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Sample records for max-planck institut mpi

  1. On the retrieval of significant wave heights from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-SAR using the Max-Planck Institut (MPI algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante-Carvalho Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR onboard satellites is the only source of directional wave spectra with continuous and global coverage. Millions of SAR Wave Mode (SWM imagettes have been acquired since the launch in the early 1990's of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 and its successors ERS-2 and ENVISAT, which has opened up many possibilities specially for wave data assimilation purposes. The main aim of data assimilation is to improve the forecasting introducing available observations into the modeling procedures in order to minimize the differences between model estimates and measurements. However there are limitations in the retrieval of the directional spectrum from SAR images due to nonlinearities in the mapping mechanism. The Max-Planck Institut (MPI scheme, the first proposed and most widely used algorithm to retrieve directional wave spectra from SAR images, is employed to compare significant wave heights retrieved from ERS-1 SAR against buoy measurements and against the WAM wave model. It is shown that for periods shorter than 12 seconds the WAM model performs better than the MPI, despite the fact that the model is used as first guess to the MPI method, that is the retrieval is deteriorating the first guess. For periods longer than 12 seconds, the part of the spectrum that is directly measured by SAR, the performance of the MPI scheme is at least as good as the WAM model.

  2. The eDoc-Server Project Building an Institutional Repository for the Max Planck Society

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    With the eDoc-Server the Heinz Nixdorf Center for Information Management in the Max Planck Society (ZIM) provides the research institutes of the Max Planck Society (MPS) with a platform to disseminate, store, and manage their scientific output. Moreover, eDoc serves as a tool to facilitate and promote open access to scientific information and primary sources. Since its introduction in October 2002 eDoc has gained high visibility within the MPS. It has been backed by strong institutional commitment to open access as documented in the 'Berlin Declaration on Open Access to the Data of the Sciences and Humanities', which was initiated by the MPS and found large support among major research organizations in Europe. This paper will outline the concept as well as the current status of the eDoc-Server, providing an example for the development and introduction of an institutional repository in a multi-disciplinary research organization.

  3. ["A decision meaning a new foundation...": from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics to the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin-Dahlem dates its establishment to 1964. Its homepage makes no mention of its predecessor institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics (KWIA) and the subsequent MPI for Comparative Genetics and Hereditary Pathology (MPIVEE). This article traces the two critical phases of transition regarding the constellations of academic staff, institutional and epistemic ruptures and continuities specific to the era. Only one of the five department heads from the final war years, Hans Nachtsheim, remained a researcher within the Max Planck Society (MPG); he nevertheless continued to advocate the pre-war and wartime eugenic agenda in the life sciences and social policy. The generational change of 1959/60 became a massive struggle within the institute, in which microbial genetics (with Fritz Kaudewitz) was pitted against human genetics (with Friedrich Vogel) and managed to establish itself after a fresh change in personnel in 1964/65. For the Dahlem institute, this involved a far-reaching reorientation of its research, but for the genetically oriented life sciences in the Max Planck Society as a whole it only meant that molecular biology, which was already being pursued in the West German institutes, gained an additional facility. With this realignment of research traditions, the Society was able to draw a line under the Nazi past without having to address it head-on.

  4. On the retrieval of significant wave heights from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar using the Max-Planck Institut algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-Carvalho, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) onboard satellites is the only source of directional wave spectra with continuous and global coverage. Millions of SAR Wave Mode (SWM) imagettes have been acquired since the launch in the early 1990's of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 and its successors ERS-2 and ENVISAT, which has opened up many possibilities specially for wave data assimilation purposes. The main aim of data assimilation is to improve the forecasting introducing available observations into the modeling procedures in order to minimize the differences between model estimates and measurements. However there are limitations in the retrieval of the directional spectrum from SAR images due to nonlinearities in the mapping mechanism. The Max-Planck Institut (MPI) scheme, the first proposed and most widely used algorithm to retrieve directional wave spectra from SAR images, is employed to compare significant wave heights retrieved from ERS-1 SAR against buoy measurements and against the WAM wave model. It is shown that for periods shorter than 12 seconds the WAM model performs better than the MPI, despite the fact that the model is used as first guess to the MPI method, that is the retrieval is deteriorating the first guess. For periods longer than 12 seconds, the part of the spectrum that is directly measured by SAR, the performance of the MPI scheme is at least as good as the WAM model.

  5. Thomas Sturm, Research Scholar al Max Planck Institute for the History of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Mata M., Virginia [Entrevista

    2008-01-01

    Format com a filòsof, però amb un fort interès per la història de la ciència, Thomas Sturm és un especialista en filosofia moderna i les relacions entre la història i la filosofia de la ciència. Des de 2005 és investigador del "Max Planck Institute for the History of Science", a Berlín, on ha treballat en el projecte "Perceptual Illusions in the Dynamics of Psychological Research". Sturm va visitar el Centre d’Estudis de la Ciència de la UAB (CEHIC), on va oferir una conferència sobre les il·...

  6. Decadal predictability of wind energy potentials over Germany in the Earth System Model of the Max-Planck-Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of wind energy potentials in the framework of the ongoing MiKlip consortium (www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), that can provide skillful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system of the MPI-ESM are analysed here with respect to wind energy potentials on the regional and local scale. Ensembles of uninitialized historical and yearly initialized hindcast experiments are used to assess the forecast skill for wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations, which are based on different hindcast initialisations, show some forecast skill for wind energy potentials on yearly and multi-yearly time scales over Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Benelux. In general, the predictive skill for the two latest MPI-ESM generations (baseline1 and prototype) is higher than for the first generation (baseline0). The predictability varies with different leading-time periods and declines with increasing time since initialisation. Regarding seasonal means, skill scores are lowest during winter, and persist longest for autumn in all three generations. In the summer months, differences between the three generations are more pronounced than for the other seasons. In general, forecast skill for wind energy potential is found for all three MPI-ESM ensemble generations. This skill is

  7. The Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics and Me--True Cooperation Based on True Friendship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Aike

    2004-01-01

    @@ I present a series of anecdotes illustrating the friendship and cooperation I have experienced with German scientists. As the sun's rays can be refracted in a tiny drop of water while a whole organism can be cloned from a single somatic cell, my own experiences depict the fruitful past, an encouraging present and a promising future for the flourishing long-term cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Max Planck Society (MPS).

  8. German science. Max Planck charts new path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-06-09

    Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.

  9. Response of the middle atmosphere to anthropogenic and natural forcings in the CMIP5 simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, H.

    2013-03-06

    The ECHAM6 atmospheric general circulation model is the atmosphere component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that is used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations. As ECHAM6 has its uppermost layer centered at 0.01 hPa in the upper mesosphere, these simulations offer the opportunity to study the middle atmosphere climate change and its relation to the troposphere on the basis of a very comprehensive set of state-of-the-art model simulations. The goals of this paper are (a) to introduce those new features of ECHAM6 particularly relevant for the middle atmosphere, including external forcing data, and (b) to evaluate the simulated middle atmosphere and describe the simulated response to natural and anthropogenic forcings. New features in ECHAM6 with respect to ECHAM5 include a new short-wave radiation scheme, the option to vary spectral irradiance independent of total solar irradiance, and a latitude-dependent gravity-wave source strength. The description of external forcing data focuses on solar irradiance and ozone. Stratospheric temperature trends simulated with the MPI-ESM for the last decades of the 20th century agree well with observations. The future projections depend strongly on the scenario. Under the high emission scenario RCP8.5, simulated temperatures are locally lower by more than 20 K than preindustrial values. Many of the simulated patterns of the responses to natural forcings as provided by solar variability, volcanic aerosols, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, largely agree with the observations. 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Germanium detector test-stands at the Max Planck Institute for Physics and alpha interactions on passivated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, C.; Garbini, L.; Abt, I.; Schulz, O.; Palermo, M.; Majorovits, B.; Liao, H.-Y.; Liu, X.; Seitz, H.

    2015-05-01

    The GeDetgroup at the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich, Germany, operates a number of test stands in order to conduct research on novel germanium detectors. The test stands are of a unique design and construction that provide the ability to probe the properties of new detector types. The GALATEA test stand was especially designed for surface scans, specifically a-induced surface events, a problem faced in low background experiments due to unavoidable surface contamination of detectors. A special 19-fold segmented coaxial prototype detector has already been investigated inside GALATEA with an a-source. A top surface scan provided insight into the physics underneath the passivation layer. Detector segmentation provides a direct path towards background identification and characterisation. With this in mind, a 4-fold segmentation scheme was implemented on a broad-energy point-contact detector and is being investigated inside the groups K1 test stand. A cryogenic test-stand where detectors can be submerged directly in liquid nitrogen or argon is also available. The goal is to establish segmentation as a viable option to reduce background in future large scale experiments.

  11. [Critical mass, explosive participation at the Max-Planck Institute about research of the living conditions of the scientific-technical world in Starnberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers of the Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPIL) did focus upon an abundance of vague reports of evaluative commissions, of benchmarking, of scientific modes. Thus it remained rather neglected, what staff actually had researched. An example: Progression and end of project AKR (Work-Consumption-Assessment) does display all kinds of related emotions at MPIL, and the sensitive guidance by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker.

  12. One hundred years at the intersection of chemistry and physics the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, 1911-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Steinhauser, Thomas; James, Jeremiah

    2011-01-01

    This volume, occasioned by the centenary of the Fritz Haber Institute, formerly the Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, covers the Institute's scientific and institutional history from its founding in 1911 as one the earliest institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, through its renaming for its founding director in 1952 and incorporation in the Max Planck Society, until the present. The Institute's pace-setting research in physical chemistry and chemical physics has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel Laureates.

  13. Scientific Fellow of Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) and European Physical Society President Elect F. Wagner at ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni on 22 September 2006.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Scientific Fellow of Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) and European Physical Society President Elect F. Wagner at ATLAS experiment with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni on 22 September 2006.

  14. [A failed experiment - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Jürgen Habermas and the Max-Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leendertz, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    From 1970 to 1980 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker headed the Max-Planck-lnstitut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPI for the study of the living conditions of the world of science and technology) in Starnberg, jointly with Jürgen Habermas since 1971. From the start, the Max Planck Society regarded the new institute as an experiment that might perhaps be aborted a few years later. This is exactly what happened. With the retirement of Weizsäcker, his section was closed and the whole institute was renamed. In 1981. Habermas resigned, and then the institute was closed. This paper focusses on some of the problem constellations within the institute that partly explain its development and eventual closure: its birth out of the idea of scientific policy advice, the debates within the Max Planck Society and the complex relationship between Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.

  15. CAS, Max Planck Society to Enhance Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ According to a briefing issued by the CAS Bureau of In ternational Cooperation on May 8, 2004, CAS and the Max Planck Society (MPS) in Germany are considering to establish a multidisciplinary institute in Shanghai to conduct research into computational biology. The move is applauded as a fresh step in promoting Sino-German S&T cooperation.

  16. Diagnostic standards for dopaminergic augmentation of restless legs syndrome: report from a World Association of Sleep Medicine-International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group consensus conference at the Max Planck Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Borreguero, Diego; Allen, Richard P; Kohnen, Ralf; Högl, Birgit; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang; Hening, Wayne A; Paulus, Walter; Rye, David; Walters, Arthur; Winkelmann, Juliane; Earley, Christopher J

    2007-08-01

    Augmentation of symptom severity is the main complication of dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The current article reports on the considerations of augmentation that were made during a European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (EURLSSG)-sponsored Consensus Conference in April 2006 at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) in Munich, Germany, the conclusions of which were endorsed by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) and the World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM). The Consensus Conference sought to develop a better understanding of augmentation and generate a better operational definition for its clinical identification. Current concepts of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and therapy of RLS augmentation were evaluated by subgroups who presented a summary of their findings for general consideration and discussion. Recent data indicating sensitivity and specificity of augmentation features for identification of augmentation were also evaluated. The diagnostic criteria of augmentation developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conference in 2002 were reviewed in light of current data and theoretical understanding of augmentation. The diagnostic value and criteria for each of the accepted features of augmentation were considered by the group. A consensus was then developed for a revised statement of the diagnostic criteria for augmentation. Five major diagnostic features of augmentation were identified: usual time of RLS symptom onset each day, number of body parts with RLS symptoms, latency to symptoms at rest, severity of the symptoms when they occur, and effects of dopaminergic medication on symptoms. The quantitative data available relating the time of RLS onset and the presence of other features indicated optimal augmentation criteria of either a 4-h advance in usual starting time for RLS symptoms or a combination of the occurrence of other features. A paradoxical response to changes in medication dose also indicates

  17. Max Planck et les quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Boudenot, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    « Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...

  18. [A utopian episode - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in the networks of the Max-Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Horst; Renn, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was a key figure in the history of the Max Planck Society (MPS). This essay contextualises his work with the development of the MPS, highlighting the institutional and personal networks upon which it was based. Some of the stations addressed in the following are his role in the German Uranium Project, in preparing the Mainau Declaration, the Göttingen Manifesto, and the Memorandum of Tübingen as well as his involvement in the foundation of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Human Development and his own MPI for the Research of Living Conditions in the Modern World located in Starnberg. The relationship between Weizsäcker and Hellmut Becker, long-time friend and founding director of the MPI for Human Development, will be of particular interest. Another issue broached here is the connection between natural science and the humanities in Weizsäcker's work, and subsequently the relation between these two science cultures in the MPS. Finally, we look at the challenges Weizsäcker's work could present to the MPS today.

  19. The physicist. Max Planck and the decay of the world; Der Physiker. Max Planck und das Zerfallen der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2010-06-15

    The live of the physicist Max Planck was as exciting, conflicting, and rich on catastrophes as the epoch, in which he lived. Ernst Peter Fischer draws in this fascinatingly told biography the eventful history of the Nobel-price bearer and illustrates simultaneously the unique attainment of Planck, the quantum theory of whom not only revolted the science but also changed fundamentally our picture of the world.

  20. Unterstützung des Grünen Weges zu Open Access an der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft / Support of the Green Road to Open Access within the Max Planck Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengenfelder, Anja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; MPG with equal weight supports both the Golden and Green Road to Open Access in practice and politically in a sustainable way.In the context of the Green Road it runs with eDoc a central institutional repository for the MPG. The software of the same name is an in-house development. Based on the experiences and wishes of the users, currently, a new application (PubMan which is built upon the eSciDoc framework is introduced within the institutes. eSciDoc is a co-operation with the FIZ Karlsruhe and is funded until 2009 by the BMBF. All applications and services are Open Source and can therefore be re-used and be further developed. Apart from the development and maintenance of technical infrastructures, the Green Road within the MPG is furthered via direct and indirect personal support for scientists during the publication process. In this regard the close exchange between single Max Planck Institutes, the Max Planck Digital Library and other national and international partners plays an important role. With the Berlin Declaration in 2003 and currently in the Priority Initiative “Digital Information” of the Alliance of the German Research Organizations this commitment for Open Access is also politically represented.In this article are introduced and explained both eDoc and PubMan respectively as well as the Open Access Policy of the MPG with a special focus on the activities within the Green Road.

  1. A Fruitful Collaboration between ESO and the Max Planck Computing and Data Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourniol, N.; Zampieri, S.; Panea, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ESO Science Archive Facility (SAF), contains all La Silla Paranal Observatory raw data, as well as, more recently introduced, processed data created at ESO with state-of-the-art pipelines or returned by the astronomical community. The SAF has been established for over 20 years and its current holding exceeds 700 terabytes. An overview of the content of the SAF and the preservation of its content is provided. The latest development to ensure the preservation of the SAF data, provision of an independent backup copy of the whole SAF at the Max Planck Computing and Data Facility in Garching, is described.

  2. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun;

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several...... body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS......://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...

  3. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism.

  4. [The meaning of "apology": the survivors of Nazi medical crimes and the Max Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-09-01

    Around the turn of the twenty-first century a new practice in international politics became established: representatives of political, economic and religious organisations apologised for the historical and political crimes of their own collectives, addressing the victims or the victims' descendants. At a public event in June 2001, a formal apology of this kind was made by the president of the Max Planck Society (MPS), who had previously launched an extensive programme of research into the National Socialist history of what was then the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The majority of the eight invited survivors of human experimentation in Nazi concentration camps refused forgiveness. Instead, they called for the MPS not to content itself with historical research and analysis, but to ensure the continued remembrance of the victims and their suffering. Starting from this 2001 ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism, and asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  5. Apology, responsibility, memory. Coming to terms with Nazi medical crimes: the example of the Max Planck Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-11-01

    In June 2001, the then president of the Max Planck Society addressed a formal apology to survivors of Nazi medical crimes. Starting from this ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism. In comparison with the DGPPN, it asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  6. Characterization of the first prototypes of Silicon Photomultipliers with bulk-integrated quench resistor fabricated at MPI semiconductor laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendrysik, Christian, E-mail: jendrysik@hll.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Andriček, Ladislav; Liemann, Gerhard; Moser, Hans-Günther; Ninković, Jelena; Richter, Rainer [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Schopper, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In this paper new results of the characterization of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) with bulk-integrated quench resistor will be presented. The novel detector concept was developed at the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) semiconductor laboratory and allows a metal and polysilicon free entrance window which offers an improvement in photon detection efficiency (PDE). For electrical separation and suppression of optical cross talk (OCT) an insensitive area (gap) between neighboring cells is required. Based on simulations the first prototypes with devices of different combinations of cell size and gap were fabricated, providing the opportunity to study the influence of these parameters on the detector performance. First PDE measurements of the new detector are presented together with results of the influence of geometrical variations. Also an outlook on possible future developments of the concept with single cell read-out is given.

  7. The backstairs to the quantum jump. The research of the smallest particles from Max Planck to Anton Zeilinger; Die Hintertreppe zum Quantensprung. Die Erforschung der kleinsten Teilchen von Max Planck bis Anton Zeilinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2015-07-01

    It's madness, yet there is method. The physical phenomenon of the quantum jump has already brought some well-known physicists at the edge of dispair. Then nothing seems to be such illogical, undetermined, and unpredictable as the behaviour of the atoms that ultimatively form our world. The renowned historian of sciences Ernst Peter Fischer tells the fascinating story of quantum physics by means of poignant portraits of selected researchers like Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Richard P. Feynman, and ''Mr. Beam'' Anton Zeilinger. A great story of science a bout the smallest particles of the nature.

  8. Letters on wave mechanics correspondence with H. A. Lorentz, Max Planck, and Erwin Schrödinger

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A lively collection of Einstein's groundbreaking scientific correspondence on modern physics with Schrödinger, Planck, and LorentzImagine getting four of the greatest minds of modern physics in a room together to explain and debate the theories and innovations of their day. This is the fascinating experience of reading Letters on Wave Mechanics, the correspondence between Erwin Schrödinger and Max Planck, H.A. Lorentz, and Albert Einstein. These remarkable letters illuminate not only the basis of Schrödinger's work in wave mechanics, but also how great scientific minds debated and challenged

  9. Limites do direito penal: princípios e desafios do novo programa de pesquisa em direito penal no Instituto Max-Planck de direito penal estrangeiro e internacional The limits of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sieber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto contém o programa de pesquisa que irá orientar as atividades do instituto Max-Planck de direito penal estrangeiro e internacional de friburgo nos anos que seguem. O programa funda-se num diagnóstico abrangente dos principais problemas penais enfrentados pelo direito no mundo de hoje e, por esta razão, além de norte para um dos principais centros de pesquisa em direito penal no mundo, o texto é um mapa preciso das mais relevantes questões penais contemporâneas. Ele tem três objetivos principais: (a analisar alterações nos riscos à segurança e as idéias sobre segurança numa sociedade marcada pela globalização e por mudanças técnicas e econômicas; (b analisar a criticar as alterações legais que acompanham as mudanças mencionadas e suas causas, (iii desenvolver novas respostas para os desafios postos pela necessidade de efetivar as leis. Três assuntos merecem maior destaque: o crime organizado internacional, o terrorismo e os crimes cometidos pela internet.This paper describes the research program implemented by the current director of the Max-Planck-Institute for foreign and international penal law, which has its focus directed to the current challenges posed to penal law by contemporary social, economic and political changes. This program has three goals: (i to analyze the real alterations to security risks and the ideas regarding security in a society branded by globalization and technical, economic and political changes; (ii to analyze and critically evaluate the legal changes that accompany said changes and their causes; (iii the development of new answers to the challenges posed to law enforcement policies. In this context, the following aspects are highlighted: international organized criminality, terrorism and crimes committed over the internet.

  10. Distribution of N2O in the atmosphere under global warming - a simulation study with the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Daniela; Manzini, Elisa; Reick, Christian H.; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by an increasing release of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (N2O). Besides fossil fuel burning, also land use change and land management are anthropogenic sources of GHGs. Especially inputs of reactive nitrogen via fertilizer and deposition lead to enhanced emissions of N2O. One effect of a drastic future increase in surface temperature is a modification of atmospheric circulation, e.g. an accelerated Brewer Dobson circulation affecting the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decayed only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in atmospheric circulation, especially changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere, will affect the atmospheric transport, decay, and distribution of N2O. In our study we assess the impact of global warming on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O. As terrestrial N2O emissions are highly determined by inputs of reactive nitrogen - the location of which being determined by human choice - we examine in particular the importance of latitudinal source regions of N2O for its global distribution. For this purpose we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation.

  11. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  12. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. A.; Kluth, S.; Mazzaferro, L.; Walker, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    The possible usage of HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. In recent years the architecture of HPC systems has evolved, moving away from specialized monolithic systems, to a more generic linux type platform. This change means that the deployment of non HPC specific codes has become much easier. The timing of this evolution perfectly suits the needs of ATLAS and opens a new window of opportunity. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. This high luminosity phase will be accompanied by a need for increasing amounts of simulated data which is expected to exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This paper presents the results of a pilot project undertaken by ATLAS and the MPP/RZG to provide access to the HYDRA supercomputer facility. Hydra is the supercomputer of the Max Planck Society, it is a linux based supercomputer with over 80000 cores and 4000 physical nodes located at the RZG near Munich. This paper describes the work undertaken to integrate Hydra into the ATLAS production system by using the Nordugrid ARC-CE and other standard Grid components. The customization of these components and the strategies for HPC usage are discussed as well as possibilities for future directions.

  13. Vegetation and land carbon feedbacks in the high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the MPI Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Lorenz, Stephan; Raddatz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Plants influence climate through changes in the land surface biophysics (albedo, transpiration) and concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases. One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon due to productivity decrease. This decadal- scale variability helps to quantify the vegetation and land carbon feedbacks during the past periods when the temporal resolution of the ice-core CO2 record is not sufficient to capture fast CO2 variations. From a set of Holocene simulations with prescribed or interactive atmospheric CO2, we get estimates of climate-carbon feedback useful for future climate studies. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader1, Sebastian Bathiany2, Victor Brovkin1, Martin Claussen1,3, Traute Cr

  14. MPI overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Noboru [Fujitsu Shizuoka Engineering Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    MPI is recognized as the message passing standard these days. Its facility consists of various communication ways and group communication and moreover parallel I/O and external interface, to grow up a large scale of specification. MPI is intended as a completion of message passing, and its specification is defined by MPI Forum organized by universities, laboratories, vendors, and users in USA or Europe. Parallel applications newly written will use MPI from now on. The characteristics of MPI specification are (1)flexibility of communication control by user, (2)availability for a large scale of development with multiple communication spaces, (3)utilization of enhanced communication such as derived data or collective operations, and moreover in MPI-2, (4)more efficient communication with one-sided, (5)one of the solutions for parallel I/O, and (6)consideration of external interface among different languages or machines. MPI specification is on the way to be completed, and has grown up rapidly. It seems that the enhancement has come to stable status after the MPI-2 was defined, but the real value for developing applications shall be evaluated just from now on. The ideal form for parallel programming is assumed as a combination of automatic parallelization and message passing. MPI must be one of the important partners, and expected to be refined including a mixture with data parallel programming. (author)

  15. MPI Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D K; Jones, T R

    2005-02-11

    The Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the de facto message-passing standard for massively parallel programs. It is often the case that application performance is a crucial factor, especially for solving grand challenge problems. While there have been many studies on the scalability of applications, there have not been many focusing on the specific types of MPI calls being made and their impact on application performance. Using a profiling tool called mpiP, a large spectrum of parallel scientific applications were surveyed and their performance results analyzed.

  16. Constraining a land-surface model with multiple observations by application of the MPI-Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Gregor J.; Kaminski, Thomas; Köstler, Christoph; Carvalhais, Nuno; Voßbeck, Michael; Kattge, Jens; Giering, Ralf; Rödenbeck, Christian; Heimann, Martin; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-09-01

    We describe the Max Planck Institute Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (MPI-CCDAS) built around the tangent-linear version of the JSBACH land-surface scheme, which is part of the MPI-Earth System Model v1. The simulated phenology and net land carbon balance were constrained by globally distributed observations of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR, using the TIP-FAPAR product) and atmospheric CO2 at a global set of monitoring stations for the years 2005 to 2009. When constrained by FAPAR observations alone, the system successfully, and computationally efficiently, improved simulated growing-season average FAPAR, as well as its seasonality in the northern extra-tropics. When constrained by atmospheric CO2 observations alone, global net and gross carbon fluxes were improved, despite a tendency of the system to underestimate tropical productivity. Assimilating both data streams jointly allowed the MPI-CCDAS to match both observations (TIP-FAPAR and atmospheric CO2) equally well as the single data stream assimilation cases, thereby increasing the overall appropriateness of the simulated biosphere dynamics and underlying parameter values. Our study thus demonstrates the value of multiple-data-stream assimilation for the simulation of terrestrial biosphere dynamics. It further highlights the potential role of remote sensing data, here the TIP-FAPAR product, in stabilising the strongly underdetermined atmospheric inversion problem posed by atmospheric transport and CO2 observations alone. Notwithstanding these advances, the constraint of the observations on regional gross and net CO2 flux patterns on the MPI-CCDAS is limited through the coarse-scale parametrisation of the biosphere model. We expect improvement through a refined initialisation strategy and inclusion of further biosphere observations as constraints.

  17. Combined biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of large-scale forest cover changes in the MPI earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bathiany

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation have become popular instruments of climate mitigation policy, as forests are known to store large quantities of carbon. However, they also modify the fluxes of energy, water and momentum at the land surface. Previous studies have shown that these biogeophysical effects can counteract the carbon drawdown and, in boreal latitudes, even overcompensate it due to large albedo differences between forest canopy and snow. This study investigates the role forest cover plays for global climate by conducting deforestation and afforestation experiments with the earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-ESM. Complete deforestation of the tropics (18.75° S–15° N exerts a global warming of 0.4 °C due to an increase in CO2 concentration by initially 60 ppm and a decrease in evapotranspiration in the deforested areas. In the northern latitudes (45° N–90° N, complete deforestation exerts a global cooling of 0.25 °C after 100 years, while afforestation leads to an equally large warming, despite the counteracting changes in CO2 concentration. Earlier model studies are qualitatively confirmed by these findings. As the response of temperature as well as terrestrial carbon pools is not of equal sign at every land cell, considering forests as cooling in the tropics and warming in high latitudes seems to be true only for the spatial mean, but not on a local scale.

  18. Combined biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of large-scale forest cover changes in the MPI earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bathiany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation have become popular instruments of climate mitigation policy, as forests are known to store large quantities of carbon. However, they also modify the fluxes of energy, water and momentum at the land surface. Previous studies have shown that these biogeophysical effects can counteract the carbon drawdown and, in boreal latitudes, even overcompensate it due to large albedo differences between forest canopy and snow. This study investigates the role forest cover plays for global climate by conducting deforestation and afforestation experiments with the earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-ESM. Complete deforestation of the tropics (18.75° S–15° N exerts a global warming of 0.4 °C due to an increase in CO2 concentration by initially 60 ppm and a decrease in evapotranspiration in the deforested areas. In the northern latitudes (45° N–90° N, complete deforestation exerts a global cooling of 0.25 °C after 100 years, while afforestation leads to an equally large warming, despite the counteracting changes in CO2 concentration. Earlier model studies are qualitatively confirmed by these findings. As the response of temperature as well as terrestrial carbon pools is not of equal sign at every land cell, considering forests as cooling in the tropics and warming in high latitudes seems to be true only for the spatial mean, but not on a local scale.

  19. On the reduced lifetime of nitrous oxide due to climate change induced acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation as simulated by the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, D.; Manzini, E.; Reick, C. H.; Schultz, M. G.; Stein, O.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas induced climate change will modify the physical conditions of the atmosphere. One of the projected changes is an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere, as it has been shown in many model studies. This change in the stratospheric circulation consequently bears an effect on the transport and distribution of atmospheric components such as N2O. Since N2O is involved in ozone destruction, a modified distribution of N2O can be of importance for ozone chemistry. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decays only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere can also affect the stratospheric sink of N2O, and consequently its atmospheric lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of currently approximately 300 CO2-equivalents in a 100-year perspective. A faster decay in atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, i.e. a decreased atmospheric lifetime of N2O, will also reduce its global warming potential. In order to assess the impact of climate change on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O, we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean-atmosphere N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation. Increasing surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations in the stratosphere impact atmospheric circulation differently. Thus, we conduct a series of transient runs with the atmospheric model of MPI-ESM to isolate different factors governing a shift in atmospheric circulation. From those transient

  20. "The Theory of Heat Radiation" Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck's Claim of Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k , universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain b lack, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies a re specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, “ The Theory of Heat Radiation ’, it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polar- ized. Through the use of an element, d σ , at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective prop- erties. His Eq.40 ( ρ = ρ ′ , constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stew- art had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also d id not correctly address

  1. MatlabMPI

    OpenAIRE

    Kepner, Jeremy; Ahalt, Stan

    2003-01-01

    The true costs of high performance computing are currently dominated by software. Addressing these costs requires shifting to high productivity languages such as Matlab. MatlabMPI is a Matlab implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard and allows any Matlab program to exploit multiple processors. MatlabMPI currently implements the basic six functions that are the core of the MPI point-to-point communications standard. The key technical innovation of MatlabMPI is that it imp...

  2. China's First Institute for Computational Biology Opens In Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Advances in biotechnology have created more and .new large-scale data-sets which in turn require better integration of data-analysis, hypothesisformation and experiments. To address the issue, a new institute, the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology (PICB), has been set up in Shanghai under the cooperation of CAS and Max Planck Society (MPG).

  3. Comparing the influence of net and gross anthropogenic land-use and land-cover changes on the carbon cycle in the MPI-ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilkenskjeld

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global vegetation models traditionally treat anthropogenic land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs only as the changes in vegetation cover seen from one year to the next (net transitions. This approach ignores subgrid-scale processes such as shifting cultivation which do not affect the net vegetation distribution but which have an impact on the carbon budget. The differences in the carbon stocks feed back on processes like wildfires and desert formation. The simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 all describe LULCCs using the "Land-Use Harmonization Dataset". Though this dataset describes such subgrid-scale processes (gross transitions, some of the CMIP5 models still use the traditional approach. Using JSBACH/CBALANCE – the land carbon component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM, this study demonstrates how this potentially leads to a severe underestimation of the carbon emissions from LULCCs Using net transitions lowers the average land-use emissions from 1.44 to 0.90 Pg C yr−1 (38% during the historical period (1850–2005 – a total lowering by 85 Pg C. The difference between the methods is smaller in the RCP scenarios (2006–2100 but in RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 still cumulates to 30–40 Pg C (on average 0.3–0.4 Pg C yr−1 or 13–25%. In RCP4.5 essentially no difference between the methods is found. Results from models using net transitions are furthermore found to be sensitive to model resolution.

  4. A generalized formulation for downscaling data based on Fourier Transform and inversion: Mathematical rationale and application to the Max-Planck-Institute aerosol climatology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen

    2017-02-01

    Occasionally, a need arises to downscale a time series of data from a coarse temporal resolution to a finer one, a typical example being from monthly means to daily means. For this case, daily means derived as such are used as inputs of climatic or atmospheric models so that the model results may exhibit variance on the daily time scale and retain the monthly mean of the original data set without an abrupt change from the end of one month to the beginning of the next. Different methods have been developed which often need assumptions, free parameters and the solution of simultaneous equations. Here we derive a generalized formulation by means of Fourier transform and inversion so that it can be used to directly compute daily means from a series of an arbitrary number of monthly means. The formulation can be used to transform any coarse temporal resolution to a finer one. From the derived results, the original data can be recovered almost identically. As a real application, we use this method to derive the daily counterpart of the MAC-v1 aerosol climatology that provides monthly mean aerosol properties for 18 shortwave bands and 12 longwave bands for the years from 1860 to 2100. The derived daily means are to be used as inputs of the shortwave and longwave algorithms of the NASA GEWEX SRB project.

  5. Parallel programming with MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatebe, Osamu [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    MPI is a practical, portable, efficient and flexible standard for message passing, which has been implemented on most MPPs and network of workstations by machine vendors, universities and national laboratories. MPI avoids specifying how operations will take place and superfluous work to achieve efficiency as well as portability, and is also designed to encourage overlapping communication and computation to hide communication latencies. This presentation briefly explains the MPI standard, and comments on efficient parallel programming to improve performance. (author)

  6. MatlabMPI

    CERN Document Server

    Kepner, J; Kepner, Jeremy; Ahalt, Stan

    2003-01-01

    The true costs of high performance computing are currently dominated by software. Addressing these costs requires shifting to high productivity languages such as Matlab. MatlabMPI is a Matlab implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard and allows any Matlab program to exploit multiple processors. MatlabMPI currently implements the basic six functions that are the core of the MPI point-to-point communications standard. The key technical innovation of MatlabMPI is that it implements the widely used MPI ``look and feel'' on top of standard Matlab file I/O, resulting in an extremely compact (~250 lines of code) and ``pure'' implementation which runs anywhere Matlab runs, and on any heterogeneous combination of computers. The performance has been tested on both shared and distributed memory parallel computers (e.g. Sun, SGI, HP, IBM, Linux and MacOSX). MatlabMPI can match the bandwidth of C based MPI at large message sizes. A test image filtering application using MatlabMPI achieved a speedup of...

