict the shape-factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Four types of carbon black that vary in particle size and structure were used in this study. Quadratic curves relating the carbon black volume concentration and the modulus ratio of filled and unfilled rubber vulcanizates were used to adopt the shape factor of certain carbon black type. The shape factor of MT, HAF, SRF and Lampblack were 3, 3.75, 4 and 4.25 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD was also used to evaluate the relative size of crystallite on the filler surface to that of the rubber and correlating it to the shape factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Effect of the pH values and structure of carbon blacks used on the shape factor of filler aggregates were also studied. It was found that the shape factor is independent on the particle size while it is dependent on the pH value and structure of carbon black. Also the crystallites size of the filler is proportional to the shape factor.
Rudiger Bubner
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.
Solvent-free cyclization of linear dienes using olefin metathesis and the Thorpe-Ingold effect
Forbees, M.D.E.; Myers, T.L.; Maynard, H.D.; Schulz, G.R. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Patton, J.T.; Smith, D.W. Jr.; Wagener, K.B. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))
1992-12-30
The olefin metathesis reaction is of great synthetic utility in polymer chemistry. The recent development of ring-opening (ROMP) and acyclic diene (ADMET) metathesis polymerization reactions has opened new avenues for the synthesis of novel polymeric materials. Recently the authors used ADMET to synthesize several photochemically active poly(keto olefins) using the catalyst Mo(CHCMe[sub 2]Ph)(NAr)(OCMe(CF[sub 3])[sub 2])[sub 2] (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) (1) developed by Schrock and co-workers in 1990. In the course of that work, they discovered that neat samples of highly substituted dienes will cyclize quantitatively via metathesis to give difunctional five- and seven-membered rings instead of the expected linear polymer. Examples of substituted diene cyclizations by metathesis even in the presence of a solvent are rare. Their systematic exploitation in organic synthesis has therefore been limited to two recent studies by Fu and Grubbs, who cyclized several substituted diene ethers, amines, and amides to unsaturated oxygen and nitrogen heterocycles. Cyclization of unsubstituted dienes in various solvents has been reported, but complete conversion occurred in only a few cases. Formation of cyclic alkene oligomers from back-biting during the ROMP reaction is also known. The reactions reported here are unusual in that they are intermolecular between catalyst and substrate, yet can give 100% yield of product solely from the monomer in the absence of solvent. 13 refs.
Silicon-containing alka-1,3-dienes and their functional derivatives in organic synthesis
Stadnichuk, M. D.; Voropaeva, T. I.
1995-01-01
Data on the synthesis and chemical reactions of silicon-containing 1,3-dienes are surveyed for the first time in the present review. It is shown that the addition reactions of 1- and 2-triorganosilylalka-1,3-dienes and their derivatives are the most interesting and promising in fine organic synthesis. The application of the trialkylsilyl group as a protecting group and as a new reaction centre, which makes it possible to obtain carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bonds, is examined. It has been found that the double bonds remote from the silicon atom are the most reactive in addition reactions and that regardless of the nature of the reagent the attacking species always binds to the terminal carbon atom of the buta-1,3-diene fragment. The bibliography includes 329 references.
Oxidative Heck vinylation for the synthesis of complex dienes and polyenes.
Delcamp, Jared H; Gormisky, Paul E; White, M Christina
2013-06-12
We introduce an oxidative Heck reaction for selective complex diene and polyene formation. The reaction proceeds via oxidative Pd(II)/sulfoxide catalysis that retards palladium-hydride isomerizations which previously limited the Heck manifold's capacity for furnishing stereodefined conjugated dienes. Limiting quantities of nonactivated terminal olefins (1 equiv) and slight excesses of vinyl boronic esters (1.5 equiv) that feature diverse functionality can be used to furnish complex dienes and polyenes in good yields and excellent selectivities (generally E:Z = >20:1; internal:terminal = >20:1). Because this reaction only requires prior activation of a single vinylic carbon, improvements in efficiency are observed for synthetic sequences relative to ones featuring reactions that require activation of both coupling partners.
[2+2] cycloaddition of 1,3-dienes by visible light photocatalysis.
Hurtley, Anna E; Lu, Zhan; Yoon, Tehshik P
2014-08-18
[2+2] photocycloadditions of 1,3-dienes represent a powerful yet synthetically underutilized class of reactions. We report that visible light absorbing transition metal complexes enable the [2+2] cycloaddition of a diverse range of 1,3-dienes. The ability to use long-wavelength visible light is attractive because these reaction conditions tolerate the presence of sensitive functional groups that might be readily decomposed by the high-energy UVC radiation required for direct photoexcitation of 1,3-dienes. The resulting vinylcyclobutane products are poised for a variety of further diversification reactions, and this method is consequently expected to be powerfully enabling in the synthesis of complex organic targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ide, Regina M.; Imamura, Paulo M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: imam@iqm.unicamp.br; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica
2006-03-15
The absolute configurations of two natural diterpene butenolides were confirmed through the synthesis of ent-16-hydroxycleroda-4(18),13-dien-15,16-olide (2) and ent-cleroda-4(18),13-dien- 15,16-olide (3), enantiomers of the natural products, starting from (+)-hardwickiic acid (1). (author)
Preparation and Reaction Chemistry of Novel Silicon-Substituted 1,3-Dienes
Partha P. Choudhury
2015-09-01
Full Text Available 2-Silicon-substituted 1,3-dienes containing non transferrable groups known to promote transmetallation were prepared by Grignard chemistry and enyne metathesis. These dienes participated in one pot metathesis/Diels-Alder reactions in regio- and diastereoselective fashions. Electron-rich alkenes showed the fastest rates in metathesis reactions, and ethylene, a commonly used metathesis promoter slowed enyne metathesis. 2-Pyridyldimethylsilyl and 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted Diels-Alder cycloadducts participated in cross-coupling chemistry and the 2-thienyldimethylsilyl substituted cycloadducts underwent cross-coupling under very mild reaction conditions.
Gningue, Serigne Mbaye
2016-01-01
This paper is written in honor of Zoltan Paul Dienes, an internationally renowned mathematician and educator, who passed away in January 2014. It is an attempt to describe, analyze and apply Dienes' theory on how mathematical structures can be taught by applying his four principles of learning upon which he believed a teacher can base concept…
Studies on ethylene-propylene-diene rubber modification by N-chlorothio-N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide
Zhang, Hongmei; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.
2009-01-01
N-Chlorothiosulfonamides have been used to modify ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) to enhance the compatibility of EPDM in, e.g., natural rubber (NR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/EPDM blends for ozone resistance. N-Chlorothio-N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide (CTBBS) was selected as a representative for
Asymmetric Cyclization of N-Sulfonyl Alkenyl Amides Catalyzed by Iridium/Chiral Diene Complexes.
Nagamoto, Midori; Yanagi, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Takahiro; Yorimitsu, Hideki
2016-09-16
Iridium/chiral diene complexes efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric cyclization of N-sulfonyl alkenyl amides to give the corresponding 2-pyrrolidone derivatives with high enantioselectivity. A mechanistic study revealed that the reaction proceeds via nucleophilic attack of the amide on the alkene moiety.
Dien Hoetink. 'Bij benadering'. Biografie van een landbouw-juriste in crisis- en oorlogstijd
Kamp, van J.E.
2005-01-01
A woman with a university degree who makes a career outside of the home was rather exceptional in the first half of the twentieth century. This biography about Dien Hoetink (1904-1945) describes her legal work in Dutch agriculture between 1933 and 1945.It attemps to answer the ques
Li, Ruikun; Wen, Zhongqing; Wu, Na
2016-11-29
A highly enantioselective rhodium catalysed asymmetric arylation (RCAA) of nitroolefins with arylboronic acids is presented using a newly developed, C1-symmetric, non-covalent interacted, phellandrene derived, nordehydroabietyl amide-containing chiral diene under mild conditions. Stereoelectronic effects were studied, suggesting an activation of the bound substrate through the secondary amide as a hydrogen-bond donor.
Gong, Jian; Xie, Fuchun; Ren, Wenming; Chen, Hong; Hu, Youhong
2012-01-21
Domino reactions of 2-methyl substituted chromones containing an electron withdrawing group at the 3-position with chromone-fused dienes synthesized a diverse range of benzo[a]xanthones and complicated chromone derivatives. These multiple-step reactions result in either two or three new C-C bonds without a transition metal catalyst or an inert atmosphere.
Implicit Learning of Nonlocal Musical Rules: A Comment on Kuhn and Dienes (2005)
Desmet, Charlotte; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Lalitte, Philippe; Perruchet, Pierre
2009-01-01
In a recent study, G. Kuhn and Z. Dienes (2005) reported that participants previously exposed to a set of musical tunes generated by a biconditional grammar subsequently preferred new tunes that respected the grammar over new ungrammatical tunes. Because the study and test tunes did not share any chunks of adjacent intervals, this result may be…
Implicit Learning of Nonlocal Musical Rules: A Comment on Kuhn and Dienes (2005)
Desmet, Charlotte; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Lalitte, Philippe; Perruchet, Pierre
2009-01-01
In a recent study, G. Kuhn and Z. Dienes (2005) reported that participants previously exposed to a set of musical tunes generated by a biconditional grammar subsequently preferred new tunes that respected the grammar over new ungrammatical tunes. Because the study and test tunes did not share any chunks of adjacent intervals, this result may be…
Janusz Brzozowski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Zak, Michail
2008-01-01
A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).
Social group utility maximization
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Linda Lai
2010-01-01
This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...
Tallis, J; James, R S; Cox, V M; Duncan, M J
2017-01-01
Caffeine is a well-established performance enhancing nutritional supplement in a young healthy population, however far less is known about how its ergogenicity is affected by increasing age. A recent review has highlighted the value of studies examining the direct effect of caffeine on isolated skeletal muscle contractility, but the present work is the first to assess the direct effect of 70µM caffeine (physiological maximum) on the maximal power output of isolated mammalian muscle from an age range representing developmental to early ageing. Female CD1 mice were aged to 3, 10, 30 and 50 weeks (n = 20 in each case) and either whole EDL or a section of the diaphragm was isolated and maximal power output determined using the work loop technique. Once contractile performance was maximised, each muscle preparation was treated with 70µM caffeine and its contractile performance was measured for a further 60 minutes. In both mouse EDL and diaphragm 70µM caffeine treatment resulted in a significant increase in maximal muscle power output that was greatest at 10 or 30 weeks (up to 5% and 6% improvement respectively). This potentiation of maximal muscle power output was significantly lower at the early ageing time point, 50 weeks (up to 3% and 2% improvement respectively), and in mice in the developmental stage, at 3 weeks of age (up to 1% and 2% improvement respectively). Uniquely, the present findings indicate a reduced age specific sensitivity to the performance enhancing effect of caffeine in developmental and aged mice which is likely to be attributed to age related muscle growth and degradation, respectively. Importantly, the findings indicate that caffeine may still provide a substantial ergogenic aid in older populations which could prove important for improving functional capacity in tasks of daily living.
HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization
Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.
QIAN, Chang- Tao; WANG, Long-Cheng; CHEN，Rui-Fang
2001-01-01
Rcaction of chirai imines with Danishefsky' s diene in the presence of a catalytic amount (20 mol% ) of ytterbium trffiate afforded the corresponding hetero Diels-Alder adducts with a moderate to good diastereoselectivity.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
1,3-Dien-5-ynes: Versatile Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Carbo- and Heterocycles.
Aguilar, Enrique; Sanz, Roberto; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; García-García, Patricia
2016-07-27
1,3-Dien-5-ynes have been extensively used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide number of different carbo- and heterocycles. The aim of this review is to give an overview of their utility in organic synthesis, highlighting the variety of compounds that can be directly accessed from single reactions over these systems. Thus, cycloaromatization processes are initially commented, followed by reactions directed toward the syntheses of five-membered rings, other carbocycles and, finally, heterocycles. The diverse methodologies that have been developed for the synthesis of each of these types of compounds from 1,3-dien-5-ynes are presented, emphasizing the influence of the reaction conditions and the use of additional reagents in the outcome of the transformations.
Photochemical reactivity of polyenes: from dienes to rhodopsin, from microseconds to femtoseconds.
Liu, Robert S H; Hammond, George S
2003-08-01
In reviewing the photochemistry of polyenes (from dienes and trienes to the visual retinyl chromophore), we categorize condensed-phase photochemical reactivity of molecules into two groups: those from thermally equilibrated excited species and those from unequilibrated excited species. Classical theories on radiationless transitions are useful for rationalizing the reactivity of molecules belonging to the first set only. The second group includes many of the exciting ultrafast photochemical reactions reported recently for polyenes (including dienes and trienes), in some cases with rates faster than vibrational relaxation. Much of the excited singlet-state reactions of polyenes, including the Hula-twist mechanism of photoisomerization, have been integrated with concepts introduced in other ultrafast spectroscopic/photochemical studies. Taking into consideration the special environment of the retinyl chromophore in rhodopsin, we propose a new mechanism for the phototrigger that accounts for its unusually fast rate of isomerization.
Prachid SARAMOLEE
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In this research work, ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM composites were prepared by incorporating wood sawdust and carbon black on a 2 roll mill. The effect of wood sawdust content on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of EPDM composites were studied. When the size of wood sawdust was fixed, it was found that wood sawdust content had no effect on scorch time. The cure time, minimum torque and maximum torque increased with increasing wood sawdust content. Increasing the wood sawdust content tended to increase the hardness of the composites, but the tensile strength and elongation at break decreased, heat ageing resistance and ozone resistance slightly decreased. Moreover, the types and concentrations of coupling agents were compared between silane Si69 and epoxidized natural rubber, ENR-50 (50 % mol epoxide groups on the mechanical properties of EPDM composites. It was found that a silane Si69 concentration of 2.0 wt % of wood sawdust improved the mechanical properties of the EPDM composites but ENR-50 was not able to improve interfacial adhesion between the wood sawdust and EPDM matrix.
Goldfogel, Matthew J; Roberts, Courtney C; Manan, Rajith S; Meek, Simon J
2017-01-06
Catalytic intermolecular hydroalkylation of dienes with silyloxyfuran nucleophiles is reported. Reactions are catalyzed by 5 mol % of a (CDC)-Rh complex and proceed in up to 87% yield and 6:1 dr (syn/anti) to provide allylic butenolides bearing vicinal stereocenters. Reactions proceed with terminal aryl and alkyl dienes and with modified silyl enol ether nucleophiles including a thiophenone variant. Utility of the products is demonstrated in the synthesis of a polypropionate anti,syn-stereotriad.
Diene-ligated iridium catalyst for allylation reactions of ketones and imines.
Barker, Timothy J; Jarvo, Elizabeth R
2009-03-05
[Ir(cod)Cl](2) is a highly reactive catalyst for allylation reactions of ketones using allylboronic ester. Mechanistic experiments are consistent with formation of a nucleophilic allyliridium(I) complex that is activated by the diene ligand toward attack of a ketone. Aryl and alkyl ketones react smoothly at room temperature. Aldimines also undergo allylation under these reaction conditions, requiring increased reaction times relative to the corresponding ketones.
Alexander B. Surovtcev
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Results of researches on reception of pastelike high-filled compositions and estimation of their rheological properties with use cone – plate rheometer are presented. Liquid diene rubber with end hydroxyl groups (as binding, surfaceactive substance (PEAHENS and disperse filler are entered into structure of compositions. The estimation of sedimentation firmness of compositions and their fluidity in the range of pressure of shift 1 – 30 кPа and temperatures from 30 to 50°С is executed. By results of an estimation of influence of concentration dependence of PEAHENS on a viscosity indicator it is shown that its introduction in a pastelike composition at level 0.5 mas. % is expedient. For considered in work low polar liquid diene rubber more effective decrease in viscosity of a pastelike composition provide polyoxypropylene, especially on the average an interval of pressure of shift which basically can be used in practice. Slightly concede them titanorganic derivatives of oligomer polyoxypropylene. The greatest effect of decrease in viscosity for compositions will reach at use oligomer polyoxypropylene with molecular weight 480, in this case viscosity of a composition is at level of 10 Pa ⋅ s for rather wide interval of pressure of shift.
MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK
Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims
Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics
1987-03-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.
Swanepoel, Konrad J
2011-01-01
A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim
Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN
2015-01-01
3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.
Maximal subgroups of finite groups
S. Srinivasan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.
Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
2000-01-01
of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...
Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2013-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Maximizing entropy over Markov processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2014-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
The direct oxidative diene cyclization and related reactions in natural product synthesis
Juliane Adrian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The direct oxidative cyclization of 1,5-dienes is a valuable synthetic method for the (diastereoselective preparation of substituted tetrahydrofurans. Closely related reactions start from 5,6-dihydroxy or 5-hydroxyalkenes to generate similar products in a mechanistically analogous manner. After a brief overview on the history of this group of transformations and a survey on mechanistic and stereochemical aspects, this review article provides a summary on applications in natural product synthesis. Moreover, current limitations and future directions in this area of chemistry are discussed.
Chloridocyclohexyl[(1,2,5,6-η-cycloocta-1,5-diene]platinum(II
Kwang Ha
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pt(C6H11Cl(C8H12], the PtII ion lies in a distorted square-planar environment defined by the Cl and cyclohexyl C atoms and the mid-points of the two π-coordinated double bonds of cycloocta-1,5-diene. As a result of the different trans influences of the Cl atom and the cyclohexyl group, the Pt—C bonds trans to the cyclohexyl group are longer than those trans to the Cl atom.
Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon
2010-01-01
Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Lai, Linda
2010-01-01
... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...
Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?
Linda Lai
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,
Dalia L. Diab
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Rh-Catalyzed rearrangement of vinylcyclopropane to 1,3-diene units attached to N-heterocycles
Alberto Brandi
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Dienes embedded in quinolizidine and indolizidine structures can be prepared in four steps from cyclic nitrones and bicyclopropylidene. The key intermediates α-spirocyclopropanated N-heterocyclic ketones, generated via a domino 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition/thermal rearrangement sequence, were converted by Wittig methylenation to the corresponding vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs, which underwent rearrangement to 1,3-dienes in the presence of the Wilkinson Rh(I complex under microwave heating. The previously unexplored Rh(I-catalyzed opening of the VCP moiety embedded in an azapolycyclic system occurs at high temperature (110–130 °C to afford the corresponding 1,3-dienes in moderate yield (34–53%.
Gomez, Iñaki; Leonet, Olatz; Blazquez, J Alberto; Mecerreyes, David
2016-12-20
Lithium-sulfur batteries are among the most promising next-generation battery systems due to the high capacity of sulfur as cathodic material. Beyond its interesting intrinsic properties, sulfur possesses a very low conductivity and complex electrochemistry, which involves the high solubility of the lithium sulfides in the electrolyte. These two characteristics are at the core of a series of limitations of its performance as active cathode material, which leads to batteries with low cyclability. Recently, inverse vulcanized sulfur was shown to retain capacity far better than elemental sulfur, leading to batteries with excellent cyclability. Nevertheless, the diene co-monomers used so far in the inverse vulcanization process are man-made molecules. Herein, a tentative work on exploring inverse vulcanization using two naturally available monomers, diallyl sulfide and myrcene, is presented. The inverse vulcanization of sulfur was successfully completed, and the resulting polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Afterwards these polymers were tested as cathodic materials in lithium-sulfur cells. The sulfur-natural dienes materials exhibited high capacity at different C rates and high lifetime over 200 cycles with very high capacity retention at a moderate C rate of C/5. Altogether, these materials made from inexpensive and abundant chemicals are an excellent option as sustainable materials for electrochemical energy storage.
Kalinin, V.N.; Melnik, O.A.; Sakharova, A.A.; Frunze, T.M.; Zakharkin, L.I.; Borunova, N.V.; Sharf, V.Z.
1985-11-01
Methylmethacrylate copolymers with 1-isopropenyl-(3)-1,2-dicarbamdecaborate salts were synthesized which, after reaction with Rh(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/Cl were converted to polymeric phosphine-carborane complexes. Their catalytic properties in hydrogenation and isomerization of olefins and dienes were investigated. These catalysts were found to be highly active. Hydrogenation of dienes was not as rapid as that of olefins. The rates depended significantly on the solvent used. The unique aspect of this catalytic system is the fact that, even at the early synthetic stage, the labile hydrogen atom of dicarbamdecaborate anion shifts toward Rh forming a monohydride complex. 6 references, 3 figures.
Maximizing ROI with yield management
Neil Snyder
2001-01-01
.... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...
Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?
John List; Charles Mason
2009-01-01
Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
A. Garmroodi Asil
2017-09-01
To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.
FEMA expert panel review of p-mentha-1,8-dien-7-al genotoxicity testing results
Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Taylor, Sean V.
2016-01-01
p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was req
Jeong, Keuk Min; Hong, Yeo Joo; Saha, Prosenjit; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Kuk
2014-11-01
In this study, a composite has been prepared by mixing waste rubber, such as ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer and low-density poly ethylene foaming, with supercritical carbon dioxide. In order to optimise the foaming process of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer-low-density poly ethylene composite, the variations of pressure and temperature on the foamed Microcell formation were studied. As indicated in scanning electron microscope photographs, the most uniform microcellular pattern was found at 200 bar and 100 °C using 30% by weight of waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer. Carbon dioxide could not be dissolved uniformly during foaming owing to extensive cross-linking of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer used for the composite. As a result the presence of un-uniform microcells after foaming were observed in the composite matrix to impart inferior mechanical properties of the composite. This problem was solved with uniform foaming by increasing the cross-link density of low-density poly ethylene using 1.5 parts per hundred dicumyl peroxide that enhances composite tensile and compressive strength up to 57% and 15%, respectively. The composite has the potential to be used as a foaming mat for artificial turf.
Hiroko Tsuruta
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artemisinin derivatives are the key active ingredients in Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs, the most effective therapies available for treatment of malaria. Because the raw material is extracted from plants with long growing seasons, artemisinin is often in short supply, and fermentation would be an attractive alternative production method to supplement the plant source. Previous work showed that high levels of amorpha-4,11-diene, an artemisinin precursor, can be made in Escherichia coli using a heterologous mevalonate pathway derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the reconstructed mevalonate pathway was limited at a particular enzymatic step. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining improvements in the heterologous mevalonate pathway with a superior fermentation process, commercially relevant titers were achieved in fed-batch fermentations. Yeast genes for HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase (the second and third enzymes in the pathway were replaced with equivalent genes from Staphylococcus aureus, more than doubling production. Amorpha-4,11-diene titers were further increased by optimizing nitrogen delivery in the fermentation process. Successful cultivation of the improved strain under carbon and nitrogen restriction consistently yielded 90 g/L dry cell weight and an average titer of 27.4 g/L amorpha-4,11-diene. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Production of >25 g/L amorpha-4,11-diene by fermentation followed by chemical conversion to artemisinin may allow for development of a process to provide an alternative source of artemisinin to be incorporated into ACTs.
Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity
Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy
2006-01-01
The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.
Surface characterisation of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber upon exposure to aqueous acidic solution
Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, P.