  7. Exposing MPI Objects for Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.;

    Developers rely on debuggers to inspect application state. In applications that use MPI, the Message Passing Interface, the MPI runtime contains an important part of this state. The MPI Tools Working Group has proposed an interface for MPI Handle Introspection. It allows debuggers and MPI...... implementations to cooperate in extracting information from MPI objects. Information that can then be presented to the developer. MPI Handle Introspection provides a more general interface than previous work, such as Message Queue Dumping. We add support for introspection to the TotalView debugger...

  8. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics and Applications of Quantum Wells and Superlattices Held in Erice, Italy on 21 April - 1 May 1987. Series B. Volume 170

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    BEAM EPITAXY OF ARTIFICIALLY LAYERED III-V SEMICONDUCTORS ON AN ATOMIC SCALE Klaus Ploog Max-Planck-Institut f~r Festk6rperforschung D-7000 Stuttgart-80...published (1987). 228 PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS OF THE QUANTUM HALL EFFECT Klaus v. Klitzing Max-Planck-Institut fUr Festkdrperforschung, Heisenbergstr. I...34Atomic Physics" 6th ed., Blackie, London (1957). L. Pauling and E.B. Wilson, "Introduction to Quantum f-echanics", Mc. Graw Hill, New York 1935. W. Heitler

  9. Multi-millennia simulation of Greenland deglaciation from the Max-Plank-Institute Model (MPI-ISM) 2xCO2 simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Vincent; Vizcaino, Miren; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Long-term ice sheet and climate coupled simulations are of great interest since they assess how the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) will respond to global warming and how GrIS changes will impact on the climate system. We have run the Max-Plank-Institute Earth System Model coupled with an Ice Sheet Model (SICOPOLIS) over a time period of 10500 years under two times CO2 forcing. This is a coupled atmosphere (ECHAM5T31), ocean (MPI-OM), dynamic vegetation (LPJ), and ice sheet (SICOPOLIS, 10 km horizontal resolution) model. Given the multi-millennia simulation, the horizontal spatial resolution of the atmospheric component is relatively coarse (3.75°). A time-saving technique (asynchronous coupling) is used once the global climate reaches quasi-equilibrium. In our doubling-CO2 simulation, the GrIS is expected to break up into two pieces (one ice cap in the far north on one ice sheet in the south and east) after 3000 years. During the first 500 simulation years, the GrIS climate and surface mass balance (SMB) are mainly affected by the greenhouse effect-forced climate change. After the simulated year 500, the global climate reaches quasi-equilibrium. Henceforth Greenland climate change is mainly due to ice sheet decay. GrIS albedo reduction enhances melt and acts as a powerful feedback for deglaciation. Due to increased cloudiness in the Arctic region as a result of global climate change, summer incoming shortwave radiation is substantially reduced over Greenland, reducing deglaciation rates. At the end of the simulation, Greenland becomes green with forest growing over the newly deglaciated regions. References: Helsen, M. M., van de Berg, W. J., van de Wal, R. S. W., van den Broeke, M. R., and Oerlemans, J. (2013), Coupled regional climate-ice-sheet simulation shows limited Greenland ice loss during the Eemian, Climate of the Past, 9, 1773-1788, doi: 10.5194/cp-9-1773-2013 Helsen, M. M., van de Wal, R. S. W., van den Broeke, M. R., van de Berg, W. J., and Oerlemans, J

  10. pupyMPI - MPI implemented in pure Python

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromer, Rune; Hantho, Frederik; Vinter, Brian

    2011-01-01

    As distributed memory systems have become common, the de facto standard for communication is still the Message Passing Interface (MPI). pupyMPI is a pure Python implementation of a broad subset of the MPI 1.3 specifications that allows Python programmers to utilize multiple CPUs with datatypes...

  11. MPI Debugging with Handle Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.;

    The Message Passing Interface, MPI, is the standard programming model for high performance computing clusters. However, debugging applications on large scale clusters is difficult. The widely used Message Queue Dumping interface enables inspection of message queue state but there is no general...... interface for extracting information from MPI objects such as communicators. A developer can debug the MPI library as if it was part of the application, but this exposes an unneeded level of detail. The Tools Working Group in the MPI Forum has proposed a specification for MPI Handle Introspection....... It defines a standard interface that lets debuggers extract information from MPI objects. Extracted information is then presented to the developer, in a human readable format. The interface is designed to be independent of MPI implementations and debuggers. In this paper, we describe our support...

  12. Predictability over the North Atlantic ocean in hindcast ensembles of MPI-ESM initialized by EnKF and three nudging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Holger; Düsterhus, Andre; Kröger, Jürgen; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    We investigate hindcast skill for surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content (0-700m) in the North Atlantic for yearly mean values from 1960 to 2014 in four prediction systems based on the global coupled Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We find that in the North Atlantic and within the four prediction systems under consideration only the EnKF initialized hindcasts reproduce the variability of the reference data well both in terms of anomaly correlation and representation of the probability density function. The systems under consideration only differ in the method how they incorporate surface and sub-surface oceanic temperatures and salinities during assimilation: ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), anomaly nudging of ORA reanalysis (BS-1), full field nudging of ORA and GECCO reanalysis, respectively (PT-ORA, PT-GEC). We assess the hindcast skill of each prediction system with reference to HadCRUT4 near surface air temperature data (Morice et al. 2012) and NOAA OC5 upper ocean heat content data (Levitus et al. 2012) using anomaly correlation (ACC) and by analysing the interquartile range (IQR) of the probability density function (PDF). Firstly, we calculate hindcast skill in terms of ACC and IQR against reference data over the whole time period. Here, the hindcast skills of EnKF and BS-1 are better for both ACC and IQR in lead years 2 to 5 when compared to PT-ORA and PT-GEC, their hindcast skill drops off after lead year 1. Secondly, the PDF of the reference data is not uniformly distributed over time. We therefore calculate ACC and IQR for a 20 year moving window. We find hindcast skill in terms of ACC for EnKF and BS-1 in the 1960s and from the 1990s onwards, up to eight lead years in advance, with almost no skill for the time period inbetween. In contrast, there is no skill for PT-ORA and PT-GEC in any period after lead year one. The IQR of reference data is best captured by the EnKF, in the 1960s and 1990s up to lead year

  13. Parallel Programming with MatlabMPI

    CERN Document Server

    Kepner, J V

    2001-01-01

    MatlabMPI is a Matlab implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard and allows any Matlab program to exploit multiple processors. MatlabMPI currently implements the basic six functions that are the core of the MPI point-to-point communications standard. The key technical innovation of MatlabMPI is that it implements the widely used MPI ``look and feel'' on top of standard Matlab file I/O, resulting in an extremely compact (~100 lines) and ``pure'' implementation which runs anywhere Matlab runs. The performance has been tested on both shared and distributed memory parallel computers. MatlabMPI can match the bandwidth of C based MPI at large message sizes. A test image filtering application using MatlabMPI achieved a speedup of ~70 on a parallel computer.

  14. 基于Python的MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚蕾

    2013-01-01

    基于Python的MPI为Python程序设计语言提供了消息传递接口(MPI)标准的绑定,并且允许任何的Python程序使用多处理器。在它的首次发行中,基于Python的MPI被建造在MPI-1规范的头部,该规范还为随后的MPI-2 C++绑定定义了一个面向对象的接口,并且为通用Python对象的通信提供了支持。

  15. Impacts of deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region as simulated by the MPI atmospheric GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duemenil Gates, L.; Liess, S.

    1999-12-01

    For two reasons it is important to study the sensitivity of the global climate to changes in the vegetation cover over land. First, in the real world, changes in the vegetation cover may have regional and global implications. Second, in numerical simulations the sensitivity of the simulated climate may depend on the specific parameterization schemes employed in the model and on the model's large-scale systematic errors. The Max-Planck-Institute's global general circulation model ECHAM4 has been used to study the sensitivity of the local and global climate during a full annual cycle to deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region. The deforestation represents an extreme desertification scenario for this region. The changes in the afforestation experiment are based on the pattern of the vegetation cover 2000 years before present when the climate in the Mediterranean was more humid. The comparison of the deforestation integration to the control shows a slight cooling at the surface and reduced precipitation during the summer as a result of less evapotranspiration of plants and less evaporation from the assumption of eroded soils. In general the results of the afforestation experiment are opposite to those of the deforestation case. A significant response was found in the vicinity of grid-points where the land surface characteristics were modified. The response in the Sahara in the afforestation experiment is in agreement with the results from another general circulation model study. (orig.)

  16. Barriers to creating a secure MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Greenberg, D.S.; Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

    1997-08-01

    This paper explores some of the many issues in developing security enhanced MPI for embedded real-time systems supporting the Department of Defense`s Multi-level Security policy (DoD MLS) are presented along with the preliminary design for such an MPI variant. In addition some of the many issues that need to be addressed in creating security enhanced versions of MPI for other domains are discussed. 19 refs.

  17. 分布式并行计算环境:MPI%Distributed Paralel Computing Environment :MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萃寒; 赵晨; 许小刚; 吴国新

    2003-01-01

    Message passing Interface (MPI) is a kind of network distributed parallel computing environments whichhave been widely used on super parallel computers and networks. First,this paper describes the rssearch backgroundand developing status of MPI. Then on this basis it will study and analyze the functions and features of MPI ,summa-rize its insufficiencies and gives some suggestions for modification.

  18. One hundred years of the Fritz Haber Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Bretislav; Hoffmann, Dieter; James, Jeremiah

    2011-10-17

    We outline the institutional history and highlight aspects of the scientific history of the Fritz Haber Institute (FHI) of the Max Planck Society, successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, from its founding in 1911 until about the turn of the 21st century. Established as one of the first two Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, the Institute began as a much-awaited remedy for what prominent German chemists warned was the waning of Germany's scientific and technological superiority relative to the United States and to other European nations. The history of the Institute has largely paralleled that of 20th century Germany. It spearheaded the research and development of chemical weapons during World War I, then experienced a "golden era" during the 1920s and early 1930s, in spite of financial hardships. Under the National Socialists it suffered a purge of its scientific staff and a diversion of its research into the service of the new regime, accompanied by a breakdown in its international relations. In the immediate aftermath of World War II it suffered crippling material losses, from which it recovered slowly in the postwar era. In 1952, the Institute took the name of its founding director and the following year joined the fledgling Max Planck Society, successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Institute supported diverse research into the structure of matter and electron microscopy in its geographically isolated and politically precarious location in West Berlin. In subsequent decades, as Berlin benefited from the policies of détente and later glasnost and the Max Planck Society continued to reassess its preferred model of a research institute, the FHI reorganized around a board of coequal scientific directors and renewed its focus on the investigation of elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces, topics of research that had been central to the work of Fritz Haber and the first "golden era" of

  19. SKaMPI: A Comprehensive Benchmark for Public Benchmarking of MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Reussner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the MPI communication library is to enable portable parallel programming with high performance within the message-passing paradigm. Since the MPI standard has no associated performance model, and makes no performance guarantees, comprehensive, detailed and accurate performance figures for different hardware platforms and MPI implementations are important for the application programmer, both for understanding and possibly improving the behavior of a given program on a given platform, as well as for assuring a degree of predictable behavior when switching to another hardware platform and/or MPI implementation. We term this latter goal performance portability, and address the problem of attaining performance portability by benchmarking. We describe the SKaMPI benchmark which covers a large fraction of MPI, and incorporates well-accepted mechanisms for ensuring accuracy and reliability. SKaMPI is distinguished among other MPI benchmarks by an effort to maintain a public performance database with performance data from different hardware platforms and MPI implementations.

  20. OpenMPI and ExxonMobil Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Nathan Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchard, Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-09

    These are a series of slides for a presentation for ExxonMobil's visit to Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered are: Open MPI - The Release Story, MPI-3 RMA in Open MPI, MPI dynamic process management and Open MPI, and new options with CLE 6. Open MPI RMA features are: since v2.0.0 full support for the MPI-3.1 specification, support for non-contiguous datatypes, support for direct use of the RDMA capabilities of high performance networks (Cray Gemini/Aries, Infiniband), starting in v2.1.0 will have support for using network atomic operations for MPI_Fetch_and_op and MPI_Compare_and_swap, tested with MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE.

  1. 300x Faster Matlab using MatlabMPI

    OpenAIRE

    Kepner, Jeremy; Ahalt, Stan

    2002-01-01

    The true costs of high performance computing are currently dominated by software. Addressing these costs requires shifting to high productivity languages such as Matlab. MatlabMPI is a Matlab implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard and allows any Matlab program to exploit multiple processors. MatlabMPI currently implements the basic six functions that are the core of the MPI point-to-point communications standard. The key technical innovation of MatlabMPI is that it imp...

  2. Accelerating Iterative Big Data Computing Through MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁帆; 鲁小亿

    2015-01-01

    Current popular systems, Hadoop and Spark, cannot achieve satisfied performance because of the inefficient overlapping of computation and communication when running iterative big data applications. The pipeline of computing, data movement, and data management plays a key role for current distributed data computing systems. In this paper, we first analyze the overhead of shuffle operation in Hadoop and Spark when running PageRank workload, and then propose an event-driven pipeline and in-memory shuffle design with better overlapping of computation and communication as DataMPI-Iteration, an MPI-based library, for iterative big data computing. Our performance evaluation shows DataMPI-Iteration can achieve 9X∼21X speedup over Apache Hadoop, and 2X∼3X speedup over Apache Spark for PageRank and K-means.

  3. MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Hamar, V.

    2012-12-01

    Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

  4. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  5. Installation guide to mpich, a portable implementation of MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1996-07-01

    MPI (Message Passing Interface) is a standard specification for message-passing libraries. mpich is a portable implementation of the full MPI specification for a wide variety of parallel computing environments, including workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. mpich contains, along with the MPI library itself, a programming environment for working with MPI programs. The programming environment includes a portable startup mechanism, several profiling libraries for studying the performance of MPI programs, and an X interface to all of the tools. This guide explains how to compile, test, and install mpich and its related tools.

  6. Extracting Critical Path Graphs from MPI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M

    2005-07-27

    The critical path is one of the fundamental runtime characteristics of a parallel program. It identifies the longest execution sequence without wait delays. In other words, the critical path is the global execution path that inflicts wait operations on other nodes without itself being stalled. Hence, it dictates the overall runtime and knowing it is important to understand an application's runtime and message behavior and to target optimizations. We have developed a toolset that identifies the critical path of MPI applications, extracts it, and then produces a graphical representation of the corresponding program execution graph to visualize it. To implement this, we intercept all MPI library calls, use the information to build the relevant subset of the execution graph, and then extract the critical path from there. We have applied our technique to several scientific benchmarks and successfully produced critical path diagrams for applications running on up to 128 processors.

  7. MPI-AMRVAC for Solar and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Porth, O; Hendrix, T; Moschou, S P; Keppens, R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an update on the open source MPI-AMRVAC simulation toolkit where we focus on solar- and non-relativistic astrophysical magneto-fluid dynamics. We highlight recent developments in terms of physics modules such as hydrodynamics with dust coupling and the conservative implementation of Hall magnetohydrodynamics. A simple conservative high-order finite difference scheme that works in combination with all available physics modules is introduced and demonstrated at the example of monotonicity preserving fifth order reconstruction. Strong stability preserving high order Runge-Kutta time steppers are used to obtain stable evolutions in multidimensional applications realizing up to fourth order accuracy in space and time. With the new distinction between active and passive grid cells, MPI-AMRVAC is ideally suited to simulate evolutions where parts of the solution are controlled analytically, or have a tendency to progress into or out of a stationary state. Typical test problems and representat...

  8. MPI Runtime Error Detection with MUST: Advances in Deadlock Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hilbrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used Message Passing Interface (MPI is complex and rich. As a result, application developers require automated tools to avoid and to detect MPI programming errors. We present the Marmot Umpire Scalable Tool (MUST that detects such errors with significantly increased scalability. We present improvements to our graph-based deadlock detection approach for MPI, which cover future MPI extensions. Our enhancements also check complex MPI constructs that no previous graph-based detection approach handled correctly. Finally, we present optimizations for the processing of MPI operations that reduce runtime deadlock detection overheads. Existing approaches often require (p analysis time per MPI operation, for p processes. We empirically observe that our improvements lead to sub-linear or better analysis time per operation for a wide range of real world applications.

  9. DISP: Optimizations towards Scalable MPI Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Huansong [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Pophale, Swaroop S [ORNL; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Florida State University, Tallahassee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of MPI for high performance computing, the startup of MPI programs faces a scalability challenge as both the execution time and memory consumption increase drastically at scale. We have examined this problem using the collective modules of Cheetah and Tuned in Open MPI as representative implementations. Previous improvements for collectives have focused on algorithmic advances and hardware off-load. In this paper, we examine the startup cost of the collective module within a communicator and explore various techniques to improve its efficiency and scalability. Accordingly, we have developed a new scalable startup scheme with three internal techniques, namely Delayed Initialization, Module Sharing and Prediction-based Topology Setup (DISP). Our DISP scheme greatly benefits the collective initialization of the Cheetah module. At the same time, it helps boost the performance of non-collective initialization in the Tuned module. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on Titan supercomputer at ORNL with up to 4096 processes. The results show that our delayed initialization can speed up the startup of Tuned and Cheetah by an average of 32.0% and 29.2%, respectively, our module sharing can reduce the memory consumption of Tuned and Cheetah by up to 24.1% and 83.5%, respectively, and our prediction-based topology setup can speed up the startup of Cheetah by up to 80%.

  10. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in the sea-ice response to volcanic forcing simulated by MPI-ESM (COSMOS-Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zanchettin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decadal evolution of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice following strong volcanic eruptions is investigated in four climate simulation ensembles performed with the COSMOS-Mill version of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model. The ensembles differ in the magnitude of the imposed volcanic perturbations, with sizes representative of historical tropical eruptions (1991 Pinatubo and 1815 Tambora and of tropical and extra-tropical "supervolcano" eruptions. A post-eruption Arctic sea-ice expansion is robustly detected in all ensembles, while Antarctic sea ice responds only to "supervolcano" eruptions, undergoing an initial short-lived expansion and a subsequent prolonged contraction phase. Strong volcanic forcing therefore emerges as a potential source of inter-hemispheric interannual-to-decadal climate variability, although the inter-hemispheric signature is weak in the case of historical-size eruptions. The post-eruption inter-hemispheric decadal asymmetry in sea ice is interpreted as a consequence mainly of different exposure of Arctic and Antarctic regional climates to induced meridional heat transport changes and of dominating local feedbacks that set in within the Antarctic region. "Supervolcano" experiments help clarifying differences in simulated hemispheric internal dynamics related to imposed negative net radiative imbalances, including the relative importance of the thermal and dynamical components of the sea-ice response. "Supervolcano" experiments could therefore serve the assessment of climate models' behavior under strong external forcing conditions and, consequently, favor advancements in our understanding of simulated sea-ice dynamics.

  11. A Principled Approach to Online Publication Listings and Scientific Resource Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelijn Ringersma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Max Planck Institute (MPI for Psycholinguistics has developed a service to manage and present the scholarly output of their researchers. The PubMan database manages publication metadata and full-texts of publications published by their scholars. All relevant information regarding a researcher's work is brought together in this database, including supplementary materials and links to the MPI database for primary research data. The PubMan metadata is harvested into the MPI website CMS (Plone. The system developed for the creation of the publication lists, allows the researcher to create a selection of the harvested data in a variety of formats.

  12. MPI-2: Extending the Message-Passing Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gropp, W.; Lusk, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Huss-Lederman, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Lumsdaine, A. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Saphir, W. [NAS (United States); Skjellum, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States); Snir, M. [IBM Corp. (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes current activities of the MPI-2 Forum. The MPI - 2 Forum is a group of parallel computer vendors, library writers, and application specialists working together to define a set of extensions to MPI (Message Passing Interface). MPI was defined by the same process and now has many implementations, both vendor- proprietary and publicly available, for a wide variety of parallel computing environments. In this paper we present the salient aspects of the evolving MPI-2 document as it now stands. We discuss proposed extensions and enhancements to MPI in the areas of dynamic process management, one-sided operations, collective operations, new language binding, real-time computing, external interfaces, and miscellaneous topics.

  13. 300x Faster Matlab using MatlabMPI

    CERN Document Server

    Kepner, J V; Kepner, Jeremy; Ahalt, Stan

    2002-01-01

    The true costs of high performance computing are currently dominated by software. Addressing these costs requires shifting to high productivity languages such as Matlab. MatlabMPI is a Matlab implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard and allows any Matlab program to exploit multiple processors. MatlabMPI currently implements the basic six functions that are the core of the MPI point-to-point communications standard. The key technical innovation of MatlabMPI is that it implements the widely used MPI ``look and feel'' on top of standard Matlab file I/O, resulting in an extremely compact (~250 lines of code) and ``pure'' implementation which runs anywhere Matlab runs, and on any heterogeneous combination of computers. The performance has been tested on both shared and distributed memory parallel computers (e.g. Sun, SGI, HP, IBM and Linux). MatlabMPI can match the bandwidth of C based MPI at large message sizes. A test image filtering application using MatlabMPI achieved a speedup of ~300 us...

  14. Automatic Migration from PARMACS to MPI in Parallel Fortran Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Hempel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The PARMACS message passing interface has been in widespread use by application projects, especially in Europe. With the new MPI standard for message passing, many projects face the problem of replacing PARMACS with MPI. An automatic translation tool has been developed which replaces all PARMACS 6.0 calls in an application program with their corresponding MPI calls. In this paper we describe the mapping of the PARMACS programming model onto MPI. We then present some implementation details of the converter tool.

  15. MPI-AMRVAC FOR SOLAR AND ASTROPHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, O. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Xia, C.; Hendrix, T.; Moschou, S. P.; Keppens, R., E-mail: o.porth@leeds.ac.uk [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present an update to the open source MPI-AMRVAC simulation toolkit where we focus on solar and non-relativistic astrophysical magnetofluid dynamics. We highlight recent developments in terms of physics modules, such as hydrodynamics with dust coupling and the conservative implementation of Hall magnetohydrodynamics. A simple conservative high-order finite difference scheme that works in combination with all available physics modules is introduced and demonstrated with the example of monotonicity-preserving fifth-order reconstruction. Strong stability-preserving high-order Runge-Kutta time steppers are used to obtain stable evolutions in multi-dimensional applications, realizing up to fourth-order accuracy in space and time. With the new distinction between active and passive grid cells, MPI-AMRVAC is ideally suited to simulate evolutions where parts of the solution are controlled analytically or have a tendency to progress into or out of a stationary state. Typical test problems and representative applications are discussed with an outlook toward follow-up research. Finally, we discuss the parallel scaling of the code and demonstrate excellent weak scaling up to 30, 000 processors, allowing us to exploit modern peta-scale infrastructure.

  16. Design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging (MPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yimeng; Lai, Pui To; Leung, Cheung Hoi; Pong, Philip W T

    2013-09-11

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising medical imaging technique producing quantitative images of the distribution of tracer materials (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) without interference from the anatomical background of the imaging objects (either phantoms or lab animals). Theoretically, the MPI platform can image with relatively high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. In practice, the quality of the MPI images hinges on both the applied magnetic field and the properties of the tracer nanoparticles. Langevin theory can model the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and predict the crucial influence of nanoparticle core size on the MPI signal. In addition, the core size distribution, anisotropy of the magnetic core and surface modification of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles also determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the MPI images. As a result, through rational design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the performance of MPI could be effectively optimized. In this review, the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in MPI is investigated. Rational synthesis and modification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and summarized. The potential medical application areas for MPI, including cardiovascular system, oncology, stem cell tracking and immune related imaging are also analyzed and forecasted.

  17. The Center of Lifespan Psychology at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development: Conceptual Agenda and Illustration of Research Activities%马普人类发展研究所毕生发展心理研究中心:研究主题和研究活动展示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Chen Li; Martin L(o)vdén; Sabine Schaefer; Florian Schmiedek; Yee Lee Shing; Markus Werkle-Bergner; Ulman Lindenberger

    2009-01-01

    Paul B.Baltes于1981年在马普人类发展研究所成立的毕生发展心理研究中心已经使毕生发展心理学成为了发展心理学中的一个重要的概念分支.2004年以来,中心已经将研究项目扩展到了发展行为神经科学.中心主要在三个主题上开展研究工作:(1)研究作为成熟、学习和衰老的交互作用的结果,毕生的不同发展阶段中人类行为变化的规律:(2)发展能够整合来自于自身机能、时间序列、以及行为和神经层面分析等领域实证证据的理论和方法体系.(3)通过探索不同年龄可塑性上的差异寻找发展的机制.中心继续重点关注成人晚期和老年期,这为理论和实践上的创新提供了独特的机遇.同时,中心加强了对包括婴儿期和儿童早期在内的个体发展早期阶段的研究.本文报告了来自四项从行为和神经层面分析感觉和认知发展的研究的最新发现.

  18. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan

    2017-05-29

    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  19. Deadlock Detection in Basic Models of MPI Synchronization Communication Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Ming-xue

    2007-01-01

    A model of MPI synchronization communication programs is presented and its three basic simplified models are also defined. A series of theorems and methods for deciding whether deadlocks will occur among the three models are given and proved strictly. These theories and methods for simple models' deadlock detection are the necessary base for real MPI program deadlock detection. The methods are based on a static analysis through programs and with runtime detection in necessary cases and they are able to determine before compiling whether it will be deadlocked for two of the three basic models. For another model, some deadlock cases can be found before compiling and others at runtime. Our theorems can be used to prove the correctness of currently popular MPI program deadlock detection algorithms. Our methods may decrease codes that those algorithms need to change to MPI source or profiling interface and may detects deadlocks ahead of program execution, thus the overheads can be reduced greatly.

  20. 32 CFR 637.8 - Identification of MPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Civilian personnel will use the title “DAC Investigator” or “DAC Detective”; corresponding to their.... When MPI or DAC detectives/investigators are employed in covert roles, supervisors will ensure...

  1. Spectral radiance calibrations between 165-300 nm - An interlaboratory comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J. M.; Ott, W. R.; Pitz, E.; Schulz, A.; Einfeld, D.; Stuck, D.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral radiance of deuterium lamps calibrated by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPI), by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are compared to check the agreement of UV radiometric scales. The NBS group used the optically thin continuum radiation from a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc as its fundamental radiometric standard, while the MPI and PTB groups used the synchrotron radiation facility in DESY. It is found that the spectral radiance scales based upon the DESY synchrotron and the NBS hydrogen arc are consistent, at least for one wavelength relative to another.

  2. SPIO processing in macrophages for MPI: The breast cancer MPI-SNLB-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finas Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We aim to develop a new sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB method with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs and magnetic particle imaging (MPI in BC to avoid tissue damaging while axillary surgery. As we know from i.v. SPIO application in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, macrophages (MP are key role player in processing of SPIOs (e.g. in liver causing a drop of signal intensity. But, knowledge lacks concerning enrichment processes of SPIOs after injection in breast tissue, the adjacent lymphatic tissues and associated cells, especially in BC and metastatic lymph nodes. We already evaluated the distribution of SPIOs in an in vivo healthy and tumor mouse model. Based on these studies we investigate the processing of the SPIOs in MP.

  3. Overlapping Communication and Computation with OpenMP and MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Machines comprised of a distributed collection of shared memory or SMP nodes are becoming common for parallel computing. OpenMP can be combined with MPI on many such machines. Motivations for combing OpenMP and MPI are discussed. While OpenMP is typically used for exploiting loop-level parallelism it can also be used to enable coarse grain parallelism, potentially leading to less overhead. We show how coarse grain OpenMP parallelism can also be used to facilitate overlapping MPI communication and computation for stencil-based grid programs such as a program performing Gauss-Seidel iteration with red-black ordering. Spatial subdivision or domain decomposition is used to assign a portion of the grid to each thread. One thread is assigned a null calculation region so it was free to perform communication. Example calculations were run on an IBM SP using both the Kuck & Associates and IBM compilers.

  4. Computational mathematics models, methods, and analysis with Matlab and MPI

    CERN Document Server

    White, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    Computational Mathematics: Models, Methods, and Analysis with MATLAB and MPI explores and illustrates this process. Each section of the first six chapters is motivated by a specific application. The author applies a model, selects a numerical method, implements computer simulations, and assesses the ensuing results. These chapters include an abundance of MATLAB code. By studying the code instead of using it as a "black box, " you take the first step toward more sophisticated numerical modeling. The last four chapters focus on multiprocessing algorithms implemented using message passing interface (MPI). These chapters include Fortran 9x codes that illustrate the basic MPI subroutines and revisit the applications of the previous chapters from a parallel implementation perspective. All of the codes are available for download from www4.ncsu.edu./~white.This book is not just about math, not just about computing, and not just about applications, but about all three--in other words, computational science. Whether us...

  5. Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming Based on MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏伟; 汪厚祥; 裴晓黎; 肖永玲

    2004-01-01

    Object-oriented model possesses inherent concurrency. Integration of concurrency and object-orientation is a promising new field. MPI is a message-passing standard and has been adopted by more and more systems. This paper proposes a novel approach to realize concurrent object-oriented programming based on Message-passing interface(MPI) in which future method communication is adopted between concurrent objects. A state behavior set is proposed to solve inheritance anomaly, and a bounded buffer is taken as an example to illustrate this proposal. The definition of ParaMPI class, which is the most important class in the concurrent class library,and implementation issues are briefly described.

  6. Dynamical approach to MPI four-jet production in Pythia

    CERN Document Server

    Blok, B

    2015-01-01

    We improve the treatment of Multiple Parton Interactions (MPI) in \\textsc{Pythia} by including the \\12 mechanism and treating the \\22 mechanism in a model-independent way. The \\22 mechanism is calculated within the mean field approximation, and its parameters are expressed through Generalized Parton Distributions extracted from HERA data. The parameters related to the transverse parton distribution inside the proton are thus independent of the performed fit. The \\12 mechanism is included along the lines of the recently developed perturbative QCD formalism. A unified description of MPI at moderate and hard transverse momenta is obtained within a consistent framework, in good agreement with experimental data measured at 7 TeV. Predictions are shown for the considered observables at 14 TeV. The corresponding code implementing the new MPI approach is available.

  7. A Case for Application Oblivious Energy-Efficient MPI Runtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, Akshay; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hamidouche, Khaled; Tallent, Nathan R.; Panda, Dhabaleswar; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-10-19

    Power has become the major impediment in designing large scale high-end systems. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the {\\em de facto} communication interface used as the back-end for designing applications, programming models and runtime for these systems. Slack --- the time spent by an MPI process in a single MPI call --- provides a potential for energy and power savings, if an appropriate power reduction technique such as core-idling/Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) can be applied without perturbing application's execution time. Existing techniques that exploit slack for power savings assume that application behavior repeats across iterations/executions. However, an increasing use of adaptive, data-dependent workloads combined with system factors (OS noise, congestion) makes this assumption invalid. This paper proposes and implements Energy Aware MPI (EAM) --- an application-oblivious energy-efficient MPI runtime. EAM uses a combination of communication models of common MPI primitives (point-to-point, collective, progress, blocking/non-blocking) and an online observation of slack for maximizing energy efficiency. Each power lever incurs time overhead, which must be amortized over slack to minimize degradation. When predicted communication time exceeds a lever overhead, the lever is used {\\em as soon as possible} --- to maximize energy efficiency. When mis-prediction occurs, the lever(s) are used automatically at specific intervals for amortization. We implement EAM using MVAPICH2 and evaluate it on ten applications using up to 4096 processes. Our performance evaluation on an InfiniBand cluster indicates that EAM can reduce energy consumption by 5--41\\% in comparison to the default approach, with negligible (less than 4\\% in all cases) performance loss.

  8. Parallelization of Edge Detection Algorithm using MPI on Beowulf Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Nazleeni; Amir, Ruzaini; Aziz, Izzatdin A.; Jung, Low Tan; Shukri, Siti Rohkmah

    In this paper, we present the design of parallel Sobel edge detection algorithm using Foster's methodology. The parallel algorithm is implemented using MPI message passing library and master/slave algorithm. Every processor performs the same sequential algorithm but on different part of the image. Experimental results conducted on Beowulf cluster are presented to demonstrate the performance of the parallel algorithm.

  9. Poster on MPI application in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Argentini, Gianluca

    2003-01-01

    Poster-presentation of the paper "Message Passing Fluids: molecules as processes in parallel computational fluids" held at "EURO PVMMPI 2003" Congress; the paper is on the proceedings "Recent Advances in Parallel Virtual Machine and Message Passing Interface", 10th European PVM/MPI User's Group Meeting, LNCS 2840, Springer-Verlag, Dongarra-Laforenza-Orlando editors, pp. 550-554.

  10. The dynamic of poverty measurement indexes, from HDI to MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Nanaj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the dynamic poverty measurement from Human Development Index (HDI to Multi Dimensional Poverty (MPI, as poverty indicators from Sen to Foster-Alkire indexes. The HDI takes into consideration three dimensions and four indexes, the MPI goes further. The dimensions and indicators exceed the limits of classical measurements of poverty, creates the possibilities of measuring and comparing multidimensional poverty. Multidimensional Poverty Index helps to analyze the spectrum of poverty, understanding of sustainable development emergency, as well as it is a great help for reading poverty phenomenon on a three dimensional aspect and under the sub-meaning of 10 different indicators. MPI calculation off ers further comparative analyses of MPI Albania and Eastern Balkan countries. Comprehensive indexes are generated and applied, but doesn’t mean their conclusions are translated (converted into comprehensive policies as well. The data and the indicators for poverty measurement in Albania are not frequently generated and calculated due to LSMS missing a> er 2012. So there is a big gap in poverty reports. Finally, we argue how the measures chosen to use in poverty measurement of course can lead or mislead towards the process of policy making due to the great practical relevance of measurement methodologies.

  11. Fault Tolerance Assistant (FTA): An Exception Handling Programming Model for MPI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Aiman [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Laguna, Ignacio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sato, Kento [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Islam, Tanzima [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    Future high-performance computing systems may face frequent failures with their rapid increase in scale and complexity. Resilience to faults has become a major challenge for large-scale applications running on supercomputers, which demands fault tolerance support for prevalent MPI applications. Among failure scenarios, process failures are one of the most severe issues as they usually lead to termination of applications. However, the widely used MPI implementations do not provide mechanisms for fault tolerance. We propose FTA-MPI (Fault Tolerance Assistant MPI), a programming model that provides support for failure detection, failure notification and recovery. Specifically, FTA-MPI exploits a try/catch model that enables failure localization and transparent recovery of process failures in MPI applications. We demonstrate FTA-MPI with synthetic applications and a molecular dynamics code CoMD, and show that FTA-MPI provides high programmability for users and enables convenient and flexible recovery of process failures.

  12. Ein effizientes Message-Passing-Interface (MPI) für HiPPI

    OpenAIRE

    Beisel, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In dieser Programmbeschreibung wird auf den internen Aufbau von MPI eingegangen und begründet, warum eine Erweiterung der Funktionalitäten erforderlich ist. Der Lösungsansatzes zur Erweiterung von MPI wird vorgestellt.

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...

  14. 32 CFR 637.2 - Use of MPI and DAC Detectives/Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of MPI and DAC Detectives/Investigators. 637... of MPI and DAC Detectives/Investigators. Only those matters requiring investigative development will... MP personnel. Except as otherwise provided, MPI and DAC detectives/investigators will normally...

  15. MPI performance evaluation and characterization using a compact application benchmark code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, P.H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper the parallel benchmark code PSTSWM is used to evaluate the performance of the vendor-supplied implementations of the MPI message-passing standard on the Intel Paragon, IBM SP2, and Cray Research T3D. This study is meant to complement the performance evaluation of individual MPI commands by providing information on the practical significance of MPI performance on the execution of a communication-intensive application code. In particular, three performance questions are addressed: how important is the communication protocol in determining performance when using MPI, how does MPI performance compare with that of the native communication library, and how efficient are the collective communication routines.

  16. Parallel Genetic Algorithm Based on the MPI Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Current genetic algorithm require both management of huge amounts of data and heavy computation, fulfilling these requirements calls for simple ways to implement parallel computing. In this paper, serial genetic algorithm was designed to parallel GA; this technology appears to be particularly well adapted to this task. Here we introduce two related mechanism: elite reserve strategy and MPI. The first can increase the possible to get the optimal solution of the population, while the message pa...

  17. Kunnossapitoyrityksen toteuttaminen verkostomallilla : case: MPI Oy - Maintenance Project Integrator

    OpenAIRE

    Teva, Altti Sakari

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli havainnollistaa yrityksen toimintaa verkostoympäristössä, tutkia verkostoitumisen teoriamalleja ja kokemuksia sekä soveltaa verkostomallia asennus- ja kunnossapitosektorille perustettavaan yritykseen MPI Oy - Maintenance Project Integrator. Opinnäytetyön avulla pyrittiin löytämään toimintatavat, joilla osaajien muodostama verkostoyritys saadaan toimimaan tehokkaasti. Suunnitelma on mahdollista toteuttaa vuoden 2014 aikana. Johdannossa esitellään perus...

  18. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A.; Iurino, A.; Settanni, G.; Andrisani, A.; Stifanelli, P. F.; Larizza, P.; Mazzia, F.; Mininni, R. M.; Tangaro, S.; Bellotti, R.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  19. Present-day and ice-covered equilibrium states in a comprehensive climate model

    OpenAIRE

    J. Marotzke; Botzet, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show that in a comprehensive climate model both the current climate and a completely ice-covered Earth are stable states under today's total solar irradiance (TSI) and CO2 level. We employ the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, at relatively high resolution (horizontally T63 in the atmosphere and 1.5 degrees in the ocean). Setting TSI to near-zero causes a transition from realistic present-day climate to a completely ice-c...

  20. Implementing hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelism in Fluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Gerard; Lange, Michael; Avdis, Alexandros; Guo, Xiaohu; Mitchell, Lawrence; Weiland, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Parallelising finite element codes using domain decomposition methods and MPI has nearly become routine at the application code level. This has been helped in no small part by the development of an eco-system of open source libraries to provide key functionality, for example SCOTCH for graph partitioning or PETSc for sparse iterative solvers. As we move to an era where pure MPI no longer suffices, application developers cannot only focus on the application code, but must consider the full software stack. In the case of Fluidity (an open source control volume/finite element general purpose fluid dynamics code) the decision to improve parallel efficiency by moving to a hybrid MPI/OpenMP programming model it became necessary to get involved in extending 3rd party open source libraries, specifically PETSc, in addition to the application code itself. The effort involved in re-engineering a large application code highlights the fact that as computing platforms continue their advance towards low power many core processors, the software stack must also develop at a similar pace or application codes will suffer. In this presentation we will illustrate the steps required to re-engineer Fluidity to achieve good parallel efficiency when using MPI/OpenMP. We identify performance pitfalls when using Fortran features such as automatic arrays in a multi-threaded context, as well as poor data locality on NUMA platforms. A significant proportion of the computational cost is in the sparse iterative solvers. For this we collaborated with the development team at Argonne National Laboratory to add OpenMP support to PETSc. We will present performance results for both the application as a whole, as well as for key individual components such as matrix assembly and the solvers. We also show that while we did not explicitly target I/O for optimisation here, its performance is nonetheless greatly improved because of fewer processes accessing the file system. One of the main remaining

  1. Parallel Performance of MPI Sorting Algorithms on Dual-Core Processor Windows-Based Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Elnashar, Alaa Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Message Passing Interface (MPI) is widely used to implement parallel programs. Although Windowsbased architectures provide the facilities of parallel execution and multi-threading, little attention has been focused on using MPI on these platforms. In this paper we use the dual core Window-based platform to study the effect of parallel processes number and also the number of cores on the performance of three MPI parallel implementations for some sorting algorithms.

  2. AutoMap & AutoLink: Tools for Communicating Complex & DynamicData-Structures using MPI

    OpenAIRE

    Goujon, Delphine; Michel, Martial; Peeters, Jasper; Devaney, Judith Ellen

    1998-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture.; This article describes two software tools, AutoMap and AutoLink, that facilitate the use of data-structures in MPI. AutoMap is a program that parses a file of user-defined data-structures and generates new MPI types out of basic and previously defined MPI data-types. Our software tool automatically handles specialized error checking related to memory mapping. AutoLink is an MPI library that allows the transfert of complex, dynimacally linked, and pos...

  3. Parallelized LEDAPS method for Remote Sensing Preprocessing Based on MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xionghua; CHEN; Xu; ZHANG; Ying; GUO; Yong; MA; Yanchen; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on Landsat image,the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System(LEDAPS)uses radiation change detection method for image processing and offers the surface reflectivity products for ecosystem carbon sequestration and carbon reserves.As the accumulation of massive remote sensing data especially for the Landsat image,the traditional serial LEDAPS for image processing has a long cycle that make a lot of difficulties in practical application.For this problem,this paper design a high performance parallel LEDAPS processing method based on MPI.The results not only aimed to improve the calculation speed and save computing time,but also considered the load balance between the flexibly extended computing nodes.Results show that the highest speed ratio of parallelized LEDAPS reached 7.37 when the number of MPI process is 8.It effectively improves the ability of LEDAPS to handle massive remote sensing data and reduces the forest carbon stocks calculation cycle by using the remote sensing images.

  4. Parallel Genetic Algorithm Based on the MPI Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Current genetic algorithm require both management of huge amounts of data and heavy computation, fulfilling these requirements calls for simple ways to implement parallel computing. In this paper, serial genetic algorithm was designed to parallel GA; this technology appears to be particularly well adapted to this task. Here we introduce two related mechanism: elite reserve strategy and MPI. The first can increase the possible to get the optimal solution of the population, while the message passing interface MPI support is adding to form a new coarse-grain model of distributed parallel genetic algorithm. This new algorithm is tested by the classical and effective Knapsack problem, analysis shows that, the introduction of the parallel strategies can reduce the communication between different machines and the scheduling time of the heterogeneous system, thereby accelerate the traditional genetic algorithm search process, ultimately concluded that the parallel genetic algorithm is very promising and this framework could have a wide range of applications while maintaining good computational efficiency, scalability and ease of maintenance.

  5. The bumpy road Max Planck from radiation theory to the quantum (1896-1906)

    CERN Document Server

    Badino, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the different areas of knowledge, traditions, and conceptual resources that contributed to the building of Max Planck’s theory of radiation. It presents an insightful comparative analysis that not only sheds light upon a fundamental chapter in the history of modern physics, but also enlarges our understanding of how theoreticians work. Coverage offers a deep investigation into the technical aspects behind the theory and extends in time the notion of quantum revolution. It also presents a full-fledged discussion of the combinatorial part of Planck’s theory and places emphasis on the epistemological role of mathematical practices. By painstakingly reconstructing both the electromagnetic and the combinatorial part of Planck’s black-body theory, the author shows how some apparently merely technical resources, such as the Fourier series, effectively contributed to shape the final form of Planck’s theory. For decades, historians have debated the conditions of possibility of Max Planck’s...

  6. Implementation and validation of a model of the MPI Stewart platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, F.M.; Van Paasen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bülthoff, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    A simulated model of the MPI Stewart platform can be used to identify the influence of motion system characteristics on human control behaviour in active closed-loop control experiments on the SIMONA Research Simulator. In this paper, a previously identified model of the MPI Stewart platform was ana

  7. Mechanic: a new numerical MPI framework for the dynamical astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Slonina, Mariusz; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    We develop the Mechanic package, which is a new numerical framework for dynamical astronomy. The aim of our software is to help in massive numerical simulations by efficient task management and unified data storage. The code is built on top of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) standards and uses the Task Farm approach to manage numerical tasks. It relies on the core-module approach. The numerical problem implemented in the user-supplied module is separated from the host code (core). The core is designed to handle basic setup, data storage and communication between nodes in a computing pool. It has been tested on large CPU-clusters, as well as desktop computers. The Mechanic may be used in computing dynamical maps, data optimization or numerical integration. The code and sample modules are freely available at http://git.astri.umk.pl/projects/mechanic.

  8. Parallelizing AT with open multi-processing and MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗承明; 田顺强; 王坤; 张满洲; 张庆磊; 姜伯承

    2015-01-01

    Simulating charged particle motion through the elements is necessary to understand modern particle accel-erators. The particle numbers and the circling turns in a synchrotron are huge, and a simulation can be time-consuming. Open multi-processing (OpenMP) is a convenient method to speed up the computing of multi-cores for computers based on share memory model. Using message passing interface (MPI) which is based on non-uniform memory access architecture, a coarse grain parallel algorithm is set up for the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for dynamic tracking processes. The computing speedup of the tracking process is 3.77 times with a quad-core CPU computer and the speed almost grows linearly with the number of CPU.

  9. SBML-PET-MPI: a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Zhike

    2011-04-01

    Parameter estimation is crucial for the modeling and dynamic analysis of biological systems. However, implementing parameter estimation is time consuming and computationally demanding. Here, we introduced a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)-based models (SBML-PET-MPI). SBML-PET-MPI allows the user to perform parameter estimation and parameter uncertainty analysis by collectively fitting multiple experimental datasets. The tool is developed and parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) protocol, which provides good scalability with the number of processors. SBML-PET-MPI is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.bioss.uni-freiburg.de/cms/sbml-pet-mpi.html or http://sites.google.com/site/sbmlpetmpi/.

  10. MUST: A Scalable Approach to Runtime Error Detection in MPI Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbrich, T; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B R; Muller, M

    2010-03-24

    The Message-Passing Interface (MPI) is large and complex. Therefore, programming MPI is error prone. Several MPI runtime correctness tools address classes of usage errors, such as deadlocks or nonportable constructs. To our knowledge none of these tools scales to more than about 100 processes. However, some of the current HPC systems use more than 100,000 cores and future systems are expected to use far more. Since errors often depend on the task count used, we need correctness tools that scale to the full system size. We present a novel framework for scalable MPI correctness tools to address this need. Our fine-grained, module-based approach supports rapid prototyping and allows correctness tools built upon it to adapt to different architectures and use cases. The design uses PnMPI to instantiate a tool from a set of individual modules. We present an overview of our design, along with first performance results for a proof of concept implementation.

  11. Scalable High Performance Message Passing over InfiniBand for Open MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedley, A; Hoefler, T; Leininger, M L; Lumsdaine, A

    2007-10-24

    InfiniBand (IB) is a popular network technology for modern high-performance computing systems. MPI implementations traditionally support IB using a reliable, connection-oriented (RC) transport. However, per-process resource usage that grows linearly with the number of processes, makes this approach prohibitive for large-scale systems. IB provides an alternative in the form of a connectionless unreliable datagram transport (UD), which allows for near-constant resource usage and initialization overhead as the process count increases. This paper describes a UD-based implementation for IB in Open MPI as a scalable alternative to existing RC-based schemes. We use the software reliability capabilities of Open MPI to provide the guaranteed delivery semantics required by MPI. Results show that UD not only requires fewer resources at scale, but also allows for shorter MPI startup times. A connectionless model also improves performance for applications that tend to send small messages to many different processes.

  12. Description of a Multimetric Phytoplankton Index (MPI) for the assessment of transitional waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Socal, Giorgio; Ponis, Emanuele; Acri, Francesco; Bianchi, Franco; Giovanardi, Franco; Sfriso, Adriano

    2014-02-15

    A Multimetric Phytoplankton Index (MPI) is proposed to support management policies for the assessment of transitional ecosystems and the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The MPI incorporates Hulburt's dominance index, bloom frequency and Menhinick's diversity index, calculated on the basis of phytoplankton species composition. Chlorophyll a concentrations were also included, to provide biomass data and to guarantee continuity and comparison with past evaluations. The MPI was calculated by averaging the ratios of the resulting values of each metric to those of a reference site characterised by low anthropogenic impact. The MPI was set up using data from over a 10-year period in several stations in Venice Lagoon (North-western Adriatic region), a highly valuable and heterogeneous transitional environment, subject to significant anthropogenic pressures. The dataset included physico-chemical data, nutrient and contaminant concentrations. Statistical analyses allowed us to gauge the MPI's responses to anthropogenic pressures and to verify its reliability.

  13. Efficient magnetohydrodynamic simulations on distributed multi-GPU systems using a novel GPU Direct-MPI hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Un-Hong; Aoki, Takayuki; Wong, Hon-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) have been widely utilized in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in recent years. Due to the limited memory of a single GPU, distributed multi-GPU systems are needed to be explored for large-scale MHD simulations. However, the data transfer between GPUs bottlenecks the efficiency of the simulations on such systems. In this paper we propose a novel GPU Direct-MPI hybrid approach to address this problem for overall performance enhancement. Our approach consists of two strategies: (1) We exploit GPU Direct 2.0 to speedup the data transfers between multiple GPUs in a single node and reduce the total number of message passing interface (MPI) communications; (2) We design Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) kernels instead of using memory copy to speedup the fragmented data exchange in the three-dimensional (3D) decomposition. 3D decomposition is usually not preferable for distributed multi-GPU systems due to its low efficiency of the fragmented data exchange. Our approach has made a breakthrough to make 3D decomposition available on distributed multi-GPU systems. As a result, it can reduce the memory usage and computation time of each partition of the computational domain. Experiment results show twice the FLOPS comparing to common 2D decomposition MPI-only implementation method. The proposed approach has been developed in an efficient implementation for MHD simulations on distributed multi-GPU systems, called MGPU-MHD code. The code realizes the GPU parallelization of a total variation diminishing (TVD) algorithm for solving the multidimensional ideal MHD equations, extending our work from single GPU computation (Wong et al., 2011) to multiple GPUs. Numerical tests and performance measurements are conducted on the TSUBAME 2.0 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Our code achieves 2 TFLOPS in double precision for the problem with 12003 grid points using 216 GPUs.

  14. High-performance iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging - guided hyperthermia (hMPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lisa M.; Situ, Shu F.; Griswold, Mark A.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal through selective doping of magnetite nanoparticles with zinc. Moreover, we demonstrated focused magnetic hyperthermia heating by adapting the field gradient used in MPI. By saturating the iron oxide nanoparticles outside of a field free region (FFR) with an external static field, we can selectively heat a target region in our test sample. By comparing zinc-doped magnetite cubic nanoparticles with undoped spherical nanoparticles, we could show a 5-fold improvement in the specific absorption rate (SAR) in magnetic hyperthermia while providing good MPI signal, thereby demonstrating the potential for high-performance focused hyperthermia therapy through an MPI-guided approach (hMPI).Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal

  15. QGM Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    I outlined my joint work with Camilo Arias Abad (Max Planck Institute, Bonn) on higher holonomies for flat superconnections and explained some background material.......I outlined my joint work with Camilo Arias Abad (Max Planck Institute, Bonn) on higher holonomies for flat superconnections and explained some background material....

  16. Irradiation tests of double-sided silicon strip detectors with a special guard ring structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bauer, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Baumann, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fox, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Halley, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Knoepfle, K.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kroha, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Riechmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Rietz, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ruebsam, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Seywerd, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); St Denis, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the first irradiation tests of newly designed silicon microstrip detectors performed with 21 MeV protons at the Max-Planck-Institut in Heidelberg are presented. The detectors were developed and produced by the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut in Munich. Novel guard ring structures allow operation of the detectors at voltages exceeding 300 V. (orig.)

  17. High-Level Topology-Oblivious Optimization of MPI Broadcast Algorithms on Extreme-Scale Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant research in collective communication operations, in particular in MPI broadcast, on distributed memory platforms. Most of the research works are done to optimize the collective operations for particular architectures by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a very simple and at the same time general approach to optimize legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and OpenMPI. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on IBM BlueGene/P and a cluster of Grid’5000 platform are presented.

  18. The MPI Bioinformatics Toolkit for protein sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegert, Andreas; Mayer, Christian; Remmert, Michael; Söding, Johannes; Lupas, Andrei N

    2006-07-01

    The MPI Bioinformatics Toolkit is an interactive web service which offers access to a great variety of public and in-house bioinformatics tools. They are grouped into different sections that support sequence searches, multiple alignment, secondary and tertiary structure prediction and classification. Several public tools are offered in customized versions that extend their functionality. For example, PSI-BLAST can be run against regularly updated standard databases, customized user databases or selectable sets of genomes. Another tool, Quick2D, integrates the results of various secondary structure, transmembrane and disorder prediction programs into one view. The Toolkit provides a friendly and intuitive user interface with an online help facility. As a key feature, various tools are interconnected so that the results of one tool can be forwarded to other tools. One could run PSI-BLAST, parse out a multiple alignment of selected hits and send the results to a cluster analysis tool. The Toolkit framework and the tools developed in-house will be packaged and freely available under the GNU Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL). The Toolkit can be accessed at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de.

  19. Mechanic: the MPI/HDF code framework for dynamical astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Słonina, Mariusz; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Mechanic, a new open-source code framework. It is designed to reduce the development effort of scientific applications by providing unified API (Application Programming Interface) for configuration, data storage and task management. The communication layer is based on the well-established Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, which is widely used on variety of parallel computers and CPU-clusters. The data storage is performed within the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5). The design of the code follows em core-module approach which allows to reduce the user's codebase and makes it portable for single- and multi-CPU environments. The framework may be used in a local user's environment, without administrative access to the cluster, under the PBS or Slurm job schedulers. It may become a helper tool for a wide range of astronomical applications, particularly focused on processing large data sets, such as dynamical studies of long-term orbital evolution of planetary systems with Monte Carlo metho...

  20. Towards a mechanical MPI scanner based on atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Simone; Tonyushkin, Alexey; Grujic, Zoran D; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Weis, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We report on our progress in the development of an atomic magnetometer (AM) based low-frequency X-space MPI scanner, expected to be free from SAR and PNS constraints. We address major challenges in coil and sensor design due to specificAMproperties. Compared to our previous workwe have changed the AM's mode of operation towards its implementation for detecting weak SPIO response fields in the presence of nearby-located strong drive/selection fields. We demonstrate that a pump-probe AM scheme in a buffer gas filled alkali vapour cell can tolerate mT/m gradients while maintaining a sensitivity in the one-digit pT/Hz^(1/2) range over a bandwidth from DC to several kHz. We give a detailed description of the drive/selection coils' geometry and their hardware implementations that will provide both field-free-line (FFL) and field-free-point (FFP) modes of operation, compatible with a best performance AM operation. We estimate the achievable field of view and spatial resolution of the scanner as well as its sensitivi...

  1. Parallelization of plasma 2-D hydrodynamics code using Message Passing Interface (MPI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    2 dimensional hydrodynamics code using CIP method is parallelized for Intel Paragon XP/S massive parallel computer at Kansai Research Establishment using MPI (Message Passing Interface). The communicator is found to be useful to divide and parallelize programs into functional modules. Using the process topology and the derived data type, large scale finite difference simulation codes can be significantly accelerated with simple coding of the area division method. MPI has functions which simplify the program to process boundary conditions and simplify the communication between adjacent nodes. 357 and 576 times acceleration is obtained for 400 and 782 nodes, respectively. MPI utilizes feature of scalar massive parallel computers with distributed memories. Fast and portable codes can be developed using MPI. (author)

  2. Computing the R of the QR factorization of tall and skinny matrices using MPI_Reduce

    CERN Document Server

    Langou, Julien

    2010-01-01

    A QR factorization of a tall and skinny matrix with n columns can be represented as a reduction. The operation used along the reduction tree has in input two n-by-n upper triangular matrices and in output an n-by-n upper triangular matrix which is defined as the R factor of the two input matrices stacked the one on top of the other. This operation is binary, associative, and commutative. We can therefore leverage the MPI library capabilities by using user-defined MPI operations and MPI_Reduce to perform this reduction. The resulting code is compact and portable. In this context, the user relies on the MPI library to select a reduction tree appropriate for the underlying architecture.

  3. IMPACC: A Tightly Integrated MPI+OpenACC Framework Exploiting Shared Memory Parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We propose IMPACC, an MPI+OpenACC framework for heterogeneous accelerator clusters. IMPACC tightly integrates MPI and OpenACC, while exploiting the shared memory parallelism in the target system. IMPACC dynamically adapts the input MPI+OpenACC applications on the target heterogeneous accelerator clusters to fully exploit target system-specific features. IMPACC provides the programmers with the unified virtual address space, automatic NUMA-friendly task-device mapping, efficient integrated communication routines, seamless streamlining of asynchronous executions, and transparent memory sharing. We have implemented IMPACC and evaluated its performance using three heterogeneous accelerator systems, including Titan supercomputer. Results show that IMPACC can achieve easier programming, higher performance, and better scalability than the current MPI+OpenACC model.

  4. Comparing Coarray Fortran (CAF) with MPI for several structured mesh PDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garain, Sudip; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Reid, John

    2015-09-01

    Language-based approaches to parallelism have been incorporated into the Fortran standard. These Fortran extensions go under the name of Coarray Fortran (CAF) and full-featured compilers that support CAF have become available from Cray and Intel; the GNU implementation is expected in 2015. CAF combines elegance of expression with simplicity of implementation to yield an efficient parallel programming language. Elegance of expression results in very compact parallel code. The existence of a standard helps with portability and maintainability. CAF was designed to excel at one-sided communication and similar functions that support one-sided communication are also available in the recent MPI-3 standard. One-sided communication is expected to be very valuable for structured mesh applications involving partial differential equations, amongst other possible applications. This paper focuses on a comparison of CAF and MPI for a few very useful applications areas that are routinely used for solving partial differential equations on structured meshes. The three specific areas are Fast Fourier Techniques, Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Multigrid Methods. For each of those applications areas, we have developed optimized CAF code and optimized MPI code that is based on the one-sided messaging capabilities of MPI-3. Weak scalability studies that compare CAF and MPI-3 are presented on up to 65,536 processors. Both paradigms scale well, showing that they are well-suited for Petascale-class applications. Some of the applications shown (like Fast Fourier Techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics) require large, coarse-grained messaging. Such applications emphasize high bandwidth. Our other application (Multigrid Methods) uses pointwise smoothers which require a large amount of fine-grained messaging. In such applications, a premium is placed on low latency. Our studies show that both CAF and MPI-3 offer the twin advantages of high bandwidth and low latency for messages of all

  5. Specification of Fenix MPI Fault Tolerance library version 1.0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Marc [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Van Der Wijngaart, Rob [Intel Corps., Mountain View, CA (United States); Teranishi, Keita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parashar, Manish [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document provides a specification of Fenix, a software library compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) to support fault recovery without application shutdown. The library consists of two modules. The first, termed process recovery , restores an application to a consistent state after it has suffered a loss of one or more MPI processes (ranks). The second specifies functions the user can invoke to store application data in Fenix managed redundant storage, and to retrieve it from that storage after process recovery.

  6. Specification of Fenix MPI Fault Tolerance library version 1.0.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Marc(Rutgers U); Van Der Wijngaart, Rob (Intel); Teranishi, Keita; Parashar, Manish (Rutgers U)

    2016-10-01

    This document provides a specification of Fenix, a software library compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) to support fault recovery without application shutdown. The library consists of two modules. The first, termed process recovery , restores an application to a consistent state after it has suffered a loss of one or more MPI processes (ranks). The second specifies functions the user can invoke to store application data in Fenix managed redundant storage, and to retrieve it from that storage after process recovery.

  7. In vivo multimodal magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with tailored magneto/optical contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, Hamed; Khandhar, Amit P; Tomitaka, Asahi; Yu, Elaine; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a novel non-invasive biomedical imaging modality that uses safe magnetite nanoparticles as tracers. Controlled synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with tuned size-dependent magnetic relaxation properties is critical for the development of MPI. Additional functionalization of these NPs for other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI and fluorescent imaging) would accelerate screening of the MPI tracers based on their in vitro and in vivo performance in pre-clinical trials. Here, we conjugated two different types of poly-ethylene-glycols (NH2-PEG-NH2 and NH2-PEG-FMOC) to monodisperse carboxylated 19.7 nm NPs by amide bonding. Further, we labeled these NPs with Cy5.5 near infra-red fluorescent (NIRF) molecules. Bi-functional PEG (NH2-PEG-NH2) resulted in larger hydrodynamic size (∼98 nm vs. ∼43 nm) of the tracers, due to inter-particle crosslinking. Formation of such clusters impacted the multimodal imaging performance and pharmacokinetics of these tracers. We found that MPI signal intensity of the tracers in blood depends on their plasmatic clearance pharmacokinetics. Whole body mice MPI/MRI/NIRF, used to study the biodistribution of the injected NPs, showed primary distribution in liver and spleen. Biodistribution of tracers and their clearance pathway was further confirmed by MPI and NIRF signals from the excised organs where the Cy5.5 labeling enabled detailed anatomical mapping of the tracers.in tissue sections. These multimodal MPI tracers, combining the strengths of each imaging modality (e.g. resolution, tracer sensitivity and clinical use feasibility) pave the way for various in vitro and in vivo MPI applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. VinaMPI: facilitating multiple receptor high-throughput virtual docking on high-performance computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Sally R; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2013-09-30

    The program VinaMPI has been developed to enable massively large virtual drug screens on leadership-class computing resources, using a large number of cores to decrease the time-to-completion of the screen. VinaMPI is a massively parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI) program based on the multithreaded virtual docking program AutodockVina, and is used to distribute tasks while multithreading is used to speed-up individual docking tasks. VinaMPI uses a distribution scheme in which tasks are evenly distributed to the workers based on the complexity of each task, as defined by the number of rotatable bonds in each chemical compound investigated. VinaMPI efficiently handles multiple proteins in a ligand screen, allowing for high-throughput inverse docking that presents new opportunities for improving the efficiency of the drug discovery pipeline. VinaMPI successfully ran on 84,672 cores with a continual decrease in job completion time with increasing core count. The ratio of the number of tasks in a screening to the number of workers should be at least around 100 in order to have a good load balance and an optimal job completion time. The code is freely available and downloadable. Instructions for downloading and using the code are provided in the Supporting Information.

  10. LogGPO: An accurate communication model for performance prediction of MPI programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenGuang; ZHAI JiDong; ZHANG Jin; ZHENG WeiMin

    2009-01-01

    Message passing interface (MPI) is the de facto standard in writing parallel scientific applications on distributed memory systems. Performance prediction of MPI programs on current or future parallel sys-terns can help to find system bottleneck or optimize programs. To effectively analyze and predict per-formance of a large and complex MPI program, an efficient and accurate communication model is highly needed. A series of communication models have been proposed, such as the LogP model family, which assume that the sending overhead, message transmission, and receiving overhead of a communication is not overlapped and there is a maximum overlap degree between computation and communication. However, this assumption does not always hold for MPI programs because either sending or receiving overhead introduced by MPI implementations can decrease potential overlap for large messages. In this paper, we present a new communication model, named LogGPO, which captures the potential overlap between computation with communication of MPI programs. We design and implement a trace-driven simulator to verify the LogGPO model by predicting performance of point-to-point communication and two real applications CG and Sweep3D. The average prediction errors of LogGPO model are 2.4% and 2.0% for these two applications respectively, while the average prediction errors of LogGP model are 38.3% and 9.1% respectively.

  11. Numerical experiments with MPI-ESM coupled atmosphere-land-ocean model in conjunction with data assimilations in Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, K.; Kuleshov, A.; Kirchner, I.; Tuchkova, N.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical experiments have been performed with state-of-the art modern MPI Earth System model (MPIESM) in conjunction with ocean altimetry data assimilation from archive AVISO. The original data assimilation method has been derived and applied. All computations have been realized on cluster system of German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ). The results of numerical experiments with and without assimilation were recorded and analyzed. A special attention has been focused on the Arctic zone. The model output in this region, in particular, ice concentration have been compared with independent data given by Arctic institute of Canada. It is shown that there is a good match of analyzed (after assimilation) model output and independent data.

  12. Mechanic: The MPI/HDF code framework for dynamical astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słonina, Mariusz; Goździewski, Krzysztof; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Mechanic, a new open-source code framework. It is designed to reduce the development effort of scientific applications by providing unified API (Application Programming Interface) for configuration, data storage and task management. The communication layer is based on the well-established Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, which is widely used on variety of parallel computers and CPU-clusters. The data storage is performed within the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5). The design of the code follows core-module approach which allows to reduce the user’s codebase and makes it portable for single- and multi-CPU environments. The framework may be used in a local user’s environment, without administrative access to the cluster, under the PBS or Slurm job schedulers. It may become a helper tool for a wide range of astronomical applications, particularly focused on processing large data sets, such as dynamical studies of long-term orbital evolution of planetary systems with Monte Carlo methods, dynamical maps or evolutionary algorithms. It has been already applied in numerical experiments conducted for Kepler-11 (Migaszewski et al., 2012) and νOctantis planetary systems (Goździewski et al., 2013). In this paper we describe the basics of the framework, including code listings for the implementation of a sample user’s module. The code is illustrated on a model Hamiltonian introduced by (Froeschlé et al., 2000) presenting the Arnold diffusion. The Arnold web is shown with the help of the MEGNO (Mean Exponential Growth of Nearby Orbits) fast indicator (Goździewski et al., 2008a) applied onto symplectic SABAn integrators family (Laskar and Robutel, 2001).

  13. The MPI emotional body expressions database for narrative scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Ekaterina; de la Rosa, Stephan; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Emotion expression in human-human interaction takes place via various types of information, including body motion. Research on the perceptual-cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of natural emotional body language can benefit greatly from datasets of natural emotional body expressions that facilitate stimulus manipulation and analysis. The existing databases have so far focused on few emotion categories which display predominantly prototypical, exaggerated emotion expressions. Moreover, many of these databases consist of video recordings which limit the ability to manipulate and analyse the physical properties of these stimuli. We present a new database consisting of a large set (over 1400) of natural emotional body expressions typical of monologues. To achieve close-to-natural emotional body expressions, amateur actors were narrating coherent stories while their body movements were recorded with motion capture technology. The resulting 3-dimensional motion data recorded at a high frame rate (120 frames per second) provides fine-grained information about body movements and allows the manipulation of movement on a body joint basis. For each expression it gives the positions and orientations in space of 23 body joints for every frame. We report the results of physical motion properties analysis and of an emotion categorisation study. The reactions of observers from the emotion categorisation study are included in the database. Moreover, we recorded the intended emotion expression for each motion sequence from the actor to allow for investigations regarding the link between intended and perceived emotions. The motion sequences along with the accompanying information are made available in a searchable MPI Emotional Body Expression Database. We hope that this database will enable researchers to study expression and perception of naturally occurring emotional body expressions in greater depth.