2006-01-01
but significantly different with respect to molar mass and the presence of long chain branching. Both rubbers contained 5-ethylidene-2-norbomene (ENB) as diene. Solution cast films of pure EPDM samples were exposed in two different acidic solutions, viz. chromosulphuric (Cr (VI)/H2SO4) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4....... Furthermore, 20% Cr (VI)/H2SO4 also attacked the allylic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds of ENB resulting in more oxygenated species on the surface compared to 20% H2SO4 under identical conditions. Cr (VI) in the 20% Cr (VI)/H2SO4 was found to play an important role in alteration of surface chemistry. Studies...
Gas-Phase Synthesis of 1-Silacyclopenta-2,4-diene.
Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B; Thomas, Aaron M; Sun, Bing-Jian; Chou, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Agnes H H; Kaiser, Ralf I
2016-07-01
Silole (1-silacyclopenta-2,4-diene) was synthesized for the first time by the bimolecular reaction of the simplest silicon-bearing radical, silylidyne (SiH), with 1,3-butadiene (C4 H6 ) in the gas phase under single-collision conditions. The absence of consecutive collisions of the primary reaction product prevents successive reactions of the silole by Diels-Alder dimerization, thus enabling the clean gas-phase synthesis of this hitherto elusive cyclic species from acyclic precursors in a single-collision event. Our method opens up a versatile and unconventional path to access a previously rather obscure class of organosilicon molecules (substituted siloles), which have been difficult to access through classical synthetic methods.
Mohamad Irfan Fathurrohman
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The vulcanization kinetics of Ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber thermal insulation was studied by using rheometer under isothermal condition at different temperatures. The rheometry analysis was used to determining the cure kinetic parameters and predicting the cure time of EPDM thermal insulation. The experimental results revealed that the curing curves of EPDM thermal insulation were marching and the optimum curing time decreased with increasing the temperature. The kinetic parameters were determined from the autocatalytic model showed close fitting with the experimental results, indicating suitability of autocatalytic model in characterizing the cure kinetics. The activation energy was determined from the autocatalytic model is 46.3661 kJ mol-1. The cure time were predicted from autocatalytic model and the obtained kinetic parameter by using the relationship among degree of conversion, cure temperature, and cure time. The predictions of cure time provide information for the actual curing characteristic of EPDM thermal insulation. The mechanical properties of EPDM thermal insulation with different vulcanization temperatures showed the same hardness, tensile strength and modulus at 300%, except at temperature 70 °C, while the elongation at breaking point decreased with increasing temperature of vulcanization. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 8th April 2014; Revised: 7th January 2015; Accepted: 16th January 2015How to Cite: Fathurrohman, M.I., Maspanger, D.R., Sutrisno, S. (2015. Vulcanization Kinetics and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Thermal Insulation. Bulletin of Chemi-cal Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2, 104-110. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.6682.104-110Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.6682.104-110
BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL SINGULAR INTEGRALS
CHEN JIECHENG; ZHU XIANGRONG
2005-01-01
The authors study the singular integrals under the Hormander condition and the measure not satisfying the doubling condition. At first, if the corresponding singular integral is bounded from L2 to itseff, it is proved that the maximal singu lar integral is bounded from L∞ to RBMO except that it is infinite μ-a.e. on Rd. A sufficient condition and a necessary condition such that the maximal singular integral is bounded from L2 to itself are also obtained. There is a small gap between the two conditions.
Bolos, C A; Papazisis, K T; Kortsaris, A H; Voyatzi, S; Zambouli, D; Kyriakidis, D A
2002-01-01
The reaction of [Cu(dien)NO(3)]NO(3) with 2-amino-5-methylthiazole (2A5MT), 2-amino-2-thiazoline (2A-2Tzn), imidazole (im), N,N'-thiocarbonyldiimidazole (Tcdim), 2-aminothiazole (2AT) and 2-ethylimidazole (2Etim), gave a new series of mixed-ligand compounds of the general formula [Cu(dien)(B)NO(3))]NO(3); (dien, diethylenetriamine; B, 2A5MT, 2A-2Tzn, im, Tcdim, 2AT and 2Etim). The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductivity and magnetic measurements, as well as by electronic and IR spectral studies. According to the above measurements the possible structure of the compounds is the square pyramidal in the solid state and the square planar in aqueous solution. We tested all complexes for antiproliferative (cytostatic and cytotoxic) activity against a panel of cell lines (HeLa, L929, HT-29 and T47D). All [(dien)Cu(B)NO(3))](NO(3)) complexes had an activity against colon cancer cells (HT-29), inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, an effect that for most of the complexes could be attributed to p34cdc2 inhibition by tyrosine-phosphorylation and/or to induction of (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) p21(WAF1). Other cell lines were resistant to the majority of the complexes, except [Cu(dien)(2A5MT)NO(3))](NO(3)), that had showed the highest anti-proliferative activity against HT-29 cells also. The predilection for colon cancer cells and the relatively low toxicity against normal (L929) cells justify further investigation of this group of compounds.
Two new ceramides from the fruit pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms.
Yan, Zhaowei; Liu, Jinping; Lu, Dan; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Groundwater, Paul; Li, Pingya
2014-01-01
Two new ceramides, (3S,4S,5R)-3-octadecanoylamino-4-hydroxy-5-dodecane-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran (1) and (3S,4S,5R)-3-[(2R)-2-hydroxyhexacosanoylamino]-4-hydroxy-5-[(4E)-dodecane-4-ene]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofuran (2), together with eight known compounds, eleutheroside A (3), eleutheroside B (4), eleutheroside E (5), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (6), 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (8), stigmasterol (9) and rutin (10), were isolated from the fruit pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms. Their structures were elucidated by means of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic methods (1D, 2D NMR and MS).
Siti Fairus M. Yusoff
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The 14-membered heterocyclic 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradeca-7,14-diene, [(Me6[14]N4diene], salts with structural formula of [(Me6[14]N4diene]Br2(H2O2, [(Me6[14]N4dieneCl2](H2O3, Me6[14]N4diene.(ClO42, Me6[14]N4diene.(PF62¬ and Me6[14]N4diene.(NO32 have been synthesized without the necessity of a template. The salts were characterized by FTIR, and NMR spectroscopic techniques. X-ray study showed that the macrocyclic cation consists of a pair of protonated amines and azomethine nitrogen atoms located diagonally and opposite to each other. Only the macrocylic bromide and perchlorate salts showed activity against gram-positive E. faecalis and gram-negative E. Coli.
Understanding maximal repetitions in strings
Crochemore, Maxime
2008-01-01
The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.
Xu, Silong; Zhu, Shaoying; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai; Dou, Jianwei
2014-04-18
A catalyst-free allylic alkylation of stabilized phosphorus ylides with allylic carbonates via a regioselective SN2' process is presented. Subsequent one-pot Wittig reaction with both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as ketenes provides structurally diverse skipped dienes (1,4-dienes) in generally high yields and moderate to excellent stereoselectivity with flexible substituent patterns. This one-pot SN2' allylation-Wittig strategy constitutes a convenient and efficient synthetic method for highly functionalized skipped dienes from readily available starting materials.
Note on maximal distance separable codes
YANG Jian-sheng; WANG De-xiu; JIN Qing-fang
2009-01-01
In this paper, the maximal length of maximal distance separable(MDS)codes is studied, and a new upper bound formula of the maximal length of MDS codes is obtained. Especially, the exact values of the maximal length of MDS codes in some parameters are given.
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
2014-07-22
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Nishimura, Takahiro; Ebe, Yusuke; Hayashi, Tamio
2013-02-13
Ir-catalyzed [3 + 2] annulation of cyclic N-sulfonyl ketimines with 1,3-dienes, in which an aryliridium intermediate is formed via C-H activation, gives aminoindane derivatives in high yields with high regio- and diastereoselectivity.
Wagh, Sachin Bhausaheb; Liu, Rai-Shung
2015-10-28
Gold-catalyzed synthesis of buta-1,3-dien-2-yl esters by the reaction of propargyl esters with vinylazides is described; the reaction mechanism is postulated to involve a vinyl attack of vinylazides at alkenyl gold carbenes.
Mitra, Susanta; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg
2009-01-01
This work highlights an attempt to characterize the degree and nature of long-chain branching (LCB) in an unknown sample of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM). Two EPDM rubbers selected for this study were comparable in comonomer compositions but significantly different with respect to molar...... mass and the presence of LCB. Both rubbers contained 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) as diene. Solution cast films of pure EPDM samples were used for different characterization techniques. 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR were used for assessing the comonomer ratios and LCB. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC...... findings and the available theories, an attempt was made to identify the chemical nature and degree of LCB. This study reveals the possibility of detailed characterization of molecular architecture of EPDM containing LCB by comparing with an essentially linear EPDM in light of an existing theory. © 2009...
Crystal structure of trans-1,4-bis[(trimethylsilyloxy]cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dicarbonitrile
Florian Glöcklhofer
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H22N2O2Si2, contains one half of the molecule, which is completed by inversion symmetry. The cyclohexa-2,5-diene ring is exactly planar and reflects the bond-length distribution of a pair of located double bonds [1.3224 (14 Å] and two pairs of single bonds [1.5121 (13 and 1.5073 (14 Å]. The tetrahedral angle between the sp3-C atom and the two neighbouring sp2-C atoms in the cyclohexa-2,5-diene ring is enlarged by about 3°.
Kuznetsov, N. Yu; Bubnov, Yu N.
2015-07-01
The review presents a historical excursion into catalytic alkene metathesis, covering the problems of history of the discovery of this process, as well as investigations on the properties, structure and reactivity of the most popular ruthenium catalysts for metathesis, mechanism of their action and decomposition. The main part covers studies devoted to the syntheses of bridged azabicyclic and 1-azaspirocyclic compounds comprising the intramolecular metathesis of dienes as the key step. The formation of a bicyclic skeleton of a series of natural bridged (cocaine, ferruginine, calystegines, and anatoxin-a) and spiro (pinnaic acids, halichlorine, hystrionicotoxin, and cephalotaxine) azabicycles, as well as their analogues and compounds with larger rings is demonstrated. The methods for the synthesis of diene precursors and the conditions for final assembling of the bicyclic compounds are considered in detail. The generalization of the literature data allows one to efficiently carry out the mentioned process taking into account the most important features. The bibliography includes 129 references.
Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 with mixed-valent Ge centers
Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo; Lei, Xiao-Wu
2013-10-01
One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien)2Mn]Ge2S4 (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P212121 (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å3 and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge2S4]2- anionic chain and a [(dien)2Mn]2+ complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge2S4]2- chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV-vis spectra.
Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste
NIGREY,PAUL J.
2000-02-01
This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.
Carsten Stage
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Socialkonstruktivismen har været genstand for heftig kritik for at understøtte en form for begrebsrelativisme, der påstår, at virkeligheden skabes af vores begreber om den. Et delmål med artiklen er at gøre op med denne karikatur af konstruktivismen som en homogen teoretisk position, der reducerer alt til sprog og italesættelse eller indebærer en tro på, at alle identiteter blot er effekter af begreber. Dette gøres ved at præsentere og diskutere teorier af bl.a. Michel Foucault, Ernesto Laclau og Chantal Mouffe, Judith Butler, Stuart Hall, Karl Popper og Richard Jenkins med det formål at kunne skelne mellem forskellige former for, eller grader af, konstruktivisme. De forskellige konstruktivismeformers udsigelseskraft diskuteres dernæst gennem en analyse af et medieobjekt – Eva Dien Brine Markvoorts sygdomsblog 65 Red Roses.
Asymptotics of robust utility maximization
Knispel, Thomas
2012-01-01
For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...
Maximal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana Sanwong; R.P. Sullivan
2007-01-01
In 1976 Howie proved that a finite congruence-free semigroup is a simple group if it has at least three elements but no zero elementInfinite congruence-free semigroups are far more complicated to describe, but some have been constructed using semigroups of transformations (for example, by Howie in 1981 and by Marques in 1983)Here, forcertain semigroups S of numbers and of transformations, we determine all congruences p on S such that S/p is congruence-free, that is, we describe all maximal congruences on such semigroups S.
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.
Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery
Jiang, Minghui
2009-01-01
In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...
Maximal right smooth extension chains
Huang, Yun Bao
2010-01-01
If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...
Jayesh J. Ahire
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Cholesterol biotransformation by Lactobacillus helveticus CD6 was observed in minimal medium supplemented with 3 mM cholesterol when grown for 120 h at 37 °C. Its gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS showed production of cholesta-4, 6-dien-3-ol and cholest-5-en-3-ol (3.beta with 12 U ∕mg cholesterol oxidase-like enzyme activity. The cholesterol assimilation was evaluated at varied concentrations of bile salt in MRS medium. The cell survival and cholesterol assimilation was found to be adversely affected in presence of bile salt. Microscopic studies revealed changed cell morphology when grown with cholesterol. The cell adhesion properties like autoaggregation, microbial adhesion to solvents where found to be affected by cholesterol. The 7.49 % cell adhesion to ethyl acetate indicates the decrease in electron accepting properties of cell surface, while 9 % decrease in xylene adhesion and 13 % decrease in autoaggregation was observed which would be helpful in cholesterol lowering when supplemented in the form of probiotic preparation.
The maximal D = 4 supergravities
Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)
2007-06-15
All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.
Maximizing profit using recommender systems
Das, Aparna; Ricketts, Daniel
2009-01-01
Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based solely on the customer's past purchases, product ratings and demographic data without considering the profitability the items being recommended. In this work we study the question of how a vendor can directly incorporate the profitability of items into its recommender so as to maximize its expected profit while still providing accurate recommendations. Our approach uses the output of any traditional recommender system and adjust them according to item profitabilities. Our approach is parameterized so the vendor can control how much the recommendation incorporating profits can deviate from the traditional recommendation. We study our approach under two settings and show that it achieves approximately 22% more profit than traditional recommendations.
The maximal D=5 supergravities
de Wit, Bernard; Trigiante, M; Wit, Bernard de; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario
2007-01-01
The general Lagrangian for maximal supergravity in five spacetime dimensions is presented with vector potentials in the \\bar{27} and tensor fields in the 27 representation of E_6. This novel tensor-vector system is subject to an intricate set of gauge transformations, describing 3(27-t) massless helicity degrees of freedom for the vector fields and 3t massive spin degrees of freedom for the tensor fields, where the (even) value of t depends on the gauging. The kinetic term of the tensor fields is accompanied by a unique Chern-Simons coupling which involves both vector and tensor fields. The Lagrangians are completely encoded in terms of the embedding tensor which defines the E_6 subgroup that is gauged by the vectors. The embedding tensor is subject to two constraints which ensure the consistency of the combined vector-tensor gauge transformations and the supersymmetry of the full Lagrangian. This new formulation encompasses all possible gaugings.
Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization
Abdallah, A Nait
2012-01-01
Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.
杨丽; 李菁; 刘翠红; 许定舟; 李宇; 钟鸣
2014-01-01
Objective To achieve online detection of the Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. concentration process using the AOTF near infrared spectroscopy. Methods The near infrared spectroscopy of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. in the concentration process was obtained with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) near-infrared spectrometer. Meanwhile the real-time sample was measured using off-line UV spectrophotometer. The calibration models were built up by adopting the first-order differential equation and partial least-squares (PLS1) and the accuracy of the models was eval-uated through external validation and internal validation. Results The near-infrared spectroscopy data and the off-line UV-detected data were correlated and the result was satisfactory. The correlation coefficient was 0.98. The relative de-viation of the flavonoids concentration was 0.596 mg/mL via internal validation and 1.380 mg/mL via external validation using the established model, which satisfied the demands of the concentration progress. Conclusion AOTF near-in-frared spectroscopy technology provides effective real-time monitoring on the product quality, solving the problems of hysteresis with off-line detection.%目的：研究声光可调滤光器(AOTF)近红外光谱技术，以实现淫羊藿浓缩过程的在线检测。方法采用AOTF近红外光谱仪，在淫羊藿提取液的浓缩工艺实时采集近红外光谱，通过实时取样，紫外分光光度法离线检测。通过一阶微分和偏最小二乘法(PLS1)建立校正模型，利用外部验证和内部验证的方法考察模型预测的准确性。结果经AOTF近红外光谱技术得到的光谱数据和离线检测数据关联性很好，相关系数达到0.98；所建立模型在预测淫羊藿浓缩过程中总黄酮含量时的绝对偏差，内部验证为0.596 mg/mL，外部验证为1.380 mg/mL，均符合浓缩过程中能接受的偏差范围。结论 AOTF近红外光谱技术在实际生产过程中可有效实现实时在
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot, beeping nodes receive no feedback, while silent nodes can only differentiate between none of its neighbors beeping, or at least one of its neighbors beeping. We start by proving a lower bound that shows that in this model, it is not possible to locally converge to an MIS in sub-polynomial time. We then study four different relaxations of the model which allow us to circumvent the lower bound and find an MIS in polylogarithmic time. First, we show that if a polynomial upper bound on the network size is known, it is possi...
Maximal switchability of centralized networks
Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-08-01
We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, Peter
2006-01-01
The influence of two aqueous acidic environments on two types of pure ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber (i.e., elastomer) thin films is studied. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) results revealed the formation of several oxygenated species...... formation on the surface of EPDM rubbers compared to 20% H2SO4 under identical conditions. Complex formation on the surface of EPDM samples exposed to 20% Cr(VI)/H2SO4 through reactions of carboxylic groups (generated due to EPDM degradation) with Cr(III) (formed due to reduction of Cr(VI)) was also evident...
Synthesis of 1,7-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-4E,6E-dien-3-one
XU,Guang-Bing; LI,Shao-Bai
2004-01-01
@@ Diarylheptanoids, most of which appearing in the areas of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, super-oxide scavenging and anti-hepatotoxic effects, constitute a distinct group of metabolites of natural plants characterized by two aromatic rings linked by a linear seven aliphatic chain. We have investigated this kind of compounds and made some progress.[1]1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)hepta-4E,6E-dien-3-one (1) was firstly isolated from the seeds of Alpinia blepharocalyx.[2] So far the synthesis of the compound has not been reported yet. Herein, we report the synthesis of compound 1. The synthetic route is outlined in Scheme 1.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B, E-mail: agrawal@iopb.res.i, E-mail: bpradhan@iopb.res.i [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 005 (India)
2010-06-11
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo [Theory Center, KEK,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particles and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Masato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Frérot, Eric; Velluz, Alain; Decorzant, Erik; Naef, Regula
2006-01-01
The presence of two unusual, recently identified terpene acids, i.e., 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (1) and 4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (2), was now also confirmed in (Swiss) linden honey, after solid-phase extraction and HPLC purification. NMR Spectroscopy, in combination with UPLC/MS analysis, showed the presence of several glycosides of 1, which accounted for ca. 0.6 weight-% of the honey, as quantified by UPLC-UV. The major 'glycoside' of 1, compound 5, could be isolated and identified by 2D-NMR experiments as the corresponding beta-gentiobiosyl ester (rather than the classical compound with a glycosidic bond between an aglycone OH group and the sugar). The same diglycosides found in linden honey were also detected in linden nectar; also, chestnut and fir honeys contained these glycosides in minor quantities, but not colza, acacia, or dandelion honeys (Table 2).
Ha Bui Manh
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Traditional markets play a major role in socio-economics and constitutes a significant aspect of Vietnamese culture. However, wastewater streams discharged from the markets are generally characterized by a lot of inorganic nutrients and organic substances originated from fresh food processing units. They could lead to serious water contamination if discharged without proper treatment. This study applied microalgae Chlorella sp. for eliminating inorganic nutrients (NO3−-N, NH4+-N and PO43−-P and organic carbon (Chemical oxygen demand-COD from wastewater of the Binh Dien market. The removal efficiencies reached for NH4+-N > 86%, for NO3−-N > 72%, and for PO43−-P > 69%, respectively, at algal density of 49 × 104 cell mL−1, and for COD > 96% at algal density of 35 × 104 cell mL−1 after five cultivating days. The effluence satisfied the Vietnamese standard, column B, of the National technical regulation on industrial wastewater (QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT. The results demonstrated that the culture system composed of green algal Chlorella sp. could be a potential candidate for the removal of nutrients and organic carbon by a wastewater treatment process from the Binh Dien market.
Moreno-Couranjou, Maryline; Manakhov, Anton; Boscher, Nicolas D; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Choquet, Patrick
2013-09-11
In this paper, we report a new and easily up-scalable dry chemical method to functionalize with diene and dienophile groups a large range of surfaces, such as metal, polymer, or glass, and we demonstrate the potentiality of this technique to realize thermally responsive adhesion between these materials. A complete and extensive surface chemistry analysis of the grafted surfaces, based on the deposition of an anhydride-rich thin plasma polymer layer by using an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma process, and its subsequent gas phase aminolysis reaction with specific diene or dienophile compound is discussed. The optimization of the assembling condition for these tailored surfaces has led to achieve a Diels-Alder adhesion force up to 0.6 N/mm at ambient temperature, which can be reduced by a factor of 50 when the retro Diels-Alder is ignited at a heating temperature around 200 °C. The study of the failure interface produced after peeling tests is presented and a mechanism of failure is proposed, based on forensic analyses involving surface analytical techniques such as XPS, ToF-SIMS, and SEM combined to AFM analyses for the retrieving of chemical and morphological information.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available A comparative study on the self-assembled nanostructured morphology and the rheological and mechanical properties of four different triblock copolymers, based on poly(styrene-block-diene-block-styrene and poly(styrene-block-diene-block-styrene matrices, and of their respective nanocomposites with 1 wt% silver nanoparticles, is reported in this work. In order to obtain well-dispersed nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix, dodecanethiol was used as surfactant, showing good affinity with both nanoparticles and the polystyrene phase of the matrices as predicted by the solubility parameters calculated based on Hoftyzer and Van Krevelen theory. The block copolymer with the highest PS content shows the highest tensile modulus and tensile strength, but also the smallest elongation at break. When silver nanoparticles treated with surfactant were added to the block copolymer matrices, each system studied shows higher mechanical properties due to the good dispersion and the good interface of Ag nanoparticles in the matrices. Furthermore, it has been shown that semiempirical models such as Guth and Gold equation and Halpin-Tsai model can be used to predict the tensile modulus of the analyzed nanocomposites.
Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi
2013-06-26
Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.
Atkinson, Manza B J; Halasz, Ivan; Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Dinnebier, Robert E; Mariappan, S V Santhana; Sokolov, Anatoliy N; MacGillivray, Leonard R
2011-01-07
A bicyclobutyl that bears six carboxylic acid groups results from a trimerisation of a diene diacid in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffraction and a co-crystallisation are used to solve the structure of the diene and elucidate the stereochemistry of the bicyclobutyl, respectively.
Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.
Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A
2014-03-01
Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo.
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic resistance loadings.
Walker, Simon; Davis, Lisa; Avela, Janne; Häkkinen, Keijo
2012-06-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic loadings, known to cause different adaptations underlying strength gain during training. Thirteen healthy, untrained males performed two leg press loadings, one week apart, consisting of 15 sets of 1 repetition maximum (MAX) and 5 sets of 10 repetition maximums (HYP). Concentric load and muscle activity, electromyography (EMG) amplitude and median frequency, was assessed throughout each set. Additionally, maximal bilateral isometric force and muscle activity was assessed pre-, mid-, and up to 30 min post-loading. Concentric load during MAX was decreased after set 10 (Pmuscle activity during HYP loading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
Sampling and Representation Complexity of Revenue Maximization
Dughmi, Shaddin; Han, Li; Nisan, Noam
2014-01-01
We consider (approximate) revenue maximization in auctions where the distribution on input valuations is given via "black box" access to samples from the distribution. We observe that the number of samples required -- the sample complexity -- is tightly related to the representation complexity of an approximately revenue-maximizing auction. Our main results are upper bounds and an exponential lower bound on these complexities.