  14. OpenMP, OpenMP/MPI, and CUDA/MPI C programs for solving the time-dependent dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar, Vladimir; Young-S., Luis E.; Škrbić, Srdjan; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Balaž, Antun

    2016-12-01

    We present new versions of the previously published C and CUDA programs for solving the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, which calculate stationary and non-stationary solutions by propagation in imaginary or real time. Presented programs are improved and parallelized versions of previous programs, divided into three packages according to the type of parallelization. First package contains improved and threaded version of sequential C programs using OpenMP. Second package additionally parallelizes three-dimensional variants of the OpenMP programs using MPI, allowing them to be run on distributed-memory systems. Finally, previous three-dimensional CUDA-parallelized programs are further parallelized using MPI, similarly as the OpenMP programs. We also present speedup test results obtained using new versions of programs in comparison with the previous sequential C and parallel CUDA programs. The improvements to the sequential version yield a speedup of 1.1-1.9, depending on the program. OpenMP parallelization yields further speedup of 2-12 on a 16-core workstation, while OpenMP/MPI version demonstrates a speedup of 11.5-16.5 on a computer cluster with 32 nodes used. CUDA/MPI version shows a speedup of 9-10 on a computer cluster with 32 nodes.

  15. Report to the U.S. Congress on the National Oceanographic Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi University College Dublin University of Georgia University of Vienna Max Planck...Institute Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Smithsonian Institution Station

  16. Efficacy of the Modifying Phonation Intervals (MPI) Stuttering Treatment Program With Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Janis C.; Bothe, Anne K.; Wang, Yuedong; Kilgo, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study compared a new adult stuttering treatment program (Modifying Phonation Intervals, or MPI) with the standard of care for reducing stuttered speech in adults (prolonged speech). Method Twenty-seven adults who stutter were assigned to either MPI or prolonged speech treatment, both of which used similar infrastructures. Speech and related variables were assessed in 3 within-clinic and 3 beyond-clinic speaking situations for participants who successfully completed all treatment phases. Results At transfer, maintenance, and follow-up, the speech of 14 participants who successfully completed treatment was similar to that of normally fluent adults. Successful participants also showed increased self-identification as a “normal speaker,” decreased self-identification as a “stutterer,” reduced short intervals of phonation, and some increased use of longer duration phonation intervals. Eleven successful participants received the MPI treatment, and 3 received the prolonged speech treatment. Conclusions Outcomes for successful participants were very similar for the 2 treatments. The much larger proportion of successful participants in the MPI group, however, combined with the predictive value of specific changes in PI durations suggest that MPI treatment was relatively more effective at assisting clients to identify and change the specific speech behaviors that are associated with successful treatment of stuttered speech in adults. PMID:25633470

  17. A Grid Middleware for Distributed Java Computing with MPI Binding and Process Migration Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin(陈琳); WANG ChoLi(王卓立); Francis C.M.Lau

    2003-01-01

    "Grid" computing has emerged as an important new research field. With years of efforts, grid researchers have successfully developed grid technologies including security solutions,resource management protocols, information query protocols, and data management services. However, as the ultimate goal of grid computing is to design an infrastructure which supports dynamic,cross-organizational resource sharing, there is a need of solutions for efficient and transparent task re-scheduling in the grid.In this research, a new grid middleware is proposed, called G-JavaMPI. This middleware adds the parallel computing capability of Java to the grid with the support of a Grid-enabled message passing interface (MPI) for inter-process communication between Java processes executed at different grid points. A special feature of the proposed G-JavaMPI is the support of Java process migration with post-migration message redirection. With these supports, it is possible to migrate executing Java process from site to site for continuous computation, if some site is scheduled to be turned down for system reconfiguration. Moreover, the proposed G-JavaMPI middleware is very portable since it requires no modification of underlying OS, Java virtual machine, and MPI package. Preliminary performance tests have been conducted. The proposed mechanisms have shown good migration efficiency in a simulated grid environment.

  18. A grid-enabled MPI : message passing in heterogeneous distributed computing systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Karonis, N. T.

    2000-11-30

    Application development for high-performance distributed computing systems, or computational grids as they are sometimes called, requires grid-enabled tools that hide mundate aspects of the heterogeneous grid environment without compromising performance. As part of an investigation of these issues, they have developed MPICH-G, a grid-enabled implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) that allows a user to run MPI programs across multiple computers at different sites using the same commands that would be used on a parallel computer. This library extends the Argonne MPICH implementation of MPI to use services provided by the globus grid toolkit. In this paper, they describe the MPICH-G implementation and present preliminary performance results.

  19. Existing and new applications of micropellet injection (MPI) in magnetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Lunsford, Robert; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Nichols, Jacob H.

    2016-04-01

    > The intense heat and energetic particle fluxes expected in ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors pose prohibitive problems to the design, selection and maintenance of the first wall and divertor. Micropellet injection (MPI) technologies can offer some innovative solutions to the material and extreme heat challenges. Basic physics of micropellet motion, ablation and interactions with high-temperature plasmas and energetic particles are presented first. We then discuss MPI technology options and applications. In addition to plasma diagnostic applications, controlled injection of micropellets of different sizes, velocities and injection frequencies will offer several possibilities: (1) better assessment of the core plasma cooling due to dust produced in situ; (2) better understanding of the plasma-material interaction physics near the wall; (3) new methods for plasma fuelling and impurity control; and (4) techniques for edge cooling with minimal impact on the plasma core. Dedicated small-scale laboratory experiments will complement major fusion experiments in development and applications of MPI.

  20. MPI investigation for 40G NRZ link with low-RL cable assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Toshiaki; Berdinskikh, Tatiana; Thongdaeng, Rutsuda; Faysanyo, Pitak; Gurreri, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bit Error Ratio (BER) dependence on received power was studied for 40Gb/s NRZ short optical fiber transmission, including a series of four low return loss (RL 21dB) and low insertion loss (IL 0.1dB) connections. The calculated power penalty (PP) was 0.15dB for BER 10-11. Although the fiber length was within DFB laser's coherent length of 100m and the multi path interference (MPI) value was 34.3dB, no PP of BER was observed. There was no PP due to low MPI probably because the polarization of the signal pulses were not aligned for optical interference, indicating that NRZ systems have a high resistance to MPI.

  1. MSAProbs-MPI: parallel multiple sequence aligner for distributed-memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Liu, Yongchao; Touriño, Juan; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-12-15

    MSAProbs is a state-of-the-art protein multiple sequence alignment tool based on hidden Markov models. It can achieve high alignment accuracy at the expense of relatively long runtimes for large-scale input datasets. In this work we present MSAProbs-MPI, a distributed-memory parallel version of the multithreaded MSAProbs tool that is able to reduce runtimes by exploiting the compute capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation on a cluster with 32 nodes (each containing two Intel Haswell processors) shows reductions in execution time of over one order of magnitude for typical input datasets. Furthermore, MSAProbs-MPI using eight nodes is faster than the GPU-accelerated QuickProbs running on a Tesla K20. Another strong point is that MSAProbs-MPI can deal with large datasets for which MSAProbs and QuickProbs might fail due to time and memory constraints, respectively.

  2. Topology-oblivious optimization of MPI broadcast algorithms on extreme-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2015-11-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Significant research has been conducted in collective communication operations, in particular in MPI broadcast, on distributed memory platforms. Most of the research efforts aim to optimize the collective operations for particular architectures by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a simple but general approach to optimization of the legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and Open MPI. The proposed optimization technique is designed to address the challenge of extreme scale of future HPC platforms. It is based on hierarchical transformation of the traditionally flat logical arrangement of communicating processors. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on IBM BlueGene/P and a cluster of the Grid\\'5000 platform are presented.

  3. Streamline Integration using MPI-Hybrid Parallelism on a Large Multi-Core Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, David; Garth, Christoph; Childs, Hank; Pugmire, Dave; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2010-11-01

    Streamline computation in a very large vector field data set represents a significant challenge due to the non-local and datadependentnature of streamline integration. In this paper, we conduct a study of the performance characteristics of hybrid parallel programmingand execution as applied to streamline integration on a large, multicore platform. With multi-core processors now prevalent in clustersand supercomputers, there is a need to understand the impact of these hybrid systems in order to make the best implementation choice.We use two MPI-based distribution approaches based on established parallelization paradigms, parallelize-over-seeds and parallelize-overblocks,and present a novel MPI-hybrid algorithm for each approach to compute streamlines. Our findings indicate that the work sharing betweencores in the proposed MPI-hybrid parallel implementation results in much improved performance and consumes less communication andI/O bandwidth than a traditional, non-hybrid distributed implementation.

  4. Parallel Numerical Simulations of Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Radiation with MPI-CUDA Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using parallel computation can enhance the performance of numerical simulation of electromagnetic radiation and get great runtime reduction. We simulate the electromagnetic radiation calculation based on the multicore CPU and GPU Parallel Architecture Clusters by using MPI-OpenMP and MPI-CUDA hybrid parallel algorithm. This is an effective solution comparing to the traditional finite-difference time-domain method which has a shortage in the calculation of the electromagnetic radiation on the problem of inadequate large data space and time. What is more, we use regional segmentation, subregional data communications, consolidation, and other methods to improve procedures nested parallelism and finally verify the correctness of the calculation results. Studying these two hybrid models of parallel algorithms run on the high-performance cluster computer, we draw the conclusion that both models are suitable for large-scale numerical calculations, and MPI-CUDA hybrid model can achieve higher speedup.

  5. Streamline integration using MPI-hybrid parallelism on a large multicore architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David; Garth, Christoph; Childs, Hank; Pugmire, Dave; Joy, Kenneth I

    2011-11-01

    Streamline computation in a very large vector field data set represents a significant challenge due to the nonlocal and data-dependent nature of streamline integration. In this paper, we conduct a study of the performance characteristics of hybrid parallel programming and execution as applied to streamline integration on a large, multicore platform. With multicore processors now prevalent in clusters and supercomputers, there is a need to understand the impact of these hybrid systems in order to make the best implementation choice. We use two MPI-based distribution approaches based on established parallelization paradigms, parallelize over seeds and parallelize over blocks, and present a novel MPI-hybrid algorithm for each approach to compute streamlines. Our findings indicate that the work sharing between cores in the proposed MPI-hybrid parallel implementation results in much improved performance and consumes less communication and I/O bandwidth than a traditional, nonhybrid distributed implementation.

  6. Monte Carlo tuning for Multiple Parton Interactions from the ATLAS data (MPI@LHC 2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) and Underlying Event (UE) is a crucial component in the description of soft QCD processes. They are both described by multi-parton interactions (MPI) models, the result of proton collisions containing more than one partonic interaction due to collective and beam remnant effects. We present recent ATLAS studies aimed at improving the description of MPI models in Monte Carlo generators. Results of tunes of the Pythia8 MPI parameters to recent ATLAS measurements at 7, 8 and 13 TeV are reported. Studies on the effect of tuning in presence of matching with leading and next-to-leading matrix elements are also presented for processes such as jets and Z-boson production.

  7. Lemon: An MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; ETM Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that provides efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message Encapsulation format. This format allows for storing large blocks of binary data and corresponding metadata in the same file. Even if designed for LQCD needs, this format might be useful for any application with this type of data profile. The design, implementation and application of Lemon are described. We conclude with presenting the excellent scaling properties of Lemon on state-of-the-art high performance computers. Program summaryProgram title: Lemon Catalogue identifier: AELP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32 860 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 223 762 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MPI and C Computer: Any which supports MPI I/O Operating system: Any Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes. Includes MPI directives. RAM: Depending on input used Classification: 11.5 External routines: MPI Nature of problem: Distributed file I/O with metadata Solution method: MPI parallel I/O based implementation of LIME format Running time: Varies depending on file and architecture size, in the order of seconds

  8. Parallel matrix multiplication based on MPI + CUDA asynchronous model%基于MPI+CUDA异步模型的并行矩阵乘法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青昆; 马名威; 阎慰椿

    2011-01-01

    Matrix multiplication plays an important role in scientific computing. Different structural models can improve the performance of parallel matrix multiplication. In the existing MPI + CUDA synchronization model, the host-side need enter the waiting state and cannot continue to work until the device completes the task, which obviously wastes time. Concerning this question, a parallel matrix multiplication based on MPI + CUDA asynchronous model was proposed. This model prevented host-side's entering into the waiting state, and used CUDA-stream technology to solve the problem of data bulk over GPU memory. By analyzing the speedup ratio and efficiency of the asynchronous model, the experimental results show that MPI + CUDA parallel programming obviously promotes parallel efficiency and large-scale matrix multiplication' s speed, which exerts the advantages of the distributional memory between the nodes and the share memory in the node. It is an effective and feasible parallel strategy.%矩阵乘法在科学计算领域中起着重要的作用,不同结构模型能够改善并行矩阵乘的性能.现有的MPI+CUDA同步模型中,主机端需要进入等待状态,直到设备端完成任务后才能继续工作,这显然浪费时间.针对上述问题,提出一种基于MPI+ CUDA异步模型的并行矩阵乘法.该模型避免了主机端进入等待状态,并采用CUDA流技术解决数据量超过GPU内存问题.通过分析异步模型的加速比和效率,实验结果表明,此方法显著提高了并行效率和大型矩阵乘法的运算速度,充分发挥了节点间分布式存储和节点内共享内存的优势,是一种有效可行的并行策略.

  9. A High-Throughput, Arbitrary-Waveform, MPI Spectrometer and Relaxometer for Comprehensive Magnetic Particle Optimization and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Zhi Wei; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Hensley, Daniel W.; Taylor, Laura A.; Zheng, Bo; Conolly, Steven M.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a promising new tracer modality with zero attenuation deep in tissue, high contrast and sensitivity, and an excellent safety profile. However, the spatial resolution of MPI is limited to around 1 mm currently and urgently needs to be improved for clinical applications such as angiography and brain perfusion. Although MPI resolution is highly dependent on tracer characteristics and the drive waveforms, optimization is limited to a small subset of possible excitation strategies by current MPI hardware that only does sinusoidal drive waveforms at very few frequencies. To enable a more comprehensive and rapid optimization of drive waveforms for multiple metrics like resolution and signal strength simultaneously, we demonstrate the first untuned MPI spectrometer/relaxometer with unprecedented 400 kHz excitation bandwidth and capable of high-throughput acquisition of harmonic spectra (100 different drive-field frequencies in only 500 ms). It is also capable of arbitrary drive-field waveforms which have not been experimentally evaluated in MPI to date. Its high-throughput capability, frequency-agility and tabletop size makes this Arbitrary Waveform Relaxometer/Spectrometer (AWR) a convenient yet powerfully flexible tool for nanoparticle experts seeking to characterize magnetic particles and optimize MPI drive waveforms for in vitro biosensing and in vivo imaging with MPI.

  10. A High-Throughput, Arbitrary-Waveform, MPI Spectrometer and Relaxometer for Comprehensive Magnetic Particle Optimization and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Zhi Wei; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Hensley, Daniel W.; Taylor, Laura A.; Zheng, Bo; Conolly, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a promising new tracer modality with zero attenuation deep in tissue, high contrast and sensitivity, and an excellent safety profile. However, the spatial resolution of MPI is limited to around 1 mm currently and urgently needs to be improved for clinical applications such as angiography and brain perfusion. Although MPI resolution is highly dependent on tracer characteristics and the drive waveforms, optimization is limited to a small subset of possible excitation strategies by current MPI hardware that only does sinusoidal drive waveforms at very few frequencies. To enable a more comprehensive and rapid optimization of drive waveforms for multiple metrics like resolution and signal strength simultaneously, we demonstrate the first untuned MPI spectrometer/relaxometer with unprecedented 400 kHz excitation bandwidth and capable of high-throughput acquisition of harmonic spectra (100 different drive-field frequencies in only 500 ms). It is also capable of arbitrary drive-field waveforms which have not been experimentally evaluated in MPI to date. Its high-throughput capability, frequency-agility and tabletop size makes this Arbitrary Waveform Relaxometer/Spectrometer (AWR) a convenient yet powerfully flexible tool for nanoparticle experts seeking to characterize magnetic particles and optimize MPI drive waveforms for in vitro biosensing and in vivo imaging with MPI. PMID:27686629

  11. Expression of the maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene in rice plants enhances resistance against the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis): effects on larval growth and insect gut proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Laura; Quilis, Jordi; Meynard, Donaldo; Breitler, Jean Christophe; Marfà, Victoria; Murillo, Isabel; Vassal, Jean Michel; Messeguer, Joaquima; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2005-03-01

    The maize proteinase inhibitor (mpi) gene was introduced into two elite japonica rice varieties. Both constitutive expression of the mpi gene driven by the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter and wound-inducible expression of the mpi gene driven by its own promoter resulted in the accumulation of MPI protein in the transgenic plants. No effect on plant phenotype was observed in mpi-expressing lines. The stability of transgene expression through successive generations of mpi rice lines (up to the T(4) generation) and the production of functional MPI protein were confirmed. Expression of the mpi gene in rice enhanced resistance to the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), one of the most important pests of rice. In addition, transgenic mpi plants were evaluated in terms of their effects on the growth of C. suppressalis larvae and the insect digestive proteolytic system. An important dose-dependent reduction of larval weight of C. suppressalis larvae fed on mpi rice, compared with larvae fed on untransformed rice plants, was observed. Analysis of the digestive proteolytic activity from the gut of C. suppressalis demonstrated that larvae adapted to mpi transgene expression by increasing the complement of digestive proteolytic activity: the serine and cysteine endoproteinases as well as the exopeptidases leucine aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidases A and B. However, the induction of such proteolytic activity did not prevent the deleterious effects of MPI on larval growth. The introduction of the mpi gene into rice plants can thus be considered as a promising strategy to protect rice plants against striped stem borer.

  12. First phantom and in vivo MPI images with an extended field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, I.; Rahmer, J.; Gleich, B.; Kanzenbach, J.; Schmidt, J. D.; Bontus, C.; Woywode, O.; Borgert, J.

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a high-potential new medical imaging modality that has been introduced in 2005. MPI uses the non-linear magnetization behavior of iron-oxide based nano-particles, named tracer, to perform quantitative measurements of their local concentration. Previous publications demonstrated the feasibility of real-time in vivo 3D imaging with clinical concentration of Resovist®. Given MPI's fast and sensitive imaging as well as its overall versatility, it has potential to support various medical applications spanning from diagnostics to therapy. As an example, ongoing research investigates the use of MPI in cardiovascular diagnostics for myocardial perfusion measurement. While previous publications reported results from experimental systems with limited bore size (3cm), this contribution presents first phantom and in vivo images acquired on the next hardware generation, an experimental system with an effective bore size of 12cm. The system is designed for pre-clinical studies and can capture image data from an extended field of view compared to the previous, experimental system. The contribution introduces concepts for the encoding of a larger field of view by means of additional magnetic fields, named focus-fields, and outlines the path to stitching of images from multiple focus field settings, called "multi-station reconstruction". To prove the feasibility of imaging of an extended field of view, volumetric images of a moving phantom as well as of a living rat were acquired.

  13. All-pairs Shortest Path Algorithm based on MPI+CUDA Distributed Parallel Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshuang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the problem that computing shortest paths in a graph is a complex and time-consuming process, and the traditional algorithm that rely on the CPU as computing unit solely can't meet the demand of real-time processing, in this paper, we present an all-pairs shortest paths algorithm using MPI+CUDA hybrid programming model, which can take use of the overwhelming computing power of the GPU cluster to speed up the processing. This proposed algorithm can combine the advantages of MPI and CUDA programming model, and can realize two-level parallel computing. In the cluster-level, we take use of the MPI programming model to achieve a coarse-grained parallel computing between the computational nodes of the GPU cluster. In the node-level, we take use of the CUDA programming model to achieve a GPU-accelerated fine grit parallel computing in each computational node internal. The experimental results show that the MPI+CUDA-based parallel algorithm can take full advantage of the powerful computing capability of the GPU cluster, and can achieve about hundreds of time speedup; The whole algorithm has good computing performance, reliability and scalability, and it is able to meet the demand of real-time processing of massive spatial shortest path analysis

  14. Accelerating k-NN Algorithm with Hybrid MPI and OpenSHMEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jian; Hamidouche, Khaled; Zheng, Jie; Lu, Xiaoyi; Vishnu, Abhinav; Panda, Dhabaleswar

    2015-08-05

    Machine Learning algorithms are benefiting from the continuous improvement of programming models, including MPI, MapReduce and PGAS. k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) algorithm is a widely used machine learning algorithm, applied to supervised learning tasks such as classification. Several parallel implementations of k-NN have been proposed in the literature and practice. However, on high-performance computing systems with high-speed interconnects, it is important to further accelerate existing designs of the k-NN algorithm through taking advantage of scalable programming models. To improve the performance of k-NN on large-scale environment with InfiniBand network, this paper proposes several alternative hybrid MPI+OpenSHMEM designs and performs a systemic evaluation and analysis on typical workloads. The hybrid designs leverage the one-sided memory access to better overlap communication with computation than the existing pure MPI design, and propose better schemes for efficient buffer management. The implementation based on k-NN program from MaTEx with MVAPICH2-X (Unified MPI+PGAS Communication Runtime over InfiniBand) shows up to 9.0% time reduction for training KDD Cup 2010 workload over 512 cores, and 27.6% time reduction for small workload with balanced communication and computation. Experiments of running with varied number of cores show that our design can maintain good scalability.

  15. Developing a High Performance Software Library with MPI and CUDA for Matrix Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Oancea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the paradigm of parallel computing is changing. CUDA is now a popular programming model for general purpose computations on GPUs and a great number of applications were ported to CUDA obtaining speedups of orders of magnitude comparing to optimized CPU implementations. Hybrid approaches that combine the message passing model with the shared memory model for parallel computing are a solution for very large applications. We considered a heterogeneous cluster that combines the CPU and GPU computations using MPI and CUDA for developing a high performance linear algebra library. Our library deals with large linear systems solvers because they are a common problem in the fields of science and engineering. Direct methods for computing the solution of such systems can be very expensive due to high memory requirements and computational cost. An efficient alternative are iterative methods which computes only an approximation of the solution. In this paper we present an implementation of a library that uses a hybrid model of computation using MPI and CUDA implementing both direct and iterative linear systems solvers. Our library implements LU and Cholesky factorization based solvers and some of the non-stationary iterative methods using the MPI/CUDA combination. We compared the performance of our MPI/CUDA implementation with classic programs written to be run on a single CPU.

  16. Semantics-based distributed I/O for mpiBLAST.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Archuleta, J.; Lin, H.; Kettimuthu, R.; Thakur, R.; Ma, X.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; North Carolina State Univ.; ORNL

    2008-01-01

    BLAST is a widely used software toolkit for genomic sequence search. mpiBLAST is a freely available, open-source parallelization of BLAST that uses database segmentation to allow different worker processes to search (in parallel) unique segments of the database. After searching, the workers write their output to a filesystem. While mpiBLAST has been shown to achieve high performance in clusters with fast local filesystems, its I/O processing remains a concern for scalability, especially in systems having limited I/O capabilities such as distributed filesystems spread across a wide-area network. Thus, we present ParaMEDIC - a novel environment that uses application-specific semantic information to compress I/O data and improve performance in distributed environments. Specifically, for mpiBLAST, ParaMEDIC partitions worker processes into compute and I/O workers. Compute workers, instead of directly writing the output to the filesystem, the workers process the output using semantic knowledge about the application to generate metadata and write the metadata to the filesystem. I/O workers, which physically reside closer to the actual storage, then process this metadata to re-create the actual output and write it to the filesystem. This approach allows ParaMEDIC to reduce I/O time, thus accelerating mpiBLAST by as much as 25-fold.

  17. Lemon : An MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that provides efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message Encapsulati

  18. Mine production index (MPI)-extension of OEE for bottleneck detection in mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amol Arun Lanke; Seyed Hadi Hoseinie; Behzad Ghodrati

    2016-01-01

    Although mining production depends on various equipments, significant amount of production loss can be attributed a specific equipment or fleet. Bottleneck is defined not only by production loss but also by our satisfaction from the equipment. The user satisfaction could be measured as machine effectiveness. Mining literatures on performance improvement and optimization of equipment operations assert importance of availability, utilization and production performance as key parameters. These three param-eters are useful for evaluating effectiveness of equipment. Mine production index (MPI), which can rep-resent the effect of these factors, has been applied for continuous operation in mining. MPI uses Fuzzy Delphi Analytical Hierarchy Process to determine importance of each three parameter for individual equipment. A case study in a Swedish open pit mine was done to evaluate the field application of MPI. The results reveal that crusher is the bottleneck equipment in studied mine. As a methodical approach, an algorithm which uses MPI and detects bottleneck in continuous mining operation has been proposed.

  19. MPI as high temporal resolution imaging technique for in vivo bolus tracking of Ferucarbotran in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Salamon, J.; Hofmann, M.; Kaul, M. G.; Adam, G.; Ittrich, H.; Knopp, T.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to achieve a real time 3D visualisation of the murine cardiovascular system by intravenously injected superparamagnetic nanoparticles using Magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Material and Methods: MPI scans of FVB mice were performed using a 3D imaging sequence (1T/m gradient strength, 10mT drive-field strength). A dynamic scan with a temporal resolution of 21.5ms per 3D volume acquisition was performed. 50μl ferucarbotran (Resovist®, Bayer Healthcare AG) were injected into the tail vein after baseline MPI measurements. As MPI delivers no anatomic information, MRI scans at a 7T ClinScan (Bruker) were performed using a T2-weighted 2D TSE sequence. The reconstruction of the MPI data was performed on the MPI console (ParaVision 6.0/MPI, Bruker). Image fusion was done using additional image processing software (Imalytics, Philips). The dynamic information was extracted using custom software developed in the Julia programming environment. Results: The combined MRI-MPI measurements were carried out successfully. MPI data clearly demonstrated the passage of the SPIO tracer through the inferior vena cava, the heart and finally the liver. By co-registration with MRI the anatomical regions were identified. Due to the volume frame rate of about 46 volumes per second a signal modulation with the frequency of the heart beat was detectable and a heart beat of 520 beats per minute (bpm) has been assumed. Moreover, the blood flow velocity of approximately 5cm/s in the vena cava has been estimated. Conclusions: The high temporal resolution of MPI allows real-time imaging and bolus tracking of intravenous injected nanoparticles and offers a real time tool to assess blood flow velocity.

  20. 8 years of experience in international, interdisciplinary and structured doctoral training in Earth system modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Antje; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling (IMPRS-ESM) is to provide a high quality, modern and structured graduate education to students pursuing a doctoral degree in Earth system modelling. In so doing, the IMPRS-ESM also strives to advance the emerging discipline (or cross-discipline) of Earth system modelling; to provide a framework for attracting the most talented and creative young women and men from around the world to pursue their doctoral education in Germany; to provide advanced as well as specialized academic training and scientific guidance to doctoral students; to encourage academic networking and publication of research results; to better integrate doctoral research at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with education and research at the University of Hamburg and other cooperating institutions. Core elements are rigorous selection of doctoral students, effective academic supervision, advanced academic training opportunities and interdisciplinary communication as well as administrative support. IMPRS-ESM graduates have been recognized with a variety of awards. 85% of our alumni continue a career in research. In this presentation we review the challenges for an interdisciplinary PhD program in Earth system sciences and the types of routines we have implemented to surmount them as well as key elements that we believe contribute to the success of our doctoral program.

  1. Analysis of heterogeneous collaboration in the German research system with a focus on nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinze, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Jansen, Dorothea

    2007-01-01

    The German research system is functionally differentiated into various institutional pillars, most importantly the university system and the extrauniversity sector including institutes of the Helmholtz Association, the Max Planck Society, the Leibniz Association and the Fraunhofer Society. While the

  2. OpenGeoSys-GEMS: Hybrid parallelization of a reactive transport code with MPI and threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Shao, H.

    2012-04-01

    OpenGeoSys-GEMS is a generic purpose reactive transport code based on the operator splitting approach. The code couples the Finite-Element groundwater flow and multi-species transport modules of the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project (http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=18345) with the GEM-Selektor research package to model thermodynamic equilibrium of aquatic (geo)chemical systems utilizing the Gibbs Energy Minimization approach (http://gems.web.psi.ch/). The combination of OGS and the GEM-Selektor kernel (GEMS3K) is highly flexible due to the object-oriented modular code structures and the well defined (memory based) data exchange modules. Like other reactive transport codes, the practical applicability of OGS-GEMS is often hampered by the long calculation time and large memory requirements. • For realistic geochemical systems which might include dozens of mineral phases and several (non-ideal) solid solutions the time needed to solve the chemical system with GEMS3K may increase exceptionally. • The codes are coupled in a sequential non-iterative loop. In order to keep the accuracy, the time step size is restricted. In combination with a fine spatial discretization the time step size may become very small which increases calculation times drastically even for small 1D problems. • The current version of OGS is not optimized for memory use and the MPI version of OGS does not distribute data between nodes. Even for moderately small 2D problems the number of MPI processes that fit into memory of up-to-date workstations or HPC hardware is limited. One strategy to overcome the above mentioned restrictions of OGS-GEMS is to parallelize the coupled code. For OGS a parallelized version already exists. It is based on a domain decomposition method implemented with MPI and provides a parallel solver for fluid and mass transport processes. In the coupled code, after solving fluid flow and solute transport, geochemical calculations are done in form of a central loop over all finite

  3. Impact of the implementation of MPI point-to-point communications on the performance of two general sparse solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amestoy, Patrick R.; Duff, Iain S.; L' Excellent, Jean-Yves; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2001-10-10

    We examine the mechanics of the send and receive mechanism of MPI and in particular how we can implement message passing in a robust way so that our performance is not significantly affected by changes to the MPI system. This leads us to using the Isend/Irecv protocol which will entail sometimes significant algorithmic changes. We discuss this within the context of two different algorithms for sparse Gaussian elimination that we have parallelized. One is a multifrontal solver called MUMPS, the other is a supernodal solver called SuperLU. Both algorithms are difficult to parallelize on distributed memory machines. Our initial strategies were based on simple MPI point-to-point communication primitives. With such approaches, the parallel performance of both codes are very sensitive to the MPI implementation, the way MPI internal buffers are used in particular. We then modified our codes to use more sophisticated nonblocking versions of MPI communication. This significantly improved the performance robustness (independent of the MPI buffering mechanism) and scalability, but at the cost of increased code complexity.

  4. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015; Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Jahresbericht 2014/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu{sup 2}: competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  5. OpenMP, OpenMP/MPI, and CUDA/MPI C programs for solving the time-dependent dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Loncar, Vladimir; Skrbic, Srdjan; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K; Balaz, Antun

    2016-01-01

    We present new versions of the previously published C and CUDA programs for solving the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, which calculate stationary and non-stationary solutions by propagation in imaginary or real time. Presented programs are improved and parallelized versions of previous programs, divided into three packages according to the type of parallelization. First package contains improved and threaded version of sequential C programs using OpenMP. Second package additionally parallelizes three-dimensional variants of the OpenMP programs using MPI, allowing them to be run on distributed-memory systems. Finally, previous three-dimensional CUDA-parallelized programs are further parallelized using MPI, similarly as the OpenMP programs. We also present speedup test results obtained using new versions of programs in comparison with the previous sequential C and parallel CUDA programs. The improvements to the sequential version yield a speedup of 1.1 to 1.9, depen...

  6. Parallel Finite Element Computations Based on MPI and FreeFem++%基于MPI+FreeFem++的有限元并行计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚月强

    2012-01-01

    有限元方法是一种灵活而高效的数值求解偏微分方程的计算方法,是工程分析和计算中不可缺少的重要工具之一.在计算机技术的快速发展使得并行机的价格日益下降的今天,并行有限元计算方法受到了学术界和工程界的普遍关注.讨论了基于MPI+ FreeFem++的有限元并行计算环境的构建,阐述了在该环境下有限元并行程序的编写、编译及运行等过程,并通过具体编程实例,说明了MPI+ FreeFem++环境下的有限元并行编程的简单和高效.

  7. 基于SMP集群的MPI+CUDA模型的研究与实现%Research and implementation of MPI+CUDA model based on SMP clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦芹; 陈庆奎

    2010-01-01

    为了研究GPU的通用计算能力和适合SMP集群的编程模型,首次提出MPI+CUDA多粒度混合并行编程的新方法,节点间采用MPI实现粗粒度并行,节点内采用CUDA实现细粒度并行的混合编程方式.利用此方法在搭建的3节点SMP集群环境中,测试了大规模矩阵乘问题的并行计算能力.实验结果表明,该方法能够显著提升并行效率,同时证明MPI+CUDA混合编程模型能够充分发挥SMP集群节点间分布式存储和节点内共享内存的优势,为装有CUDA-enabled GPU的SMP集群提供了一种有效的并行策略.

  8. MPS/CAS Cooperation on Solid State Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jingtai; Rüdiger Kniep

    2004-01-01

    @@ The cooperation between Zhao Jingtai and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids was initiated immediately after the research field Inorganic Chemistry (headed by Rüdiger Kniep) started its work in Dresden. The first contact was established when Zhao Jingtai came from the Xiamen University as a Max Planck fellow. At that time, the chemistry of the intermetallic compounds of rare-earth metals was chosen as a topic of joint investigations with Yuri Grin. Later, the solid state chemistry of the borophosphates was added to the program of concerted research in the group of Zhao Jingtai and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids.

  9. Integration of satellite fire products into MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Kloster, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Fires are the ubiquitous phenomenon affecting all natural biomes. Since the beginning of the satellite Era, fires are being continuously observed from satellites. The most interesting satellite parameter retrieved from satellite measurements is the burned area. Combined with information on biomass available for burning the burned area can be translated into climate relevant carbon emissions from fires into the atmosphere. In this study we integrate observed burned area into a global vegetation model to derive global fire emissions. Global continuous burned area dataset is provided by the Global Fire Emissions Dataset (GFED). GFED products were obtained from MODIS (and pre-MODIS) satellites and are available for the time period of 14 years (1997-2011). This dataset is widely used, well documented and supported by periodical updates containing new features. We integrate the global burned area product into the land model JSBACH, a part of the Earth-System model developed at the Max Plank Institute for Meteorology. The land model JSBACH simulates land biomass in terms of carbon content. Fire is an important disturbance process in the Earth's carbon cycle and affects mainly the carbon stored in vegetation. In the standard JSBACH version fire is represented by process based algorithms. Using the satellite data as an alternative we are targeting better comparability of modeled carbon emissions with independent satellite measurements of atmospheric composition. The structure of burned vegetation inside of a biome can be described as the balance between woody and herbaceous vegetation. GFED provides in addition to the burned area satellite derived information of the tree cover distribution within the burned area. Using this dataset, we can attribute the burned area to the respective simulated herbaceous or woody biomass within the vegetation model. By testing several extreme cases we evaluate the quantitative impact of vegetation balance between woody and herbaceous

  10. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, John; The ATLAS collaboration; Mazzaferro, Luca; Walker, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The possible usage of HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. In recent years the architecture of HPC systems has evolved, moving away from specialized monolithic systems, to a more generic Linux type platform. This change means that the deployment of non HPC specific codes has become much easier. The timing of this evolution perfectly suits the needs of ATLAS and opens a new window of opportunity. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. This high luminosity phase will be accompanied by a need for increasing amounts of simulated data which is expected to exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This paper presents the results of a pilot project undertaken by ATLAS and the MPP and RZG to provide access to...

  11. rMPI : increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Riesen, Rolf (IBM Research, Ireland); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-04-01

    As High-End Computing machines continue to grow in size, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults, like checkpoint-restart, are unsuitable at these scale due to excessive overheads predicted to more than double an applications time to solution. Redundant computation, long used in distributed and mission critical systems, has been suggested as an alternative to checkpoint-restart on its own. In this paper we describe the rMPI library which enables portable and transparent redundant computation for MPI applications. We detail the design of the library as well as two replica consistency protocols, outline the overheads of this library at scale on a number of real-world applications, and finally outline the significant increase in an applications time to solution at extreme scale as well as show the scenarios in which redundant computation makes sense.

  12. Automatic translation of MPI source into a latency-tolerant, data-driven form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tan; Cicotti, Pietro; Bylaska, Eric; Quinlan, Dan; Baden, Scott

    2017-08-01

    Hiding communication behind useful computation is an important performance programming technique but remains an inscrutable programming exercise even for the expert. We present Bamboo, a code transformation framework that can realize communication overlap in applications written in MPI without the need to intrusively modify the source code. Bamboo reformulates MPI source into the form of a task dependency graph that expresses a partial ordering among tasks, enabling the program to execute in a data-driven fashion under the control of an external runtime system. Experimental results demonstrate that Bamboo significantly reduces communication delays while requiring only modest amounts of programmer annotation for a variety of applications and platforms, including those employing co-processors and accelerators. Moreover, Bamboo's performance meets or exceeds that of labor-intensive hand coding. The translator is more than a means of hiding communication costs automatically; it demonstrates the utility of semantic level optimization against a wellknown library.

  13. Enabling Highly-Scalable Remote Memory Access Programming with MPI-3 One Sided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerstenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern interconnects offer remote direct memory access (RDMA features. Yet, most applications rely on explicit message passing for communications albeit their unwanted overheads. The MPI-3.0 standard defines a programming interface for exploiting RDMA networks directly, however, it's scalability and practicability has to be demonstrated in practice. In this work, we develop scalable bufferless protocols that implement the MPI-3.0 specification. Our protocols support scaling to millions of cores with negligible memory consumption while providing highest performance and minimal overheads. To arm programmers, we provide a spectrum of performance models for all critical functions and demonstrate the usability of our library and models with several application studies with up to half a million processes. We show that our design is comparable to, or better than UPC and Fortran Coarrays in terms of latency, bandwidth and message rate. We also demonstrate application performance improvements with comparable programming complexity.

  14. rMPI : increasing fault resiliency in a message-passing environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Oldfield, Ron A.; Riesen, Rolf (IBM Research, Ireland); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-04-01

    As High-End Computing machines continue to grow in size, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults, like checkpoint-restart, are unsuitable at these scale due to excessive overheads predicted to more than double an applications time to solution. Redundant computation, long used in distributed and mission critical systems, has been suggested as an alternative to checkpoint-restart on its own. In this paper we describe the rMPI library which enables portable and transparent redundant computation for MPI applications. We detail the design of the library as well as two replica consistency protocols, outline the overheads of this library at scale on a number of real-world applications, and finally outline the significant increase in an applications time to solution at extreme scale as well as show the scenarios in which redundant computation makes sense.

  15. The prognosis of a normal Tl-201 stress-only SPECT MPI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, W Lane; Hiensch, Robert J; Levine, Elliot J; Croft, Lori B; Henzlova, Milena J

    2012-10-01

    Stress-only Tc-99m SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) decreases test time and patient radiation exposure with a proven benign prognosis of a normal study. The imaging sequence of Tl-201 MPI always starts with the stress portion; therefore, no pre-test decisions are needed regarding the imaging sequence. The recent intermittent Tc-99m shortage afforded the unique opportunity to study an unselected group of patients undergoing Tl-201 imaging. We retrospectively reviewed all the patients who had SPECT MPI with Tc-99m or Tl-201 over a 1-year period. When Tc-99m was not available, patients received Tl-201. All stress Tl-201 images were routinely processed, and if normal, rest imaging was not done. When Tc-99m was used, patients with lower pre-test probability were selected for a stress-first protocol. We compared the all-cause mortality of patients with normal Tl-201 studies to those with normal stress-only and rest-stress Tc-99m studies using the Social Security Death Index. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted survival analysis was performed. Specific causes of death (cardiac or non-cardiac) were determined by medical record review and contact with treating physicians. A total of 3,658 patients underwent stress MPI during this time period. Of the 1,215 patients who had Tl-201 MPI, 716 (67%) had a normal stress-only study. Out of 2,443 patients who underwent Tc-99m MPI, 70% had normal perfusion with 1,098 normal stress-only studies and 493 normal rest-stress studies. The average follow-up was 23.3 ± 5.3 months. Unadjusted all-cause mortality at the end of follow-up was 7.1% in the Tl-201 stress-only group, 6.3% for Tc-99m stress-only patients, and 4.3% in the Tc-99m rest-stress cohort. After controlling for confounding variables, survival was similar in the three groups (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.62-1.82, P = .82 for normal Tl-201 stress-only compared to normal Tc-99m rest-stress). The risk-adjusted 1-year survival was between 98.5 and 98.8% in the three groups. Normal stress

  16. MPI-hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large, Multi-core Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Bethel, E. Wes; Childs, Hank

    2010-03-20

    This work studies the performance and scalability characteristics of"hybrid'" parallel programming and execution as applied to raycasting volume rendering -- a staple visualization algorithm -- on a large, multi-core platform. Historically, the Message Passing Interface (MPI) has become the de-facto standard for parallel programming and execution on modern parallel systems. As the computing industry trends towards multi-core processors, with four- and six-core chips common today and 128-core chips coming soon, we wish to better understand how algorithmic and parallel programming choices impact performance and scalability on large, distributed-memory multi-core systems. Our findings indicate that the hybrid-parallel implementation, at levels of concurrency ranging from 1,728 to 216,000, performs better, uses a smaller absolute memory footprint, and consumes less communication bandwidth than the traditional, MPI-only implementation.

  17. Machine-learning model observer for detection and localization tasks in clinical SPECT-MPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parages, Felipe M.; O'Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we propose a machine-learning MO based on Naive-Bayes classification (NB-MO) for the diagnostic tasks of detection, localization and assessment of perfusion defects in clinical SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI), with the goal of evaluating several image reconstruction methods used in clinical practice. NB-MO uses image features extracted from polar-maps in order to predict lesion detection, localization and severity scores given by human readers in a series of 3D SPECT-MPI. The population used to tune (i.e. train) the NB-MO consisted of simulated SPECT-MPI cases - divided into normals or with lesions in variable sizes and locations - reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) method. An ensemble of five human specialists (physicians) read a subset of simulated reconstructed images, and assigned a perfusion score for each region of the left-ventricle (LV). Polar-maps generated from the simulated volumes along with their corresponding human scores were used to train five NB-MOs (one per human reader), which are subsequently applied (i.e. tested) on three sets of clinical SPECT-MPI polar maps, in order to predict human detection and localization scores. The clinical "testing" population comprises healthy individuals and patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) in three possible regions, namely: LAD, LcX and RCA. Each clinical case was reconstructed using three reconstruction strategies, namely: FBP with no SC (i.e. scatter compensation), OSEM with Triple Energy Window (TEW) SC method, and OSEM with Effective Source Scatter Estimation (ESSE) SC. Alternative Free-Response (AFROC) analysis of perfusion scores shows that NB-MO predicts a higher human performance for scatter-compensated reconstructions, in agreement with what has been reported in published literature. These results suggest that NB-MO has good potential to generalize well to reconstruction methods not used during training, even for reasonably dissimilar datasets (i

  18. DecGPU: distributed error correction on massively parallel graphics processing units using CUDA and MPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchao; Schmidt, Bertil; Maskell, Douglas L

    2011-03-29

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the high-throughput production of sequence data (reads) at low cost. However, these reads are significantly shorter and more error-prone than conventional Sanger shotgun reads. This poses a challenge for the de novo assembly in terms of assembly quality and scalability for large-scale short read datasets. We present DecGPU, the first parallel and distributed error correction algorithm for high-throughput short reads (HTSRs) using a hybrid combination of CUDA and MPI parallel programming models. DecGPU provides CPU-based and GPU-based versions, where the CPU-based version employs coarse-grained and fine-grained parallelism using the MPI and OpenMP parallel programming models, and the GPU-based version takes advantage of the CUDA and MPI parallel programming models and employs a hybrid CPU+GPU computing model to maximize the performance by overlapping the CPU and GPU computation. The distributed feature of our algorithm makes it feasible and flexible for the error correction of large-scale HTSR datasets. Using simulated and real datasets, our algorithm demonstrates superior performance, in terms of error correction quality and execution speed, to the existing error correction algorithms. Furthermore, when combined with Velvet and ABySS, the resulting DecGPU-Velvet and DecGPU-ABySS assemblers demonstrate the potential of our algorithm to improve de novo assembly quality for de-Bruijn-graph-based assemblers. DecGPU is publicly available open-source software, written in CUDA C++ and MPI. The experimental results suggest that DecGPU is an effective and feasible error correction algorithm to tackle the flood of short reads produced by next-generation sequencing technologies.

  19. DecGPU: distributed error correction on massively parallel graphics processing units using CUDA and MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Bertil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the high-throughput production of sequence data (reads at low cost. However, these reads are significantly shorter and more error-prone than conventional Sanger shotgun reads. This poses a challenge for the de novo assembly in terms of assembly quality and scalability for large-scale short read datasets. Results We present DecGPU, the first parallel and distributed error correction algorithm for high-throughput short reads (HTSRs using a hybrid combination of CUDA and MPI parallel programming models. DecGPU provides CPU-based and GPU-based versions, where the CPU-based version employs coarse-grained and fine-grained parallelism using the MPI and OpenMP parallel programming models, and the GPU-based version takes advantage of the CUDA and MPI parallel programming models and employs a hybrid CPU+GPU computing model to maximize the performance by overlapping the CPU and GPU computation. The distributed feature of our algorithm makes it feasible and flexible for the error correction of large-scale HTSR datasets. Using simulated and real datasets, our algorithm demonstrates superior performance, in terms of error correction quality and execution speed, to the existing error correction algorithms. Furthermore, when combined with Velvet and ABySS, the resulting DecGPU-Velvet and DecGPU-ABySS assemblers demonstrate the potential of our algorithm to improve de novo assembly quality for de-Bruijn-graph-based assemblers. Conclusions DecGPU is publicly available open-source software, written in CUDA C++ and MPI. The experimental results suggest that DecGPU is an effective and feasible error correction algorithm to tackle the flood of short reads produced by next-generation sequencing technologies.

  20. RSA加密算法中MPI的应用%Application of MPI in RSA encryption algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆玉阳

    2015-01-01

    RSA加密算法在进行复杂判断和大数运算时,计算时间往往花费较多,对计算机的运行速度、存储容量等方面具有较高的要求.MPI能够提供较快的数值计算和数据处理能力,提供高性能并行计算.该文通过在RSA加密算法中MPI的应用,通过实践证明MPI并行计算可以改进RSA算法,提高加密速度、减少容量需求等.%RSA encryption algorithm in the complex judgment and operation of large Nbers, calculating the time tend to spend more, the computer run faster, have higher requirements in terms of storage capacity. MPI provides fast Nerical calculation and data processing capability, providing high performance parallel computing. Based on RSA encryption algorithm in application of MPI, MPI parallel computing can improve the RSA algorithm proved by practice, increase speed, reduce capacity requirements, and so on.

  1. Extending Geant4 Parallelism with External Libraries (MPI, TBB) and Its Use on HPC Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Dotti, Andrea; Barrand, Guy; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Murakami, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    With Geant4 Version 10.0, released in December 2013, one of the most widely used Monte-Carlo codes has been ported to take full advantage of multi- and many-core CPUs thanks to the introduction of event-level parallelism via multithreading. In this paper we review recent developments to allow for a better integration of parallel Geant4 jobs with external libraries. We have chosen to develop examples using the popular Intel Threading Building Block (for short TBB) as an alternative parallelization approach to the native Geant4 POSIX. To simplify the scaling of a Geant4 application across nodes on a cluster we are improving the support of MPI in Geant4. In particular it is now possible to run an hybrid MPI/MT application that uses MPI to scale across nodes and MT to scale across cores. %The recent developments allow users to easily implement parallel application resources that scale on a very large number of nodes and cores typical of HPC resources.

  2. GSD-1G and MPI-DING Reference Glasses for In Situ and Bulk Isotopic Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, K.P.; Wilson, S.A.; Abouchami, W.; Amini, M.; Chmeleff, J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Hegner, E.; Iaccheri, L.M.; Kieffer, B.; Krause, J.; McDonough, W.F.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Raczek, I.; Rudnick, R.L.; Scholz, Donna K.; Steinhoefel, G.; Stoll, B.; Stracke, A.; Tonarini, S.; Weis, D.; Weis, U.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes. Ce document contient les r??sultats d'une importante ??tude isotopique des verres de r??f??rence USGS GSD-1G et MPI-DING. Treize laboratoires diff??rents ont particip?? au travers de techniques analytiques de haute pr??cision travaillant soit sur ??chantillon total (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) soit par microanalyse ??in situ?? (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS). ?? 2010 The Authors. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research ?? 2010 International Association of Geoanalysts.

  3. Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and stability of the MPI classification system in chronic back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, M.L.; Angst, F.; Staal, J.B.; Brioschi, R.; Lehmann, S.; Aeschlimann, A.; Bie, R.A. de

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoske

  4. Evaluation of open MPI and MPICH2 performances for the computation time in proton therapy dose calculations with Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Riazi, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research work is to use a better parallel software structure to improve the performance of the Monte Carlo Geant4 code in proton treatment planning. The hadron therapy simulation is rewritten to parallelize the shared memory multiprocessor systems by using the Message-Passing Interface (MPI). The speedup performance of the code has been studied by using two MPI-compliant libraries including Open MPI and the MPICH2, separately. Despite the speedup, the results are almost linear for both the Open MPI and MPICH2; the latter was chosen because of its better characteristics and lower computation time. The Geant4 parameters, including the step limiter and the set cut, have been analyzed to minimize the simulation time as much as possible. For a reasonable compromise between the spatial dose distribution and the calculation time, the improvement in time reduction coefficient reaches about 157.

  5. Parallel Computing Characteristics of CUPID code under MPI and Hybrid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Han Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byoung Jin; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, a characteristic of parallel algorithm is presented for solving an elliptic type equation of CUPID via domain decomposition method using the MPI and the parallel performance is estimated in terms of a scalability which shows the speedup ratio. In addition, the time-consuming pattern of major subroutines is studied. Two different grid systems are taken into account: 40,000 meshes for coarse system and 320,000 meshes for fine system. Since the matrix of the CUPID code differs according to whether the flow is single-phase or two-phase, the effect of matrix shape is evaluated. Finally, the effect of the preconditioner for matrix solver is also investigated. Finally, the hybrid (OpenMP+MPI) parallel algorithm is introduced and discussed in detail for solving pressure solver. Component-scale thermal-hydraulics code, CUPID has been developed for two-phase flow analysis, which adopts a three-dimensional, transient, three-field model, and parallelized to fulfill a recent demand for long-transient and highly resolved multi-phase flow behavior. In this study, the parallel performance of the CUPID code was investigated in terms of scalability. The CUPID code was parallelized with domain decomposition method. The MPI library was adopted to communicate the information at the neighboring domain. For managing the sparse matrix effectively, the CSR storage format is used. To take into account the characteristics of the pressure matrix which turns to be asymmetric for two-phase flow, both single-phase and two-phase calculations were run. In addition, the effect of the matrix size and preconditioning was also investigated. The fine mesh calculation shows better scalability than the coarse mesh because the number of coarse mesh does not need to decompose the computational domain excessively. The fine mesh can be present good scalability when dividing geometry with considering the ratio between computation and communication time. For a given mesh, single-phase flow

  6. Fortran code for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with and without MPI checkerboard parallelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Wu, Hao

    2012-10-01

    We document plain Fortran and Fortran MPI checkerboard code for Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action in D dimensions. The Fortran code uses periodic boundary conditions and is suitable for pedagogical purposes and small scale simulations. For the Fortran MPI code two geometries are covered: the usual torus with periodic boundary conditions and the double-layered torus as defined in the paper. Parallel computing is performed on checkerboards of sublattices, which partition the full lattice in one, two, and so on, up to D directions (depending on the parameters set). For updating, the Cabibbo-Marinari heatbath algorithm is used. We present validations and test runs of the code. Performance is reported for a number of currently used Fortran compilers and, when applicable, MPI versions. For the parallelized code, performance is studied as a function of the number of processors. Program summary Program title: STMC2LSU3MPI Catalogue identifier: AEMJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26666 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 233126 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 compatible with the use of Fortran 90/95 compilers, in part with MPI extensions. Computer: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran 77 or Fortran 90/95, when needed with MPI extensions. Operating system: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6.1 with OpenMPI + pgf77 11.8-0, Centos 5.3 with OpenMPI + gfortran 4.1.2, Cray XT4 with MPICH2 + pgf90 11.2-0. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI extensions. Number of processors used: 2 to 11664 RAM: 200 Mega bytes per process. Classification: 11

  7. Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Vargas-Félix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.

  8. Experiment list: SRX331257 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LAG] outcross : 3 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was construct...ed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using

  9. Experiment list: SRX331161 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -119) outcross : 3 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was construc...ted by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology and Genetics in Dr

  10. Experiment list: SRX065679 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available structed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen ...P::3xFLAG] outcross : 0 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was con

  11. Experiment list: SRX065680 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available structed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen ...P::3xFLAG] outcross : 0 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was con

  12. Experiment list: SRX065633 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available strain's transgene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen...P FLAG;unc119) outcross : 0 mutagen : None tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This

  13. Experiment list: SRX331308 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available structed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology and Genetics ...nc-119(+)) outcross : 3 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was con

  14. Experiment list: SRX331259 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LAG] outcross : 3 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was construct...ed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using

  15. Experiment list: SRX065630 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LAG;unc119) outcross : 0 mutagen : None tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was const...ructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen us

  16. Experiment list: SRX054264 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :3xFLAG] outcross : 3 mutagen : Bombard tags : GFP::3xFlag description : This strain's transgene was const...ructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen us

  17. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  18. Early Brain Stimulation May Help Stroke Survivors Recover Language Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survivors with several types of aphasia at the rehabilitation hospital Rehanova and the Max-Planck-Institute for neurological research in Cologne, Germany. Thirteen received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and 11 got sham stimulation. The TMS ...

  19. Experiment list: SRX065683 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hyman's recombineering pipeline. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(...ansgene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony

  20. Experiment list: SRX065638 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipel...ine. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  1. Experiment list: SRX043973 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeli...ne. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  2. Experiment list: SRX277041 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  3. Experiment list: SRX043849 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  4. Experiment list: SRX065639 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeli...ne. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  5. Experiment list: SRX331069 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeli...ne. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  6. Experiment list: SRX331216 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeli...ne. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  7. Experiment list: SRX331129 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  8. Experiment list: SRX331127 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  9. Experiment list: SRX277042 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  10. Experiment list: SRX331168 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available structed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipel...ine. The resulting plasmid was used for bombardment transformation of an unc-119(ed

  11. Experiment list: SRX043974 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available il Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipel...ine. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  12. Experiment list: SRX277083 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nsgene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Dresden using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  13. Experiment list: SRX277082 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nsgene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Dresden using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipe...line. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3

  14. Experiment list: SRX331210 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeli...ne. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  15. Experiment list: SRX043971 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available il Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipel...ine. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  16. Experiment list: SRX151400 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeli...ne. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3)

  17. 240 elephants in a tunnel; 240 Elefanten in einer Roehre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roethlein, B.

    2007-07-01

    The end of 2007 will see particle physicists setting protons on a collision course through the Large Hadron Collider with more energy than ever before. Their intention is to track down the Higgs boson and solve the problem of why the universe contains almost no antimatter. Physicists from the MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICS and the MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS are playing a crucial role in the experiments and their preparation. (orig.)

  18. MPS/CAS Partner Group on Nanostructured Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ke; Manfred Rühle

    2004-01-01

    @@ As one of the first Partner Groups which were initiated to foster scientific exchange and interaction between the Max Pianck Society (MPS) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Partner Group led by Lu Ke was established on April 1, 1999.During the past five years, the group has received substantial support from the CAS for equipment and from the MPS for personnel and travel expenses. Extensive and productive collaborations between the research staff and students of the Partner Group with several professors (departments) in the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research (MPI-MF) have led to significant advances in synthesis,mechanical properties, melting and superheating of nanostructured metals. The research is well recognized internationally and a substantial number of publications in high quality, peer-reviewed journals (including Science and Physical Review Letters) have resulted.

  19. Cluster monitoring system based on MPI%基于MPI的集群监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢小虎; 宋安军

    2006-01-01

    为了有效地监控集群系统,基于消息传递接口(Message Passing Interface,MPI)并行库构建一个简单易行的并行任务模型.详细介绍该任务模型中的集群监控、节点负载均衡评估模型结构以及Linux集群数据采集.实验表明该模型配置简单、资源开销低,且对集群系统的干扰小.

  20. Using an MPI Cluster in the Control of a Mobile Robots System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salim LMIMOUNI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, HPC (High Performance Computing systems have gone from supercomputers to clusters. The clusters are used in all tasks that require very high computing power such as weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling, physical simulations, cryptanalysis, etc. The use of clusters is increasingly important in the scientific community, where the need for high performance computing (HPC is still growing. In this paper, we propose an improvement of a mobile robots system control by using an MPI (Message Passing Interface cluster. This cluster will launch, manipulate and process data from multiple robots simultaneously.

  1. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Proceedings of the first international workshop on multiple partonic interactions at the LHC. MPI'08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalini, Paolo [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China); Fano, Livio (eds.) [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of this first workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions (MPI) at the LHC, that can be regarded as a continuation and extension of the dedicated meetings held at DESY in the years 2006 and 2007, is to raise the profile of MPI studies, summarizing the legacy from the older phenomenology at hadronic colliders and favouring further specific contacts between the theory and experimental communities. The MPI are experiencing a growing popularity and are currently widely invoked to account for observations that would not be explained otherwise: the activity of the Underlying Event, the cross sections for multiple heavy flavour production, the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in hard diffraction, etc. At the same time, the implementation of the MPI effects in the Monte Carlo models is quickly proceeding through an increasing level of sophistication and complexity that in perspective achieves deep general implications for the LHC physics. The ultimate ambition of this workshop is to promote the MPI as unification concept between seemingly heterogeneous research lines and to profit of the complete experimental picture in order to constrain their implementation in the models, evaluating the spin offs on the LHC physics program. The workshop is structured in five sections, with the first one dedicated to few selected hot highlights in the High Energy Physics and directly connected to the other ones: Multiple Parton Interactions (in both the soft and the hard regimes), Diffraction, Monte Carlo Generators and Heavy Ions. (orig.)

  3. An MPI-CUDA approach for hypersonic flows with detailed state-to-state air kinetics using a GPU cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesco; Tuttafesta, Michele; Colonna, Gianpiero; Cutrone, Luigi; Pascazio, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the most advanced results obtained in the context of fluid dynamic simulations of high-enthalpy flows using detailed state-to-state air kinetics. Thermochemical non-equilibrium, typical of supersonic and hypersonic flows, was modeled by using both the accurate state-to-state approach and the multi-temperature model proposed by Park. The accuracy of the two thermochemical non-equilibrium models was assessed by comparing the results with experimental findings, showing better predictions provided by the state-to-state approach. To overcome the huge computational cost of the state-to-state model, a multiple-nodes GPU implementation, based on an MPI-CUDA approach, was employed and a comprehensive code performance analysis is presented. Both the pure MPI-CPU and the MPI-CUDA implementations exhibit excellent scalability performance. GPUs outperform CPUs computing especially when the state-to-state approach is employed, showing speed-ups, of the single GPU with respect to the single-core CPU, larger than 100 in both the case of one MPI process and multiple MPI process.

  4. Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics (VADY) - representation of circulation types/dynamical modes in the decadal-prediction model system of MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Benjamin; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The climate research program "Medium-range Climate Predictions" (MiKlip), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF), has the aim to improve a climate model system (MPI-ESM) in such a way that it can provide reliable decadal predictions of climate, including extreme weather events. A substantial part of the development process is a comprehensive model validation. Within MiKlip, it includes comparisons of model simulations and observations in order to allow statements about the performance of the model and to give particular recommendations for the further development of the model. The research project "Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics" (VADY), conducted by the cooperation partners "Institute of Geography at the University of Augsburg" (IGUA) and the "German Aerospace Centre" (DLR), contributes to model validation within MiKlip with a special focus on atmospheric waves (DLR) and circulation dynamics (IGUA). Within the framework of VADY, DLR validates the representation of atmospheric waves on different levels and scales based on suitable activity indices (e.g. the so-called large-scale dynamical activity index (LDAI), which is a measure for the activity of planetary waves). The focus of IGUA is on the model validation with respect to the representation of atmospheric circulation types, dynamical modes and the teleconnectivity of the atmospheric circulation. The present contribution provides results of the model validation concerning circulation types/dynamical modes. Results are shown for both the frequency of occurrence and internal characteristics (e. g. persistence or intensity), and for different classification methods (e. g. based on PCA or clustering techniques). The representation of circulation types/dynamical modes will be compared for different generations of the MPI-ESM decadal-prediction model (baseline0, baseline1, prototype) in order to clarify both advances and limitations in the development of the model. Furthermore

  5. An MPI Implementation of a Self-Submitting Parallel Job Queue

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, John M; Swift, James W

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and easy to apply methodology for using high-level self-submitting parallel job queues in an MPI environment. Using C++, we implemented a library of functions, MPQueue, both for testing our concepts and for use in real applications. In particular, we have applied our ideas toward solving computational combinatorics problems and for finding bifurcation diagrams of solutions of partial differential equations (PDE). Our method is general and can be applied in many situations without a lot of programming effort. The key idea is that workers themselves can easily submit new jobs to the currently running job queue. Our applications involve complicated data structures, so we employ serialization to allow data to be effortlessly passed between nodes. Using our library, one can solve large problems in parallel without being an expert in MPI. We demonstrate our methodology and the features of the library with several example programs, and give some results from our current PDE research. We show that...

  6. PARALEL BLOK FAKTORISASI QR DALAM SISTEM MEMORI TERSEBAR MULTIKOMPUTER BERBASIS MPI-LINUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rochman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present the implementation of parallel block factorization QR with Compact WY form. The parallel program has written in the SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data style and use MPI (Message Passing Interface library for communication. The program was successfully run in distributed memory system, with four computers. The Speedup was increase significantly long with increasing the number of processor and increasing the size of matrix: 1.47 for two processors, 1.84 for three processors and 2.13 for four processors. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam tulisan ini akan dipaparkan implementasi dari paralel Blok Faktorisasi QR dengan bentuk Compact WY. Program paralel ditulis dalam model SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data dan memanfaatkan pustaka MPI (Message Passing Interface untuk komunikasi. Program ini sukses dijalankan dalam sistem memori tersebar, dengan empat komputer. Terjadi peningkatan kinerja (speedup yang berarti seiring dengan penambahan jumlah prosesor dan penambahan ukuran matriks: 1.47 untuk dua prosesor, 1.84 untuk tiga prosesor dan 2.13 untuk empat prosesor.

  7. Automatic Transformation of MPI Programs to Asynchronous, Graph-Driven Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baden, Scott B [University of California, San Diego; Weare, John H [University of California, San Diego; Bylaska, Eric J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2013-04-30

    The goals of this project are to develop new, scalable, high-fidelity algorithms for atomic-level simulations and program transformations that automatically restructure existing applications, enabling them to scale forward to Petascale systems and beyond. The techniques enable legacy MPI application code to exploit greater parallelism though increased latency hiding and improved workload assignment. The techniques were successfully demonstrated on high-end scalable systems located at DOE laboratories. Besides the automatic MPI program transformations efforts, the project also developed several new scalable algorithms for ab-initio molecular dynamics, including new massively parallel algorithms for hybrid DFT and new parallel in time algorithms for molecular dynamics and ab-initio molecular dynamics. These algorithms were shown to scale to very large number of cores, and they were designed to work in the latency hiding framework developed in this project. The effectiveness of the developments was enhanced by the direct application to real grand challenge simulation problems covering a wide range of technologically important applications, time scales and accuracies. These included the simulation of the electronic structure of mineral/fluid interfaces, the very accurate simulation of chemical reactions in microsolvated environments, and the simulation of chemical behavior in very large enzyme reactions.

  8. Simulating chemical systems: MPI and GPU parallelization of novel SD algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Goga

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics is used for simulating chemical systems with the goal of studying a large range of phenomena starting from cell structures to the design of new materials, drugs, etc. A very important component of molecular dynamics is the use of well-suited atomistic and molecular modelling of the chemical systems. This article presents the MPI and GPU-CUDA parallelization of novel stochastic-Langevin dynamics algorithm that is used in molecular dynamics for controlling the temperature of simulated systems. The research has been performed in the Molecular Dynamics Group of the University of Groningen and it is going to be included in the next version of Gromacs tool of molecular dynamics (www.gromacs.org). The Langevin algorithm implemented is original and is based on impulse application of friction and noise. Theoretical background, implementation, an efficiency discussion and relevant simulation results are presented in the different sections of this article. The simulations used Martini water. The parallelization of the algorithms was done in two versions: one in MPI using domain decomposition and another version was done in CUDA.

  9. End-to-End Data Movement Using MPI-IO Over Routed Terabots Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discovery is nowadays driven by large-scale simulations running on massively parallel high-performance computing (HPC) systems. These applications each generate a large amount of data, which then needs to be post-processed for example for data mining or visualization. Unfortunately, the computing platform used for post processing might be different from the one on which the data is initially generated, introducing the challenge of moving large amount of data between computing platforms. This is especially challenging when these two platforms are geographically separated since the data needs to be moved between computing facilities. This is even more critical when scientists tightly couple their domain specific applications with a post processing application. The paper presents a solution for the data transfer between MPI applications using a dedicated wide area network (WAN) terabit infrastructure. The proposed solution is based on parallel access to data files and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) over the Common Communication Infrastructure (CCI) for the data transfer over a routed infrastructure. In the context of this research, the Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeted for the transfer of data between DOE national laboratories.

  10. Mapping Alumni Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan Islam (MPI Jurusan Tarbiyah STAIN Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Julaiha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education management study program has 200 alumni. Unfortunely, there was no sufficient information about their jobs and activities after graduating from STAIN Samarinda. The objectiveof this study was to map the alumni of Islamic education management study programof Tarbiyah of STAIN Samarinda. Data were collected by using interview, documentation, and questionnaires. The subject of the study was the alumni of Islamic education management study program who graduated from STAIN Samarinda since 2000 to 2013. Data were analized by using the model of Miles dan Huberman. The findings shows that : firstly, most of the alumni could finish their study in four years. Secondly, the alumni are 51% male and 49% female. Thirdly, regarding to the place of the works, alumni of MPI could be found in Samarinda (majority, Balikpapan, Tenggarong, Bulungan, Sangata, Kota Bangun, Bengalon, Paser, Tanah Grogot, Malinau, Melak, tanah Tidung, and Sangkulirang. Forthly, in terms of the kinds of the jobs, alumni of MPI work in different field of works, such as: teachers, staff administration, and private sectors. Regarding to the aspect of interconectivity between the major and the work field, it could reach 68%.