Lisonek, Petr
1996-01-01
our classifications confirmthe maximality of previously known sets, the results in E^7 and E^8are new. Their counterpart in dimension larger than 10is a set of unit vectors with only two values of inner products in the Lorentz space R^{d,1}.The maximality of this set again follows from a bound due...
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...
Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads
Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
2017-01-01
In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.
Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter
2014-06-07
Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Maximizing hydrogen production by cyanobacteria
Bothe, H.; Winkelmann, S.; Boison, G. [Botanical Inst., The Univ. of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)
2008-03-15
When incubated anaerobically, in the light, in the presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and high concentrations of H{sub 2}, both Mo-grown Anabaena variabilis and either Mo- or V-grown Anabaena azotica produce large amounts of H{sub 2} in addition to the H{sub 2} initially added. In contrast, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-reduction is diminished under these conditions. The additional H{sub 2}-production mainly originates from nitrogenase with the V-enzyme being more effective than the Mo-protein. This enhanced H{sub 2}-production in the presence of added H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} should be of interest in approaches to commercially exploit solar energy conversion by cyanobacterial photosynthesis for the generation of molecular hydrogen as a clean energy source. (orig.)
Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan
2015-10-01
Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity.
Müller, Liz Girardi; de Andrade Salles, Luisa; Sakamoto, Satchie; Stein, Ana Cristina; Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Cassel, Eduardo; Vargas, Rubem Figueiró; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze; von Poser, Gilsane Lino
2012-01-01
Valepotriates (epoxy iridoid esters) represent an important group of constituents that contribute to pharmacological effects for the genus Valeriana. Storage and extraction of valepotriates is a demanding task, as these compounds are thermolabile and unstable: even when decomposition products are not formed, isovaleric acid liberation from the iridoid nucleus originate compounds with less complex substituents. To study the influence of time and storage conditions on the diene valepotriates (valtrate, isovaltrate, acevaltrate, 1-β-acevaltrate, 1-β-aceacevaltrate) content of the Valeriana glechomifolia (native to southern Brazil), extract was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction using CO₂ as the fluid (SF-CO₂). Above-ground and below-ground material of V. glechomifolia was extracted by SF-CO₂ (40 °C, 90 bar). The extract was stored under nitrogen atmosphere or solubilised in methanol. Valepotriates stability was accessed during storage at -20 °C over 8 months through reverse-phase HPLC (mobile phase acetonitrile:water 50:50 (v/v); 254 nm). A gradual increase in valtrate levels and decrease in acevaltrate, 1-β-acevaltrate and 1-β-aceacevaltrate, concentration were observed from the first month of storage for the dry extract. However, for the methanol solubilised extract these changes occurred only after the third month and were accompanied by reduction in isovaltrate levels and formation of decomposition products. SF-CO₂ showed high selectivity for valepotriates extraction. This is the first report on valepotriates molecular conversion, which was less accelerated when the extract was stored in methanol, but under this condition degradation products are also present, probably baldrinals, that are not observed in the dry extract. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Smith, Amos B; Xian, Ming
2005-11-10
[structure: see text] The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of seven totally synthetic analogues of the antitumor agent (+)-discodermolide are reported. Saturation of the terminal diene system, alteration of the substituents on the lactone, and alkylation of the C7-hydroxyl group reveal significant structure-activity relationships.
The first facile total synthesis of natural(3R,4R,6S)-3,4-epoxybisabola-7(14),10-dien-2-one
Zhi Yong Tang; Chen Xi Zhang; Li Jing Fang; Yu Lin Li
2009-01-01
3,4-Epoxybisabola-7(14),10-dien-2-one,a natural sesquiterpoind,was first synthesized from(-)-carvone through 7 steps,in an overall yield of 35.9%.The key step was the allylation and then a substrate-directable epoxidation was committed successfully.
Traore, Maminata; Ziegler, Hanne Lindvig; Olsen, C Erik
2009-01-01
A bioactivity guided fractionation of roots of Canthium multiflorum led to the isolation of the new ursenoic acid derivative 19alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-ursa-1,12-dien-28-oic acid (1), which showed antiplasmodial effect without inducing change of the shape of membranes of erythrocytes....
Tang, Xiang-Ying; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min
2010-11-19
Thermally induced electrocyclic reactions of methylenecyclopropane (MCP) methylene diketone derivatives afford a novel method for the synthesis of spiro[2.5]octa-3,5-dienes in moderate to good yields. Applying this methodology in a one-pot manner for the reactions of MCP aldehydes with 1,3-diketones, catalyzed by l-proline, also afforded the corresponding spiro derivatives.
Xia, Yamu; Xia, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo
2014-08-15
A palladium-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling of vinyl boronic acids and cyclic α-diazocarbonyl compounds has been reported. The reaction constitutes an efficient method for the synthesis of 1,3-diene compounds bearing a ring structure. Mechanistically, the reaction involves migratory insertion of palladium carbene as the key step.
Masschelein, Kurt G R; Stevens, Christian V
2007-11-23
gamma-Phosphono-alpha-aminobisphosphonates were synthesized from a new class of 4-phosphono-1-aza-1,3-dienes by the addition of dialkyl trimethylsilyl phosphites to these azadienes in the presence of acid. Depending on the steric demand of the group on nitrogen, double 1,2-addition or tandem 1,4-1,2-addition occurred.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...
Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration
Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand
2012-01-01
We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Peroxide value and the determination of conjugated dienes by UV absorption at 232 nm are normally applied alternatively for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds. The objective of this study was to define the relationship between both indexes during oil oxidation in sunflower oils with different degree of unsaturation. The oils studied were conventional sunflower oil (SO and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO. For comparative purposes, methyl linoleate, whose hydroperoxides are conjugated diene hydroperoxides, was also studied. Samples were oxidized at 40 °C in the dark. In order to accelerate oxidation at 40 °C, the natural antioxidants present in the oils were removed, and a high surface to oil volume ratio (0.8 cm^{-1} was applied to guarantee total air availability. Linear regressions with high correlation coefficients between peroxide values and conjugated dienes were found for the three lipid systems studied (0.9988, 0.9991 and 0.9977 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively. Significant differences in the slopes of the lines were found (0.0974, 0.0854 and 0.0503 for methyl linoleate, SO and HOSO, respectively, indicating the formation of non-conjugated hydroperoxides from oleic acid in the oils, even in the oxidation of SO with a high degree of unsaturation. Consequently, only peroxide value would be reliable for the evaluation of primary oxidation compounds in oils of different degree of unsaturation, unless adequate calibration lines (peroxide value versus conjugated dienes are applied.
El índice de peróxidos y la medida de dienos conjugados mediante la extinción específica a 232 nm se utilizan alternativamente para la evaluación de compuestos primarios de oxidación en estudios de oxidación de aceites y grasas. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las relaciones entre ambas medidas en aceites de girasol con diferente grado de in-saturación. Los aceites estudiados fueron aceite de girasol
Sawano, Takahiro; Ji, Pengfei; McIsaac, Alexandra R.; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Lin, Wenbin [UC
2016-02-01
We have designed the first chiral diene-based metal–organic framework (MOF), E₂-MOF, and postsynthetically metalated E₂-MOF with Rh(I) complexes to afford highly active and enantioselective single-site solid catalysts for C–C bond formation reactions. Treatment of E₂-MOF with [RhCl(C₂H₄)₂]₂ led to a highly enantioselective catalyst for 1,4-additions of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated ketones, whereas treatment of E₂-MOF with Rh(acac)(C₂H₄)₂ afforded a highly efficient catalyst for the asymmetric 1,2-additions of arylboronic acids to aldimines. Interestingly, E₂-MOF·Rh(acac) showed higher activity and enantioselectivity than the homogeneous control catalyst, likely due to the formation of a true single-site catalyst in the MOF. E₂-MOF·Rh(acac) was also successfully recycled and reused at least seven times without loss of yield and enantioselectivity.
Tahmina Haque
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This accounts introduces unique characteristics by adopting the acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET polymerization for synthesis of conjugated polymers, poly(arylene vinylenes, known as promising molecular electronics. The method is more suitable than the other methods in terms of atom efficiency affording defect-free, stereo-regular (exclusive trans polymers with well-defined chain ends; the resultant polymers possess better property than those prepared by the conventional methods. The chain ends (vinyl group in the resultant polymer prepared by ruthenium-carbene catalyst(s can be modified by treating with molybdenum-alkylidene complex (olefin metathesis followed by addition of various aldehyde (Wittig type cleavage, affording the end-functionalized polymers exclusively. An introduction of initiating fragment, the other conjugated segment, and one-pot synthesis of end-functionalized block copolymers, star shape polymers can be achieved by adopting this methodology.
Crystal structure of 4,4-dibromo-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-2-azabuta-1,3-diene-1-carbonitrile
Marwa Chaabene
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10Br2N2O2, represents an example of a planar π-conjugated 2-azabutadiene molecule, which is both an interesting starting material for further organic transformations and a potential ligand in organometallic coordination chemistry. Its metric molecular parameters are typical for the family of 2-azabuta-1,3-dienes not substituted at the (CH 3-position. In the crystal, the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0658 Å azadiene molecules form one-dimensional double-wide ribbons through intermolecular halogen bonds (C—Br...O and C—Br...Br—C, which then stack in a slipped manner through weak C—H...Br and π–π interactions to generate a three-dimensional network.
Bui, Hoang Bac; Ngo, Xuan Thanh; Khuong, The Hung; Golonka, Jan; Nguyen, Tien Dung; Song, Yungoo; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Yagi, Koshi
2017-01-01
Constraining the timing of fault zone origin and movement history is of fundamental geotectonic importance to understand the evolution and processes of the brittle fault structures. The authors present in this paper authigenic illite K-Ar age data from the fault gouge samples, collected from the Dien Bien Phu Fault (DBPF) in the Dien Bien province, Vietnam as well as in a major strike-slip fault zone in South-East Asia; all of which played important roles in the structural formation and geotectonic development of northwestern Vietnam. The gouge fault samples were separated into four grain-size fractions (groups, from 26 to 29 Ma and 130 Ma. The timing of the fault movements is defined at 26 ± 0.24 Ma, 29 ± 0.61 Ma, 130.1 ± 1.27 Ma and 130.7 ± 1.29 Ma. This indicates that the Dien Bien Phu Fault underwent two movements, first in the Early Cretaceous, with an age of about 130 Ma and second in the Oligocene (Paleogene), with an age of about 26-29 Ma. The ductile deformation of the DBPF terminated during the Early Cretaceous. These studies also indicate slow exhumation of the Dien Bien granitoid complex during the Cretaceous times. The Oligocene ages indicate that the DBPF had been reactivated by the SE extrusion and clock-wise rotation of the Indochina block, caused by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. This tectonic event led to the DBPF brittle-sinistral movement, causing the exhumation phase along the fault. This movement period (ca. 26-29 Ma) is coexistent with 600-700 km sinistral shearing along the Red River-Ailao Shan fault. This is the first report determining the absolute age constraints of multi-activated tectonic events, affecting the Dien Bien Phu Fault using the K-Ar dating method for the gouge samples.
Yue, Cheng-Yang; Yuan, Zhuang-Dong; Zhang, Lu-Ge; Wang, Ya-Bai; Liu, Guo-Dong; Gong, Liao-Kuo [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)
2013-10-15
One new manganese thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} (dien=diethylenetriamine), was prepared under mild solvothermal conditions and structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (no. 19) with a=9.113(4) Å, b=12.475(5) Å, c=17.077(7) Å, V=1941.5(15) Å{sup 3} and Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional (3D) network composed of a one-dimensional (1D) [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain and a [(dien){sub 2}Mn]{sup 2+} complex interconnected via various hydrogen bonds. The most interesting structural feature of the compound is the presence of two different oxidation states of germanium centers in the 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain, which is also supported by the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The optical property of the title compound has also been studied by UV–vis spectra. - Graphical abstract: One new thiogermanate, [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}, contains a one-dimensional [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} anionic chain with two different oxidation states of germanium centers. Display Omitted - Highlights: • One new manganese thiogermanate [(dien){sub 2}Mn]Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4} was prepared. • The compound features 1D [Ge{sub 2}S{sub 4}]{sup 2−} chain composed of [Ge{sup II}S{sub 4}] and [Ge{sup IV}S{sub 4}] tetrahedra. • The first example of inorganic–organic hybrid thiogermanates with mixed valent Ge centers.
HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL
HR Division
2000-01-01
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Maximizing throughput by evaluating critical utilization paths
Weeda, P.J.
1991-01-01
Recently the relationship between batch structure, bottleneck machine and maximum throughput has been explored for serial, convergent and divergent process configurations consisting of two machines and three processes. In three of the seven possible configurations a multiple batch structure maximize
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...
Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.
Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C
2004-04-01
We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups
M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2002-01-01
Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach
M.Rajalakshmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.
Natural selection and the maximization of fitness.
Birch, Jonathan
2016-08-01
The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the 'new' interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, on which the theorem is exactly true for any evolving population that satisfies some minimal assumptions. The second is the Formal Darwinism project, which forges links between gene frequency change and optimal strategy choice. In both cases, I argue that the results fail to establish a biologically significant maximization principle. I conclude that it may be a mistake to look for universal maximization principles justified by theory alone. A more promising approach may be to find maximization principles that apply conditionally and to show that the conditions were satisfied in the evolution of particular traits.
Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor C
2016-01-01
This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) performed before maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) would attenuate muscle damage of the knee extensors. Untrained men were placed to an experimental group that performed 6 sets of 10 MVIC at 90° knee flexion 2 weeks before 6 sets of 10 MaxEC or a control group that performed MaxEC only (n = 13/group). Changes in muscle damage markers were assessed before to 5 days after each exercise. Small but significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion (ROM) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were evident at immediately to 2 days post-MVIC (p < 0.05), but other variables (e.g. thigh girth, myoglobin concentration, B-mode echo intensity) did not change significantly. Changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (p < 0.05) by 45% (soreness)-67% (CK) for the experimental than the control group. These results suggest that MVIC conferred potent protective effect against MaxEC-induced muscle damage.
Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms
Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais
2002-01-01
In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...
Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements
M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu
2017-04-01
In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
The maximal process of nonlinear shot noise
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2009-05-01
In the nonlinear shot noise system-model shots’ statistics are governed by general Poisson processes, and shots’ decay-dynamics are governed by general nonlinear differential equations. In this research we consider a nonlinear shot noise system and explore the process tracking, along time, the system’s maximal shot magnitude. This ‘maximal process’ is a stationary Markov process following a decay-surge evolution; it is highly robust, and it is capable of displaying both a wide spectrum of statistical behaviors and a rich variety of random decay-surge sample-path trajectories. A comprehensive analysis of the maximal process is conducted, including its Markovian structure, its decay-surge structure, and its correlation structure. All results are obtained analytically and in closed-form.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Absence of parasympathetic reactivation after maximal exercise.
de Oliveira, Tiago Peçanha; de Alvarenga Mattos, Raphael; da Silva, Rhenan Bartels Ferreira; Rezende, Rafael Andrade; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout
2013-03-01
The ability of the human organism to recover its autonomic balance soon after physical exercise cessation has an important impact on the individual's health status. Although the dynamics of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise has been studied, little is known about heart rate variability after this type of exercise. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of heart rate and heart rate variability recovery after maximal exercise in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy male subjects (21·7 ± 3·4 years; 24·0 ± 2·1 kg m(-2) ) participated in the study. The experimental protocol consisted of an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer, until maximal voluntary exhaustion. After the test, recovery R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min. From the absolute differences between peak heart rate values and the heart rate values at 1 and 5 min of the recovery, the heart rate recovery was calculated. Postexercise heart rate variability was analysed from calculations of the SDNN and RMSSD indexes, in 30-s windows (SDNN(30s) and RMSSD(30s) ) throughout recovery. One and 5 min after maximal exercise cessation, the heart rate recovered 34·7 (±6·6) and 75·5 (±6·1) bpm, respectively. With regard to HRV recovery, while the SDNN(30s) index had a slight increase, RMSSD(30s) index remained totally suppressed throughout the recovery, suggesting an absence of vagal modulation reactivation and, possibly, a discrete sympathetic withdrawal. Therefore, it is possible that the main mechanism associated with the fall of HR after maximal exercise is sympathetic withdrawal or a vagal tone restoration without vagal modulation recovery. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Maximizing band gaps in plate structures
Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...
Maximal and Minimal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana SANWONG; Boorapa SINGHA; R.P.SULLIVAN
2009-01-01
In 2006,Sanwong and Sullivan described the maximal congruences on the semigroup N consisting of all non-negative integers under standard multiplication,and on the semigroup T(X) consisting of all total transformations of an infinite set X under composition. Here,we determine all maximal congruences on the semigroup Zn under multiplication modulo n. And,when Y X,we do the same for the semigroup T(X,Y) consisting of all elements of T(X) whose range is contained in Y. We also characterise the minimal congruences on T(X,Y).
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
Low-frequency fatigue at maximal and submaximal muscle contractions
R.R. Baptista
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle force production following repetitive contractions is preferentially reduced when muscle is evaluated with low-frequency stimulation. This selective impairment in force generation is called low-frequency fatigue (LFF and could be dependent on the contraction type. The purpose of this study was to compare LFF after concentric and eccentric maximal and submaximal contractions of knee extensor muscles. Ten healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 4.2 years; weight: 73.8 ± 7.7 kg; height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m executed maximal voluntary contractions that were measured before a fatigue test (pre-exercise, immediately after (after-exercise and after 1 h of recovery (after-recovery. The fatigue test consisted of 60 maximal (100% or submaximal (40% dynamic concentric or eccentric knee extensions at an angular velocity of 60°/s. The isometric torque produced by low- (20 Hz and high- (100 Hz frequency stimulation was also measured at these times and the 20:100 Hz ratio was calculated to assess LFF. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test was used to determine significant (P < 0.05 differences. LFF was evident after-recovery in all trials except following submaximal eccentric contractions. LFF was not evident after-exercise, regardless of exercise intensity or contraction type. Our results suggest that low-frequency fatigue was evident after submaximal concentric but not submaximal eccentric contractions and was more pronounced after 1-h of recovery.
Glöcklhofer, Florian; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias
2014-08-01
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H22N2O2Si2, contains one half of the mol-ecule, which is completed by inversion symmetry. The cyclo-hexa-2,5-diene ring is exactly planar and reflects the bond-length distribution of a pair of located double bonds [1.3224 (14) Å] and two pairs of single bonds [1.5121 (13) and 1.5073 (14) Å]. The tetra-hedral angle between the sp (3)-C atom and the two neighbouring sp (2)-C atoms in the cyclo-hexa-2,5-diene ring is enlarged by about 3°.
Absolute configuration of falcarinol (9Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol) from Pastinaca sativa.
Corell, Mireia; Sheehy, Emile; Evans, Paul; Brunton, Nigel; Valverde, Juan
2013-08-01
Falcarinol (9Z-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol; (1) is a polyacetylene commonly found in several plant families. The absolute configuration of naturally occurring 1 is not clear and contradictory results have been reported in the literature. Determination of the absolute configuration of 1 from Pastinaca sativa L. was carried out. Isolation of 95% pure 1 was performed via successive fractionation and preparative-HPLC. A racemic mixture comprised of 3R-1 and 3S-1 was synthesized in order to confirm the absolute configuration of the isolated natural product using chiral HPLC. Based on a combination of chiral HPLC and specific rotation, 1 present in P. saliva was found to have a 3R absolute configuration (i.e. (3R, 9Z)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol).
Jenkin, M. E.; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, M. D.
2005-01-01
The kinetics and products of the OH and NO2-initiated oxidation of cyclohexa-1,3-diene have been investigated at 296 K and 700 Torr using long path FTIR spectroscopy. Relative rate methods were employed using the photolysis of cyclohexa-1,3-diene/CH3ONO/NO/air mixtures to measure k(OH + cyclohexa-1......-2 produces benzene as the sole organic product, the results are consistent with abstraction channel branching ratios of (8.1 +/- 0.2)% and ( 1.5 +/- 0.4) respectively. The results also indicate that C6H7 reacts with NO2, with a relative rate coefficient k(C6H7 + NO2)/ k(C6H7 + O-2) = ( 1.8 +/- 0...
Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a tripartiteWstate in cavity QED
ZANG XUE-PING; YANG MING; DU CHAO-QUN; WANG MIN; FANG SHU-DONG; CAO ZHUO-LIANG
2016-05-01
We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. A tri-atom W state can be generated by adjusting the interaction times between atoms and the cavity mode. These schemes demonstrate that two bipartite non-maximally entangled states can be merged into a maximally entangled W state. So the scheme can, in some sense, be regarded as an entanglement concentration process. The experimental feasibility of the schemes is also discussed.
Zhou, Jia-Hui; Jiang, Bing; Meng, Fei-Fan; Xu, Yun-He; Loh, Teck-Peng
2015-09-18
Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 catalyzed the Diels-Alder reactions of multisubstituted open-chain dienes and α,β-enals to afford the desired products with high exo-selectivities are reported. The substituent effect of the dienes and dienophiles on the product's stereoselectivity was thoroughly investigated, and it was found that most of the desired exo-Diels-Alder products could be obtained in good yields and with high exo-stereoselectivities.
Yaoita, Yasunori; Machida, Koichi
2016-02-01
Careful reexamination of the published ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of (22E)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β,9α,14α-pentol (1), isolated from the spores of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, indicates that, in reality, the compound is (22E)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β,9α,14β-pentol (5).
ZHANG Xiao-Ming; WU Guo-Qiang; CHEN Wan-Zhi
2007-01-01
A convenient and practical route to functionalized conjugated 1,3-enynes and 1,3-dienes is described.1,4-Bis(heteroaryl)-1,3-diene and 1-heteroarylbut-1-en-3-yne derivatives were prepared from 1,4-dichloro-2-buty'ne and corresponding N-heteroarenes such as imidazole, pyrrole, pyrazole and indole derivatives in the presence of bases in good to high yields.
YAO Li-xin
2005-01-01
Conformations of Epristeride(17-β-N-t-butylcarboxamide-androst-3,5-diene-3-carboxylic acid) and its analogs were analyzed with the random search method and compared by means of the methods for steroid conformers, Connolly surfaces, dihedral angles, and molecular accessibility probes with protons, hydroxyl and methyl groups contained simultaneously. Analog d is different from others, which is in accordance with the preliminary clinical trial results under double blind conditions.
Pous, Jonathan; Courant, Thibaut; Bernadat, Guillaume; Iorga, Bogdan I; Blanchard, Florent; Masson, Géraldine
2015-09-23
Chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed asymmetric nitroso-Diels-Alder reaction of nitrosoarenes with carbamate-dienes afforded cis-3,6-disubstituted dihydro-1,2-oxazines in high yields with excellent regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities. Interestingly, we observed that the catalyst is able not only to control the enantioselectivity but also to reverse the regioselectivity of the noncatalyzed nitroso-Diels-Alder reaction. The regiochemistry reversal and asynchronous concerted mechanism were confirmed by DFT calculations.