  11. Pthreads vs MPI Parallel Performance of Angular-Domain Decomposed S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnett, D.A.

    2000-05-07

    Two programming models for parallelizing the Angular Domain Decomposition (ADD) of the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) approximation of the neutron transport equation are examined. These are the shared memory model based on the POSIX threads (Pthreads) standard, and the message passing model based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. These standard libraries are available on most multiprocessor platforms thus making the resulting parallel codes widely portable. The question is: on a fixed platform, and for a particular code solving a given test problem, which of the two programming models delivers better parallel performance? Such comparison is possible on Symmetric Multi-Processors (SMP) architectures in which several CPUs physically share a common memory, and in addition are capable of emulating message passing functionality. Implementation of the two-dimensional,(S{sub n}), Arbitrarily High Order Transport (AHOT) code for solving neutron transport problems using these two parallelization models is described. Measured parallel performance of each model on the COMPAQ AlphaServer 8400 and the SGI Origin 2000 platforms is described, and comparison of the observed speedup for the two programming models is reported. For the case presented in this paper it appears that the MPI implementation scales better than the Pthreads implementation on both platforms.

  12. The sexually linked Mpi locus is presumably involved in imidothiazole resistance in Oesophagostomum dentatum parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snábel, V; DeMeeŵs, T; Várady, M; Nansen, P; Bjørn, H; Corba, J

    2000-06-01

    Information about genetic changes during the selection process could indicate mechanisms underlying the spread of resistance to anthelmintic drugs. For clarification of the role of the Mpi locus encoding mannose-phosphate isomerase enzyme in determining resistance, genotyping of Oesophagostomum dentatum strains was performed using an isoelectrofocusing technique. In levamisole- and pyrantel-selected strains the allele associated with resistance has probably been found. Significant values for genetic differentiation between treated and untreated strains of common origin were recorded by F(st) indices (theta = 0.078; P = 0.0008). The specific genomic makeup of a flubendazole-resistant strain, which did not correlate with that of the remaining isolates, might be ascribed to a different action of the anthelmintic or different environmental conditions under which resistance against this drug arose. The absence of heterozygotes in male populations indicated an XX/X0 system of sex determination for the Mpi locus, thus providing a greater potential for the development of resistance. A possible involvement of alleles linked with mannose-phosphate isomerase in alterations of membrane receptors that can be associated with resistance against imidothiazole-based drugs is discussed.

  13. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  14. Pthreads vs MPI Parallel Performance of Angular-Domain Decomposed S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnett, D.A.

    2000-05-07

    Two programming models for parallelizing the Angular Domain Decomposition (ADD) of the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) approximation of the neutron transport equation are examined. These are the shared memory model based on the POSIX threads (Pthreads) standard, and the message passing model based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. These standard libraries are available on most multiprocessor platforms thus making the resulting parallel codes widely portable. The question is: on a fixed platform, and for a particular code solving a given test problem, which of the two programming models delivers better parallel performance? Such comparison is possible on Symmetric Multi-Processors (SMP) architectures in which several CPUs physically share a common memory, and in addition are capable of emulating message passing functionality. Implementation of the two-dimensional,(S{sub n}), Arbitrarily High Order Transport (AHOT) code for solving neutron transport problems using these two parallelization models is described. Measured parallel performance of each model on the COMPAQ AlphaServer 8400 and the SGI Origin 2000 platforms is described, and comparison of the observed speedup for the two programming models is reported. For the case presented in this paper it appears that the MPI implementation scales better than the Pthreads implementation on both platforms.

  15. MLP: A Parallel Programming Alternative to MPI for New Shared Memory Parallel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments at the NASA AMES Research Center's NAS Division have demonstrated that the new generation of NUMA based Symmetric Multi-Processing systems (SMPs), such as the Silicon Graphics Origin 2000, can successfully execute legacy vector oriented CFD production codes at sustained rates far exceeding processing rates possible on dedicated 16 CPU Cray C90 systems. This high level of performance is achieved via shared memory based Multi-Level Parallelism (MLP). This programming approach, developed at NAS and outlined below, is distinct from the message passing paradigm of MPI. It offers parallelism at both the fine and coarse grained level, with communication latencies that are approximately 50-100 times lower than typical MPI implementations on the same platform. Such latency reductions offer the promise of performance scaling to very large CPU counts. The method draws on, but is also distinct from, the newly defined OpenMP specification, which uses compiler directives to support a limited subset of multi-level parallel operations. The NAS MLP method is general, and applicable to a large class of NASA CFD codes.

  16. 基于MPI的并发面向对象设计%Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming Based on MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏伟; 汪厚祥; 裴晓黎; 肖永玲

    2004-01-01

    Object-oriented model possesses inherent concurrency. Integration of concurrency and object-orientation is a promising new field. MPI is a message-passing standard and has been adopted by more and more systems. This paper proposes a novel approach to realize concurrent object-oriented programming based on Message-passing interface(MPI) in which future method communication is adopted between concurrent objects. A state behavior set is proposed to solve inheritance anomaly, and a bounded buffer is taken as an example to illustrate this proposal. The definition of ParaMPI class, which is the most important class in the concurrent class library,and implementation issues are briefly described.

  17. Use of indexing rules and filing of MPI in hospitals of Mazandaran university of medical sciences, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabirzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose : The master patient’s index (MPI card is the key to locate the patient’s record in medical records department. Use of MPI in hospital information systems is important. An accurate MPI is noted in evaluation and accreditation program. Our study was done on MPI at medical records depatment of teaching hospitals in Mazandaran medical university in respect of using indexing rules and arrangement of cards for filing.Materials and methods : This survey was done on patient’s cards in 5 teaching hospitals of Mazandaran medical university and 1999 MPI cards were checked. A part of data related to using indexing rules and filing was gathered with checklist and factors associated with management of department collected in questionnaire. Data processed with SPSS software and analyzed with descriptive and inference statistics.Results : Findings showed that 20% of staff responsible for indexing and filing of MPI were technician (post diploma course in medical records. In 100% of hospitals, guide card and cross-index card wasn’t use. Indexing error increased with the increasing the number of admitted patients (p= 0.003, low experience (p= 0.001 and degree and no course study relation of medical records department managers (X2= 9./03 , p = 0.000. In addition, indexing error increased in staff with no academic training (X2= 3.84 , p = 0.05. Also results showed that there is 64.2% indexing error and 9% of cards are misfiled.Conclusion: According to the findings, staffing professional personnel, training them with up dated knowledge, periodic control of issued cards, creating needed rules and regulation based on new scientific materials, exact indexing and filling rules suggested.

  18. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the effective fragment potential method in the libefp software library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, Ilya A; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V

    2015-01-15

    A new hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization scheme is introduced for the Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) method implemented in the libefp software library. The new implementation employs dynamic load balancing algorithm that uses a master/slave model. The software shows excellent parallel scaling up to several hundreds of CPU-cores across multiple nodes. The code uses functions only from the well-established MPI-1 standard that simplifies portability of the library. This new parallel EFP implementation greatly expands the applicability of the EFP and QM/EFP methods by extending attainable time- and length-scales.

  19. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the explicit Volterra integral equation solver for multi-core computer architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    A hybrid MPI/OpenMP scheme for efficiently parallelizing the explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based solution of the time-domain volume (Volterra) integral equation (TD-VIE) is presented. The proposed scheme equally distributes tested field values and operations pertinent to the computation of tested fields among the nodes using the MPI standard; while the source field values are stored in all nodes. Within each node, OpenMP standard is used to further accelerate the computation of the tested fields. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed parallelization scheme scales well for problems involving three million or more spatial discretization elements. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. The Hybrid MPI and OpenMP Parallel Scheme of GRAPES Global Model%GRAPES 全球模式 MPI 与 OpenMP 混合并行方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋沁谷; 金之雁

    2014-01-01

    随着多核计算技术的发展,基于多核处理器的集群系统逐渐成为主流架构。为适应这种既有分布式又有共享内存的硬件体系架构,使用 MPI 与 OpenMP 混合编程模型,可以实现节点间和节点内两级并行,利用消息传递与共享并行处理两种编程方式,MPI 用于节点间通信,OpenMP 用于节点内并行计算。该文采用 MPI 与 OpenMP 混合并行模型,使用区域分解并行和循环并行两种方法,对 GRAPES 全球模式进行 MPI 与 OpenMP 混合并行方案设计和优化。试验结果表明:MPI 与 OpenMP 混合并行方法可以在 MPI 并行的基础上提高模式的并行度,在计算核数相同的情况下,4个线程内的 MPI 与 OpenMP 混合并行方案比单一 MPI 方案效果好,但在线程数量大于4时,并行效果显著下降。%Clustered SMP systems are gradually becoming more prominence,as advances in multi-core technolo-gy which allows larger numbers of CPUs to have access to a single memory space.To take advantage of benefits of this hardware architecture that combines both distributed and shared memory,utilizing hybrid MPI and OpenMP parallel programming model is a good trial.This hierarchical programming model can a-chieve both inter-node and intra-node parallelization by using a combination of message passing and thread based shared memory parallelization paradigms within the same application.MPI is used to coarse-grained communicate between SMP nodes and OpenMP based on threads is used to fine-grained compute within a SMP node. As a large-scale computing and storage-intensive typical numerical weather forecasting application, GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdictions System)has been developed into MPI version and put into operational use.To adapt to SMP cluster systems and achieve higher scalability,a hybrid MPI and OpenMP parallel model suitable for GRPAES Global model is developed with the introduction of hori-zontal domain

  1. CORBA and MPI-based 'backbone' for coupling advanced simulation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seydaliev, M.; Caswell, D., E-mail: marat.seydaliev@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing international interest in using coupled, multidisciplinary computer simulations for a variety of purposes, including nuclear reactor safety analysis. Reactor behaviour can be modeled using a suite of computer programs simulating phenomena or predicting parameters that can be categorized into disciplines such as Thermalhydraulics, Neutronics, Fuel, Fuel Channels, Fission Product Release and Transport, Containment and Atmospheric Dispersion, and Severe Accident Analysis. Traditionally, simulations used for safety analysis individually addressed only the behaviour within a single discipline, based upon static input data from other simulation programs. The limitation of using a suite of stand-alone simulations is that phenomenological interdependencies or temporal feedback between the parameters calculated within individual simulations cannot be adequately captured. To remove this shortcoming, multiple computer simulations for different disciplines must exchange data during runtime to address these interdependencies. This article describes the concept of a new framework, which we refer to as the 'Backbone', to provide the necessary runtime exchange of data. The Backbone, currently under development at AECL for a preliminary feasibility study, is a hybrid design using features taken from the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), a standard defined by the Object Management Group, and the Message Passing Interface (MPI), a standard developed by a group of researchers from academia and industry. Both have well-tested and efficient implementations, including some that are freely available under the GNU public licenses. The CORBA component enables individual programs written in different languages and running on different platforms within a network to exchange data with each other, thus behaving like a single application. MPI provides the process-to-process intercommunication between these programs. This paper outlines the different

  2. Der grüne Weg zu Open Access: institutionelle und fachliche Repositorien / The Green Road to Open access: institutional and subject repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent issue 1/2009 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information has a focus on „The green road to open Access: institutional and subject repositories“. Self-archiving and storing scholarly publications on a print server were also central topics in many presentations at the 9th International Bielefeld Conference in February 2009. The authors in this issue are Birgit Schmidt and Karin Ilg-Hartecke (Open Access in Deutschland – erweiterte Perspektiven für die Wissenschaft, Christoph Bruch and Anja Lengenfelder (Unterstützung des Grünen Weges zu Open Access an der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Ulrich Herb and Matthias Müller (Nuancen in Grün: Betrieb eines institutionellen und disziplinären Repositoriums – Erfahrungen und Entwicklungen an der Saarländischen Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, Timo Borst and Jan B. Weiland (EconStor: ein fachliches Repositorium für die Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Antonella de Robbio and Michael Katzmayr (The management of an international open access repository: the case of E-LIS and Christian Gumpenberger (The EPrints story: Southampton as the cradle of institutional self-archiving.Furthermore this focus issue features an interview of a representative of a research funding organisation (Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation. 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds and an interview of a publisher (Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive der International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs bei STM.

  3. On the Parallel Design and Analysis for 3-D ADI Telegraph Problem with MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Uzezi Ewedafe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the 3-D Telegraph Equation (3-DTEL with the use of Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI method on Geranium Cadcam Cluster (GCC with Message Passing Interface (MPI parallel software. The algorithm is presented by the use of Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD technique. The implementation is discussed by means of Parallel Design and Analysis with the use of Domain Decomposition (DD strategy. The 3-DTEL with ADI scheme is implemented on the GCC cluster, with an objective to evaluate the overhead it introduces, with ability to exploit the inherent parallelism of the computation. Results of the parallel experiments are presented. The Speedup and Efficiency from the experiments on different block sizes agree with the theoretical analysis.

  4. Lemon: an MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    CERN Document Server

    Deuzeman, Albert; Urbach, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that is intended to allow for efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message Encapsulation format. This format allows for storing large blocks of binary data and corresponding metadata in the same file. Even if designed for LQCD needs, this format might be useful for any application with this type of data profile. The design, implementation and application of Lemon are described. We conclude with presenting the excellent scaling properties of Lemon on state of the art high performance computers.

  5. Simple, efficient allocation of modelling runs on heterogeneous clusters with MPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-01-01

    In scientific modelling and computation, the choice of an appropriate method for allocating tasks for parallel processing depends on the computational setting and on the nature of the computation. The allocation of independent but similar computational tasks, such as modelling runs or Monte Carlo trials, among the nodes of a heterogeneous computational cluster is a special case that has not been specifically evaluated previously. A simulation study shows that a method of on-demand (that is, worker-initiated) pulling from a bag of tasks in this case leads to reliably short makespans for computational jobs despite heterogeneity both within and between cluster nodes. A simple reference implementation in the C programming language with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is provided.

  6. MPI Parallel Algorithm in Satellite Gravity Field Model Inversion on the Basis of Least Square Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the intensive computing tasks and high memory demand problem in satellite gravity field model inversion on the basis of huge amounts of satellite gravity observations, the parallel algorithm for high truncated order and degree satellite gravity field model inversion with least square method on the basis of MPI was introduced. After analyzing the time and space complexity of each step in the solving flow, the parallel I/O, block-organized storage and block-organized computation algorithm on the basis of MPI are introduced to design the parallel algorithm for building design matrix, establishing and solving normal equation, and the simulation results indicate that the parallel efficiency of building design matrix, establishing and solving normal equation can reach to 95%, 68%and 63% respectively. In addition, on the basis of GOCE simulated orbits and radial disturbance gravity gradient data(518 400 epochs in total, two earth gravity models truncated to degree and order 120, 240 are inversed, and the relative computation time and memory demand are only about 40 minutes and 7 hours, 290 MB and 1.57 GB respectively. Eventually, a simulation numerical calculation for earth gravity field model inversion with the simulation data, which has the equivalent noise level with GRACE and GOCE mission, is conducted. The accuracy of inversion model has a good consistent with current released model, and the combined mode can complement the spectral information of each individual mission, which indicates that the parallel algorithm in this paper can be applied to inverse the high truncated degree and order earth gravity model efficiently and stably.

  7. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural

  8. Warm Paleocene/Eocene climate as simulated in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heinemann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the late Paleocene/early Eocene (PE climate using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The surface in our PE control simulation is on average 297 K warm and ice-free, despite a moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration of 560 ppm. Compared to a pre-industrial reference simulation (PR, low latitudes are 5 to 8 K warmer, while high latitudes are up to 40 K warmer. This high-latitude amplification is in line with proxy data, yet a comparison to sea surface temperature proxy data suggests that the Arctic surface temperatures are still too low in our PE simulation.

    To identify the mechanisms that cause the PE-PR surface temperature differences, we fit two simple energy balance models to the ECHAM5/MPI-OM results. We find that about 2/3 of the PE-PR global mean surface temperature difference are caused by a smaller clear sky emissivity due to higher atmospheric CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR; 1/3 is due to a smaller planetary albedo. The reduction of the pole-to-equator temperature gradient in PE compared to PR is due to (1 the large high-latitude effect of the higher CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR, (2 the lower Antarctic orography, (3 the smaller surface albedo at high latitudes, and (4 longwave cloud radiative effects. Our results support the hypothesis that local radiative effects rather than increased meridional heat transports were responsible for the "equable" PE climate.

  9. Experiences Using Hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the Real World: Parallelization of a 3D CFD Solver for Multi-Core Node Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Jost

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today most systems in high-performance computing (HPC feature a hierarchical hardware design: shared-memory nodes with several multi-core CPUs are connected via a network infrastructure. When parallelizing an application for these architectures it seems natural to employ a hierarchical programming model such as combining MPI and OpenMP. Nevertheless, there is the general lore that pure MPI outperforms the hybrid MPI/OpenMP approach. In this paper, we describe the hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of IR3D (Incompressible Realistic 3-D code, a full-scale real-world application, which simulates the environmental effects on the evolution of vortices trailing behind control surfaces of underwater vehicles. We discuss performance, scalability and limitations of the pure MPI version of the code on a variety of hardware platforms and show how the hybrid approach can help to overcome certain limitations.

  10. MPI-blastn and NCBI-TaxCollector: improving metagenomic analysis with high performance classification and wide taxonomic attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R; Xavier, M G; Rossi, F D; Neves, M V; Lange, T A P; Giongo, A; De Rose, C A F; Triplett, E W

    2014-06-01

    Metagenomic sequencing technologies are advancing rapidly and the size of output data from high-throughput genetic sequencing has increased substantially over the years. This brings us to a scenario where advanced computational optimizations are requested to perform a metagenomic analysis. In this paper, we describe a new parallel implementation of nucleotide BLAST (MPI-blastn) and a new tool for taxonomic attachment of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results that supports the NCBI taxonomy (NCBI-TaxCollector). MPI-blastn obtained a high performance when compared to the mpiBLAST and ScalaBLAST. In our best case, MPI-blastn was able to run 408 times faster in 384 cores. Our evaluations demonstrated that NCBI-TaxCollector is able to perform taxonomic attachments 125 times faster and needs 120 times less RAM than the previous TaxCollector. Through our optimizations, a multiple sequence search that currently takes 37 hours can be performed in less than 6 min and a post processing with NCBI taxonomic data attachment, which takes 48 hours, now is able to run in 23 min.

  11. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  12. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementations of NAS Parallel Benchmarks SP and BT on Large-Scale Multicore Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.

    2011-07-18

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore clusters provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node, and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Block Tridiagonal (BT) benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore clusters, Intrepid (BlueGene/P) at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76 %, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58 % on up to 10 000 cores on Intrepid and Jaguar. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these clusters to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is superior to the demonstration of distal collaterals in predicting cardiac events in chronic total occlusion (CTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Samuel; Lichtenstein, Meir; Grigg, Leeanne; Sivaratnam, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    In chronic total occlusion (CTO), the evidence for revascularization is less robust than for stable angina. A medical therapy strategy is common and often based on distal collateralization, regardless of the presence of ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between distal collateralization, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and hard cardiac events (HCE) in CTO. Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography revealed 21 non-revascularized patients with CTO and MPI, over a 24-month period. Blinded review of patient charts, MPI, and angiography was undertaken. HCE of death, myocardial infarct, and unstable angina were assessed. Mean follow up was 23 months. Summed difference scores were calculated on a 17-segment model and collaterals graded on the Rentrop scale. 43% of patients had HCE, and 62% had collaterals. Ischemia on MPI accurately predicted HCE in CTO (60% vs 0%, P = .01). Distal collateralization failed to predict freedom from ischemia on MPI (31% vs 25%, P = .53) or HCE (31% vs 62%, P = .15). MPI in patients with CTO accurately predicted HCE. This allows for accurate triage of patients by MPI for consideration of revascularization. Patients without ischemia can be safely managed with optimal medical therapy. The presence of collateralization did not predict either ischemia or HCE.

  14. Performance characteristics of hybrid MPI/OpenMP implementations of NAS parallel benchmarks SP and BT on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-03-29

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with the fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore supercomputers provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use SP and BT benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore supercomputers. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76%, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58% on up to 10,000 cores on BlueGene/P at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these supercomputers to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT.

  15. Initialization shock in decadal hindcasts due to errors in wind stress over the tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Holger; Kröger, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Müller, Wolfgang A.

    2016-12-01

    Low prediction skill in the tropical Pacific is a common problem in decadal prediction systems, especially for lead years 2-5 which, in many systems, is lower than in uninitialized experiments. On the other hand, the tropical Pacific is of almost worldwide climate relevance through its teleconnections with other tropical and extratropical regions and also of importance for global mean temperature. Understanding the causes of the reduced prediction skill is thus of major interest for decadal climate predictions. We look into the problem of reduced prediction skill by analyzing the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) decadal hindcasts for the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project and performing a sensitivity experiment in which hindcasts are initialized from a model run forced only by surface wind stress. In both systems, sea surface temperature variability in the tropical Pacific is successfully initialized, but most skill is lost at lead years 2-5. Utilizing the sensitivity experiment enables us to pin down the reason for the reduced prediction skill in MPI-ESM to errors in wind stress used for the initialization. A spurious trend in the wind stress forcing displaces the equatorial thermocline in MPI-ESM unrealistically. When the climate model is then switched into its forecast mode, the recovery process triggers artificial El Niño and La Niña events at the surface. Our results demonstrate the importance of realistic wind stress products for the initialization of decadal predictions.

  16. ''Towards a High-Performance and Robust Implementation of MPI-IO on Top of GPFS''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, J.P.; Tremann, R.; Blackwore, R.; Hartman, C.; Hedges, R.; Jia, B.; Kouiges, A.; White, A.

    2000-01-11

    MPI-IO/GPFS is a prototype implementation of the I/O chapter of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) 2 standard. It uses the IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS), with prototyped extensions, as the underlying file system. this paper describes the features of this prototype which support its high performance and robustness. The use of hints at the file system level and at the MPI-IO level allows tailoring the use of the file system to the application needs. Error handling in collective operations provides robust error reporting and deadlock prevention in case of returning errors.

  17. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A. [TUV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. (Germany); Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  18. A Combined MPI-CUDA Parallel Solution of Linear and Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, José; Galizia, Antonella; Ortiz, Jesús; Clematis, Andrea; Rocchia, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs. PMID:25013789

  19. On distributed memory MPI-based parallelization of SPH codes in massive HPC context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, G.; Le Touzé, D.; Guibert, D.; de Leffe, M.; Biddiscombe, J.; Soumagne, J.; Piccinali, J.-G.

    2016-03-01

    Most of particle methods share the problem of high computational cost and in order to satisfy the demands of solvers, currently available hardware technologies must be fully exploited. Two complementary technologies are now accessible. On the one hand, CPUs which can be structured into a multi-node framework, allowing massive data exchanges through a high speed network. In this case, each node is usually comprised of several cores available to perform multithreaded computations. On the other hand, GPUs which are derived from the graphics computing technologies, able to perform highly multi-threaded calculations with hundreds of independent threads connected together through a common shared memory. This paper is primarily dedicated to the distributed memory parallelization of particle methods, targeting several thousands of CPU cores. The experience gained clearly shows that parallelizing a particle-based code on moderate numbers of cores can easily lead to an acceptable scalability, whilst a scalable speedup on thousands of cores is much more difficult to obtain. The discussion revolves around speeding up particle methods as a whole, in a massive HPC context by making use of the MPI library. We focus on one particular particle method which is Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), one of the most widespread today in the literature as well as in engineering.

  20. PhyloBayes MPI: phylogenetic reconstruction with infinite mixtures of profiles in a parallel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Stubbs, Daniel; Richer, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Modeling across site variation of the substitution process is increasingly recognized as important for obtaining more accurate phylogenetic reconstructions. Both finite and infinite mixture models have been proposed and have been shown to significantly improve on classical single-matrix models. Compared with their finite counterparts, infinite mixtures have a greater expressivity. However, they are computationally more challenging. This has resulted in practical compromises in the design of infinite mixture models. In particular, a fast but simplified version of a Dirichlet process model over equilibrium frequency profiles implemented in PhyloBayes has often been used in recent phylogenomics studies, while more refined model structures, more realistic and empirically more fit, have been practically out of reach. We introduce a message passing interface version of PhyloBayes, implementing the Dirichlet process mixture models as well as more classical empirical matrices and finite mixtures. The parallelization is made efficient thanks to the combination of two algorithmic strategies: a partial Gibbs sampling update of the tree topology and the use of a truncated stick-breaking representation for the Dirichlet process prior. The implementation shows close to linear gains in computational speed for up to 64 cores, thus allowing faster phylogenetic reconstruction under complex mixture models. PhyloBayes MPI is freely available from our website www.phylobayes.org.

  1. VaMpy: A Python Package to Solve 1D Blood Flow Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra K. Diem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Finite-differences methods such as the Lax-Wendroff method (LW are commonly used to solve 1D models of blood flow. These models solve for blood flow and lumen area and are useful in disease research, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, where flow and pressure are good indicators for the presence of disease. Despite the popularity of the LW method to solve the blood flow equations, no implementation of a LW solver for these equations has been published and made publicly available. This leads to the reimplementation of the same methods within different research groups and makes verification of results more difficult. The Vascular Modelling in Python (VaMpy toolkit is a Python package that aims to fill this gap. It implements Richtmyer’s two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme to solve 1D model equations of blood flow in arterial trees and aims at facilitating the solution of blood flow problems for various medical applications.   Funding statement: The development of this software was supported by an EPSRC Doctoral Training Centre grant (EP/G03690X/1.

  2. MPI-PHYLIP: parallelizing computationally intensive phylogenetic analysis routines for the analysis of large protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Ropelewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic study of protein sequences provides unique and valuable insights into the molecular and genetic basis of important medical and epidemiological problems as well as insights about the origins and development of physiological features in present day organisms. Consensus phylogenies based on the bootstrap and other resampling methods play a crucial part in analyzing the robustness of the trees produced for these analyses. METHODOLOGY: Our focus was to increase the number of bootstrap replications that can be performed on large protein datasets using the maximum parsimony, distance matrix, and maximum likelihood methods. We have modified the PHYLIP package using MPI to enable large-scale phylogenetic study of protein sequences, using a statistically robust number of bootstrapped datasets, to be performed in a moderate amount of time. This paper discusses the methodology used to parallelize the PHYLIP programs and reports the performance of the parallel PHYLIP programs that are relevant to the study of protein evolution on several protein datasets. CONCLUSIONS: Calculations that currently take a few days on a state of the art desktop workstation are reduced to calculations that can be performed over lunchtime on a modern parallel computer. Of the three protein methods tested, the maximum likelihood method scales the best, followed by the distance method, and then the maximum parsimony method. However, the maximum likelihood method requires significant memory resources, which limits its application to more moderately sized protein datasets.

  3. A combined MPI-CUDA parallel solution of linear and nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, José; Galizia, Antonella; Ortiz, Jesús; Clematis, Andrea; Rocchia, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs.

  4. Water isotope variations in the global ocean model MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The stable water isotopes H218O and HDO are incorporated as passive tracers into the oceanic general circulation model MPI-OM, and a control simulation under present-day climate conditions is analyzed in detail. Both δ18O and δD distributions at the ocean surface and deep ocean are generally consistent with available observations on the large scale. The modelled δD-δ18O relations in surface waters slightly deviates from the slope of the global meteoric water line in most basins, and a much steeper slope is detected in Arctic Oceans. The simulated deuterium excess of ocean surface waters shows small variations between 80° S and 55° N, and a strong decrease north of 55° N. The model is also able to capture the quasi-linear relationship between δ18O and salinity S, as well as δD and S, as seen in observational data. Both in the model results and observations, the surface δ–S relations show a steeper slope in extra-tropical regions than in tropical regions, which indicates relatively more addition of isotopically depleted water at high latitudes.

  5. A Combined MPI-CUDA Parallel Solution of Linear and Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Colmenares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs.

  6. Parallel Programming Based on MPI Environment%基于MPI环境的并行程序设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建文; 徐琼; 王强

    2007-01-01

    MPI(Message Passing Interface)是消息传递并行程序设计的标准之一,概述了MPI的概念和组成,着重介绍了支持并行程序设计的消息传递接口(MPI)以及在MPI环境下的并行程序设计方法,并给出一个MPI并行程序设计实例,说明了MPI的程序设计流程和主从并行计算流程,由此提出了一个Master/Slave结构的设计模式.

  7. Performance metrics in a hybrid MPI-OpenMP based molecular dynamics simulation with short-range interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Anirban; Raha, Soumyendu; Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the computational bottlenecks in molecular dynamics (MD) and describe the challenges in parallelizing the computation intensive tasks. We present a hybrid algorithm using MPI (Message Passing Interface) with OpenMP threads for parallelizing a generalized MD computation scheme for systems with short range interatomic interactions. The algorithm is discussed in the context of nanoindentation of Chromium films with carbon indenters using the Embedded Atom Method potential for Cr Cr interaction and the Morse potential for Cr C interactions. We study the performance of our algorithm for a range of MPIthread combinations and find the performance to depend strongly on the computational task and load sharing in the multicore processor. The algorithm scaled poorly with MPI and our hybrid schemes were observed to outperform the pure message passing scheme, despite utilizing the same number of processors or cores in the cluster. Speed-up achieved by our algorithm compared favourably with that achieved by stan...

  8. Evaluation of Myocardial Performance Index(Mpi in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients at the Ali Asghar Hospital , Zahedan , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sohrevardi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Patients with major thalassemia need recurrent transfusions and if not treated are at risk of heart dysfunction. Heart tissue could be abnormal in patients who use desferral continously due to iron deposits , fibrosis , hypertrophy and side effects of chronic anemia. Cardiac involvement is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in major thalassemics, so we decided to improve early diagnosis of cardiac involvement by measuring myocardial performance index( MPI . Method & Materials : This case-control study was performed from April 2003 to December 2003 at the Ali-Asghar pediatrics hospital, Zahedan, Iran. MPI of both ventricles was measured by Doppler echocardiography in 48 patients with major thalassemia aged between 10-18 years and compared with 48 age , sex-matched controls. Patients had no abnormality in physical examination , chest x-ray and ECG and echocardiography did not show heart failure. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels was measured in all patients before echocardiography. Results: Mean age of patients was 12.3±2.4 years and that in the control group was 12.7±2years . Right ventricle isovolumetric relaxation time (RVIRT (107 ± 14 vs 94 ±14 , p0.05 and LVICT (31 ± 13 vs 21 ± 15 , p0.05 in the two groups. Finally, RVMPI (0.59 ± 0.12 Vs 0.46 ± 0.12 , p<0.001 was increased in 87% of patients and LVMPI (0.49 ± 0.12 Vs 0.41± 0.09 , p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that RVMPI and LVMPI increase in major thalassemia patients that indicates systolic and diastolic dysfunction and RVMPI increases more than LVMPI. On the other hand, MPI has a direct correlation with serum ferritin . On the basis of this study ,we suggest MPI measurement in serial echocardiography in asymptomatic major thalassemia patients.

  9. Validation of MPI-ESM Decadal Hindcast Experiments with Terrestrial Water Storage Variations as Observed by the GRACE Satellite Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjing Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-variations in the gravity field as observed by the GRACE mission provide for the first time quantitative estimates of the terrestrial water storage (TWS at monthly resolution over one decade (2002–2011. TWS from GRACE is applied here to validate three different ensemble sets of decadal hindcasts performed with the coupled climate model MPI-ESM within the German research project MiKlip. Those experiments differ in terms of the applied low (LR and medium (MR spatial resolution configuration of MPI-ESM, as well as by the applied ensemble initialization strategy, where ocean-only (b0 is replaced by atmosphere and ocean (b1 anomaly initialization. Moderately positive skill scores of the initialized hindcasts are obtained both with respect to the zero anomaly forecast and the uninitialized projections in particular for lead year 1 in moderate to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Skill scores gradually increase when moving from b0-LR to b1-LR, and less prominent also for b1-LR to b1-MR, thereby documenting improvements of the MPI-ESM decadal climate prediction system during the most recent years.

  10. 一种基于MPI的并发面向对象模型%A Concurrent Object Oriented Model Based on MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宏伟; 肖永玲

    2003-01-01

    Object-oriented model possesses inherent concurrency. The integration of concurrency and objectorientation is a new prosperous field. MPI is a message-passing standard and has been adopted by more and more people. This paper proposes a concurrent object-oriented model based on MPI in which asynchronous message-passing is adopted between concurrent objects. This paper simplely introduces the features of the model and design and realization.

  11. Oak Ridge Institutional Cluster Autotune Test Drive Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibonananda, Sanyal [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The Oak Ridge Institutional Cluster (OIC) provides general purpose computational resources for the ORNL staff to run computation heavy jobs that are larger than desktop applications but do not quite require the scale and power of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). This report details the efforts made and conclusions derived in performing a short test drive of the cluster resources on Phase 5 of the OIC. EnergyPlus was used in the analysis as a candidate user program and the overall software environment was evaluated against anticipated challenges experienced with resources such as the shared memory-Nautilus (JICS) and Titan (OLCF). The OIC performed within reason and was found to be acceptable in the context of running EnergyPlus simulations. The number of cores per node and the availability of scratch space per node allow non-traditional desktop focused applications to leverage parallel ensemble execution. Although only individual runs of EnergyPlus were executed, the software environment on the OIC appeared suitable to run ensemble simulations with some modifications to the Autotune workflow. From a standpoint of general usability, the system supports common Linux libraries, compilers, standard job scheduling software (Torque/Moab), and the OpenMPI library (the only MPI library) for MPI communications. The file system is a Panasas file system which literature indicates to be an efficient file system.

  12. Parallel Adaptive Simulation for the Phase Field Model of Red Blood Cell Conifguration Based on MPI+OpenMP%红细胞形态的MPI+OpenMP并行自适应相场模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旸; 张鉴; 陆忠华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parallel adaptive algorithm for the phase ifeld model of red blood cell conifguration is presented. We designed a grid reifnement method and coarsening criteria based on the surface capturing principle, and adopted an adaptive time step size scheme based on discrete energy . In addition, we designed and realized MPI+OpenMP parallel algorithm based on a block-structured adaptive mesh managing software package PARAMESH. The correctness of the adaptive algorithm and the efifciency of the MPI+OpenMP hybrid parallel realization were demonstrated through experiments. The test results indicated good scalability of the algorithm.%本文针对红细胞形态的相场模型研究并行自适应算法。我们依据界面追踪的原则设计了自适应网格的更新准则,并基于离散能量下降准则设计了时间步长的自适应算法。在基于MPI的块结构自适应网格管理软件包PARAMESH的基础上设计并实现了MPI+OpenMP的混合并行算法。通过红细胞稳定态的自适应计算验证了自适应算法的正确性并测试了混合并行实现的效率。测试结果显示混合并行算法具有良好的可扩展性。

  13. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  14. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  15. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  16. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  17. Impact of the assimilated sea ice data product on seasonal climate predictions with MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Baehr, Johanna; Müller, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Kristina

    2015-04-01

    We examine the impact of choosing a particular satellite record of sea ice for the initialisation of a seasonal prediction system. Such systems have in the past usually only been initialised with data describing the state of the ocean and of the atmosphere. However, also sea ice yields a substantial source of predictability, as it plays an important role for the Earth's energy and water budget. Therefore, recent studies started to incorporate sea ice into the initialisation of seasonal forecasts. For our study, we performed two assimilation runs with MPI-ESM from 1979 to 2012, where atmospheric and oceanic parameters as well as sea ice concentration were assimilated using Newtonian relaxation. The two assimilation runs differ only in the sea ice concentration dataset used for assimilating sea ice. In the first run, sea ice concentrations as derived by the NASA-Team algorithm are used, while in the second run sea ice concentrations computed from the Bootstrap algorithm are assimilated. A major difference between the two sea ice concentration data products involves the treatment of melt ponds. While for both products melt ponds appear as open water in the raw satellite data, the Bootstrap algorithm more strongly attempts to offset this systematic bias by synthetically increasing the retrieved ice concentration during summer months. For each year of the two assimilation runs we performed a 10-member ensemble of hindcast experiments starting on 1 May. We find the anomaly correlation coefficient for Arctic sea ice area at 2-3 months lead time to be substantially larger for Bootstrap initialisation compared to NASA-Team initialisation. The root mean square error reveals that in the central Arctic the Bootstrap initialisation produces better predictions, whereas the NASA-Team initialisation outperforms the Bootstrap initialisation in the vicinity of the ice edge. We investigate causes and mechanisms behind the dependence of the obtained prediction skill on the sea ice

  18. An approach to computing discrete adjoints for MPI-parallelized models applied to Ice Sheet System Model 4.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larour, Eric; Utke, Jean; Bovin, Anton; Morlighem, Mathieu; Perez, Gilberto

    2016-11-01

    Within the framework of sea-level rise projections, there is a strong need for hindcast validation of the evolution of polar ice sheets in a way that tightly matches observational records (from radar, gravity, and altimetry observations mainly). However, the computational requirements for making hindcast reconstructions possible are severe and rely mainly on the evaluation of the adjoint state of transient ice-flow models. Here, we look at the computation of adjoints in the context of the NASA/JPL/UCI Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), written in C++ and designed for parallel execution with MPI. We present the adaptations required in the way the software is designed and written, but also generic adaptations in the tools facilitating the adjoint computations. We concentrate on the use of operator overloading coupled with the AdjoinableMPI library to achieve the adjoint computation of the ISSM. We present a comprehensive approach to (1) carry out type changing through the ISSM, hence facilitating operator overloading, (2) bind to external solvers such as MUMPS and GSL-LU, and (3) handle MPI-based parallelism to scale the capability. We demonstrate the success of the approach by computing sensitivities of hindcast metrics such as the misfit to observed records of surface altimetry on the northeastern Greenland Ice Stream, or the misfit to observed records of surface velocities on Upernavik Glacier, central West Greenland. We also provide metrics for the scalability of the approach, and the expected performance. This approach has the potential to enable a new generation of hindcast-validated projections that make full use of the wealth of datasets currently being collected, or already collected, in Greenland and Antarctica.

  19. How to stir a revolution as a reluctant rebel: Rudolf Trümpy in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Rudolf Trümpy (1921-2009) was one of the great Alpine geologists of the twentieth century and an influential figure in the international geological community. He played a dominant role in the change of opinion concerning the Alpine evolution by showing that normal faulting dominated the early development of the Alpine realm from the Triassic to the early Cretaceous. This provided a convenient model for later plate-tectonic interpretations of collisional mountain belts. His further recognition of strike-slip faulting during all stages of the Alpine evolution presaged the realisation that the Alps were not built by a simple open-and-shut mechanism. Trümpy was educated during an intellectual lull, a time when simplistic models of the earth behaviour inherited from the middle of the nineteenth century became prevalent under the influence of a close-minded, positivist approach to geological problems. This period, which we term the Dark Intermezzo, lasted from about 1925 to 1965. The grand syntheses of Suess and Argand which preceded this period were viewed from this narrow angle and consequently misunderstood. It was thought that earth history was punctuated by global orogenic events of short duration taking place within and among continents and oceans whose relative positions had remained fixed since the origin of the planet. These views, summarised under the term `fixism', were developed when the ocean floors were almost totally unknown. When data began coming in from the post World War II oceanographic surveys, the world geological community was slow to receive and digest them. Trümpy followed these developments closely, realising that his work was important in placing the geology of the mountain belts within the emerging, new theoretical framework. He adopted the position of a critic and emphasised where detailed knowledge of the Alps, unquestionably the best known mountain belt in the world, supported and where it contradicted the new ideas. His voice was

  20. Hybrid OpenMP/MPI programs for solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a fully anisotropic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarić, Bogdan; Slavnić, Vladimir; Belić, Aleksandar; Balaž, Antun; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    2016-03-01

    We present hybrid OpenMP/MPI (Open Multi-Processing/Message Passing Interface) parallelized versions of earlier published C programs (Vudragović et al. 2012) for calculating both stationary and non-stationary solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation in three spatial dimensions. The GP equation describes the properties of dilute Bose-Einstein condensates at ultra-cold temperatures. Hybrid versions of programs use the same algorithms as the C ones, involving real- and imaginary-time propagation based on a split-step Crank-Nicolson method, but consider only a fully-anisotropic three-dimensional GP equation, where algorithmic complexity for large grid sizes necessitates parallelization in order to reduce execution time and/or memory requirements per node. Since distributed memory approach is required to address the latter, we combine MPI programming paradigm with existing OpenMP codes, thus creating fully flexible parallelism within a combined distributed/shared memory model, suitable for different modern computer architectures. The two presented C/OpenMP/MPI programs for real- and imaginary-time propagation are optimized and accompanied by a customizable makefile. We present typical scalability results for the provided OpenMP/MPI codes and demonstrate almost linear speedup until inter-process communication time starts to dominate over calculation time per iteration. Such a scalability study is necessary for large grid sizes in order to determine optimal number of MPI nodes and OpenMP threads per node.

  1. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementation of the ORAC Molecular Dynamics Program for Generalized Ensemble and Fast Switching Alchemical Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-06-27

    We present a new release (6.0β) of the ORAC program [Marsili et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 1106-1116] with a hybrid OpenMP/MPI (open multiprocessing message passing interface) multilevel parallelism tailored for generalized ensemble (GE) and fast switching double annihilation (FS-DAM) nonequilibrium technology aimed at evaluating the binding free energy in drug-receptor system on high performance computing platforms. The production of the GE or FS-DAM trajectories is handled using a weak scaling parallel approach on the MPI level only, while a strong scaling force decomposition scheme is implemented for intranode computations with shared memory access at the OpenMP level. The efficiency, simplicity, and inherent parallel nature of the ORAC implementation of the FS-DAM algorithm, project the code as a possible effective tool for a second generation high throughput virtual screening in drug discovery and design. The code, along with documentation, testing, and ancillary tools, is distributed under the provisions of the General Public License and can be freely downloaded at www.chim.unifi.it/orac .

  2. A Naive-Bayes model observer for detection and localization of perfusion defects in cardiac SPECT-MPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parages, Felipe M.; O'Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-03-01

    Model observers (MO) are widely used in medical imaging to act as surrogates of human observers in task-based image quality evaluation, frequently towards optimization of reconstruction algorithms. In SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), a realistic task-based approach involves detection and localization of perfusion defects, as well as a subsequent assessment of defect severity. In this paper we explore a machine-learning MO based on Naive- Bayes classification (NB-MO). NB-MO uses a set of polar-map image features to predict lesion detection, localization and severity scores given by five human readers for a set of simulated 3D SPECT-MPI patients. The simulated dataset included lesions with different sizes, perfusion-reduction ratios, and locations. Simulated projections were reconstructed using two readily used methods namely: FBP and OSEM. For validation, a multireader multi-case (MRMC) analysis of alternative free-response ROC (AFROC) curve was performed for NB-MO and human observers. For comparison, we also report performances of a statistical Hotelling Observer applied on polar-map images. Results show excellent agreement between NB-MO and humans, as well as model's good generalization between different reconstruction treatments.

  3. Influence of water on the properties of an Au/Mpy/Pd metal/molecule/metal junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kučera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometric and electronic structure of the metal–molecule interface in metal/molecule/metal junctions is of great interest since it affects the functionality of such units in possible nanoelectronic devices. We have investigated the interaction between water and a palladium monolayer of a Au(111/4-mercaptopyridine/Pd junction by means of DFT calculations. A relatively strong bond between water and the palladium monolayer of the Au/Mpy/Pd complex is observed via a one-fold bond between the oxygen atom of the water molecule and a Pd atom. An isolated H2O molecule adsorbs preferentially in a flat-lying geometry on top of a palladium atom that is at the same time also bound to the nitrogen atom of a Mpy molecule of the underlying self-assembled monolayer. The electronic structure of these Pd atoms is considerably modified which is reflected in a reduced local density of states at the Fermi energy. At higher coverages, water can be arranged in a hexagonal ice-like bilayer structure in analogy to water on bulk metal surfaces, but with a much stronger binding which is dominated by O–Pd bonds.

  4. Compiler-directed power optimization of high-performance interconnection networks for load-balancing MPI applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuejun; YI Huizhan; QU Xiangli; ZHOU Haifang

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption of parallel computers has been becoming the obstruction to higher-performance systems.In this paper,we focus on power optimization of highperformance interconnection networks for MPI applications in high-performance parallel computers.Compared with the past history-based work,we propose the idea of compilerdirected power-aware on/off network links.There are some idle intervals for network links during the execution of parallel applications,at which the links still consume large amounts of energy.Using on/off network links,compiler first divides load-balancing MPI applications into the communication intervals and the computation intervals,and then inserts the on/off instruction into the applications to switch the link state.To avoid the time overhead of state switching,we use a time estimation technique to analyze the computation time,and insert the on instruction before reaching the communication intervals.Results from simulations and experiments show that the proposed compiler- directed method can reduce energy consumption of interconnection networks by 20~70%,at a loss of less than 1% network latency and performance degradation.

  5. 28th January 2011-Vice-President Max Planck Society-Prof. Martin Stratmann-Germany-visiting the ATLAS experimental area and the LHC Tunnel at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2011-01-01

    Photo 1:ATLAS visitor Center with P. Jenni, ATLAS Collaboration former spokesperson Photo 2-10:visiting the ATLAS cavern Photo 10:D. Hoppe,P. Jenni,M. Stratmann,S. Bethke,S. Braun,D. Klammer Photo 11-15:visiting the LHC tunnel Photo 16-18:Signature of the Guest Book with S. Lettow,Director for Administration and General Infrastructure

  6. The effect of greenhouse gas concentrations and ice sheets on the glacial AMOC in a coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmann, Marlene; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-09-01

    Simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) are used to study the sensitivity of the AMOC and the deep-ocean water masses during the Last Glacial Maximum to different sets of forcings. Analysing the individual contributions of the glacial forcings reveals that the ice sheets cause an increase in the overturning strength and a deepening of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) cell, while the low greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations cause a decrease in overturning strength and a shoaling of the NADW cell. The effect of the orbital configuration is negligible. The effects of the ice sheets and the GHG reduction balance each other in the deep ocean so that no shoaling of the NADW cell is simulated in the full glacial state. Experiments in which different GHG concentrations with linearly decreasing radiative forcing are applied to a setup with glacial ice sheets and orbital configuration show that GHG concentrations below the glacial level are necessary to cause a shoaling of the NADW cell with respect to the pre-industrial state in MPI-ESM. For a pCO2 of 149 ppm, the simulated overturning state and the deep-ocean water masses are in best agreement with the glacial state inferred from proxy data. Sensitivity studies confirm that brine release and shelf convection in the Southern Ocean are key processes for the shoaling of the NADW cell. Shoaling occurs only when Southern Ocean shelf water contributes significantly to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water.

  7. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    . In institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it...

  8. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  9. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts to c...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states.......In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...

  10. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  11. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  12. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  13. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  14. CSCAPES Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  15. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  16. Satellite Observation of Atmospheric Nuclear Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    Institut fur Physik und Astrophysik Garching, Federal Republic of Germany Contract: #N00014-87-C-2251 Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, S.W...03824 E. Rieger Institut fur Extraterrestriche Physik Max Planck Institut fur Physik und Astrophysik , Garching, FRG Naa-RsachLbraoy Wahntn DC 07 ABSTRACT

  17. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented.

  18. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C.; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented. PMID:25309040

  19. Molecular Docking Parallel Approaches Based on MPI%基于MPI的分子对接并行算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常珊; 孔韧; 李春华; 陈慰祖; 王存新

    2008-01-01

    基于消息传递接口(Message Passing Interface,MPI),用两种不同的并行程序设计方法对Autadock程序进行修改.将修改后的程序应用于HIV-1蛋白酶(Protease)和小分子抑制剂XK263的对接体系,测试了并行程序的加速比和并行效率.结果表明,两种改进的并行Autodock程序都可以很好地完成计算,尤其是方案Ⅱ并行程序的加速比和并行效率更高.

  20. An automatic generation algorithm of MPI communication code%MPI通信代码自动生成算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜澎; 赵荣彩; 董春丽

    2007-01-01

    对于高性能并行计算机而言,如何由给出的计算、数据划分信息及精确数组数据流分析信息自动生成并行化代码是实现串行程序并行化的一个重要问题.根据Saman P.Amarasinghe和Lam的定理,实现了一种并行化识别工具中MPI(Message Passing Interface)并行化代码自动生成技术的算法,并对该算法的性能进行分析.

  1. Matrix Factorizations at Scale: a Comparison of Scientific Data Analytics in Spark and C+MPI Using Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittens, Alex; Devarakonda, Aditya; Racah, Evan; Ringenburg, Michael; Gerhardt, Lisa; Kottalam, Jey; Liu, Jialin; Maschhoff, Kristyn; Canon, Shane; Chhugani, Jatin; Sharma, Pramod; Yang, Jiyan; Demmel, James; Harrell, Jim; Krishnamurthy, Venkat; Mahoney, Michael; Prabhat, Mr

    2016-05-12

    We explore the trade-offs of performing linear algebra using Apache Spark, compared to traditional C and MPI implementations on HPC platforms. Spark is designed for data analytics on cluster computing platforms with access to local disks and is optimized for data-parallel tasks. We examine three widely-used and important matrix factorizations: NMF (for physical plausibility), PCA (for its ubiquity) and CX (for data interpretability). We apply these methods to 1.6TB particle physics, 2.2TB and 16TB climate modeling and 1.1TB bioimaging data. The data matrices are tall-and-skinny which enable the algorithms to map conveniently into Spark’s data parallel model. We perform scaling experiments on up to 1600 Cray XC40 nodes, describe the sources of slowdowns, and provide tuning guidance to obtain high performance.

  2. GHEP-ISFG collaborative simulated exercise for DVI/MPI: Lessons learned about large-scale profile database comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Carlos M; Romero, Magdalena; Catelli, Laura; Šakić, Mustafa; Saragoni, Victor G; Jimenez Pleguezuelos, María Jose; Romanini, Carola; Anjos Porto, Maria João; Puente Prieto, Jorge; Bofarull Castro, Alicia; Hernandez, Alexis; Farfán, María José; Prieto, Victoria; Alvarez, David; Penacino, Gustavo; Zabalza, Santiago; Hernández Bolaños, Alejandro; Miguel Manterola, Irati; Prieto, Lourdes; Parsons, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The GHEP-ISFG Working Group has recognized the importance of assisting DNA laboratories to gain expertise in handling DVI or missing persons identification (MPI) projects which involve the need for large-scale genetic profile comparisons. Eleven laboratories participated in a DNA matching exercise to identify victims from a hypothetical conflict with 193 missing persons. The post mortem database was comprised of 87 skeletal remain profiles from a secondary mass grave displaying a minimal number of 58 individuals with evidence of commingling. The reference database was represented by 286 family reference profiles with diverse pedigrees. The goal of the exercise was to correctly discover re-associations and family matches. The results of direct matching for commingled remains re-associations were correct and fully concordant among all laboratories. However, the kinship analysis for missing persons identifications showed variable results among the participants. There was a group of laboratories with correct, concordant results but nearly half of the others showed discrepant results exhibiting likelihood ratio differences of several degrees of magnitude in some cases. Three main errors were detected: (a) some laboratories did not use the complete reference family genetic data to report the match with the remains, (b) the identity and/or non-identity hypotheses were sometimes wrongly expressed in the likelihood ratio calculations, and (c) many laboratories did not properly evaluate the prior odds for the event. The results suggest that large-scale profile comparisons for DVI or MPI is a challenge for forensic genetics laboratories and the statistical treatment of DNA matching and the Bayesian framework should be better standardized among laboratories.

  3. MPI-based Parallel Programming and Implementation of Knapsack Problem%基于MPI的背包问题并行程序设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居晓

    2011-01-01

    MPI(Message Passing Interface)message passing parallel programming is one of the criteria,outlined the concept and composition of MPI,focuses on support for parallel programming Message Passing Interface(MPI)and MPI parallel programming environment method,and gives a MPI parallel programming examples to illustrate the design of MPI processes and procedures common link between the serial programming.%MPI(Message Passing Interface)是消息传递并行程序设计的标准之一,概述了MPI的概念和组成,着重介绍了支持并行程序设计的消息传递接口(MPI)以及在MPI环境下的并行程序设计方法,并给出一个MPI并行程序设计实例,说明了MPI的程序设计流程和普通串行程序设计之间的关联。

  4. Extending a serial 3D two-phase CFD code to parallel execution over MPI by using the PETSc library for domain decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Ervik, Åsmund; Müller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    To leverage the last two decades' transition in High-Performance Computing (HPC) towards clusters of compute nodes bound together with fast interconnects, a modern scalable CFD code must be able to efficiently distribute work amongst several nodes using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). MPI can enable very large simulations running on very large clusters, but it is necessary that the bulk of the CFD code be written with MPI in mind, an obstacle to parallelizing an existing serial code. In this work we present the results of extending an existing two-phase 3D Navier-Stokes solver, which was completely serial, to a parallel execution model using MPI. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations for two immiscible incompressible fluids are solved by the continuum surface force method, while the location of the interface is determined by the level-set method. We employ the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc) for domain decomposition (DD) in a framework where only a fraction of the code needs to be a...

  5. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].

  6. 一种优化MPI程序性能的改进方法%An Improvement Method of MPI Parallel Program Performance Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯鹏; 聂鑫

    2011-01-01

    MPI is an ideal parallel programming model which has been confirmed on distributed storage system. Because MPI is based on message passing and adopts the method of message passing to realize the communication between every node, the performance of MPI parallel program is deeply depended on the efficiency of communication. By using the cluster communication to replace the peer to peer communication function and using the derived datatype to create new communication domain, puts forward a common method of optimizing MPI parallel program via the experiment on improving on the MPI parallel program of DNS twice and advancing the performauce of it.%在分布式存储系统上.MPI已被证实是理想的并行程序设计模型。MPI是基于消息传递的并行编程模型,进程间的通信是通过调用库函数来实现的,因此MPI并行程序中,通信部分代码的效率对该并行程序的性能有直接的影响。通过用集群通信函数替代点对点通信函数以及通过派生数据类型和建立新通信域这两种方式.两次改进DNS的MPI并行程序实现。并通过实验给出一个优化MPI并行程序的一般思路与方法。

  7. Unimagined Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment and metho......In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment...... and methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current...

  8. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified diff...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  9. How Does a Regional Climate Model Modify the Projected Climate Change Signal of the Driving GCM: A Study over Different CORDEX Regions Using REMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Teichmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional climate model simulations are frequently used for regional climate change assessments and in climate impact modeling studies. To reflect the inherent and methodological uncertainties in climate modeling, the assessment of regional climate change requires ensemble simulations from different global and regional climate model combinations. To interpret the spread of simulated results, it is useful to understand how the climate change signal is modified in the GCM-RCM modelmodelgeneral circulation model-regional climate model (GCM-RCM chain. This kind of information can also be useful for impact modelers; for the process of experiment design and when interpreting model results. In this study, we investigate how the simulated historical and future climate of the Max-Planck-Institute earth system model (MPI-ESM is modified by dynamic downscaling with the regional model REMO in different world regions. The historical climate simulations for 1950–2005 are driven by observed anthropogenic forcing. The climate projections are driven by projected anthropogenic forcing according to different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. The global simulations are downscaled with REMO over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX domains Africa, Europe, South America and West Asia from 2006–2100. This unique set of simulations allows for climate type specific analysis across multiple world regions and for multi-scenarios. We used a classification of climate types by Köppen-Trewartha to define evaluation regions with certain climate conditions. A systematic comparison of near-surface temperature and precipitation simulated by the regional and the global model is done. In general, the historical time period is well represented by the GCM and the RCM. Some different biases occur in the RCM compared to the GCM as in the Amazon Basin, northern Africa and the West Asian domain. Both models project similar warming

  10. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  11. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  12. Institutional Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Adam

    1975-01-01

    Institutional paralysis of higher education is the result of the disjunction between faculty and administration; the disjunction between substantive planning and bugetary decision-making; the disjunction between departmental structures and functional areas of university concern; and the disjunction between the theory of direct democracy and its…

  13. Hydrometridae of Suriname and the Amazon, with additional records of other neotropical species (Hemiptera – Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    This study is based on material collected by Dr. P. H. van Doesburg Jr. in Suriname and by other workers during investigations sponsored by the “Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie, Abt. Tropenokologie” at Plön, director Prof. Dr. H. Sioli; the “Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia” at Manaus

  14. Records of south american Notonectidae mainly from the Amazon-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    The material on which this publication is based has been collected for the greater part during investigations sponsored by the “Max-Planck Institut fur Limnologie, Abt. Tropenökologie”, at Plön (director Prof. Dr. H. Sioli), and the “Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia” at Manaus and

  15. Research of Collective Communications Profiling in MPI%MPI集合通信剖析技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔奇; 谷建华

    2013-01-01

    MPI( Message Passing Interface)进程拓扑有效地映射到处理器拓扑上有助于提高MPI程序的通信性能。目前大部分的MPI进程映射只考虑点对点通信,很少考虑到集合通信,原因是获取集合通信的进程拓扑是比较困难的。目前大部分剖析( profiling)工具在剖析集合通信时只考虑了函数的接口语义,而忽视了实现语义,导致这些工具不能正确地获取集合通信进程之间的详细通信情况。文中提出了一套剖析算法,可以准确地计算出参与集合通信的每对进程之间的通信量,并以通信矩阵的形式给出进程拓扑。实验证明了剖析算法的正确性,并且通过这种剖析方法获取的进程拓扑能够提升进程到处理器核的映射实验效果。%The mapping from processes to processors can help the Message Passing Interface ( MPI) application improve the communica-tion performance of parallel program. Most of the mappings at present are based on point-to-point communications,and barely consider the collective communications,because it is difficult to obtain the process topology of collective communications. Most of the profiling tools nowadays only think over the interface semantics of functions in analyzing collective communications,and ignore the implementation semantics,leading to these tools can't acquire detailed communication situation of processes accurately in collective communications. Present a set of profiling algorithm which can obtain the communication traffic for each pair of processes participating collective commu-nications accurately. The experimental results show the correctness of the profiling method,and the process topology acquired through this profiling method can get better effect in the mapping from process to core.

  16. Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and stability of the MPI classification system in chronic back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verra Martin L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was only examined once in the past in a small sample. Previous international studies mainly involving fibromyalgia patients showed that retest resulted in 33–38% of patients being assigned to a different Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification. Methods Participants were 204 persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain (82% chronic non-specific back pain. Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis at 4 weeks before entry (=test and at entry into the pain management program (=retest using Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale scores. No therapeutic interventions in this period were conducted. Reliability was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and stability by kappa coefficients (κ. Results Reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory scales was least with ICC = 0.57 for the scale life control and further ranged from ICC = 0.72 (negative mood to 0.87 (solicitous responses in the other scales. At retest, 82% of the patients in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster interpersonally distressed (κ = 0.69, 80% of the adaptive copers (κ = 0.58, and 75% of the dysfunctional patients (κ = 0.70 did not change classification. In total, 22% of the patients changed Multidimensional Pain Inventory cluster group, mainly into the adaptive copers subgroup. Conclusion Test-retest reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was moderate to good and comparable to other language versions. Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification is substantially stable in chronic back pain patients when compared

  17. 基于线程的MPI通信加速器技术研究%A Study of Thread-Based MPI Communication Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 宋君强; 卢风顺; 赵娟

    2011-01-01

    为了针对多核系统构建更高效的MPI支撑环境,文中提出了一种基于线程的MPI加速器,称作MPIActor.MPIActor是一种用于协助传统MPI库的透明中间件,用户可以在编译期选择是否在单线程MPI程序中采用该中间件.加入MPIActor后,每个节点内的MPI进程都被映射成同一进程中的多个线程,从而节点内的通信可通过轻量级的线程通信机制实现.作者给出了MPIActor的基本设计,详细阐述了其工作机制、通信体系结构及关键技术,并在真实系统上分别针对MVAPICH2和OpenMPI并行环境利用OSU LATENCY基准测试进行了性能评测.实验结果表明在两种MPI环境上进行节点内8KB~4MB数据通信时MPIActor都能使通信性能平均提高一倍左右.%Towards building a more effective MPI infrastructure for multicore systems, a threadbased MPI program accelerator, called MPIActor, is proposed in this paper. MPIActor is a transparent middleware to assist general MPI libraries. For any single-thread MPI program, the MPIActor is optional in compiling phase. With the join of MPIActor, the MPI processes in each node will be mapped as several threads of one process, and the intra-node communication will be enhanced by taking advantage of the light-weight thread-based mechanism. The authors have designed and implemented the point-to-point communication module. This paper details the mechanism, the communication architecture and key techniques, and evaluates it with OSU LATENCY benchmark on a real platform. The experimental results show that the introduction of MPIActor can achieve a 2X performance for transferring 8 KB and 4 MB messages on MVPICH2 and OpenMPI parallel environments.

  18. A comparison between the measurements of Kr-85 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation and proportional counters; Comparacion de resultados de la medida radiactiva del Kr-85 ambiental por centelleo liquido y contadores proporcionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    The most used methods for the measurement of Kr-81 beta-activity after their concentration and aisolation are the liquid scintillation counting and the proportional counter. In this work the beta activity of concentrated and aisolated Kr-85 samples measured in collaboration with the Max-Planck Institut fur Kernphyslk, Aussenstelle Freiburg. Samples taken both In Madrid and Frelburg are measured by proportional counters in the Max-Planck lnstitut, Freibury and by liquid scintillation counting in JEN, Madrid. The comparison of both measurements do not show appreciable discrepancy between the results obtained to both techniques. (Author)

  19. Performance of an MPI-only semiconductor device simulator on a quad socket/quad core InfiniBand platform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Lin, Paul Tinphone

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study considers the scaling and performance of a finite element (FE) semiconductor device simulator on a capacity cluster with 272 compute nodes based on a homogeneous multicore node architecture utilizing 16 cores. The inter-node communication backbone for this Tri-Lab Linux Capacity Cluster (TLCC) machine is comprised of an InfiniBand interconnect. The nonuniform memory access (NUMA) nodes consist of 2.2 GHz quad socket/quad core AMD Opteron processors. The performance results for this study are obtained with a FE semiconductor device simulation code (Charon) that is based on a fully-coupled Newton-Krylov solver with domain decomposition and multilevel preconditioners. Scaling and multicore performance results are presented for large-scale problems of 100+ million unknowns on up to 4096 cores. A parallel scaling comparison is also presented with the Cray XT3/4 Red Storm capability platform. The results indicate that an MPI-only programming model for utilizing the multicore nodes is reasonably efficient on all 16 cores per compute node. However, the results also indicated that the multilevel preconditioner, which is critical for large-scale capability type simulations, scales better on the Red Storm machine than the TLCC machine.

  20. MPI BASED PC CLUSTER DISTRIBUTED FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS%基于MPI的并行有限元计算集群的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海江

    2004-01-01

    With the emerging of huge challenging problems, single processor computer will not satisfy this requirement for the fundamental limitations of the silicon technology. Cluster based architecture, with its good cost/performance ratio, is becoming more and more popular in universities and research branches as an alternative to expensive parallel machines. Whilst MPI, one of the successful high performance message passing models, is considered the future standard. This paper describes a MPI based PC cluster distributed FEA system with emphasis on the building procedure and frame components. Such a system can make full use of kinds of advanced parallel and distributed computing tools nowadays and serve as a good base for the future grid computing.

  1. 基于PC集群的MPI并行环境的搭建%The Building of MPI parallel environment on PC Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    希润高娃

    2012-01-01

    集群是充分利用计算资源的一个重要概念,PC集群是最易构建的分布式并行计算环境。MPI是应用最广的并行程序设计平台。本文通过实例阐述PC集群及PC集群上的MPI并行计算环境的搭建。%Cluster is an important concept to make full use of computing resources.PC cluster is the most easy to construct distributed parallel computing environment.MPI is one of the most widely used parallel programming platform.This paper presents building of PC cluster and the MPI parallel computing environment on PC cluster, through the examples.

  2. MPI下三维FDTD并行运算的分析与实现%Study of three-dimensional FDTD parallel computing in MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永; 杨阔

    2013-01-01

    基于Message-Passing Interface (MPI)的编程环境,以PML (Perfectly Matched Layer)为吸收边界条件,讨论了时域有限差分法FDTD的三维并行运算情况.通过一定的数值计算,定量地给出了MPI下FDTD并行算法中的网格数、进程数、分割方式三者之间的关系以及对计算效率的影响.%By analyzing the method of three-dimensional FDTD algorithm, it is a good numerical method for magnetic fields under the PML In the program basis of MPL Through some numerical calculations are given quantitatively MPI FDTD parallel algorithm of grid number, number of processes, division three as well as the relationship between the calculation efficiency.

  3. 基于程序定义及动态进程的PVM与MPI比较%Comparison between PVM and MPI Based on Programming Definition and Dynamic Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小玲

    2009-01-01

    MPI(Message Passing Interface)与PVM(Parallel Virtual Machine)均为分布式计算中广泛应用的两种并行计算环境.PVM出现的时间早于MPI,且它是一个自包含系统,而MPI是一个标准.目前,在PVM与MPI互相靠拢的过程中,关于两者的比较越来越多.其目的便是通过比较,结合二者之优点,发展起性能更加强大的并行计算环境.仅从程序的定义与实现、以及动态进程两个方面简单阐述了两者的不同,事实上,二者通常被用于解决不同的问题.

  4. Research and Implementation of Parallel Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm Based on MPI%基于MPI的并行蚁群算法的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 常静; 魏文红; 赵洁

    2008-01-01

    在消息传递接口(message passing interface,MPI)的基础上,采用划分蚁群的策略,实现了基于MPI的并行蚁群算法,并对该算法采用旅行商问题进行了实验.实验结果表明,使用并行计算技术,可以很好地提高运行速度.

  5. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichit Sharma

    Full Text Available The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture

  6. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  7. WImpiBLAST: Web Interface for mpiBLAST to Help Biologists Perform Large-Scale Annotation Using High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S.

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  8. MPI程序的Petri网模型及其动态性质%MPI Programs' Petri Net Model and Its Dynamic Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔焕庆; 吴哲辉

    2006-01-01

    对并行程序进行验证以保证正确性是很重要的,但是由于并行程序比串行程序要复杂得多,因此有必要建立它们的模型.MPI是目前应用最广泛的基于消息传递的并行程序编程标准之一.基于MPI程序的特点,提出了MPI并行程序的Petri网模型--MPINet,给出了MPI函数的基本Petri网模型及对程序建模的基本步骤.定义了静态可执行的和并行正确的并行程序,并研究了MPINet的动态性质,包括安全性、可达性、可逆性以及活性.这些方法可以用于其他并行编程标准的分析.%It is very important to verify parallel programs to assure the correctness, but they are more complicated than the sequential ones, so it is necessary to model the program. MPI is one of the most popular standards used to program parallel applications based on message passing. Based on characteristics of MPI program, the Petri net model of MPI parallel program--MPINet was presented, and the basic Petri net models of MPI functions and basic steps to build the program's model were given. The concepts of statically executable and concurrent correct parallel program were discussed, and dynamic properties including safeness, reachability, reversibility and liveness were studied. All these methods can easily be used to the other parallel programming standards.