Gong, Jian; Xie, Fuchun; Chen, Hong; Hu, Youhong
2010-09-03
An efficient tandem process was developed to synthesize diversified benzo[a]xanthones from 2-methyl-3-(1-alkynyl)chromones with electron-deficient chromone-fused dienes. This unusual reaction, involving multiple steps and not requiring the use of transition metal catalysts or an inert atmosphere, results in the formation of three new C-C bonds and one C-O bond.
Facial Selectivity in the Nucleophilic Additions of endo-Tricyclo[5.2.1.O2.6]deca-2(6),8-dien-3-one
无
2001-01-01
Nucleophilic additions to endo-tricyclo[5.2.1.02.6]deca-2(6),8-dien-3-one 4 are described.Experimental results show high preference for exo-facial attack to the enone moiety of tricyclodecadienone. Steric hindrance is the main kinetically controlling factor in the nucleophilic reaction. The shielding effect and the stabilizing effect of the norbornene double bond favor the exo-facial attack also.
Ebrahimian, S; Chen, H H; Brueggemeier, R W
1993-09-01
Several 7 alpha-thiosubstituted derivatives of androstenedione have demonstrated effective inhibition of aromatase, the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogens. Introduction of an additional double bond in the A ring resulted in 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (7 alpha-APTADD), a potent inhibitor that inactivated aromatase by an enzyme-catalyzed process. Additional 7 alpha-thiosubstituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione derivatives were designed to further examine enzyme-catalyzed inactivation. Two halogenated and one unsubstituted 7 alpha-phenylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones were synthesized via an acid-catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of substituted thiophenols with androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Two 7 alpha-naphthylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones were synthesized via either acid-catalyzed or based-catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of substituted thionaphthols with androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. These agents were evaluated for aromatase inhibitory activity in the human placental microsomal preparation. Under initial velocity assay conditions of low product formation, the inhibitors demonstrated potent inhibition of aromatase, with apparent Ki's ranging from 12 to 27 nM. Furthermore, these compounds produced time-dependent, first-order inactivation of aromatase in the presence of NADPH, whereas no aromatase inactivation was observed in the absence of NADPH. This enzyme-activated irreversible inhibition, also referred to as mechanism-based inhibition, can be prevented by the substrate androstenedione. Thus, the apparent Ki values for these inhibitors are consistent with earlier studies on 7 alpha-substituted competitive inhibitors that indicate bulky substituents can be accommodated at the 7 alpha-position.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Yang, Mei; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Shixuan; He, Zhengjie
2014-11-14
Phosphine-catalyzed [4+1] annulation of electron-deficient 1,3-dienes or 1,3-azadienes with maleimides has been successfully developed under very mild conditions, providing a convenient and highly efficient method for constructing 2-azaspiro[4.4]nonenes and 1,7-diazaspiro[4.4]nonenes. This reaction represents the first example of [4+1] cyclization between electron-deficient 4π-conjugated systems and non-allylic phosphorus ylides.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.
Schmitt, David E.
This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…
MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM OF ABSTRACT ECONOMY
刘心歌; 蔡海涛
2001-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for a new type of preference correspondences which are Qθ-majorized is given. Then some existence theorems of equilibrium for abstract economy and qualitative game in which the constraint or preference correspondences are Qθ-majorized are obtained in locally convex topological vector spaces.
DNA solution of the maximal clique problem.
Ouyang, Q; Kaplan, P D; Liu, S; Libchaber, A
1997-10-17
The maximal clique problem has been solved by means of molecular biology techniques. A pool of DNA molecules corresponding to the total ensemble of six-vertex cliques was built, followed by a series of selection processes. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main qu
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing throughput in an automated test system
朱君
2007-01-01
@@ Overview This guide is collection of whitepapers designed to help you develop test systems that lower your cost, increase your test throughput, and can scale with future requirements. This whitepaper provides strategies for maximizing system throughput. To download the complete developers guide (120 pages), visit ni. com/automatedtest.
The gaugings of maximal D=6 supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2008-01-01
We construct the most general gaugings of the maximal D = 6 supergravity. The theory is ( 2, 2) supersymmetric, and possesses an on-shell SO( 5, 5) duality symmetry which plays a key role in determining its couplings. The field content includes 16 vector fields that carry a chiral spinor representat
WEIGHTED BOUNDEDNESS OF A ROUGH MAXIMAL OPERATOR
无
2000-01-01
In this note the authors give the weighted Lp-boundedness fora class of maximal singular integral operators with rough kernel.The result in this note is an improvement and extension ofthe result obtained by Chen and Lin in 1990.
Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.
Brown, Ronald A.
1992-01-01
Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2003-01-01
The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem
Shinji Yamashita
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.
Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2008-01-01
For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Maximally entangled mixed states made easy
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2006-01-01
We show that, contrarily to a recent claim [M. Ziman and V. Bu\\v{z}ek, Phys. Rev. A. \\textbf{72}, 052325 (2005)], it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local nonunital quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems
ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang
2009-01-01
We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults.
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults
Mako eOkanda
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Ibai eGarcia-Tabar
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2 and carbon dioxide (FCO2 of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001 in FO2 and FCO2 of -0.18% and -0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptake values were 5-6% lower (P < 0.001 whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8-9% higher (P < 0.001. The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 minutes of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise.
Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Bower, John F.; Krische, Michael J.
2011-01-01
Under the conditions of ruthenium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation, isoprene couples to benzylic and aliphatic alcohols 1a–1g to deliver β,γ-unsaturated ketones 3a–3g in good to excellent isolated yields. Under identical conditions, aldehydes 2a–2g couple to isoprene to provide an identical set of β,γ-unsaturated ketones 3a–3g in good to excellent isolated yields. As demonstrated by the coupling of butadiene, myrcene and 1,2-dimethylbutadiene to representative alcohols 1b, 1c and 1e, diverse acyclic dienes participate in transfer hydrogenative coupling to form β,γ-unsaturated ketones. In all cases, complete branch-regioselectivity is observed and, with the exception of adduct 3j, isomerization to the conjugated enone is not detected. Thus, formal intermolecular diene hydroacylation is achieved from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level. In earlier studies employing a related ruthenium catalyst, acyclic dienes were coupled to carbonyl partners from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level to furnish branched homoallylic alcohols. Thus, under transfer hydrogenative coupling conditions, all oxidations levels of substrate (alcohol or aldehyde) and product (homoallyl alcohol or β,γ-unsaturated ketone) are accessible. PMID:18841895
Mei Wang
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.
B. T. Poh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Viscosity, tack and, peel and shear strengths of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM/standard Malaysian rubber (SMR L blend adhesive were studied using various blend ratios of the two rubbers, ranging from 0 to 100% EPDM. Coumarone-indene resin, toluene, and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET were used as the tackifier, solvent, and coating substrate, respectively. The tackifier content was fixed at 40 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr. A SHEEN hand coater was used to coat the adhesive on PET film at four coating thicknesses, that is, 30, 60, 90, and 120 µm. The viscosity and adhesion properties were determined by a Brookfield viscometer and a Lloyd Adhesion Tester, respectively. Results show that the viscosity, loop tacks and peel strength of blend adhesives decrease gradually with increasing % EPDM. This observation is attributed to dilution effect and lowering in wettability and compatibility. Shear strength, however, passes through a maximum at 20–40% EPDM blend ratio, an observation which is ascribed to culmination of cohesive strength at the optimum EPDM blend ratio. Increasing coating thickness increases the adhesion properties in all blend ratios in this study.
C. M. Bhuvaneswari
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM-based insulation system is being globallyused for case-bonded solid rocket motors. A study was undertaken using EPDM as base polymer,blended with hypalon and liquid EPDM and filled with fibrous and non-fibrous fillers. Theseformulations were evaluated as rocket motor insulation system. The basic objective of the studywas to develop an insulation system based on EPDM for case-bonded applications. A series ofrocket motor insulator compositions based on EPDM, filled with particulate and fibrous fillerslike precipitated silica, fumed silica, aramid, and carbon fibres have been studied for mechanical,rheological, thermal, and interface properties. Compositions based on particulate fillers wereoptimised for the filler content. Comparatively, fumed silica was found to be superior as fillerin terms of mechanical and interface properties. Addition of fibrous filler (5 parts improved thepeel strength, and reduced the thermal conductivity and erosion rate. All the compositions wereevaluated for sulphur and peroxide curing. Superior mechanical properties were achieved forsulphur-cured products, whereas peroxide-cured products exhibited an excellent ageing resistance.Rocket motors were insulated with optimised composition and propellant cast, and the motorswere evaluated by conducting static test in end-burning mode.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(1, pp.94-102, DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1628
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The effects of carbon blacks on vulcanization and mechanical properties of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM are investigated, by comparing with five types of rubber-grade carbon blacks. Curing kinetics is studied by rheometer and the results indicate that the curing characteristics are influenced by combination of surface area of carbon black and sulphur content on the filler surface, because the former one enhances the physical cross-linking and the latter one introduces the additional chemical cross-linking. Both the degree of cross-linking and cure rate increase with increasing surface area and sulphur content, whereas the optimum cure time and scorch time decrease. The reinforcing nature of the carbon black is assessed from mechanical measurements. It is suggested that the surface area of carbon blacks strongly affects the physical properties of EPDM/carbon black composites. Conductive carbon black (N472 can be used as desirable reinforcing filler due to the higher degree of cross-linking of EPDM with N472 than other EPDM/carbon black composites. The morphology and distribution of particles are studied by using scanning electron microscope. The sound reinforcing ability of N472 is also supported by scanning electron microscope due to the notable dispersibility of N472 within EPDM matrix. N472 ensures the EPDM/N472 composite the most conductive sample among the five composites.
RUN Mingtao; SONG Hongzan; WANG Yingjin; YAO Chenguang; GAO Jungang
2007-01-01
s The rheological,phase morphologic,thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/metallocene polyethylene(PTT/mPE)blends in the presence of ethylene propylene diene monomer copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride(EPDM-g-MAHl as compatibilizer are studied by means of a capillary rheometer,scanning electron microscopy(SEM),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA).Results suggest that the compatibility of PTT/mPE blends is improved greatly after the addition of a compatibilizer.The radius of the dispersed phase in the system decreases greatly when the compatibilizer is added into the blend.When the amount of compatibilizer exceeds 8 wt-%,the size of dispersed phase becomes larger again.This phenomena could be attributed to the higher viscosity of the EPDM-g-MAH phase,which is dispersed more difficulty in the PTT phase of lower viscosity,thus the mixing efficiency is apparently decreased during the melt blending process.Moreover,the melt viscosity of the blend reaches the maximal value in case of 4 wt-%compatibilizer content,above which it would decrease again.This result is associated with the generation of more and bigger dispersed phase inside the bulk phase,thus the grafting efficiency at the interface is decreased,which could result in lower viscosity.The DSC results suggest that the mPE component shows a nucleating effect,and could increase the overall degree and rate of PTT crystallization,while the addition of a compatibilizer might slightly diminish these effects.In addition,the blend with 4 wt-% compatibilizer shows the best thermal stability.Furthermore,the Izod impact strength and the tensile strength at room temperature of the blend are also markedly improved by the addition of a 4-8 wt-% compatibilizer.
Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval
Dahab, Eiman Abou El
2014-01-01
The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization
Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew
2012-01-01
Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...
Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.
Choey, M; Weigend, A S
1997-08-01
While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.
Maximally Symmetric Spacetimes emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations
Bravetti, A; Quevedo, H
2015-01-01
In this work we prove that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity emerge from the geometric structure of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic fluctuation theory. To present our argument, we begin by showing that the pseudo-Riemannian structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space is a solution to the vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity with a cosmological constant. Then, we use the geometry of equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's Field Equations -- Minkowski, de-Sitter and Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes -- correspond to thermodynamic fluctuations. Moreover, we argue that these might be the only possible solutions that can be derived in this manner. Thus, the results presented here are the first concrete examples of spacetimes effectively emerging from the thermodynamic limit over an unspecified microscopic theory without any further assumptions.
Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity
Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default
Lim, Thomas
2008-01-01
We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.
Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique
2011-01-01
This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...
Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests
Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric
2014-01-01
We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...
Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings
Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna
2014-01-01
We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.
Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M
2011-01-01
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance.
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.
Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia
2017-01-01
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in
Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam
2015-10-01
Rubber blends based on (styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby-Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system.
Brandl, Michael; Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Yanzhou; Pease, Joseph; Holper, Marites; Hooijmaaijer, Elvira; Lu, Yvonne; Wu, Ping
2003-10-01
The degradation of Ro-26-9228, 1alpha-fluoro-25-hydroxy-16,23E-diene-26,27-bishomo-20-epi-cholecalciferol, 2, was studied in aqueous solution in the pH range of 1.17-10.56 and in alcohol solutions, at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C. The degradation of Ro-26-9228 was found to be acid catalyzed and to be independent of potassium acetate buffer concentration. Above pH 4, the reaction rate is independent of pH, with a T90 of 14.3 h at 25 degrees C in pH 7.75 buffer. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance was used to study the ratio of the vitamin (6-s-trans) to previtamin form in acetonitrile at 40 degrees C. The equilibrium percentage of previtamin and the rate of approach to equilibrium were 13.8% and 0.2 h(-1), respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to elucidate the structure of the degradation products. Novel products were formed from the elimination of the fluorine and addition of solvent to C9, with formation occurring through the previtamin form. Additional degradation products result from reaction of the side chain 25-hydroxyl and addition of solvent to C1.
Wang, Yan-Yang; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Ma, Ya-Qiong; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhe, Hong; Zhou, Shu-Feng
2015-01-01
The C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO-Me), one of the synthetic triterpenoids, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. However, its usefulness in mitigating radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, has not been tested. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of CDDO-Me on RILI in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we found that administration of CDDO-Me improved the histopathological score, reduced the number of inflammatory cells and concentrations of total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suppressed secretion and expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-6, elevated expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and downregulated the mRNA level of profibrotic genes, including for fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I. CDDO-Me attenuated radiation-induced lung inflammation. CDDO-Me also decreased the Masson's trichrome stain score, hydroxyproline content, and mRNA level of profibrotic genes, and blocked radiation-induced collagen accumulation and fibrosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that CDDO-Me ameliorates radiation-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, and this synthetic triterpenoid is a promising novel therapeutic agent for RILI. Further mechanistic, efficacy, and safety studies are warranted to elucidate the role of CDDO-Me in the management of RILI.
The rate of lactate removal after maximal exercise: the effect of intensity during active recovery.
Riganas, C S; Papadopoulou, Z; Psichas, N; Skoufas, D; Gissis, I; Sampanis, M; Paschalis, V; Vrabas, I S
2015-10-01
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the greater rate of lactate removal after a maximal rowing test using different intensities during active recovery. Thirty elite male rowers performed a simulated incremental exercise protocol on rowing ergometer to determine their maximal oxygen uptake and they divided into three equal sized group according to the type of the recovery that followed the assessment. The first group (N.=10) subjected to 20 min of passive recovery, while the second (N.=10) and the third (N.=10) groups performed 20 min of active recovery using the 25% and the 50% of each individual’s maximal power output, respectively. During the recovery period, every two min were performed measurements for the assessment of blood lactate, oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR). It was found that after 10 min of active recovery at 50% and 25% of maximal power output lactate concentration reduced by 43% and 15%, respectively, while during passive recovery lactate concentration found to be slightly elevated by 1%. It was also found that during recovery period, HR, oxygen consumption and pulmonary ventilation was significant elevated at higher exercise intensity compared to lower exercise intensity and passive recovery. It is concluded that in elite male rowers the active recovery provided higher rate of lactate removal compared to passive recovery. Moreover, active recovery at 50% of maximal power output had better results in lactate clearance compared to the active recovery of lower intensity (25% of maximal power output).
The Labdane Ent-3-Acetoxy-Labda-8(17), 13-Dien-15-Oic Decreases Blood Pressure In Hypertensive Rats
Simplicio, Janaina A.; Simão, Marilia R.; Ambrosio, Sergio R.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.
2016-01-01
Background Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. Objective The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Methods Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Results Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. Conclusion The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats. PMID:27096521
Chen, Yukun, E-mail: cyk@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xu, Chuanhui [College of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Cao, Liming [The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Cao, Xiaodong [College of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)
2013-02-15
Polypropylene (PP)/ethylene–propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)/zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) blends with remarkable toughness and extensibility were successfully prepared via peroxide dynamical vulcanization. A unique structure with the EPDM particles surrounded by a transition zone containing numerous polymerized ZDMA (PZDMA) nano-particles was observed for the first time by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination, which contributed to the dramatically increase of Izod impact strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed that the possible PZDMA graft products resulted from peroxide dynamical vulcanization improved the compatibility between EPDM and PP phases. The specific morphology of the PP/EPDM/ZDMA blends indicated that ZDMA can lead to size reduction and good distribution uniformity of the crosslinked rubber particles and the increase of adhesion between PP matrix and EPDM phases during deformation. The synergic effect of the increase in the effective volume of the EPDM phase, the improved compatibility and adhesion between EPDM and PP phases and the deformation of those fine rubber particles is believed to result in the remarkable high toughness and extensibility of the PP/EPDM/ZDMA blends. Particularly for the PP/EPDM ratio of 70/30, the PP/EPDM/ZDMA (70/30/9, w/w/w) ternary blends with the Izod impact strength nearly 2 times higher than PP/EPDM (70/30, w/w) binary blends and 15–20 times higher than PP are achieved; besides, the elongation at break of PP/EPDM/ZDMA ternary blends is 4–5 times higher than that of PP/EPDM binary blends. - Highlights: ► ZDMA largely toughen peroxide dynamically vulcanized PP/EPDM blend. ► PZDMA graft products improved the compatibility and adhesion between EPDM and PP. ► Size reduction and good distribution uniformity of crosslinked rubber particles.
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Pyrolytic carbon black (PCB made from used tires was used in ethylene-propylene-diene copolymers (EPDM. The microstructure of PCB was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. PCB was compounded with EPDM to prepare EPDM vulcanizates. The effects of PCB on the processing properties of EPDM compounds and the mechanical properties of vulcanizates were investigated and compared with other traditional fillers such as semi-reinforcing furnace black (N774, light calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and thermal black (N990. At the same time, the rheological behavior of EPDM compounds filled with different fillers was characterized by capillary rheometrics. The SEM photos showed that the particle shape was quiet different from that of CaCO3 and N990, it was similar to that of N774. The primary particle size was smaller than that of N774, but the aggregate size of PCB was larger than that of N774. The effect of PCB on the processing properties of EPDM compounds was similar to that of other fillers. Among the four fillers, PCB imparted EPDM compounds with higher Mooney viscosity. With the increase of filler content, the scorch time and optimum curing time of EPDM compounds changed little. The reinforcing effect of PCB was similar to that of N990, but inferior to that of N774. With the increase of PCB content, tensile strength, tear strength, and modulus at 100% elongation of EPDM vulcanizates increased significantly. When EPDM was filled with 50 phr PCB, the tear strength of EPDM vulcanizates increased by 3 times, compared with that of EPDM gum vulcanizates. The appearance of EPDM extrudate filled with PCB was coarser than that of other fillers.
The Labdane Ent-3-Acetoxy-Labda-8(17), 13-Dien-15-Oic Decreases Blood Pressure In Hypertensive Rats
Simplicio, Janaina A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas - Laboratório de Farmacologia - Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Simão, Marilia R.; Ambrosio, Sergio R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências e Tecnologia - Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), Franca, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas - Laboratório de Farmacologia - Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)
2016-06-15
Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats.
GA. Garoosi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS, a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods : The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527. Results: The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b aspartate rich motif (DDXXD, c active site final lid and d active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion: The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction.
Maximal strength, muscular endurance and inflammatory biomarkers in young adult men.
Vaara, J P; Vasankari, T; Fogelholm, M; Häkkinen, K; Santtila, M; Kyröläinen, H
2014-12-01
The aim was to study associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with inflammatory biomarkers independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in those with and without abdominal obesity. 686 young healthy men participated (25±5 years). Maximal strength was measured via isometric testing using dynamo-meters to determine maximal strength index. Muscular endurance index consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect cycle ergometer test until exhaustion was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). Participants were stratified according to those with (>102 cm) and those without abdominal obesity (obesity (β=-0.08, -0.14, respectively) (pobesity (β=-0.11, -0.26, respectively) (p<0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that muscular fitness is inversely associated with C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations in young adult men independent of cardiorespi-ratory fitness.
Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment
Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs. The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n=23 performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT, time to achieve it (tPTI, contractile impulse (CI, root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS, and rate of torque development (RTD, in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m, RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s−1versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s−1, and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms. We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.
Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R
2002-11-01
Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...
ON THE SPACES OF THE MAXIMAL POINTS
梁基华; 刘应明
2003-01-01
For a continuous domain D, some characterization that the convex powerdomain CD is adomain hull of Max(CD) is given in terms of compact subsets of D. And in this case, it isproved that the set of the maximal points Max(CD) of CD with the relative Scott topology ishomeomorphic to the set of all Scott compact subsets of Max(D) with the topology induced bythe Hausdorff metric derived from a metric on Max(D) when Max(D) is metrizable.
Understanding of English Contracts though Relation Maxims
XU Chi-ying; JIANG Li-hui
2013-01-01
Contract is the legal evidence of the concerning parties of business. And this lead to its unique characteristics:technical terms, archaism, borrowed words, juxtaposition, and abbreviation. The understanding of contracts is of vital importance for each party, because it concerns the share of interests. In order to avoid ambiguity that some words or sentence in English contracts may lead to, and achieve“best relevance and least effort”of communication, this paper, by applying relation maxim, deeply analyze how to understand English contracts though selection of words, modification, the complexity and simplicity of sentence.
Maximizing results in reconstruction of cheek defects.
Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
2009-07-01
The face is exceedingly important, as it is the medium through which individuals interact with the rest of society. Reconstruction of cheek defects after trauma or surgery is a continuing challenge for surgeons who wish to reliably restore facial function and appearance. Important in aesthetic facial reconstruction are the aesthetic unit principles, by which the face can be divided in central facial units (nose, lips, eyelids) and peripheral facial units (cheeks, forehead, chin). This article summarizes established options for reconstruction of cheek defects and provides an overview of several modifications as well as tips and tricks to avoid complications and maximize aesthetic results.
Maximizing policy learning in international committees
Nedergaard, Peter
2007-01-01
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings
Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore
2015-11-01
Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density “random-close packing” polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.
Reliability and validity of the maximal anaerobic running test.
Nummela, A; Alberts, M; Rijntjes, R P; Luhtanen, P; Rusko, H
1996-07-01
Physically active men (n = 13) twice performed the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (MART) on a treadmill and once the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer. The MART consisted of n 20-s runs with 100-s recovery between the runs. The speed of the first run was 14.6 km.h-1 and the inclination 4 degrees. Thereafter, the speed was increased by 1.37 km.h-1 every run until exhaustion. During all tests oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath and blood samples were taken from the fingertip 40s after each run to determine the lactate concentration (BLa). Power at submaximal BLa levels and maximal power (P5mM, P10mM and Pmax, respectively) were calculated and P was expressed as the oxygen demand of running according to the American College of Sports Medicine equation. In the MART the Pmax was 108 ml.kg-1.min-1 and peak BLa was 15.6 mM. The reliability for the power indices in the MART were as follows: r = 0.92 (p cycle ergometer test measure slightly different qualities.
Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting
Gillam, W D
2011-01-01
Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.
Maximal coherence in a generic basis
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2016-12-01
Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.
Symmetry and approximability of submodular maximization problems
Vondrak, Jan
2011-01-01
A number of recent results on optimization problems involving submodular functions have made use of the multilinear relaxation of the problem. These results hold typically in the value oracle model, where the objective function is accessible via a black box returning f(S) for a given S. We present a general approach to deriving inapproximability results in the value oracle model, based on the notion of symmetry gap. Our main result is that for any fixed instance that exhibits a certain symmetry gap in its multilinear relaxation, there is a naturally related class of instances for which a better approximation factor than the symmetry gap would require exponentially many oracle queries. This unifies several known hardness results for submodular maximization, and implies several new ones. In particular, we prove that there is no constant-factor approximation for the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular function over the bases of a matroid. We also provide a closely matching approximation algorithm for...
Absolute rate constants for the reaction of NO_{3} radicals with a series of dienes at 295 K
Ellermann, T.; Nielsen, O.J.; Skov, H.
1992-01-01
The rate constants for the reaction of NO3 radicals with a series of 7 dienes, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, trans-1,3-pentadiene, cis-1,3-pentadiene, trans,trans-2,4-hexadiene, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, were measured at 295 K and at a total pressure of 1 atm. The rate consta...... were obtained using the absolute technique of pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic UV-VIS spectroscopy. The results are discussed in terms of reactivity trends and previous literature data....
Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,4,5,6-tetra-phenyl-cyclo-hexa-3,5-diene-1,2-di-carboxyl-ate.
Greenberg, Fred H; Nazarenko, Alexander Y
2016-07-01
In the title compound, C34H28O4, the cyclo-hexa-diene ring has a screw-boat conformation with a torsion angle between the double bonds being on average ca 15° [15.2 (3) and -15.3 (3) in the two independent mol-ecules]. All four phenyl rings in both mol-ecules are arranged in a propeller-like conformation. The two mol-ecules exhibit S,R- and R,S- chirality, respectively, and are connected via C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions. In turn, these weakly bound dimers form the mol-ecular crystal.
B. T. Poh; Y. Y. Teh
2014-01-01
The loop tack, peel strength, and shear strength of crosslinked epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25)/ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) blend adhesives were investigated. Coumarone-indene resin, toluene, and benzoyl peroxide were used as the tackifier, solvent, and crosslinking agent, respectively, throughout the experiment. The adhesive was coated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using a SHEEN hand coater at 60 μm and 120 μm coating thickness. It was cured at 80°C for 30 min...
R Sarathi; Uma Maheswar Rao
2001-12-01
In the present work, tracking phenomena has been studied with the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) material under the a.c. and d.c. voltages, with ammonium chloride/acid rain solution as the contaminant. It is noticed that the tracking time depends on the conductivity and flow rate of the contaminant. The physico-chemical analyses viz. wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), thermo-gravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, were carried out and it was concluded that the tracking process is a surface degradation process. The tracking time is different for a.c. and d.c. voltages.
Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize growth of cyanobacterial filaments
Brown, Aidan I
2012-01-01
Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns...
Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds
Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2013-02-01
Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs
CAO Xue-Gong; LIN Bi-Zhou; GENG Feng; LI Xiao-Li; XIAO Zi-Jing
2008-01-01
A new reduced molybdenum(Ⅴ) phosphate (H3dien)2(H2dien)2[NaMo12O24 (OH)6 (H2PO4)(HPO4)5(PO4)2]·nH2O(n= 10.92,dien = diethylenetriamine) has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and X-ray diffraction. C16H96.84MO12N12NaO72.92P8 (Mr = 3046.73) crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 13.3575(18), b = 21.907(3), c = 15.654(2) A, β= 110.22(2)°, V= 4298.4(10) (A)3, Dc = 2.354 g/cm3, Z = 2, μ(MoKα) = 1.966 mm-1, F(000) = 2990.4, the final R = 0.0357 and wR = 0.1086 for 8739 observed reflections with Ⅰ> 2σ(Ⅰ). It consists of sandwich-shaped cluster anions [Na{Mo6P4}2]10- held together into a three-dimensional supramolecular framework through intermolecular hydrogen-bonding contacts. A probe reaction of the oxidation of acetaldehyde with H2O2 showed that this compound has high catalytic activity in the reaction.
Waanders, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Chantal; Murgia, Alessio; Hortobagyi, Tibor
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Old referenced to young adults show a relative maintenance of maximal eccentric (RELM) compared to concentric muscle torque: ∼76 and ∼59%, respectively. However, it is unknown if RELM affords functional benefits in old adults. OBJECTIVE: We examined if there is specificity between the tw
Waanders, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Chantal; Murgia, Alessio; Hortobagyi, Tibor
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Old referenced to young adults show a relative maintenance of maximal eccentric (RELM) compared to concentric muscle torque: ∼76 and ∼59%, respectively. However, it is unknown if RELM affords functional benefits in old adults. OBJECTIVE: We examined if there is specificity between the
Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem
Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2000-01-01
Topology optimization is used to optimize the eigenvalues of plates. The results are intended especially for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) but call be seen as more general. The problem is not formulated as a case of reinforcement of an existing structure, so there is a problem related...... to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...... is a practical MEMS application; a probe used in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the AFM probe the optimization is complicated by a constraint on the stiffness and constraints on higher order eigenvalues....
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André da Conceição Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André Da Conceiçao Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice
Boyle, Latham
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...
Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking
Djamel Eddine Saidouni
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy or which if they fail are assigned the value .The third value mean unknown whether true or false because the partial state space lacks sufficient information needed for a precise answer concerning the complete state space .To solve this problem each node exchange the information needed to conclude the result about the complete state space. The experimental version of the algorithm is currently being implemented using the functional programming language Erlang.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K
2016-01-01
Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...
Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces
Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B
2011-01-01
The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...
Greedy Maximal Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Li, Qiao
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks, i.e., the schedules are computed by adding links greedily based on some priority vector. Two special cases are considered: 1) Longest Queue First (LQF) scheduling, where the priorities are computed using queue lengths, and 2) Static Priority (SP) scheduling, where the priorities are pre-assigned. We first propose a closed-form lower bound stability region for LQF scheduling, and discuss the tightness result in some scenarios. We then propose an lower bound stability region for SP scheduling with multiple priority vectors, as well as a heuristic priority assignment algorithm, which is related to the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance gain of the proposed heuristic algorithm is finally confirmed by simulations.
Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection
Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA
2016-01-01
MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.
A New Biflavone from Selaginella pulvinata Maxim
XU Kang-Ping; XU Zhi; DENG Yin-Hua; LI Fu-Shuang; ZHOU Ying-Jun; HU Gao-Yun; TAN Gui-Shan
2003-01-01
@@ Selaginella pulvinata Maxim. distributes all over the country of China and is used for the treatment for haemor rhage. [1] We studied on the chemical constituents of S. pulvinata in order to find the active compounds. Dried stems and leaves of S. pulvinata (6.5 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol twice. The extract was evaporated under vacuum and than suspended in water, extracted with petroleum and EtOAc sequentially. The EtOAc extract was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with CHCl3-MeOH. As a result, a novel biflavone, named pulvinatabiflavone, was obtained from fractions 75 ～ 78. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 5,5″, 4′″ trihydroxy-7,7″-dimethoxy-[4′-O-6″]-biflavone (compound 1).
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2015-01-01
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.
Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam
2009-07-01
Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.
Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben
2016-01-01
A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…
From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin
Eliazar, Iddo
2014-12-01
The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.
THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC
Amir GANJİ
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.
Maximal elements of non necessarily acyclic binary relations
Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza Martínez
1992-01-01
The existence of maximal elements for binary preference relations is analyzed without imposing transitivity or convexity conditions. From each preference relation a new acyclic relation is defined in such a way that some maximal elements of this new relation characterize maximal elements of the original one. The result covers the case whereby the relation is acyclic.
An orthorhombic polymorph of N1,N4-diphenyl-3,6-bis(phenyliminocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine
Keiji Ohno
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A new orthorhombic polymorph of the title compound, C30H24N4, with a density of 1.315 Mg m−3, has been obtained. The molecule is centrosymmetric with the centroid of the cyclohexa-1,4-diene ring located on an inversion center. The two unique benzene rings are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 86.70 (6°] and are oriented at dihedral angles of 30.79 (5 and 68.07 (5° with respect to the central cyclohexadiene ring. In the crystal, π–π stacking is observed between the central cyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine unit and a phenyl ring of a neighboring molecule [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7043 (7 Å]. The crystal structure of the triclinic polymorph [Ohno et al. (2014. Acta Cryst. E70, o303–o304] showed chains running along the b-axis direction through weak C—H...π interactions.
2014-04-03
oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action Xinyu Wang a,n, James A. Bynumb,c, Solomon Stavchansky...enzyme. To further improve this cytoprotective effect, we studied a synthetic triterpenoid, 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole ...2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole (CDDO-Im): Application of systems biology to understand the mechanism of action 5a. CONTRACT
Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.
Luan, Mo; Li, Hong
2017-05-01
The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.
Influence of repeated maximal exercise testing on biomarkers and fatigue in sarcoidosis.
Braam, A W E; de Haan, S N; Vorselaars, A D M; Rijkers, G T; Grutters, J C; van den Elshout, F J J; Korenromp, I H E
2013-10-01
Fatigue in the immune mediated inflammatory disease sarcoidosis is thought to be associated with impaired exercise tolerance. This prospective study assessed fatigue and recuperative capacity after repeated exercise, and examined whether changing concentrations in biomarkers upon exercise are associated with fatigue. Twenty sarcoidosis patients and 10 healthy volunteers performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests on two successive days. Concentrations of cytokines, stress hormones, ACE and CK were assessed before and after the two exercise tests, and 3 days thereafter. All participants completed a sleep diary. Severely fatigued patients showed significant lower VO2 max (p=0.038, p=0.022) and maximal workload (p=0.034, p=0.028) on both exercise tests compared to healthy controls. No impairment of maximal exercise testing was demonstrated during the second cycling test in any group. Fatigue was not correlated with changes in concentrations of biomarkers upon exercise. Severely fatigued patients rated both tests as significantly more fatiguing, and reported significant lower mean subjective night sleeping time during the testing period. Fatigue in sarcoidosis patients cannot be objectified by reduction of exercise capacity after repeated maximal exercise testing, and is not correlated with significant changes in biomarkers. Severe fatigue is only and consistently featured by patient reported outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?
Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A
2013-01-01
The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.
EXPLANATORY VARIANCE IN MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE
Jacalyn J. Robert McComb
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females, ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants' head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF, height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27 of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF.
Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice
Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2016-08-01
We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2014-03-01
Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Network channel allocation and revenue maximization
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika
2017-02-01
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Armin Töpfer
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children
Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide
2017-01-01
[Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644
INTERMITTENT VERSUS CONTINUOUS INCREMENTAL FIELD TESTS: ARE MAXIMAL VARIABLES INTERCHANGEABLE?
Lorival J. Carminatti
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.
2013-01-01
A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...
Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per
2006-01-01
We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remained...... physically active in spite of shoulder pain and nine healthy matched controls were examined to determine isometric and isokinetic submaximal shoulder-abduction force steadiness at target forces corresponding to 20%, 27.5%, and 35% of the maximal shoulder abductor torque, and maximal shoulder muscle strength...... (MVC). Electromyographic (EMG) activity was assessed using surface and intramuscular recordings from eight shoulder muscles. Force steadiness was impaired in SIS subjects during concentric contractions at the highest target force level only, with muscle activity largely unaffected. No between...
Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans.
Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe; Vigelsø, Andreas; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff
2017-07-01
Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m(2)] were recruited from a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1-10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P fat (in %, respectively: 33 [29-38]; 42 [38-46]; 52 [49-55]; P fat oxidation, whereas abundance of lipids at whole-body level and in plasma was higher in WR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. Noteworthy, maximal fat oxidation was equally high after clinical weight loss maintenance and weight regain compared with moderate weight loss. A high maximal fat oxidation after clinical weight loss maintenance was related to higher maximal oxygen updake, content of key proteins involved in transport of lipids across the plasma membrane and β-oxidation. In contrast, a high maximal fat oxidation after weight regain was related to higher availability of lipids, i.e., general adiposity and plasma concentration of triglycerides. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Rose, Caspar
2014-01-01
, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control.......This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors...
Heggelund, Jørn; Fimland, Marius S; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan
2013-06-01
This study compared maximal strength training (MST) with equal training volume (kg × sets × repetitions) of conventional strength training (CON) primarily with regard to work economy, and second one repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) of single leg knee extension. In an intra-individual design, one leg was randomized to knee-extension MST (4 or 5RM) and the other leg to CON (3 × 10RM) three times per week for 8 weeks. MST was performed with maximal concentric mobilization of force while CON was performed with moderate velocity. Eight untrained or moderately trained men (26 ± 1 years) completed the study. The improvement in gross work economy was -0.10 ± 0.08 L min(-1) larger after MST (P = 0.011, between groups). From pre- to post-test the MST and CON improved net work economy with 31 % (P < 0.001) and 18 % (P = 0.01), respectively. Compared with CON, the improvement in 1RM and dynamic RFD was 13.7 ± 8.4 kg (P = 0.002) and 587 ± 679 N s(-1) (P = 0.044) larger after MST, whereas isometric RFD was of borderline significance 3,028 ± 3,674 N s(-1) (P = 0.053). From pre- to post-test, MST improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 50 % (P < 0.001) and 155 % (P < 0.001), respectively whereas CON improved 1RM and isometric RFD with 35 % (P < 0.001) and 83 % (P = 0.028), respectively. Anthropometric measures of quadriceps femoris muscle mass and peak oxygen uptake did not change. In conclusion, 8 weeks of MST was more effective than CON for improving work economy, 1RM and RFD in untrained and moderately trained men. The advantageous effect of MST to improve work economy could be due to larger improvements in 1RM and RFD.
Ren, Qing-Chang; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Wang, Jia-Qi
2014-05-01
Five Holstein lactating dairy cows fed 5 total mixed rations (TMR) with different forage combinations were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design to investigate diurnal variations of progesterone (P4), testosterone, and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) concentrations in the rumen. Meanwhile, different P4 inclusion levels [0 (control), 2, 20, 40, 80, and 100 ng/mL in culture fluids] were incubated in vitro for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h together with rumen mixed microorganisms grown on a maize-rich feed mixture (maize meal:Chinese ryegrass hay = :1) with an aim to determine microbial P4 transformation into testosterone and ADD. Ruminal P4, testosterone, and ADD concentrations of lactating dairy cows were greater in the TMR with forage combination of corn silage plus alfalfa hay or Chinese wild ryegrass hay than the TMR with the corn stover-based forage combination. The diurnal fluctuation pattern showed that P4, testosterone, and ADD concentrations in the rumen were greater at nighttime than daytime and peaked 6h after feeding in the morning or afternoon. The in vitro batch cultures showed that the P4 elimination rate was highest at the P4 addition of 20 ng/mL and declined with the further increased addition of P4. The treatments after dosing P4 exhibited a shorter time than the control group until half of the initial P4 inclusion was eliminated (i.e., half time), and the lowest half time (1.46 h) occurred at the P4 addition of 20 ng/mL. In summary, the ruminal steroids concentration was affected by forage type and quality, and the rumen microorganisms exhibited great ability to transform P4 into testosterone and ADD, depending on incubation time and initial P4 addition level, suggesting that the host might affect the metabolism of its rumen microorganisms via the endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spannring, Peter; Yazerski, Vital A.; Chen, Jianming; Otte, Matthias; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M
2015-01-01
A method for the regioselective transformation of dienes to carbonyl compounds has been developed. Electron-rich olefins react selectively to yield valuable aldehydes and ketones. The method is based on the catalyst [Fe(OTf)2(mix-BPBP)] with an oxidant combination of H2O2 (1.0 equiv.) and NaIO4 (1.5
Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs
无
2000-01-01
Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.
Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets
Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda
2009-03-01
The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.
Relative advantage, queue jumping, and welfare maximizing wealth distribution
2006-01-01
Suppose individuals get utilities from the total amount of wealth they hold and from their wealth relative to those immediately below them. This paper studies the distribution of wealth that maximizes an additive welfare function made up of these utilities. It interprets wealth distribution in a control theory framework to show that the welfare maximizing distribution may have unexpected properties. In some circumstances it requires that inequality be maximized at the poorest and richest ends...
Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes
Parker, Andrew M.; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Concentration-time data in toxicity tests and resulting relationships
Hilado, C. J.; Brauer, D. P.
1979-01-01
Periodic analyses for carbon monoxide and methane in the animal exposure chamber during pyrolysis of polyethylene at 800 C without forced air flow showed that the concentrations of these compounds increased with exposure time. These observations, and similar observations for polyurethane flexible foam, permitted the calculation of carbon monoxide toxicity in terms of a DP (Death Product Concentration) value, in addition to flammability in terms of HC (Hydro Carbon) value. Observed DP values exceeding the critical DP(CO) value of 47,200 ppm-min for carbon monoxide may indicate that lethal exposures were reached earlier but not immediately manifested because of the time delay involved in physiological processes. On the basis of this DP(CO) value, carbon monoxide could have been the sole toxicant in the case of polyethylene, polypropylene, polyoxymethylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, ethylene propylene diene rubber, and wood.
Sums of magnetic eigenvalues are maximal on rotationally symmetric domains
Laugesen, Richard S; Roy, Arindam
2011-01-01
The sum of the first n energy levels of the planar Laplacian with constant magnetic field of given total flux is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, under normalization of the ratio (moment of inertia)/(area)^3 on the domain. The result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, with an analogue for Robin (or de Gennes) boundary conditions too. The square similarly maximizes the eigenvalue sum among parallelograms, and the disk maximizes among ellipses. More generally, a domain with rotational symmetry will maximize the magnetic eigenvalue sum among all linear images of that domain. These results are new even for the ground state energy (n=1).
Sums of Laplace eigenvalues - rotationally symmetric maximizers in the plane
Laugesen, R S
2010-01-01
The sum of the first $n \\geq 1$ eigenvalues of the Laplacian is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, maximal among parallelograms for the square, and maximal among ellipses for the disk, provided the ratio $\\text{(area)}^3/\\text{(moment of inertia)}$ for the domain is fixed. This result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues, and similar conclusions are derived for Robin boundary conditions and Schr\\"odinger eigenvalues of potentials that grow at infinity. A key ingredient in the method is the tight frame property of the roots of unity. For general convex plane domains, the disk is conjectured to maximize sums of Neumann eigenvalues.
Mohamed
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Background Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. Objectives This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners and sedentary subjects. Materials and Methods The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR, 9 long-distance runners (LDR, and 8 sedentary subjects (SS. Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test, the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test. Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. Results A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Conclusions Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.
Kuramshin A.I.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available New 1-thio-1,3-diene complexes of chromium(0, molybdenum(0, and tungsten(0 with the biden-tate bonding of unsaturated ligand to the metal’s core via the π-system of the C=C bond and sulfur lone electron pair of heterodiene are obtained. Quantum-chemical calculations reveal geometry, electron structure, and formation free energies of these complexes, as well as factors governing the coordination mode. Hydrophosphorylation of the complexes begins from the attack of H-dialkylphosphonate towards the thiocarbonyl group; the generated organometallic α-mercaptophosphonates subsequently undergo the mercaptophosphonate-thiolphospate and thiolphosphate-thionphosphate rearrangements with organ-ophosphorus compounds remaining bound to the metal’s core.
Uğur Mazlum
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR materials are in a smart material class that has the rheological properties to be quickly and reversibly controlled with the external magnetic field applications. Considering the technological developments the rubber-like smart materials has had a more functional usage area with magneto- rheological effect. This study investigates the axial mechanical properties of magneto-rheological Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM and Natural Rubber (NR type synthetic rubbers for isotropic and anisotropic situations. Also, these composite materials were built by means of hot press systems as either isotropic or anisotropic using magnetic field application after addition of ferromagnetic powders. The influence of magnetic field was investigated. In this study, NR rubber was found to be more susceptible in terms of smart material properties unlike EPDM synthetic rubber.
Andries L. du Plooy
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Die artikel fokus op Calvyn se besondere rol in die formulering van artikels 2 en 18 van die kerkorde van Dordrecht 1618 en 1619. Hierdie kerkorde word steeds deur ’n groot aantal gereformeerde kerke in die wêreld aanvaar en gebruik.Onderwerpe en probleme wat aangeraak word, sluit vrae in soos die volgende: Wie is verantwoordelik vir die onderrig van Teologie? Is die tradisie geldig dat daar naas die drie dienste van Woordbedienaar, ouderling en diaken ook ’n vierde diens bestaan, naamlik dié van doktor in die Teologie? Kan hierdie tradisie, wat hoofsaaklik op die standpunte van Bucer en Calvyn berus, met die gegewens in die Bybel versoen word?Besondere aandag word aan die volgende aspekte gegee:•\tHistoriese gegewens oor doktor in die Teologie met besondere verwysing na die standpunte en invloed van Calvyn.•\t’n Kritiese evaluering van die begronding van die vierde diens op die Bybel.•\tDie verhouding tussen teologiese opleiding in die konteks van die kerk en/of ’n universiteit.•\tBesondere aandag word gegee aan die situasie in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika ten opsigte van die funksionering van hierdie vierde diens.Van die belangrikste konklusies wat gemaak word, is die volgende: die kerk het deur die eeue ’n besondere waardering en respek gehad vir die taak en funksie van die doktore in die Teologie. Dit het inderdaad tot groot seën van die kerke gedien. Calvyn se standpunte het dikwels tot verwarring aanleiding gegee, maar andersyds ook bygedra tot die erkenning van die belangrike funksie of taak wat hierdie vierde diens kerklik verrig. Net so vervul die doktore in die Teologie ’n besondere wetenskaplike rol aan teologiese fakulteite van universiteite.Calvin’s fourth office, the doctor ministry, and article 18 of the church order of Dordrecht 1618 and 1619: A critical reflection. This article focuses on Calvin’s special role in the ecclesiastical formulation of articles 2 and 18 in the church order of
Nakata, Norio; Watanabe, Takanori; Toda, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Akihiko
2016-09-26
Enantio- and stereoselective cyclopolymerization of hexa-1,5-diene was achieved by enantiomerically pure dichloro zirconium(IV) pre-catalysts 2 possessing chiral [OSSO]-type bis(phenolate) ligands (-)-1 and (+)-1 in combination with dried methylaluminoxane (dMAO) as an activator. The corresponding activities were recorded with quite high values up to 1,960 g mmol(2)(-1) h(-1) , which are extremely larger than those of the related complexes. The microstructure analysis for the PMCPs furnished by pre-catalysts (Λ,S,S)-2 and (Δ,R,R)-2 showed good isotacticity factors (α = 75-78%) and relatively high proportions of trans-cyclopentane rings (σ = 14-21%). These enantiomeric PMCPs exhibited large specific optical rotations ([α]D = +28 to +32° from (Λ,S,S)-2, -26 to -34° from (Δ,R,R)-2).
Gao, Lei; Ma, Zongshan; Yan, Hong
2015-06-01
In the title compound, C34H30O12P2, which was synthesized via the esterification of dimethyl 2,5-dioxo-1,4-cyclo-hexa-nedi-carboxyl-ate with diphenyl chloro-phosphate, the mol-ecule has crystallographic inversion symmetry. The dihedral angles between the plane of the cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene ring and those of the two benzene rings of the substituent phosphate groups are 41.0 (1) and 89.5 (1)°, while that with the ester group is 3.1 (3)°. In the crystal, only weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present.
Crystal structure of chloridobis[(1,2,5,6-η)-cycloocta-1,5-diene]iridium(I)
Rahman, A. K. Fazlur; Wilklow-Marnell, Miles; Brennessel, William W.; Jones, William D.
2017-01-01
The title complex, [IrCl(C8H12)2], was synthesized directly from the reaction of IrCl3·3H2O with a large excess of cod (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene) in alcoholic solvent. Large yellow needles were obtained by the slow cooling of a hot solution. Based on the positions of the chloride ligand and the mid-points of the four C=C bonds, the molecule adopts a five-coordinate geometry that is midway between square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal. The material crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with one molecule per asymmetric unit in a general position and shows no significant intermolecular interactions. Individual molecules are aligned along [010], and these rows form a pseudo-hexagonal packing arrangement. PMID:28217358
Résultats à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte
Castrillón, Rodrigo
2001-01-01
Introduction: Cette étude évalue les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte (EPMto). Méthode: Sont analysés les résultats de 259 opérations de première intention avec tympano-ossiculoplastie dans le même temps opératoire, réalisées entre 1974 et 1998 chez des patients souffrant d'oto-mastoïdite ou d'otite chronique cholestéatomateuse. Résultats: A long terme, la cavité était propre dans 95% des cas et l'audition préservée ou amé...
Résultats à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte
Castrillón, Rodrigo; Guyot, Jean-Philippe
2004-01-01
Introduction: Cette étude évalue les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte (EPMto). Méthode: Sont analysés les résultats de 259 opérations de première intention avec tympano-ossiculoplastie dans le même temps opératoire, réalisées entre 1974 et 1998 chez des patients souffrant d'oto-mastoïdite ou d'otite chronique cholestéatomateuse. Résultats: A long terme, la cavité était propre dans 95% des cas et l'audition préservée ou am...
A.I. Kuramshin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Using quantum-chemical calculations carried out for interpretation of the experimentally discovered reactivity of 1-hetero-1,3-dienes that are mono- and bidentally coordinated with the transition metal core, we have revealed that the difference in hydrophosphorylation directions of the free organic molecule and the same molecule involved in the coordination sphere of the transition metal can be explained by either weakening or complete loss of conjugation between the C=C and C=X fragments as a result of coordination. In the case of monodentate coordination of heterodiene with the transition metal according to the eta(2(C,C-type, the conjugation weakening is suggested to be maximum for the transition metal characterized by the minimum electronegativity, which predetermines the increased contribution of the metalcyclopropane resonance structure into the general bonding mode. Organometallic compounds having the heterodiene ligand bidentally coordinated demonstrate the conjugation weakening parallel to the metal radius.
Brennessel, William W; Ellis, John E
2012-07-01
The cation, anion, and solvent in the title compound, [K(C(18)H(36)N(2)O(6))][Co(C(8)H(12))(C(16)H(10))(2)]·0.5C(5)H(12), are well separated. The pentane solvent mol-ecules are found in channels along [100] and were modeled as disordered over crystallographic inversion centers. Using the mid-points of the coordinated olefins, the angle between the C(py)/C(py)-Co-C(py)/C(py) and the C(cod)/C(cod)-Co-C(cod)/C(cod) planes (py is pyrene and cod is cyclo-octa-diene) is 67.6 (2)°. Thus, the overall geometry of the coordination sphere around cobalt is best described as distorted tetra-hedral.
T. I. Odiaka
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this synthesis, we have been able to show that, the addition of x- substituted pyridines, (X = H, 2- Me, 3- Me 4- Me, 4-NH2 and 4-N(CH32 to the dienyl ring of the organometallic cation, [(Fe(CO3 (1-5- η-2-Me0C3H6]BF4 and [(Fe(CO3(1-5-η-C6H7]BF4 gives ionic substituted diene products, (X C5H4-C6H6Y (Fe(CO3] BF4,Y=H or 2-MeO. The reaction takes place at ordinary room temperature. The resulting products were isolated and characterized.
Betül Şahin
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Novel 2-(1,5-bis(arylpenta-1,4-dien-2-ylbenzo[d]thiazol (5a,b and 2-(((1S,2S,E-2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-1,5-di-arylpent-4-en-1-ylthioaniline (6a,b derivatives were obtained by addition of 2-aminobenzothiol to bis-benzylidinecyclobutanones (3a,b. The structures of the obtained compounds were characterized using the spectroscopic methods (NMR, IR, Elemental Analysis. Compounds 5a,b showed cytotoxic activities against C6 (Rat Brain tumor cells and HeLa (human uterus carcinoma in vitro. ©2016 ACG Publications. All rights reserved.
Glucose transporters and maximal transport are increased in endurance-trained rat soleus
Slentz, C. A.; Gulve, E. A.; Rodnick, K. J.; Henriksen, E. J.; Youn, J. H.; Holloszy, J. O.
1992-01-01
Voluntary wheel running induces an increase in the concentration of the regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat plantaris muscle but not in soleus muscle (K. J. Rodnick, J. O. Holloszy, C. E. Mondon, and D. E. James. Diabetes 39: 1425-1429, 1990). Wheel running also causes hypertrophy of the soleus in rats. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether endurance training that induces enzymatic adaptations but no hypertrophy results in an increase in the concentration of GLUT4 protein in rat soleus (slow-twitch red) muscle and, if it does, to determine whether there is a concomitant increase in maximal glucose transport activity. Female rats were trained by treadmill running at 25 m/min up a 15% grade, 90 min/day, 6 days/wk for 3 wk. This training program induced increases of 52% in citrate synthase activity, 66% in hexokinase activity, and 47% in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration in soleus muscles without causing hypertrophy. Glucose transport activity stimulated maximally with insulin plus contractile activity was increased to roughly the same extent (44%) as GLUT4 protein content in soleus muscle by the treadmill exercise training. In a second set of experiments, we examined whether a swim-training program increases glucose transport activity in the soleus in the presence of a maximally effective concentration of insulin. The swimming program induced a 44% increase in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration. Glucose transport activity maximally stimulated with insulin was 62% greater in soleus muscle of the swimmers than in untrained controls. Training did not alter the basal rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
Matić Vesna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.
钟涛; 杨勇; 朱茂恩; 聂玉琼; 郭曲练
2014-01-01
目的：探讨丙泊酚 TCI 时患者意识消失（LOC）及诱发脑电爆发抑制（BS）时的效应室半数有效浓度（EC50）的影响。方法择期全麻手术患者60例，随机均分为瑞芬太尼组（R 组）和生理盐水组（N 组）。R 组：以4 ng／ml 靶浓度 TCI 瑞芬太尼10 min 后开始 TCI 丙泊酚，靶浓度从1μg／ml开始递增，递增梯度为1μg／ml，每一靶浓度输注1 min，至脑电监测爆发抑制比（BSR）达到15％后结束试验；N 组：以等量生理盐水模拟瑞芬太尼 TCI，其余方法与 R 组相同，期间所有患者每间隔20秒行改良 OAA／S 评分，改良 OAA／S 评分＜2分定义为 LOC，BSR＞15％定义为出现 BS 现象。记录 LOC 和 BSR 达15％时的丙泊酚 EC50及其95％可信区间（CI）。结果LOC 时 R 组丙泊酚效应室 EC50为1.73μg／ml（95％CI 1.68～1.79μg／ml），N 组为2.35μg／ml（95％CI 2.29～2.41μg／ml）（P＜0.05）。BSR 达15％时 R 组和 N 组丙泊酚 EC50分别为6.25μg／ml （95％CI 6.18～6.42μg／ml）和6.31μg／ml（95％CI 6.13～6.47μg／ml），两组差异无统计学意义。结论复合 TCI 瑞芬太尼可降低丙泊酚 TCI 意识消失时的效应室 EC50，但对出现脑电爆发抑制时的丙泊酚效应室浓度无明显影响。%Objective To investigate the effect-site concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 )of propofol required for loss of consciousness and onset of burst suppression and to assess the effect of target-control infusion(TCI)of remifentanil on these EC50 of propofol.Methods Sixty patients undergoning general anesthesia for scheduled surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=30):group R received TCI of remifentanil with a target concentraton of 4 ng/ml 10 minutes before TCI of propofol,which started at a target plasma concentration of 1μg/ml and then increased by 1μg/ml step every 1 minute until the burst suppression ratio reach to 15%.Group N received a mock TCI of
The concentration or threshold of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] needed to maximally suppress intact serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) has been suggested as a measure of optimal vitamin D status. Depending upon the definition of maximal suppression of iPTH and the 2-phase regression approach used, 2 d...
Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors
Pedro Caruso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9% presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049. There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
Maximizing Utilization of Energy from Crop By-products
Budi Haryanto
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The availability of crop by-products is huge during harvesting times as related to the vast agricultural land area; however, their utilization is still limited due to lack of knowledge and handling problem. Seasonal effect is obvious especially during wet season when high rainfall hinders proper management of crop by-products. Crop by-products are energy rich feedstuffs in the form of chemical substance such as cellulose and hemicellulose. The utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose as sources of energy can be maximized by the application of technologies to increase the digestibility. Cellulose is polymer of glucose while hemicellulose is polymer of xylose which both can be converted to volatile fatty acids by rumen microbial enzyme activities and subsequently used by the host animal as source of energy. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose can also be used as substrates for bioethanol production leaving behind residual matter with higher concentration of protein which is also appropriate for ruminant feeds. The fat content of crop by-products such as those in rice bran and corn germ can be extracted for oil production that can be used for human consumption with concomitant production of high nutritive value of residues for ruminant feeds. The oil extraction technologies are available; however the high cost of ethanol and oil production should obtain high attention to make the technologies more applicable at farmers’ level.
Plant regeneration from protoplasts of Gentiana straminea Maxim
Shi Guomin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A protocol is described for plant regeneration from protoplasts of Gentiana straminea Maxim. via somatic embryogenesis. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli in an enzyme solution composed of 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% Hemicellulase, and 0.5 M sorbitol with a yield of 3.0 × 106 protoplasts per gram of fresh weight. Liquid, solid-liquid double layer (sLD and agar-pool (aPL culture systems were used for protoplast culture. The aPL culture was the only method that produced embryogenic, regenerative calli. With aPL culture, the highest frequencies of protoplast cell division and colony formation were 39.6% and 16.9%, respectively, on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L N6-benzylaminopurine (BA. Microcalli were transferred to solid MS medium containing a reduced concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 mg/L to promote the formation of embryogenic calli. Somatic embryos developed into plantlets on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA at a rate of 43.7%.
Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity
Pedro Figueiredo, Rafael Nazario, Marisa Sousa, Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Fernandes
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS. Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA, allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%: stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation. However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity.
Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Magnusson, S Peter
2012-01-01
INTRODUCTION: Coactivation of the hamstring muscles during dynamic knee extension may compensate for increased knee joint laxity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient subjects. This study examined if antagonist muscle coactivation during maximal dynamic knee extension was elevated...... in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency compared to age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) and net knee joint moments were recorded during maximal concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstring contractions, performed in an isokinetic dynamometer (ROM: 90......-10°, angular speed: 30°/s). Hamstring antagonist EMG recorded during concentric quadriceps contraction was converted into antagonist moment based on the EMG-moment relationship observed during eccentric agonist contractions. RESULTS: The magnitude of antagonist hamstring EMG was 65.5% higher in ACL deficient...
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.
2012-01-01
We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.
The Negative Consequences of Maximizing in Friendship Selection.
Newman, David B; Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Yamada, Junko; Nezlek, John B
2017-02-27
Previous studies have shown that the maximizing orientation, reflecting a motivation to select the best option among a given set of choices, is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. In the present studies, we examined whether these relationships extend to friendship selection and how the number of options for friends moderated these effects. Across 5 studies, maximizing in selecting friends was negatively related to life satisfaction, positive affect, and self-esteem, and was positively related to negative affect and regret. In Study 1, a maximizing in selecting friends scale was created, and regret mediated the relationships between maximizing and well-being. In a naturalistic setting in Studies 2a and 2b, the tendency to maximize among those who participated in the fraternity and sorority recruitment process was negatively related to satisfaction with their selection, and positively related to regret and negative affect. In Study 3, daily levels of maximizing were negatively related to daily well-being, and these relationships were mediated by daily regret. In Study 4, we extended the findings to samples from the U.S. and Japan. When participants who tended to maximize were faced with many choices, operationalized as the daily number of friends met (Study 3) and relational mobility (Study 4), the opportunities to regret a decision increased and further diminished well-being. These findings imply that, paradoxically, attempts to maximize when selecting potential friends is detrimental to one's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s
Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks
T. Kleinow; A. Pelsser
2008-01-01
We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a solv
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
On a discrete version of Tanaka's theorem for maximal functions
Bober, Jonathan; Hughes, Kevin; Pierce, Lillian B
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove a discrete version of Tanaka's Theorem \\cite{Ta} for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in dimension $n=1$, both in the non-centered and centered cases. For the discrete non-centered maximal operator $\\wM $ we prove that, given a function $f: \\Z \\to \\R$ of bounded variation,
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass
A Class of Maximal Functions with Oscillating Kernels
Ahmad AL-SALMAN
2007-01-01
The author studies the Lp mapping properties of a class of maximal functions that are related to oscillatory singular integral operators. Lp estimates, as well as the corresponding weighted estimates of such maximal functions, are obtained. Moreover, several applications of our results are highlighted.
ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
Yulan Jiao
2010-01-01
In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1
maximal operator.
Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers
V. Krizhanovski
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
CHROMATIC NUMBER OF SQUARE OF MAXIMAL OUTERPLANAR GRAPHS
Luo Xiaofang
2007-01-01
Let χ(G2) denote the chromatic number of the square of a maximal outerplanar graph G and Q denote a maximal outerplanar graph obtained by adding three chords and χ(G2) = Δ + 2 if and only if G is Q, where Δ represents the maximum degree of G.
SAR image target segmentation based on entropy maximization and morphology
柏正尧; 刘洲峰; 何佩琨
2004-01-01
Entropy maximization thresholding is a simple, effective image segmentation method. The relation between the histogram entropy and the gray level of an image is analyzed. An approach, which speeds the computation of optimal threshold based on entropy maximization, is proposed. The suggested method has been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image targets segmentation. Mathematical morphology works well in reducing the residual noise.
Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.
Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.
1982-01-01
To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)
Kulyash Meiramkulova
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Republic of Kazakhstan oil will last for 47.4 years, while gas production - 65.6 years. Given the Kashagan reserves, something else for a longer period, that is a very short periods of time with respect to the development of state and they can be extended only by the development of a technological breakthrough. Along with the question of the ever-growing needs of the population for energy resources, there is a question about the availability of annual waste generation as the impact of the rapid growth of the urban population, which is about 4% per year ("Population" encyclopedia of Astana, 2008. To cope with both problems simultaneously, the waste may be used as energy sources by fermentation technology. Among the urban wastes the organic waste is dominated, such as vegetables, fallen leaves, etc., that have the potential to produce biogas. The use of unsuitable materials as a natural catalyst of fermentation and the time spent on fermentation, are some of the existing barriers to the development of energy resources in urban areas. For this purpose a study was conducted to optimize the ratio of urban waste, animal waste and water in combination with the time of fermentation. The study used an experimental method with the random nature of the two-factor model. The first factor is the ratio of waste, manure, and the second quantity of water - during fermentation, which is fixed to each of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18th day of the fermentation substrate. The study showed that the optimum proportion to obtain the maximum amount of biogas is a ratio of 500: 200: 300 waste, manure, and water, respectively. Furthermore, on the second day of fermentation the maximum amount of biogas produced.
On the maximal efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
Leiderschneider, Elly
2015-01-01
The center of mass (CM) energy in a collisional Penrose process - a collision taking place within the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole - can diverge under suitable extreme conditions (maximal Kerr, near horizon collision and suitable impact parameters). We present an analytic expression for the CM energy, refining expressions given in the literature. Even though the CM energy diverges, we show that the maximal energy attained by a particle that escapes the black hole's gravitational pull and reaches infinity is modest. We obtain an analytic expression for the energy of an escaping particle resulting from a collisional Penrose process, and apply it to derive the maximal energy and the maximal efficiency for several physical scenarios: pair annihilation, Compton scattering, and the elastic scattering of two massive particles. In all physically reasonable cases (in which the incident particles initially fall from infinity towards the black hole) the maximal energy (and the corresponding efficiency) are only one o...
Berthon, P; Fellmann, N
2002-09-01
The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.
Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim
sajjad rahmatian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.
Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.
Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
2010-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.
The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA
2006-01-01
We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.
Maximal regularity of second order delay equations in Banach spaces
无
2010-01-01
We give necessary and sufficient conditions of Lp-maximal regularity(resp.B sp ,q-maximal regularity or F sp ,q-maximal regularity) for the second order delay equations:u″(t)=Au(t) + Gu’t + F u t + f(t), t ∈ [0, 2π] with periodic boundary conditions u(0)=u(2π), u′(0)=u′(2π), where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,F and G are delay operators on Lp([-2π, 0];X)(resp.Bsp ,q([2π, 0];X) or Fsp,q([-2π, 0;X])).
Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.
Hurst, J B
1996-09-01
Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.
People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.
De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
2014-10-01
Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically.
Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications
Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.
潘勤鹤; 陈强; 韩义德; 胡同亮; 卜显和
2011-01-01
以Co(dien)2·Cl3为模板剂,在水热条件下导向合成出新型草酸盐化合物[Co(dien)2]·[NaC02(C2O4).].H2O,并通过X射线单晶结构分析、元素分析、ICP以及X射线粉末衍射分析对该化合物的结构进行了表征.结果表明,该化合物结构属于单斜晶系,C2/c空间群,晶胞参数a=1.3805(3)nm,b=1.3017(3)nm,c=1.5913(3)nm,β=104.41(3)°,V=2.7695(10)nm3,Z=4.在该化合物的结构中,C02+先与草酸基团相互交替连接形成一个常见的链状结构基元[Co(C2O4)2]2n-/n,这些链状结构基元进一步被分布于链间的Na+连接成三维开放骨架结构[NaCO2(C2O4)4]3n/n.金属配合物离子Co(dien)3+/2存在于孔道中起模板剂的作用.%Using Co(dien)2· Cl3 as the template, a new oxalate compound, [Co (dien)2]·[NaCo2(C2O4)], was synthesized under hydrothermal condition. Its structure was determined by singlecrystal X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analyses, ICP and X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic system space group C2/c with a = 1. 3805 ( 3 ) nm, b = 1. 3017 ( 3 ) nm, c = 1. 5913 ( 3 ) nm, β = 104. 41 (3) °, V = 2. 7695 (10) nm3, Z = 8. In this structure, the Co2 + ions first link to oxalate ligands to form a chain-like building unit[Co( C2O4 )2]2n-n, then those chain-like building units are further connected by Na + cations, which are dispersed between the chains, to form a three dimensional oxalate open-framework of [NaCo2 (C2O4 )4]3n-n . The complex cations Co(dien)3+2 are encapsulated inside the channels as template.
Herrmann, Richard A.
1974-01-01
By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)
Maximal strength training in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia.
Mosti, Mats P; Kaehler, Nils; Stunes, Astrid K; Hoff, Jan; Syversen, Unni
2013-10-01
Current guidelines recommend weight-bearing activities, preferably strength training for improving skeletal health in patients with osteoporosis. What type of strength training that is most beneficial for these patients is not established. Maximal strength training (MST) is known to improve 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD), which are considered as important covariables for skeletal health. Squat exercise MST might serve as an effective intervention for patients with low bone mass. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of squat exercise MST would improve 1RM and RFD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia and that these changes would coincide with improved bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and serum markers of bone metabolism. The participants were randomized to a training group (TG, n = 10) or control group (CG, n = 11). The TG underwent 12 weeks of supervised squat exercise MST, 3 times a week, with emphasis on rapid initiation of the concentric part of the movement. The CG was encouraged to follow current exercise guidelines. Measurements included 1RM, RFD, BMD, BMC, and serum bone metabolism markers; type 1 collagen amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and type 1 collagen C breakdown products (CTX). At posttest, 8 participants remained in each group for statistical analyses. The TG improved the 1RM and RFD by 154 and 52%, respectively. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMC increased by 2.9 and 4.9%. The ratio of serum P1NP/CTX tended to increase (p = 0.09), indicating stimulation of bone formation. In conclusion, squat exercise MST improved 1RM, RFD, and skeletal properties in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis. The MST can be implemented as a simple and effective training method for patients with reduced bone mass.
Maximizing ammonium nitrogen removal from solution using different zeolites.
Penn, Chad J; Warren, Jason G; Smith, Savannah
2010-01-01
Zeolite minerals are ideal for removing ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from animal wastes, leachates, and industrial effluents. The objectives of this study were to compare NH4+ removal and kinetics among several commercially available zeolites under various conditions and determine if calorimetry could provide information regarding kinetics of NH4+ removal. Ammonium sorption onto potassium (K) saturated zeolites was compared using synthetic vs. natural swine effluent and with either traditional batch-shaken system or a "tea bag" approach in which zeolites were contained in a mesh sack and suspended in a solution of swine effluent. Ammonium sorption was measured at four retention times using a flow-through system, and the resulting heat response was measured using isothermal calorimetry. Ammonium removal was not significantly different in synthetic vs. natural swine effluent. Ammonium removal was lower in batch-stirred compared to batch-shaken systems, suggesting that diffusion between particles was rate-limiting in the former system. Flow-through cells possessing contact times > 100 s displayed greater NH4+ sorption than batch systems, suggesting that maintaining high NH4+ concentration in solution, removal of exchange products, and sufficient reaction time are critical to maximizing NH4+ removal by zeolites. Within 100 s after NH4+ addition, endothermic heat responses indicated that NH4(+)-K+ exchange had peaked; this was followed by significant heat rate reduction for 50 min. This confirmed findings of an initial fast NH4(+)-K+ exchange followed by a slower one and suggests the 100-s period of rapid reaction is an indicator of the minimum flow through retention time required to optimize NH4+ sorption to zeolites used in this study.
Shale Gas Well Completions and Maximizing Gas Recoveries
Michael D. Burnaman; Stephen Smith; Wenwu Xia
2009-01-01
It is shown that stress fields within the earth are the principle control for hydraulic fracture direction in horizontal shale gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is a process of increasing permeability within gas shales and involves a sophisticated organization of technology, good planning and proper management of equipment over a very short time period to be successful.The direction and extent of the induced fractures can be determined in near real-time at the well site via application of earthquake seismology theory in a now common process known as frac mapping. Next to the horizontal lateral azimuth, the total volume of slurry pumped into the well is a major factor in determining well EURs. Vertical fracture growth can be controlled and is important in concentration of the slurry within the main zone target zone that has the high TOC and porosity. Cemented casing with perforations is currently the most used method for zone isolation. New open-hole sleeve packers may eventually provide more flexibility in fracture design while also providing a means for refracturing multi-stage fractured horizontal wells, a technique not now commonly available. Multi-Stage fracture design requires incorporating rock properties with fracturing effect simulations and then verifying results using 3D reservoir simulations. Maximizing the gas recovery factors and EURs can be accomplished through use of closely spaced laterals with inter-fingered fracture stages and exploiting the stress shadow fracturing phenomenon.Even greater EURs may be possible if the wells can be refractured thereby opening up additional permeability channels. Shale gas development has progressed in an environmentally sensitive manner within the U.S. and will continue in this manner.During the past ten years, all of these technologies have been either newly developed or were the advancement of existingtechnology with modifications. The opportunity exists to take these proven technologies to other areas of the world
Maximally entangled state can be a mixed state
Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Liu, W M
2009-01-01
We present mixed maximally entangled states in d\\otimes d' (d'\\geq 2d) spaces. This result is beyond the generally accepted fact that all maximally entangled states are pure. These states possess important properties of the pure maximally entangled states in $d\\otimes d$ systems, for example, they can be used as a resource for faithful teleportation, their local distinguishability property is also the same as the pure states case. On the other hand, one advantage of these mixed maximally entangled states is that the decoherence induced by certain noisy quantum channel does not destroy their entanglement. Thus one party of these mixed states can be sent through this channel to arbitrary distance while still keeping them as a valuable resource for quantum information processing. We also propose a scheme to prepare these states and confirm their advantage in NMR physical system.
Groups Satisfying the Maximal Condition on Non-modular Subgroups
Maria De Falco; Carmela Musella
2005-01-01
In this paper, (generalized) soluble groups for which the set of non-modular subgroups verifies the maximal condition and groups for which the set of non-permutable subgroups satisfies the same property are classified.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-01-01
.... Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs...
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Kwiat, P G; Munro, W J; Verstraete, F; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Nemoto, Kae; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-01-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy.
Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G
2013-08-01
We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.
Maximal induced paths and minimal percolating sets in hypercubes
Anil M. Shende
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$, the \\emph{$r$-bootstrap percolation} process can be described as follows: Start with an initial set $A$ of "infected'' vertices. Infect any vertex with at least $r$ infected neighbours, and continue this process until no new vertices can be infected. $A$ is said to \\emph{percolate in $G$} if eventually all the vertices of $G$ are infected. $A$ is a \\emph{minimal percolating set} in $G$ if $A$ percolates in $G$ and no proper subset of $A$ percolates in $G$. An induced path, $P$, in a hypercube $Q_n$ is maximal if no induced path in $Q_n$ properly contains $P$. Induced paths in hypercubes are also called snakes. We study the relationship between maximal snakes and minimal percolating sets (under 2-bootstrap percolation in hypercubes. In particular, we show that every maximal snake contains a minimal percolating set, and that every minimal percolating set is contained in a maximal snake.
Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael
2010-09-01
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.
Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2015-02-01
A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.
IMRank: Influence Maximization via Finding Self-Consistent Ranking
Cheng, Suqi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Huang, Junming; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-01-01
Influence maximization, fundamental for word-of-mouth marketing and viral marketing, aims to find a set of seed nodes maximizing influence spread on social network. Early methods mainly fall into two paradigms with certain benefits and drawbacks: (1)Greedy algorithms, selecting seed nodes one by one, give a guaranteed accuracy relying on the accurate approximation of influence spread with high computational cost; (2)Heuristic algorithms, estimating influence spread using efficient heuristics,...
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization
Mygind, Niels
2004-01-01
including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....
Maximal speed of particles in super-Lévy process
LIN Zheng-yan; CHENG Zong-mao
2008-01-01
We introduce a super-Lévy process and study maximal speed of all particles process is a measure on the set of paths.We study the maximal speed of all particles during a given time period,which turns out to be a function of the packing dimension of the time period.We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of a-fast patlls in the support and the range of the historical super-lévy process.
Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees
Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying
2013-01-01
In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.
Scarth, James P; Clarke, Adam D; Teale, Philip; Pearce, Clive M
2010-10-01
Effective detection of the abuse of androgenic-anabolic steroids in human and animal sports often requires knowledge of the drug's metabolism in order to target appropriate urinary metabolites. 'Designer' steroids are problematic since it is difficult to obtain ethical approval for in vivo metabolism studies due to a lack of a toxicological profile. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of estra-4,9-diene-3,17-dione is reported for the first time. This is also the first study comparing the metabolism of a designer steroid in the three major species subject to sport's doping control; namely the equine, canine and human. In order to allow the retrospective analysis of sample testing data, the use of a high-resolution (HR) accurate-mass Thermo LTQ-Orbitrap LC-MS instrument was employed for metabolite identification of underivatised sample extracts. The full scan HR-LC-MS Orbitrap data was complimented by several further experiments targeted at elucidating more detailed structural information for the most abundant metabolites. These included; HR-LC-MS/MS of the underivatised metabolites, functional group selective chemical derivatisation followed by full scan HR-LC-MS, enzyme inhibition experiments and full scan electron ionization GC-MS analysis of methoxyamine-trimethylsilyl derivatives. The major metabolite detected in all species, and therefore the most suitable candidate for screening of estra-4,9-diene-3,17-dione abuse, was proposed to be an isomer of 17-hydroxy-estra-4,9-dien-3-one. Less significant metabolic pathways in all species included hydroxylation and reduction followed by hydroxylation. Reductive metabolism in the canine was less significant than in the other two species, while the equine was unique in producing a di-reduced metabolite (proposed to be an isomer of estra-4,9-diene-3,17-diol) and also relatively large quantities of d-ring hydroxy and hydroxy-reduced metabolites.
HU Rong-Hu; CHEN Gui-Qin; CAI Ming-Zhong
2007-01-01
(E)-α-Stannylvinyl phenyl(or p-tolyl)sulfones underwent an iododestannylation reaction to afford (E)-α-iodovinyl phenyl(or p-tolyl)sulfones 1,which reacted with (E)-alkenylzirconium(Ⅳ) complexes 2 produced in situ by hydrozirconation of terminal alkynes in the presence of a Pd(PPh3)4 catalyst to afford stereoselectively (1Z,3E)-2phenyl(or p-tolyl)sulfonyl-substituted 1,3-dienes 3 in good yields.
Hulcoop, David G; Shapland, Peter D P
2013-12-11
A six step transformation of prednisolone to 17α,21-dihydroxy-9β,11β-epoxy-16α-amethylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate has been achieved in 13% unoptimised yield. Novel conditions for effecting a Mattox rearrangement and double dehydration of prednisolone were identified. Enhanced knowledge on the oxidation of silyl Δ(19,20)-enol ethers and structural factors that impact the success of the oxidation are also presented.
Low concentrator PV optics optimization
Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben
2008-08-01
Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.
Coefficient of variation in maximal and feigned static and dynamic grip efforts.
Dvir, Z
1999-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the coefficient of variation as an identifier of feigned grip effort. Seventeen healthy female aged 20 to 25 yr participated in the study. Maximal and feigned efforts were measured isometrically and isokinetically (concentric and eccentric) using the Jamar and KinCom dynamometers, respectively. Findings indicated that, in all situations, the coefficient of variation derived from the maximal effort was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower than that derived from the feigned effort. However, the extent of overlapping between the two was sufficiently large to render the test sensitivities very low. Consequently, regardless of the measurement method, the coefficient of variation is not a valid tool for identifying feigned grip effort in healthy subjects.
Ohno, Keiji; Fujihara, Takashi; Nagasawa, Akira
2014-04-01
A new ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the title compound, C30H24N4, with a density of 1.315 Mg m(-3), has been obtained. The mol-ecule is centrosymmetric with the centroid of the cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene ring located on an inversion center. The two unique benzene rings are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 86.70 (6)°] and are oriented at dihedral angles of 30.79 (5) and 68.07 (5)° with respect to the central cyclo-hexa-diene ring. In the crystal, π-π stacking is observed between the central cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene-1,4-di-amine unit and a phenyl ring of a neighboring mol-ecule [centroid-centroid distance = 3.7043 (7) Å]. The crystal structure of the triclinic polymorph [Ohno et al. (2014 ▶). Acta Cryst. E70, o303-o304] showed chains running along the b-axis direction through weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.
Chen, Qinqin; Hu, Xuefang; Li, Jingming; Liu, Ping; Yang, Yang; Ni, Yuanying
2011-03-09
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique in semi-preparative scale was successfully used in isolation and purification of cuminaldehyde and p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al from the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. by using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol-water (5:4:1, v/v/v). The targeted compounds were isolated, collected, purified by HSCCC in the head-tail mode, and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). A total of 12.72 ± 0.22 mg of cuminaldehyde and 10.61 ± 0.27 mg of p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al were obtained from 50 mg of the essential oil of C. cyminum L. in less than 6 h, with purities of 95.42% and 97.21%, respectively. In addition to GC-EI/MS, the identity of the cuminaldehyde was further confirmed with the retention time using the method of standard addition, while, the structural identification of p-menta-1,4-dien-7-al was performed with GC-EI/MS, (1)H NMR and (1)H-(1)H COSY.
Goetz, J.; Touroude, R. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Volpe, M.A. [Planta Piloto de Ingeneria Quimica, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
1996-12-01
Buta-1,3-diene hydrogenation and but-1-ene hydrogenation and isomerization were studied on low-loaded Pd/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts (0.1-0.3 wt.%) prepared from palladium acetylacetonate (Pd(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}O{sub 2}){sub 2}). Deuterium tracer study, hydrogen chemisorption, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were used to establish the relationships between metal-support interactions, particle shapes, and buta-1,3-diene and but-1-ene hydrogenation and isomerization mechanisms. It was found that the hydrogenation reaction rates (turnover frequencies) are similar for buta-1,3-diene and but-1-ene, but 10 times lower for the 0.1% Pd catalyst compared to the 0.3% Pd catalyst. However, the 0.1% Pd catalyst has a high activity for the isomerization reaction which leads to 98% selectivity in isomers for the but-1-ene reaction. This unusual specific activity is explained considering that the 0.1% Pd catalyst contains flat particles in strong interaction with the support, as was deduced from several characterization methods, while the 0.3% Pd catalyst has more rugged bulk type particles after H{sub 2} treatments because they are not interacting with the support. 33 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
Nadiah eAbu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The fritarillia imperialis is an ornamental flower that can be found in various parts of the world including Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Himalayas. The use of this plant as traditional remedy is widely known. This study aims to unveil the anti-cancer potentials of Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic Acid, extracted from the bulbs of Fritillaria imperialis in cervical cancer cell line, HeLa cells. Flow cytometry analysis of cell death, gene expression analysis via cDNA microarray and protein array were performed. Based on the results, Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic acid simultaneously induced cell death and promoted cell survival. The execution of apoptosis was apparent based on the flow cytometry results and regulation of both pro and anti-apoptotic genes. Additionally, the regulation of anti-oxidant genes were up-regulated especially thioredoxin, glutathione and superoxide dismutase- related genes. Moreover, the treatment also induced the activation of pro-survival heat shock proteins. Collectively, Isopimara-7,15-Dien-19-Oic Acid managed to induce cellular stress in HeLa cells and activate several anti- and pro survival pathways.
Maurice Schiff
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models. The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models.
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.
Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D
2000-10-01
The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines
Stähler, Ralph; Näther, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang
2003-09-01
The two new thioantimonates(III) [Ni(dien) 2]Sb 4S 7·H 2O ( I) and [Ni(dien) 2] 3Sb 12S 21·H 2O ( II) were prepared under solvothermal conditions using elemental Ni, Sb, S and an aqueous solution of diethylenetriamine (dien) as solvent. Compound I crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c, a=9.603(2) Å, b=16.137(3) Å, c=17.272(4) Å, β=91.68(3)°, V=2675.3(9) Å 3, Z=4 and compound II crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/ c with a=12.6072(7) Å, b=14.9967(7) Å, c=41.445(2) Å, β=95.371(6)°, V=7801.4(7) Å 3, Z=4. The two-dimensional ∞2[Sb 4S 72-] anion in I is composed of two SbS 3 trigonal pyramids and two SbS 4 units. The SbS 3 units are connected via one corner to form a Sb 2S 5 unit and the two SbS 4 moieties share a common edge building a trans-Sb 2S 6 unit. The Sb 2S 5 and trans-Sb 2S 6 units have one common S atom to form the layered ∞2[Sb 4S 72-] anion. Within the layers Sb 2S 2, Sb 4S 4 and Sb 8S 8 heterorings are found with the mer-[Ni(dien) 2] 2+ residing above and below the large pores. In compound II the ∞3[Sb 12S 216-] anion is composed of four SbS 3 pyramids and two SbS 4 units. The condensation of the different primary units yields Sb xS x rings with x=2,3,4,8, and 32. The largest ring consists of 64 atoms (Sb 32S 32) and the pores with an ellipsoidal shape are oriented parallel to the [110] direction. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest Sb xS x heteroring found in thioantimonates(III) so far. The cations are located above and below the large ring or within the plane of the ring. Nearly rectangular channels are running along [101] which have dimensions of about 7.6·13.5 Å. The channels are occupied by the water molecule and by the ligands pointing into the channels. The thermal behavior of the compounds was investigated using differential thermoanalysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG) and mass spectroscopy (MS) measurements. Upon heating decomposition of the compounds starts at Tonset=235°C (I) and Tonset
Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre
2015-07-01
The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.
Gabrielle, Brice; Lorthioir, Cédric; Lauprêtre, Françoise
2011-11-01
The possible influence of micrometric-size filler particles on the thermo-oxidative degradation behavior of the polymer chains at polymer/filler interfaces is still an open question. In this study, a cross-linked ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) terpolymer filled by aluminum trihydrate (ATH) particles is investigated using (1)H solid-state NMR. The time evolution of the EPDM network microstructure under thermal aging at 80 °C is monitored as a function of the exposure time and compared to that of an unfilled EPDM network displaying a similar initial structure. While nearly no variations of the topology are observed on the neat EPDM network over 5 days at 80 °C, a significant amount of chain scission phenomena are evidenced in EPDM/ATH. A specific surface effect induced by ATH on the thermodegradative properties of the polymer chains located in their vicinity is thus pointed out. Close to the filler particles, a higher amount of chain scissions are detected, and the characteristic length scale related to these interfacial regions displaying a significant thermo-oxidation process is determined as a function of the aging time.
B. T. Poh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The loop tack, peel strength, and shear strength of crosslinked epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25/ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM blend adhesives were investigated. Coumarone-indene resin, toluene, and benzoyl peroxide were used as the tackifier, solvent, and crosslinking agent, respectively, throughout the experiment. The adhesive was coated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a SHEEN hand coater at 60 μm and 120 μm coating thickness. It was cured at 80°C for 30 minutes before testing on a Lloyd adhesion tester operating at testing rates from 10 to 60 cm min−1. Results show that loop tack and peel strength of the ENR 25/EPDM adhesive pass through a maximum value at 2 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr of benzoyl peroxide content. This observation is attributed to the increase in crosslinking which enhances the cohesive strength of the adhesive. Further addition of the crosslinking agent decreases the tack and peel strength due to the decrease in wettability of the over-crosslinked adhesive. Shear strength, however, increases steadily with benzoyl peroxide content, an observation which is associated with the steady increase in the cohesive strength. The adhesion properties increase with increasing coating thickness and testing rate.
Hanson, Wayne R.; Collins, Paul W.
The aminothiols exemplified by WR-2721 are effective radioprotectors; however, their toxicity associated with hypotension, nausea, and emesis has limited their development for applications in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments. There is a need for new radioprotectors that have fewer toxic side effects when given alone or combined with reduced amounts of thiols. A variety of prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be radioprotective agents and some appear to have fewer toxic side effects than the aminothiols. Iloprost, a stable PGI, analog protects the clonogenic epithelial cells of intestinal crypts but does not protect epithelial cells of the villi. In contrast, an E-series omega chain diene analog designated SC-44932 protects epithelial cells of both crypts and villi. When the two are combined, protection of the crypts is additive and the villi are protected to the same degree as when SC-44932 is given alone. Since radioprotection for some PGs has been shown to be dependent upon receptors, we suggest that the pattern of radioprotection seen with these two analogs depend on the location of the respective receptors or on the ability of differentiated villus cells to respond to PGs. By studying different analogs, we hope to identify mechanisms associated with PG-induced radioprotection and to identify the most protective PG analogs for applications of radioprotection.
Zhen-Qiu Li; Yan Liu; Ben-Ye Liu; Hong Wang; He-Chun Ye; Guo-Feng Li
2006-01-01
Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class Ⅲ terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.
Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Yamashita, Kouwa; Kimura, Nao; Takahashi, Madoka
2009-02-01
In order to determine whether or not a 19-hydroxymethyl group of 19-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (2, 19-hydroxy ADD), an intermediate of aromatase-catalyzed estrone formation from ADD, a suicide substrate of aromatase, is eliminated as formaldehyde, we examine chemical nature of removal of the 19-hydroxymethyl group. 19-acetate 3 and 19-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy compound 4 are known to convert rapidly to estrone with treatment of NaOH or n-Bu4NF. Since compound 2 was unstable and unobtainable under these conditions, compounds 3 and 4 as equivalents to compound 2 were used in this study. The acetate 3 with 5 mol/l HCl in acetone and 10% KOH in MeOH along with the silyl ether 4 with 5 mol/l HCl in acetone and 1 mol/l n-Bu4NF in THF gave formaldehyde and estrone in which a ratio of the aldehyde to estrone was near 1. This result indicates that the 19-hydroxymethyl groups of compound 3 and 4 are eliminated as formaldehyde along with estrone derived from the steroid skeleton under the acid or base treatment. The findings suggest that a single hydroxylation at the 19 carbon of ADD (1) would be, chemically, all that was required for estrone formation.
Liaw, B.; Orchard, S.W.; Kutal, C.
1988-04-20
Photoisomerization of cis- and trans-piperylene can be sensitized with high quantum efficiency by Cu(diphos)BH/sub 4/ (diphos is 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane) and Cu(prophos)BH/sub 4/ (prophos is 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane). Sensitization is accompanied by quenching of the emissive /sup 3/(/sigma/-a/sub /pi//) excited state in each copper(I) complex, and the two processes occur with identical Stern-Volmer kinetics. Measurements of the trans/cis diene ratio at the photostationary state can be used to estimate the triplet-state energy as 60-61 kcal for Cu(diphos)BH/sub 4/ and > 61 kcal for Cu(prophos)BH/sub 4/; additional evidence suggests that 66-67 kcal is a reasonable value for the latter complex. Collectively, the results support the assignment of triplet-triplet energy transfer as the primary mechanism for sensitization and quenching in these systems. This mechanism also can accommodate earlier reports that Cu(diphos)BH/sub 4/ and Cu(prophos)BH/sub 4/ sensitize the valence isomerization of norbornadiene to quadricyclene with markedly different quantum efficiencies. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.
Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland
2010-04-26
The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency.
Generalized Entropy Concentration for Counts
Oikonomou, Kostas N
2016-01-01
We consider the phenomenon of entropy concentration under linear constraints in a discrete setting, using the "balls and bins" paradigm, but without the assumption that the number of balls allocated to the bins is known. Therefore instead of \\ frequency vectors and ordinary entropy, we have count vectors with unknown sum, and a certain generalized entropy. We show that if the constraints bound the allowable sums, this suffices for concentration to occur even in this setting. The concentration can be either in terms of deviation from the maximum generalized entropy value, or in terms of the norm of the difference from the maximum generalized entropy vector. Without any asymptotic considerations, we quantify the concentration in terms of various parameters, notably a tolerance on the constraints which ensures that they are always satisfied by an integral vector. Generalized entropy maximization is not only compatible with ordinary MaxEnt, but can also be considered an extension of it, as it allows us to address...
Abcès thyroïdien révélant un basedow: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature
Chenguir, Meriem; Souldi, Hajar; Loufad, Fatima Zahra; Rouadi, Sami; Abada, Reda; Roubal, Mohamed; Mahtar, Mohamed
2016-01-01
L’abcès thyroïdien est une entité clinique très rare. Elle représente 0,1% des pathologies chirurgicales de la thyroïde. Les caractéristiques anatomique et physiologique de la glande lui procurent une résistance vis-à-vis des agents pathogènes. Les infections à Streptococcies et Staphylococcus sont les plus fréquentes. La tuberculose reste rarement rapportée dans la littérature. La survenue de l’infection sur goitre toxique est exceptionnelle. Les auteurs rapportent un cas rare d’abcès thyroïdien révélant un goitre toxique chez un jeune de 22 ans. Il s’est présenté aux urgences ORL pour une tuméfaction cervicale antérieure, légèrement latéralisée à gauche, mobile à la déglutition, associée à des hémoptysies, signes de dysthyroïdie, fièvre et sueurs nocturnes. La TDM cervicale a montré une masse occupant le lobe thyroïdien gauche de contenu liquidien mesurant 2 cm, avec un liquide purulent à la cytoponction. L’examen cyto-bactériologique a mis en évidence un Staphylococcus avec recherche de BK positive. Une radiographie thoracique a été demandée montrant un foyer alvéolaire pulmonaire apical droit. L’étude cytobactériologique des crachats ont isolé le bacille de koch. Le bilan biologique thyroïdien était en faveur d’un Basedow. La prise en charge était médicale comprenait une tri-antibiothérapie par voie parentérale, anti-bacillaire et anti-thyroïdien de synthèse avec bonne évolution. Le diagnostic de la tuberculose doit être évoqué devant toute abcédation thyroïdienne avec un tableau clinique peu bruyant. Il s’agit le plus souvent d’une dissémination hématogène à partir d’un autre foyer de primo-infection surtout pulmonaire. Le traitement est basé sur les anti-bacillaires associé parfois à la chirurgie. PMID:27795799
The Automorphism Groups of a Family of Maximal Curves
Guralnick, Robert; Pries, Rachel
2011-01-01
The Hasse Weil bound restricts the number of points of a curve which are defined over a finite field; if the number of points meets this bound, the curve is called maximal. Giulietti and Korchmaros introduced a curve C_3 which is maximal over F_{q^6} and determined its automorphism group. Garcia, Guneri, and Stichtenoth generalized this construction to a family of curves C_n, indexed by an odd integer n greater than or equal to 3, such that C_n is maximal over F_{q^{2n}}. In this paper, we determine the automorphism group Aut(C_n) when n > 3; in contrast with the case n=3, it fixes the point at infinity on C_n. The proof requires a new structural result about automorphism groups of curves in characteristic p such that each Sylow p-subgroup has exactly one fixed point. MSC:11G20, 14H37.
Online Learning of Assignments that Maximize Submodular Functions
Golovin, Daniel; Streeter, Matthew
2009-01-01
Which ads should we display in sponsored search in order to maximize our revenue? How should we dynamically rank information sources to maximize value of information? These applications exhibit strong diminishing returns: Selection of redundant ads and information sources decreases their marginal utility. We show that these and other problems can be formalized as repeatedly selecting an assignment of items to positions to maximize a sequence of monotone submodular functions that arrive one by one. We present an efficient algorithm for this general problem and analyze it in the no-regret model. Our algorithm possesses strong theoretical guarantees, such as a performance ratio that converges to the optimal constant of 1-1/e. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on two real-world online optimization problems on the web: ad allocation with submodular utilities, and dynamically ranking blogs to detect information cascades.
Optimal bounded control for maximizing reliability of Duhem hysteretic systems
Ming XU; Xiaoling JIN; Yong WANG; Zhilong HUANG
2015-01-01
The optimal bounded control of stochastic-excited systems with Duhem hysteretic components for maximizing system reliability is investigated. The Duhem hysteretic force is transformed to energy-depending damping and stiffness by the energy dissipation balance technique. The controlled system is transformed to the equivalent non-hysteretic system. Stochastic averaging is then implemented to obtain the Itˆo stochastic equation associated with the total energy of the vibrating system, appropriate for eval-uating system responses. Dynamical programming equations for maximizing system re-liability are formulated by the dynamical programming principle. The optimal bounded control is derived from the maximization condition in the dynamical programming equa-tion. Finally, the conditional reliability function and mean time of first-passage failure of the optimal Duhem systems are numerically solved from the Kolmogorov equations. The proposed procedure is illustrated with a representative example.
Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans
Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S
1996-01-01
1. Unaccustomed eccentric exercise decreases whole-body insulin action in humans. To study the effects of one-legged eccentric exercise on insulin action in muscle and systemically, the euglycaemic clamp technique combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was used. Seven...... subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P eccentric exercise, muscle and whole-body insulin action is impaired at maximal...
Cross-Order Integral Relations from Maximal Cuts
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.; Søgaard, Mads
2015-01-01
We study the ABDK relation using maximal cuts of one- and two-loop integrals with up to five external legs. We show how to find a special combination of integrals that allows the relation to exist, and how to reconstruct the terms with one-loop integrals squared. The reconstruction relies on the observation that integrals across different loop orders can have support on the same generalized unitarity cuts and can share global poles. We discuss the appearance of nonhomologous integration contours in multivariate residues. Their origin can be understood in simple terms, and their existence enables us to distinguish contributions from different integrals. Our analysis suggests that maximal and near-maximal cuts can be used to infer the existence of integral identities more generally.
Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models
Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.
1987-01-01
The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem.
The F-Theorem and F-Maximization
Pufu, Silviu S
2016-01-01
This contribution contains a review of the role of the three-sphere free energy F in recent developments related to the F-theorem and F-maximization. The F-theorem states that for any Lorentz-invariant RG trajectory connecting a conformal field theory CFT_UV in the ultraviolet to a conformal field theory CFT_IR, the F-coefficient decreases: F_UV > F_IR. I provide many examples of CFTs where one can compute F, approximately or exactly, and discuss various checks of the F-theorem. F-maximization is the principle that in an N=2 SCFT, viewed as the deep IR limit of an RG trajectory preserving N=2 supersymmetry, the superconformal R-symmetry maximizes F within the set of all R-symmetries preserved by the RG trajectory. I review the derivation of this result and provide examples.
Viscosity and density dependence during maximal flow in man.
Staats, B A; Wilson, T A; Lai-Fook, S J; Rodarte, J R; Hyatt, R E
1980-02-01
Maximal expiratory flow curves were obtained from ten healthy subjects white breathing air and three other gas mixtures with different densities and viscosities. From these data, the magnitudes of the dependence of maximal flow on gas density and viscosity were obtained. The scaling laws of fluid mechanics, together with a model for the flow-limiting mechanism, were used to obtain a prediction of the relationship between the density dependence and the viscosity dependence of maximal flow. Although the data for individual subjects were too variable to allow a precise comparison with this prediction, the relationship between the mean density dependence and the mean viscosity dependence of all usbjects agreed with the theoretic prediction. This agreement supports the assumption, which is frequently made, that flow resistance rather than tissue visoelasticity is the dominant contributor to peripheral resistance. Information on the relationships between the pressure drop to the flow-limiting segment and flow, gas density and viscosity, and lung volume were also obtained.
Maximal supports and Schur-positivity among connected skew shapes
McNamara, Peter R W
2011-01-01
The Schur-positivity order on skew shapes is defined by B \\leq A if the difference s_A - s_B is Schur-positive. It is an open problem to determine those connected skew shapes that are maximal with respect to this ordering. A strong sufficient condition for the Schur-positivity of s_A - s_B is that the support of B is contained in that of A, where the support of B is defined to be the set of partitions lambda for which s_lambda appears in the Schur expansion of s_B. We show that to determine the maximal connected skew shapes in the Schur-positivity order and this support containment order, it suffices to consider a special class of ribbon shapes. We explicitly determine the support for these ribbon shapes, thereby determining the maximal connected skew shapes in the support containment order.
Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake
Convertino, V. A.
1997-01-01
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake
Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P
2014-01-15
In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P rate pressure product and RAP (P heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max .
Kakeya sets and directional maximal operators in the plane
Bateman, Michael
2009-01-01
We completely characterize the boundedness of planar directional maximal operators on $L^p$ . More precisely, if $\\Omega$ is a set of directions, we show that $M_{\\Omega}$ , the maximal operator associated to line segments in the directions $\\Omega$ , is unbounded on $L^p$ for all $p \\lt \\infty$ precisely when $\\Omega$ admits Kakeya-type sets. In fact, we show that if $\\Omega$ does not admit Kakeya sets, then $\\Omega$ is a generalized lacunary set, and hence, $M_{\\Omega}$ is bounded on $L^p$ ...
Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864
2011-01-01
We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.
How High Might the Revenue-maximizing Tax Rate Be?
Usher, Dan
2014-01-01
Through tax evasion, through the labour-leisure choice or in other ways, taxpayers reduce the tax base in response to an increase in the tax rate. The process is commonly-believed to generate a humped Laffer curve with a revenue-maximizing tax rate well short of 100%. That need not be so. In the â€œnew tax responsiveness literatureâ€ , the revenue-maximizing tax rate is inferred from the observed â€œelasticity of taxable incomeâ€ . It is shown in this article 1) that the inference is unwarran...
Maximizing opto‐mechanical interaction using topology optimization
Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization is perfo......This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization...
Constraining Torsion in Maximally symmetric (sub)spaces
Sur, Sourav
2013-01-01
We look into the general aspects of space-time symmetries in presence of torsion, and how the latter is affected by such symmetries. Focusing in particular to space-times which either exhibit maximal symmetry on their own, or could be decomposed to maximally symmetric subspaces, we work out the constraints on torsion in two different theoretical schemes. We show that at least for a completely antisymmetric torsion tensor (for e.g. the one motivated from string theory), an equivalence is set between these two schemes, as the non-vanishing independent torsion tensor components turn out to be the same.
Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces
Yan, Dongming
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.
Gap processing for adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling
Yan, Dongming
2013-09-01
In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.
Approximation algorithms for indefinite complex quadratic maximization problems
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,we consider the following indefinite complex quadratic maximization problem: maximize zHQz,subject to zk ∈ C and zkm = 1,k = 1,...,n,where Q is a Hermitian matrix with trQ = 0,z ∈ Cn is the decision vector,and m 3.An (1/log n) approximation algorithm is presented for such problem.Furthermore,we consider the above problem where the objective matrix Q is in bilinear form,in which case a 0.7118 cos mπ 2approximation algorithm can be constructed.In the context of quadratic optimization,various extensions and connections of the model are discussed.
Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM
Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2012-05-15
A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.
Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems
Popescu Otilia
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.
Weighted Inequalities for the Generalized Maximal Operator in Martingale Spaces
Wei CHEN; Peide LIU
2011-01-01
The generalized maximal operator M in martingale spaces is considered.For 1 ＜ p ≤ q ＜ ∞,the authors give a necessary and sufficient condition on the pair (（μ),v)for M to be a bounded operator from martingale space LP(v) into Lq(（μ）) or weak-Lq(（μ）),where （μ） is a measure on Ω× N and v a weight on Ω.Moreover,the similar inequalities for usual maximal operator are discussed.
Simulating Entangling Unitary Operator Using Non-maximally Entangled States
LI Chun-Xian; WANG Cheng-Zhi; NIE Liu-Ying; LI Jiang-Fan
2009-01-01
We use non-maximally entangled states (NMESs) to simulate an entangling unitary operator (EUO) w/th a certain probability. Given entanglement resources, the probability of the success we achieve is a decreasing function of the parameters of the EUO. Given an EUO, for certain entanglement resources the result is optimal, i.e., the probability obtains a maximal value, and for optimal result higher parameters of the EUO match more amount of entanglement resources. The probability of the success we achieve is higher than the known results under some condition.
Has the Brain Maximized its Information Storage Capacity?
Stepanyants, A L
2003-01-01
Learning and memory may rely on the ability of neuronal circuits to reorganize by dendritic spine remodeling. We have looked for geometrical parameters of cortical circuits, which maximize information storage capacity associated with this mechanism. In particular, we calculated optimal volume fractions of various neuropil components. The optimal axonal and dendritic volume fractions are not significantly different from anatomical measurements in the mouse and rat neocortex, and the rat hippocampus. This has led us to propose that the maximization of information storage capacity associated with dendritic spine remodeling may have been an important driving force in the evolution of the cortex.
Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers.
Subhashini, Arcot Sadagopa; Satchidhanandam, Natesa
2002-01-01
Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) curves were recorded with a computerized Spirometer (Med Spiror). Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV), mean and maximal flow rates were obtained in 25 quarry workers who were free from respiratory disorders and 20 healthy control subjects. All the functional values are lower in quarry workers than in the control subject, the largest reduction in quarry workers with a work duration of over 15 years, especially for FEF75. The effects are probably due to smoking rather than dust exposure.
Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces
Guo, Jianwei
2015-02-01
Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.
Chen, Ying-Xue; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Guang-Hao
2003-05-01
This study focused on the appropriate catalyst preparation and operating conditions for maximizing catalytic reduction efficiency of nitrate into nitrogen gas from groundwater. Batch experiments were conducted with prepared Pd and/or Cu catalysts with hydrogen gas supplied under specific operating conditions. It has been found that Pd-Cu combined catalysts prepared at a mass ratio of 4:1 can maximize the nitrate reduction into nitrogen gas. With an increase in the quantity of the catalysts, both nitrite intermediates and ammonia can be kept at a low level. It has also been found that the catalytic activity is mainly affected by the mass ratio of hydrogen gas to nitrate nitrogen, and hydrogen gas gauge pressure. Appropriate operating values of H(2)/NO(3)-N ratio, hydrogen gas gauge pressure, pH, and initial nitrate concentration have been determined to be 44.6g H(2)/g N, 0.15 atm, 5.2 (-), 100 mg x L(-1) for maximizing the catalytic reduction of nitrate from groundwater.
2010-04-01
... Employment and Training Administration Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor...). Information shows that Maxim Integrated Products was formerly known as Dallas Semiconductor. Some workers... insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. and Dallas...
Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.
Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.
1973-01-01
To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.
Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K
1984-01-01
The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...... the procedures to be the same, discrepancies were observed, possibly due to the use of different animal strains, test concentrations and vehicles. The sensitizing potential was in general found to be stronger in Stockholm compared to Copenhagen: formaldehyde sensitized 50% of the guinea pigs in Copenhagen and 95...
Balekar, Neelam; Nakpheng, Titpawan; Katkam, Nadpi Gangadhar; Srichana, Teerapol
2012-10-15
Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc (Asteraceae) has been used in traditional medicine in the Caribbean and Central America for stubborn wounds, sores, swelling, arthritic painful joints. The present study was carried out to derive bioactive compounds from ethanolic extracts of W. trilobata (L.) leaves that could influence wound healing. W. trilobata leaves extract were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. The five fractions (WEA1-A, B, C, D, and E) obtained were tested for antimicrobial activity. Out of the five fractions only the fraction (WEA1-B) containing ent-kaura-9(11),16-dien-19-oic acid showed promising antibacterial activity with MIC value of 15.62μg/ml against S. aureus and 7.81μg/ml against S. epidermidis. It was then further assessed for its possible activity on fibroblasts by measuring their percentage cell viability and on oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. WEA1-B (2.5-0.08μg/ml) produced an increase in the percentage viability of mouse fibroblast L929 cells from 97 to 117% and protection of the fibroblast L929 cells against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (94-80%). The present study provides some scientific evidence for the traditional use of W. trilobata in the management of wound healing due to a combination of antimicrobial, stimulation of fibroblast growth and protection of the cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury, all of which could play some role in its effect on tissue repair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance
Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.
2016-01-01
Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406
Moosvi, Syed Kazim; Majid, Kowsar; Ara, Tabassum
2016-10-01
Polythiophene/[Fe(CN)3(dien)]·H2O nanocomposite was synthesised by oxidative chemical polymerisation method. Photoadduct was synthesised by irradiating an equimolar mixture of potassium ferricyanide and diethylenetriamine which was then reduced to nanosize by high energy ball mill. The reduction of photoadduct to nanosize was confirmed from XRD. Nanocomposite of PTP with photoadduct was then prepared by oxidative chemical polymerisation using FeCl3 as oxidant. The successful synthesis of nanocomposite was confirmed from FTIR, XRD and SEM. TGA revealed higher thermal stability of nanocomposite as compared to pure PTP. I-V characteristics plotted on a log-log scale showed two distinct power law regions in case of nanocomposite. At lower voltages, the transport mechanism follows Ohm's law. At higher voltages, the mechanism is consistent with space charge-limited emission. Furthermore, nanocomposite shows enhanced conductivity as compared to pure PTP. From dielectric studies, an appreciable high value of dielectric constant (4.4 × 106 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (2.1 × 109 S/m at 300 kHz) of nanocomposite was obtained. This indicates the possible application of this nanocomposite in charge storage devices. The photocatalytic activity of the materials was studied against the methyl orange (MO) dye under UV-Vis light and 76% degradation of MO dye was achieved in presence of nanocomposite in just 2 h, hence indicating its better photocatalytic efficiency. Results thus obtained indicate the synthesised nanocomposite can be used as a multifunctional material for different nanoelectronic devices.
Prestwich, G.D. (International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya); Wiemer, D.F.; Meinwald, J.; Clardy, J.
1978-04-12
Cubitene was isolated from the hexane extract of C. umbratus soldier heads by chromatography over Florisil followed by preparative GLC. High resolution mass spectroscopy indicated the formula of cubitene to be C/sub 20/H/sub 32/. Mass spectra of catalytically hydrogenated cubitene products showed peaks at m/rho 279, consistent with their formulation as substituted cycloalkanes of the composition C/sub 20/H/sub 40/. Cubitene is therefore a monocyclic hydrocarbon with four centers of unsaturation. the /sup 1/H NMR spectral data revealed the presence of two 1,1-disubstituted double bonds, and two additional olefinic protons. Four methyl groups attached to double bonds are also observed. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum indicated the presence of two tribsubstituted double bonds. Fortunately, cubitene could be obtained in crystalline form (mp 34.5-35/sup 0/C) from cold methanol, allowing a single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallized in the monoclinic crystal class. Lattice parameters were: a = 15.963 (5), b = 6.799 (2), c = 17.038 (5) A; theta = 96.99 (2)/sup 0/. Evidence shows cubitene to be 1,5-dimethyl-8,10-bis(isopropenyl)cyclododeca-1,5-diene, a structure in which one isoprene unit is irregularly joined to three others. It appears to be the first example of a diterpene hydrocarbon based on a twelve-membered carbocyclic ring. Its biosynthesis poses interesting problems. Two possible biosynthetic routes are suggested. An even more basic question remains....whether termite soldiers synthesize cubitene at all, or whether they simply sequester it (or a closely related precursor) from their food.
Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength
Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B
1993-01-01
The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects on...
Octonionization of three player, two strategy maximally entangled quantum games
Ahmed, Aden; Bleiler, Steve; Khan, Faisal Shah
2008-01-01
We develop an octonionic representation of the payoff function for three player, two strategy, maximally entangled quantum games in order to obtain computationally friendly version of this function. This computational capability is then exploited to analyze and potentially classify the Nash equilibria in the quantum games.
Neuromuscular fatigue after maximal exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Vallier, J M; Gruet, M; Mely, L; Pensini, M; Brisswalter, J
2011-04-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite their ventilatory limitation, would develop neuromuscular fatigue of quadriceps muscles following a maximal cycling exercise. Eleven adults with CF (age=26.8±6.9years; forced expiratory volume in 1s=54.1±12.8% predicted) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects performed a maximal incremental cycle test with respiratory gas exchange measurements. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis muscle were recorded before and after exercise. Neural and contractile properties of the quadriceps were also investigated using femoral nerve electrical stimulation. Patients had lower exercise capacity, peak oxygen uptake and MVC than controls. MVC fell significantly postexercise in both groups (CF: -20±10%, controls: -19±6%; ppattern (-38.4±14.4%, -42.1±14.7% and -15±20.4%) but the statistical significance was not reached for the maximal rate of twitch torque relaxation. In conclusion, CF patients demonstrated lower limb fatigue following symptom-limited cycle exercise, which was comparable to that exhibited by healthy controls. This fatigue may be due to contractile impairments and not to transmission failure. Further studies should be conducted in a larger sample to confirm these preliminary results.
Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication
Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko
2014-01-01
In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization al...
Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization
Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel
2014-01-01
In this paper, joint estimation of carrier frequency, phase, signal means and noise variance, in a maximum likelihood sense, is performed iteratively by employing expectation maximization. The parameter estimation is soft decision driven and allows joint carrier synchronization and data detection...
Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue
Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van
2013-01-01
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-e
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval
Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria
2011-01-01
useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.
Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.
Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R
2015-08-01
In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity with External Masses
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J
2013-01-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method at two loops to double-box basis integrals with up to three external massive legs. We use consistency equations based on the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish. We obtain unique formulae for the coefficients of the master double-box integrals. These formulae can be used either analytically or numerically.
The influence of body position on maximal performance in cycling.
Welbergen, E; Clijsen, L P
1990-01-01
Six healthy male subjects performed a 3-min supramaximal test in four different cycling positions: two with different trunk angles and two with different saddle-tube angles. Maximal power output and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured. Maximal power output was significantly higher in a standard sitting (SS, 381 W, SD 49) upright position compared to all other positions: standard racing (SR, 364 W, SD 49), recumbent backwards (RB, 355 W, SD 44) and recumbent forwards (RF, 341 W, SD 54). Although VO2max was also highest in SS (4.31 l.min-1, SD 0.5) upright position, the differences in VO2max were not significant (SR, 4.2 l.min-1, SD 0.53; RB, 4.17 l.min-1, SD 0.58; RF, 4.11 l.min-1, SD 0.66). It is concluded that (supra)maximal tests on a cycle ergometer should be performed in a sitting upright position and not in a racing position. In some cases when cycling on the road, higher speeds can be attained when sitting upright. This is especially true when cycling uphill when high power must be generated to overcome gravity but the road speed, and hence the power required to overcome air resistance, is relatively low.
A Revenue Maximization Approach for Provisioning Services in Clouds
Li Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increased reliability, security, and reduced cost of cloud services, more and more users are attracted to having their jobs and applications outsourced into IAAS data centers. For a cloud provider, deciding how to provision services to clients is far from trivial. The objective of this decision is maximizing the provider’s revenue, while fulfilling its IAAS resource constraints. The above problem is defined as IAAS cloud provider revenue maximization (ICPRM problem in this paper. We formulate a service provision approach to help a cloud provider to determine which combination of clients to admit and in what Quality-of-Service (QoS levels and to maximize provider’s revenue given its available resources. We show that the overall problem is a nondeterministic polynomial- (NP- hard one and develop metaheuristic solutions based on the genetic algorithm to achieve revenue maximization. The experimental simulations and numerical results show that the proposed approach is both effective and efficient in solving ICPRM problems.
Teacher Praise: Maximizing the Motivational Impact. Teaching Strategies.
McVey, Mary D.
2001-01-01
Recognizes the influence of praise on human behavior, and provides specific suggestions on how to maximize the positive effects of praise when intended as positive reinforcement. Examines contingency, specificity, and selectivity aspects of praise. Cautions teachers to avoid the controlling effects of praise and the possibility that praise may…
Maximizing Access, Equity, and Inclusion in General and Special Education
Obiakor, Festus E.
2011-01-01
The goal of any educational program is to help its students to maximize their fullest potential in inclusive environments. For many students with disabilities, having an inclusive environment seems to be an ideal policy. Ironically, this policy continues to be debatable and controversial. Sometimes, the controversy or debate dominates the real…
How to Maximize Learning for Gifted Math Students
Chamberlin, Scott A.
2008-01-01
Having a gifted math or science student in the family or classroom is a fascination as well as a significant challenge and responsibility for many parents and teachers. In order to help maximize student learning, several questions need to be asked. What should be the role of technology? How well do traditional schools serve gifted students? What…
Curriculum and Testing Strategies to Maximize Special Education STAAR Achievement
Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared W.
2015-01-01
This document is from a presentation at the 2015 annual conference of the Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT). The two sessions (each listed as feature sessions at the state conference) examined classroom strategies the presenter used in his chemistry classes to maximize Texas end-of-course chemistry test scores for his special population…
Simplicity and maximal commutative subalgebras of twisted generalized Weyl algebras
Hartwig, J.T.; Öinert, Per Johan
2013-01-01
conditions for certain TGWAs to be simple, in the case when R is commutative. We illustrate our theorems by considering some special classes of TGWAs and providing concrete examples. We also discuss how simplicity of a TGWA is related to the maximal commutativity of R and the (non-)existence of non...
Lifetime maximization routing with network coding in wireless multihop networks
DING LiangHui; WU Ping; WANG Hao; PAN ZhiWen; YOU XiaoHu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider the lifetime maximization routing with network coding in wireless mul- tihop networks. We first show that lifetime maximization with network coding is different from pure routing, throughput maximization with network coding and energy minimization with network coding. Then we formulate lifetime maximization problems in three different cases of （i） no network coding, （ii） two-way network coding, and （iii） overhearing network coding. To solve these problems, we use flow augmenting routing （FA） for the first case, and then extend the FA with network coding （FANC） by using energy minimized one-hop network coding. After that, we investigate the influence of parameters of FANC, evaluate the performance of FANC with two-way and overhearing network coding schemes and compare it with that without network coding under two different power control models, namely, protocol and physical ones. The results show that the lifetime can be improved significantly by using network coding, and the performance gain of network coding decreases with the increase of flow asymmetry and the power control ability.
The Long Conversation Maximizing Business Value from Information Technology Investment
Lorenzo, Oswaldo; González, Gastón; Ramdani, Boumediene
2011-01-01
For many years companies have been investing in enterprise systems and IT initiatives but they are now struggling to achieve the desired results. It takes a long time to make the best of your enterprise systems so businesses must stop looking for the next technology 'silver bullet' and instead maximize the value of existing IT investments.
5D Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills on the Lattice
Joseph, Anosh
2016-01-01
We provide details of the lattice construction of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The lattice theory is supersymmetric, gauge invariant and free from spectrum doublers. Such a supersymmetric lattice formulation is interesting as it can be used for non-perturbative explorations of the five-dimensional theory, which has a known gravitational dual.
Entropy Maximization and the Spatial Distribution of Species
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.
2010-01-01
Entropy maximization (EM, also known as MaxEnt) is a general inference procedure that originated in statistical mechanics. It has been applied recently to predict ecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions and species-area relationships. It is well known in physics that the EM resu