  9. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... different exogenous triggers to evoke shifts in consciousness, such as conflicting logics or socio-economic shocks, we argue that a reflexive shift in consciousness can also be cultivated by developing mindfulness. We develop a typology to depict conditions that need to be met to enable a reflexive shift...

  10. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among......, as such a setup transfers power from the board to the owners. Presumably, this reduces the impact of free rider and collective action problems, and increases the shareholders’ inclination to make proposals, which is also what we find. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We contribute to literature by investigating...

  11. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on a Large-Scale Multithreaded BlueGene/Q Supercomputer

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance characteristics of five hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications (two NAS Parallel benchmarks Multi-Zone SP-MZ and BT-MZ, an earthquake simulation PEQdyna, an aerospace application PMLB and a 3D particle-in-cell application GTC) on a large-scale multithreaded Blue Gene/Q supercomputer at Argonne National laboratory, and quantify the performance gap resulting from using different number of threads per node. We use performance tools and MPI profile and trace libraries available on the supercomputer to analyze and compare the performance of these hybrid scientific applications with increasing the number OpenMP threads per node, and find that increasing the number of threads to some extent saturates or worsens performance of these hybrid applications. For the strong-scaling hybrid scientific applications such as SP-MZ, BT-MZ, PEQdyna and PLMB, using 32 threads per node results in much better application efficiency than using 64 threads per node, and as increasing the number of threads per node, the FPU (Floating Point Unit) percentage decreases, and the MPI percentage (except PMLB) and IPC (Instructions per cycle) per core (except BT-MZ) increase. For the weak-scaling hybrid scientific application such as GTC, the performance trend (relative speedup) is very similar with increasing number of threads per node no matter how many nodes (32, 128, 512) are used. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Assimilating soil moisture into an Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Several modelling studies reported potential impacts of soil moisture anomalies on regional climate. In particular for short prediction periods, perturbations of the soil moisture state may result in significant alteration of surface temperature in the following season. However, it is not clear yet whether or not soil moisture anomalies affect climate also on larger temporal and spatial scales. In an earlier study, we showed that soil moisture anomalies can persist for several seasons in the deeper soil layers of a land surface model. Additionally, those anomalies can influence root zone moisture, in particular during explicitly dry or wet periods. Thus, one prerequisite for predictability, namely the existence of long term memory, is evident for simulated soil moisture and might be exploited to improve climate predictions. The second prerequisite is the sensitivity of the climate system to soil moisture. In order to investigate this sensitivity for decadal simulations, we implemented a soil moisture assimilation scheme into the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The assimilation scheme is based on a simple nudging algorithm and updates the surface soil moisture state once per day. In our experiments, the MPI-ESM is used which includes model components for the interactive simulation of atmosphere, land and ocean. Artificial assimilation data is created from a control simulation to nudge the MPI-ESM towards predominantly dry and wet states. First analyses are focused on the impact of the assimilation on land surface variables and reveal distinct differences in the long-term mean values between wet and dry state simulations. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff are larger in the wet state compared to the dry state, resulting in an increased moisture transport from the land to atmosphere and ocean. Consequently, surface temperatures are lower in the wet state simulations by more than one Kelvin. In terms of spatial pattern

  13. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12025

    2010-01-01

    The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm−2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the ...

  14. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  15. Portable and Transparent Message Compression in MPI Libraries to Improve the Performance and Scalability of Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albonesi, David; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-04-17

    The goal of this project has been to develop a lossless compression algorithm for message-passing libraries that can accelerate HPC systems by reducing the communication time. Because both compression and decompression have to be performed in software in real time, the algorithm has to be extremely fast while still delivering a good compression ratio. During the first half of this project, they designed a new compression algorithm called FPC for scientific double-precision data, made the source code available on the web, and published two papers describing its operation, the first in the proceedings of the Data Compression Conference and the second in the IEEE Transactions on Computers. At comparable average compression ratios, this algorithm compresses and decompresses 10 to 100 times faster than BZIP2, DFCM, FSD, GZIP, and PLMI on the three architectures tested. With prediction tables that fit into the CPU's L1 data acache, FPC delivers a guaranteed throughput of six gigabits per second on a 1.6 GHz Itanium 2 system. The C source code and documentation of FPC are posted on-line and have already been downloaded hundreds of times. To evaluate FPC, they gathered 13 real-world scientific datasets from around the globe, including satellite data, crash-simulation data, and messages from HPC systems. Based on the large number of requests they received, they also made these datasets available to the community (with permission of the original sources). While FPC represents a great step forward, it soon became clear that its throughput was too slow for the emerging 10 gigabits per second networks. Hence, no speedup can be gained by including this algorithm in an MPI library. They therefore changed the aim of the second half of the project. Instead of implementing FPC in an MPI library, they refocused their efforts to develop a parallel compression algorithm to further boost the throughput. After all, all modern high-end microprocessors contain multiple CPUs on a

  16. Implementing the PM Programming Language using MPI and OpenMP - a New Tool for Programming Geophysical Models on Parallel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2015-04-01

    PM (Parallel Models) is a new parallel programming language specifically designed for writing environmental and geophysical models. The language is intended to enable implementers to concentrate on the science behind the model rather than the details of running on parallel hardware. At the same time PM leaves the programmer in control - all parallelisation is explicit and the parallel structure of any given program may be deduced directly from the code. This paper describes a PM implementation based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) standards, looking at issues involved with translating the PM parallelisation model to MPI/OpenMP protocols and considering performance in terms of the competing factors of finer-grained parallelisation and increased communication overhead. In order to maximise portability, the implementation stays within the MPI 1.3 standard as much as possible, with MPI-2 MPI-IO file handling the only significant exception. Moreover, it does not assume a thread-safe implementation of MPI. PM adopts a two-tier abstract representation of parallel hardware. A PM processor is a conceptual unit capable of efficiently executing a set of language tasks, with a complete parallel system consisting of an abstract N-dimensional array of such processors. PM processors may map to single cores executing tasks using cooperative multi-tasking, to multiple cores or even to separate processing nodes, efficiently sharing tasks using algorithms such as work stealing. While tasks may move between hardware elements within a PM processor, they may not move between processors without specific programmer intervention. Tasks are assigned to processors using a nested parallelism approach, building on ideas from Reyes et al. (2009). The main program owns all available processors. When the program enters a parallel statement then either processors are divided out among the newly generated tasks (number of new tasks number of processors

  17. Using WEED to simulate the global wetland distribution in a ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Lakes and wetlands are an important land surface feature. In terms of hydrology, they regulate river discharge, mitigate flood events and constitute a significant surface water storage. Considering physical processes, they link the surface water and energy balances by altering the separation of incoming energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Finally, they impact biogeochemical processes and may act as carbon sinks or sources. Most global hydrology and climate models regard wetland extent and properties as constant in time. However, to study interactions between wetlands and different states of climate, it is necessary to implement surface water bodies (thereafter referred to as wetlands) with dynamical behavior into these models. Besides an improved representation of geophysical feedbacks between wetlands, land surface and atmosphere, a dynamical wetland scheme could also provide estimates of soil wetness as input for biogeochemical models, which are used to compute methane production in wetlands. Recently, a model for the representation of wetland extent dynamics (WEED) was developed as part of the hydrology model (MPI-HM) of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M). The WEED scheme computes wetland extent in agreement with the range of observations for the high northern latitudes. It simulates a realistic seasonal cycle which shows sensitivity to northern snow-melt as well as rainy seasons in the tropics. Furthermore, flood peaks in river discharge are mitigated. However, the WEED scheme overestimates wetland extent in the Tropics which might be related to the MPI-HM's simplified potential evapotranspiration computation. In order to overcome this limitation, the WEED scheme is implemented into the MPI-M's land surface model JSBACH. Thus, not only its effect on water fluxes can be investigated but also its impact on the energy cycle, which is not included in the MPI-HM. Furthermore, it will be possible to analyze the physical effects of wetlands in a

  18. Gerridae of Suriname and the Amazon with additional records of other neotropical species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    The material studied was collected by Dr. P. H. van Doesburg Jr. during his stay in Surinam and by various workers during investigations sponsored by the “Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie, Abt. Tropenökologie” at Plon (director Prof. Dr. H. Sioli), and the “Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da

  19. Powerhouse in the foliage; Kraftwerk im Blattwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Harald

    2010-07-01

    Photosynthesis, a veritable stroke of genius on the part of nature, makes the existence of higher life forms possible. If it can be optimized, it may be able to make an even greater contribution to the resolution of future energy problems. Manajit Hayer-Hartl and Ulrich Hartl are currently working on this possibility at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried. (orig.)

  20. Nonlinear Effects in High Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-06

    Physical Review Letters (submitted...Kreuzer’ and X. Ye 2 Submitted to Physical Review Letters ’Fitz-Haber Institut der Max-Planck- Gesellschaft Fradayweg 4-6, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany and...Room 318 Columbus, OHk 43,22-1194 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Submitted to Physical Review Letters 12a. DISTR:9UTION AVAILA-I;LTY STATEMENT 12b.

  1. The High Altitude Pollution Program (1976-1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Andreas , and Dieter Kley, " A Resonance-Fluorescence Instrument forin-Situ Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide," (in preparation). B-31 NATIONAL...80307 Launceston, Cornwall England Prof. Dr. Paul Crutzen Max-Planck-Institut fur Chemie Dr. Jerry D. Mahlman Air Chemistry Department National

  2. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  3. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  4. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  5. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  7. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  8. Supernova Remnants Identified in Sino-German Survey of the Galactic Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Two large supernova remnants (SNRs) were recently identified by a group of astronomers at the National Astronomical Observatories, CAS (NAOC) based on Sino-German survey observations of the Galactic plane and following-up analyses, as announced by the NAOC and Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR), Germany, in a recent news release.

  9. Relativität, Quanten theorie und Große Vereinigung

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein's general relativity theory is so successful - It remains a classic description, that considers no quantum effects. In t his interview, Hermann Nicolai, Director of the Max Planck Institute for gravitationnal physics in Postdam, describe possible ways to come to a standardized theory

  10. Catastrophe or psychosis; The greenhouse problem faces a solution. Katastrophe oder Psychose; Treibhausraetsel vor der Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, A.

    1994-02-01

    The article gives a state-of-the-art report on climate research into the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. In particular, recent findings of coupled circulation models of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg, are presented as well as analyses of drill cares from Greenland which will provide information on climate changes during the past 150000 years. (KW)

  11. Wind climate from the regional climate model REMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Mann, Jakob; Berg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Selected outputs from simulations with the regional climate model REMO from the Max Planck Institute, Hamburg, Germany were studied in connection with wind energy resource assessment. It was found that the mean wind characteristics based on observations from six mid-latitude stations are well...

  12. Concept study and validation of Antartic telescope tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanford, E.; Swain, M.; Meyers, C.; Muramatsu, T.; Nielson, G.; Olson, V.; Ronsse, S.; Vinding Nyden, E.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Little, P.

    2006-01-01

    Studies by Mark Swain and a colleague at the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, coupled with results from past and ongoing projects at Harvey Mudd College, strongly suggest that it may be possible to achieve imaging performance comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope at relatively low cost using a

  13. Albin Eser ; Christiane Rabenstein (Hrsg.): Strafjustiz im Spannungsfeld von Effizienz und Fairness. Konvergente und divergente Entwicklungen im Strafprozeßrecht / [rezensiert von] Judith Schmidt

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Judith

    2005-01-01

    rezensiertes Werk: Eser, Albin ; Rabenstein, Christiane (Hrsg.): Strafjustiz im Spannungsfeld von Effizienz und Fairness. Konvergente und divergente Entwicklungen im Strafprozeßrecht (Strafrechtliche Forschungsberichte, Schriftenreihe des Max-Planck-Instituts für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht, Band S 101). - Berlin : Duncker&Humblot, 2004. - 437 S. ISBN 3-428-11760-3

  14. Das Minderheitenrecht europäischer Staaten. Teil 2 / Carmen Schmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmidt, Carmen, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Das Minderheitenrecht europäischer Staaten. Teil 2 / herausgegeben von Jochen Abr. Frowein, Rainer Hofmann, Stefan Oeter ; Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. Berlin [etc.] : Springer-Verlag, 1994

  15. Das Minderheitenrecht europäischer Staaten. Teil 2 / Carmen Schmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmidt, Carmen, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Das Minderheitenrecht europäischer Staaten. Teil 2 / herausgegeben von Jochen Abr. Frowein, Rainer Hofmann, Stefan Oeter ; Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. Berlin [etc.] : Springer-Verlag, 1994

  16. The Processing and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature/High Performance Composites. Book 5. Interface Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    NSF through the MRL at Harvard. JSW is grateful to B. Schaff with Max- Planck Institut fur Eisenforschung GmbH for providing him with Fe-2.7%Si...T. Sankey and G. B. Adams (1991), "The influence of internal surfaces on the (2x1) shuffle and glide cleavage reconstructions for Si (111)," Surface

  17. Spezielle Relativitätstheorie Zeitdilatation erneut bestätigt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, Guido

    2004-01-01

    Eine der weitreichendsten Konsequenzen der Speziellen Relativitätstheorie ist das Phänomen der Zeitdilatation. Diese wurde nun am Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik mit der bisher höchsten Genauigkeit gemessen [1].

  18. Kernphysik Element 110 heißt Darmstadtium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührke, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Eine der weitreichendsten Konsequenzen der Speziellen Relativitätstheorie ist das Phänomen der Zeitdilatation. Diese wurde nun am Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik mit der bisher höchsten Genauigkeit gemessen [1].

  19. Astronomie Die Himmelsscheibe von Nebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Eine der weitreichendsten Konsequenzen der Speziellen Relativitätstheorie ist das Phänomen der Zeitdilatation. Diese wurde nun am Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik mit der bisher höchsten Genauigkeit gemessen [1].

  20. Technical Evaluation Report on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium on Propagation Effects on Military Systems in the High Latitude Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    considered to be of the most importance to the mission of NATO as defined by AGARD. Welcoming address by Professor Juan Roederer. Professor Roederer...the Mesosphere (85-50 km) at 69 N (Andenes, Norway) H. W. Widdell, Max Planck Institut, Lindau . FRG 1200 Lunch Session VIII - Low Frequency Propagation

  1. Body temperature predicts the direction of internal desynchronization in humans isolated from time cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a new analysis of experiments that were carried out in human subjects in isolation from time cues, under supervision of Jurgen Aschoff and Rutger Wever at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology (Erling-Andechs, Germany, 1964-1974). Mean rectal temperatures

  2. Awakening acceleration: AWAKE’s plasma cell arrive

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Productions Service; Paola Catapano; Jacques Fichet; Paola Catapano

    2016-01-01

    Interview with Edda Gschwendtner, project leader of the AWAKE collaboration, on the day the AWAKE's plasma cell is transported from the surface hall were it was tested (EHN1 on CERN Prevessin) to the AWAKE tunnel in CERN's SPS decay tunnel. The Plasma Cell was built by the Max Planck Institute in Munich.

  3. Receiver for 6-cm Polarization Observation Starts Working

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A 6-cm receiving system with a polarimeter, made by engineers of German MaxPlanck-Institute for Radioastronomy, has been installed to the 25 radio telescope in Urumqi, the capital of western China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The new instrument for Sino-German cooperation on radio astronomy will enable Chinese astronomers to measure the polarization of radio sources for the first time.

  4. Plastics with a bright future; Kunststoffe mit leuchtender Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Solar cells in tent walls, transparent luminescent films on windows, microchips in jackets - these are the kinds of product organic electronics promises. At the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, Klaus Muellen and Martin Baumgarten are searching for suitable chemical compounds. (orig.)

  5. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  6. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  7. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  8. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  9. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  10. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  11. Molecules at surfaces: 100 years of physical chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Gerhard

    2013-01-02

    Scratching the surface: for over 100 years the interactions of molecules at surfaces have been studied at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin. Nobel Laureate Gerhard Ertl looks back at some of the key developments in this time, and the people who made them. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Body temperature predicts the direction of internal desynchronization in humans isolated from time cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a new analysis of experiments that were carried out in human subjects in isolation from time cues, under supervision of Jurgen Aschoff and Rutger Wever at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology (Erling-Andechs, Germany, 1964-1974). Mean rectal temperatures (t(b

  13. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  14. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  15. Nuclear and ionic charge distribution experiment on ISEE-1 and ISEE-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental work carried out under this contract is a continuation of that originally performed under Contracts NAS5-20062 and NAS5-26739. The data analyzed are from the Max-Planck Institut/Univ. of Maryland experiment on ISEE-1 and ISEE-3. Each spacecraft experiment consists of a nearly identical set of three sensors (designated the ULECA, ULEWAT, and ULEZEQ sensors) designed to measure the energy spectra and composition of suprathermal and energetic ions over a broad energy range (less than 3 keV/e to more than 20 MeV/nucleon). Since the launch of ISEE's 2 and 3, the MPI/Univ. of Maryland experiments have generally performed as expected except for a partial failure of the ULEWAT sensor on ISEE-1 in August 1978. A number of scientific studies have either been completed, initiated or are at various stages of completion. A brief summary of Primary Results is given, followed by a more detailed summary of the major accomplishments at the Univ. of Maryland.

  16. Constraining a Martian general circulation model with the MAVEN/IUVS observations in the thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckel, Chris; Medvedev, Alexander; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Evans, Scott; Kuroda, Takeshi; Hartogh, Paul; Yiğit, Erdal; Jain, Sonal; Lo, Daniel; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The recent measurements of the number density of atomic oxygen by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN/ Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (MAVEN/IUVS) have been implemented for the first time into a global circulation model to quantify the effect on the Martian thermosphere. The number density has been converted to 1D volume mixing ratio and this profile is compared to the atomic oxygen scenarios based on chemical models. Simulations were performed with the Max Planck Institute Martian General Circulation Model (MPI-MGCM). The simulations closely emulate the conditions at the time of observations. The results are compared to the IUVS-measured CO2 number density and temperature above 130 km to gain knowledge of the processes in the upper atmosphere and further constrain them in MGCMs. The presentation will discuss the role and importance in the thermosphere of the following aspects: (a) impact of the observed atomic oxygen, (b) 27-day solar cycle variations, (c) varying dust load in the lower atmosphere, and (d) gravity waves.

  17. Investigation of the Drought Probabilities over Turkey in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Akbas, Abdullah; Saygili, Sibel; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    As a consequence of the negative impacts of climate change, Turkey is under risk of an increased drought conditions. In this study, we aim to detect the possible changes in the intensity and frequency of drought conditions and to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of these changes throughout the country. Therefore, firstly the outputs of the MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for Turkey via Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). RCP8.5, which is the worst case emission pathway, is used to make future projection for the period of 2071 - 2100 with respect to the reference period of 1971 - 2000 over Turkey. Thereafter, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values, which are computed by using monthly precipitation totals data of the model, are obtained and classified for three timescales (i.e. 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month). Lastly, the spatial distribution maps, which determine the changes in drought probabilities over Turkey, are created in order to characterize better the impact of climate change on Turkey's drought patterns. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  18. Oceanic influence on the precipitation in Venezuela under current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim, Nele; Bravo de Guenni, Lelys

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific and Atlantic oceanic influences on observational rainfall data from weather stations over Venezuela are analyzed using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) executed in the Climate Predictability Tool. CCA is further conducted on rainfall and sea surface temperature data obtained from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for historical (1951-2010) and future (2041-2100) periods. Four oceanic regions (North Tropical Atlantic, Niño3, Niño3.4 and an area which includes all previous three) are used for the CCA using data from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) data set, while precipitation data from two regions: a coastal region and an inland region are used in the analysis. Venezuelan seasons (dry and wet) were separated into an early and a late period. The oceanic impact on the precipitation of the station data is, in the majority of the cases, higher in the inland than at the coast. The Pacific's influence is stronger in the early dry season than in the wet season, whereas the Atlantic's influence is stronger in the wet season (inland). In contrast, CCA applied to the model data provides highest correlation coefficients in the late wet season for all oceanic regions. In most cases the North Tropical Atlantic has a stronger influence than the Niño regions.

  19. A Refined Methodology for Modelling Climate Change Impacts on Snow Sports Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu, O. Cenk; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; An, Nazan; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    Nature-based tourism is one of the most vulnerable sectors of the economy against climate change. Among its types, winter tourism stands out as the most critical due to the relatively high exposure and sensitivity of snow cover to the anthropogenic warming trends. In this study, we aim at improving previous works by Ozturk et al. where snow reliability of ski resorts have been examined through projections based on regional climate model outputs downscaled from various GCMs. Major improvements to these studies will be related to increasing the resolution, obtaining snow depth values from snow-water equivalent outputs, and hourly, instead of the daily, calculations of wet bulb temperatures. Daily snow depth values will be utilized for 100-days rule that looks for at least 100 days of snow cover at a minimum of 30 cm in order for a ski resort to be viable, whereas the wet bulb temperatures below -7 oC will indicate the snowmaking capacity. The domain of analysis will be the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus. Therefore the spatial gap in the mostly Euro- and Amero-centric literature will also be improved. The domain will be modelled through RegCM 4.4.2 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics basing its resolution on MPI-ESM-MR of Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie and the concentration scenario RCP 4.5 for a realistic tourism development future of 2020-2050.

  20. Rapid Adjustment across scales: From global to local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Christine; Quaas, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    An important, yet uncertain, component of the climate's total response to an increase in CO2 concentrations are rapid adjustments. Rapid adjustments to CO2 forcings vary considerably amongst general circulation models due to the fact clouds, turbulence, their coupling, and the resulting dynamical response are not calculated reliably by general circulation models [Gregory and Webb, 2008 & Sherwood et al., 2015]. This motivates the use of a cloud resolving model, which resolves clouds and turbulence, to better understand rapid adjustments. Cloud resolving models, however, can only be run over a limited area and so one must select an area which has the same magnitude of variability found in rapid adjustments globally. In this work, we ask "Are rapid adjustment to CO2 forcings over Central Europe in the ICON-GCM and ICON-LEM representative of global adjustment variability?" Using the newly developed ICON (Icosahedral non-hydrostatic) general circulation model (GCM) and large-eddy model (LEM) developed by the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI) and Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD), a study of rapid adjustments is performed across scales.

  1. Statistical structure of intrinsic climate variability under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Bye, John; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Climate variability is often studied in terms of fluctuations with respect to the mean state, whereas the dependence between the mean and variability is rarely discussed. We propose a new climate metric to measure the relationship between means and standard deviations of annual surface temperature computed over non-overlapping 100-year segments. This metric is analyzed based on equilibrium simulations of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM): the last millennium climate (800-1799), the future climate projection following the A1B scenario (2100-2199), and the 3100-year unforced control simulation. A linear relationship is globally observed in the control simulation and thus termed intrinsic climate variability, which is most pronounced in the tropical region with negative regression slopes over the Pacific warm pool and positive slopes in the eastern tropical Pacific. It relates to asymmetric changes in temperature extremes and associates fluctuating climate means with increase or decrease in intensity and occurrence of both El Niño and La Niña events. In the future scenario period, the linear regression slopes largely retain their spatial structure with appreciable changes in intensity and geographical locations. Since intrinsic climate variability describes the internal rhythm of the climate system, it may serve as guidance for interpreting climate variability and climate change signals in the past and the future.

  2. Present-day and ice-covered equilibrium states in a comprehensive climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotzke, Jochem; Botzet, Michael

    2007-08-01

    We show that in a comprehensive climate model both the current climate and a completely ice-covered Earth are stable states under today's total solar irradiance (TSI) and CO2 level. We employ the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, at relatively high resolution (horizontally T63 in the atmosphere and 1.5 degrees in the ocean). Setting TSI to near-zero causes a transition from realistic present-day climate to a completely ice-covered state within 15 years; this state persists even when TSI re-assumes today's value. A break-up of the complete ice cover occurs with today's TSI and 100 times - but not with 10 times - today's atmospheric CO2 level. While TSI is near-zero, extremely strong meridional overturning ensues in both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Our results imply that a snowball Earth is possible, in principle, with inception possibly triggered by a brief dark spell.

  3. Reforestation in a high-CO2 world -- Higher mitigation potential than expected, lower adaptation potential than hoped for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian H.; Schmidt, Hauke

    2016-06-01

    We assess the potential and possible consequences for the global climate of a strong reforestation scenario for this century. We perform model experiments using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM), forced by fossil-fuel CO2 emissions according to the high-emission scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but using land use transitions according to RCP4.5, which assumes strong reforestation. Thereby, we isolate the land use change effects of the RCPs from those of other anthropogenic forcings. We find that by 2100 atmospheric CO2 is reduced by 85 ppm in the reforestation model experiment compared to the reference RCP8.5 model experiment. This reduction is higher than previous estimates and is due to increased forest cover in combination with climate and CO2 feedbacks. We find that reforestation leads to global annual mean temperatures being lower by 0.27 K in 2100. We find large annual mean warming reductions in sparsely populated areas, whereas reductions in temperature extremes are also large in densely populated areas.

  4. Rugged optical mirrors for the operation of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers in rough environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Dietrich G.

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a growing number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTS) that measure the total column of several atmospheric trace gases. For these measurements, the sun is used as a light source. This is typically achieved by a solar tracker that uses a pair of optical mirrors to guide the sunlight into the instrument. There is a growing demand to operate these instruments in remote locations that fill the gaps in the global observation network. Besides the logistical challenges of running a remote site, the environment at these locations can be very harsh compared to the sheltered environment of the instruments' home institutions. While the FTS itself is usually well protected inside a building or container, the solar tracker and especially its mirrors are exposed to the environment. There they may suffer from - temperature fluctuations - high humidity - sea salt corrosion at coastal sites - dirt and dust - air pollution from anthropogenic sources - deposition from plants or animals The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) operates a TCCON station on Ascension Island, about 200 m from the sea. Under the rough conditions at this site, typical optical mirrors that are made for laboratory conditions are destroyed by sea salt spray within a few weeks. Besides, typical gold-coated mirrors cannot be cleaned as their soft surface is easily scratched or damaged. To overcome these problems, the MPI-BGC has developed optical mirrors that - offer good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared - are highly resistant to salt and chlorine - have a hard surface so that they can be cleaned often and easily - are not affected by organic solvents - last for months in very harsh environments - can be reused after polishing These mirrors could be applied to most TCCON and NDACC sites. This way, the network could be expanded to regions where operation

  5. Implementation of the Ramsar Convention on South American wetlands: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann,Florian; Householder, Ethan; Lopes,Aline; de Oliveira Wittmann, Astrid; Junk,Wolfgang J.; Piedade, Maria T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Florian Wittmann,1 Ethan Householder,2,3 Astrid de Oliveira Wittmann,4 Aline Lopes,2 Wolfgang J Junk,5 Maria TF Piedade2 1Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; 2MAUA Working Group, National Institute for Amazon Research – INPA, Manaus, Brazil; 3Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 4Institute for Biological Sciences, Federal University of Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus, 5National Wetland Institute – INAU, C...

  6. Institutions, Institutional Change, Language, and Searle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred); R. McMaster; J. Finch

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper endeavours to contribute to the growing institutionalist literature on the conception of the institution. We draw from John Davis’ (2003) analysis of the individual in posing the questions: what differentiates institutions, and how can changing institutions be identified thro

  7. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the most significant element that constitutes the visual identity of an institution. While forming architectural and interior architectural planning of institutions, establishing places that will clearly reşect the corporate identity is gaining importance. In the perception of visual identity of institutions, planning elements such as; colour, texture, material and form are more significant than others.

  8. Impact of tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature biases on the simulated atmospheric circulation and precipitation over the Atlantic region: An ECHAM6 model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Bader, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    As many coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, the coupled Earth System Model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology suffers from severe sea-surface temperature (SST) biases in the tropical Atlantic. We performed a set of SST sensitivity experiments with its atmospheric model component ECHAM6 to understand the impact of tropical Atlantic SST biases on atmospheric circulation and precipitation. The model was forced by a climatology of observed global SSTs to focus on simulated seasonal and annual mean state climate. Through the superposition of varying tropical Atlantic bias patterns extracted from the MPI-ESM on top of the control field, this study investigates the relevance of the seasonal variation and spatial structure of tropical Atlantic biases for the simulated response. Results show that the position and structure of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) across the Atlantic is significantly affected, exhibiting a dynamically forced shift of annual mean precipitation maximum to the east of the Atlantic basin as well as a southward shift of the oceanic rain belt. The SST-induced changes in the ITCZ in turn affect seasonal rainfall over adjacent continents. However not only the ITCZ position but also other effects arising from biases in tropical Atlantic SSTs, e.g. variations in the wind field, change the simulation of precipitation over land. The seasonal variation and spatial pattern of tropical Atlantic SST biases turns out to be crucial for the simulated atmospheric response and is essential for analyzing the contribution of SST biases to coupled model mean state biases. Our experiments show that MPI-ESM mean-state biases in the Atlantic sector are mainly driven by SST biases in the tropical Atlantic while teleconnections from other basins seem to play a minor role.

  9. Present and future changes of ice sheets in a coupled ice sheet-climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsch, Marie; Ziemen, Florian; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The future evolution of the ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica is of importance, as ice sheets hold more than 99% of the Earths' freshwater. If released into the oceans, this freshwater could significantly impact the global climate, most prominently the oceanic overturning circulation and the sea-level. To model past and future climate change it is therefore important to integrate ice sheet models (ISMs) into state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs), in order to account for the full range of feedback processes between ice sheets and other climate components. However, the coupling of ISMs into ESMs remains challenging, especially due to the required downscaling of the surface mass balance (SMB) from the low resolution atmospheric grid of the ESM onto the high resolution ice sheet topography. Here we present results from model simulations with the Max Planck Institute ESM (MPI-ESM) coupled to the Parallel ISM (PISM; http://www.pism-docs.org). To bridge the gap between the different model resolutions of the atmospheric component of MPI-ESM and PISM a sophisticated energy balance model (EBM) is used to calculate and downscale the SMB. The modeled SMB for present-day climate conditions shows good agreement with SMB reconstructions from regional climate modeling (e.g. RACMO, MAR). To estimate the effect of different downscaling methods, simulations performed with the EBM are compared to simulations that use a commonly applied positive degree day approach. These comparisons are shown for simulations with present day as well as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  10. Basin-scale assessment of the land surface water budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational and research NLDAS-2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Brewer, Michael; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay V.; Wei, Helin; Meng, Jesse; Luo, Lifeng

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the components of the land surface water budget in the four land surface models (Noah, SAC-Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model, (VIC) Variable Infiltration Capacity Model, and Mosaic) applied in the newly implemented National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational and research versions of the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS-2). This work focuses on monthly and annual components of the water budget over 12 National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Monthly gridded FLUX Network (FLUXNET) evapotranspiration (ET) from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) of Germany, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) total runoff (Q), changes in total water storage (dS/dt, derived as a residual by utilizing MPI ET and USGS Q in the water balance equation), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observed total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and change (TWSC) are used as reference data sets. Compared to these ET and Q benchmarks, Mosaic and SAC (Noah and VIC) in the operational NLDAS-2 overestimate (underestimate) mean annual reference ET and underestimate (overestimate) mean annual reference Q. The multimodel ensemble mean (MME) is closer to the mean annual reference ET and Q. An anomaly correlation (AC) analysis shows good AC values for simulated monthly mean Q and dS/dt but significantly smaller AC values for simulated ET. Upgraded versions of the models utilized in the research side of NLDAS-2 yield largely improved performance in the simulation of these mean annual and monthly water component diagnostics. These results demonstrate that the three intertwined efforts of improving (1) the scientific understanding of parameterization of land surface processes, (2) the spatial and temporal extent of systematic validation of land surface processes, and (3) the engineering-oriented aspects such as parameter calibration and optimization are key to substantially improving product

  11. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  12. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  13. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...

  14. CUDA、MPI和OpenMP三级混合并行模型的研究%Mixed CUDA、MPI and OpenMP in Three Mode Parallel Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕人达; 刘青昆

    2010-01-01

    采用CUDA+MPI+OpenMP的三级并行编程模式,实现节点间的粗粒度并行,节点内的细粒度并行以及将GPU作为并行计算设备的CUDA编程模型.这种新的三级并行混合编程模式为SMP机群提供了一种更为高效的并行策略.本文讨论了三级并行编程环境的快速搭建以及多粒度混合并行编程方法,并在多个节点的机群环境中完成测试工作.

  15. 基于MPI的并行计算系统构建及评测%Constructing and Analyzing a Parallel Computing System Based on MPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庶旭; 朱正平; 孙传庆

    2004-01-01

    利用普通微机(PC)构建高性能机群(Beowulf)同样可以获得强大的计算能力.针对在Beowrulf系统中基于MPI环境的并行计算问题给出了可行的构建方案,对于如何解决负载平衡,针对MPI(Message Passing Interface)并行编程环境下测试并行系统加速比编程比较困难的情况,介绍开发了一个矩阵相乘的通用并行算法模块,针对评测模型进行了性能测试,测试结果表明可以达到比较好的实际效果.

  16. Análisis comparativo de la ejecución del algoritmo voraz de PRIM en modo lineal y paralelo (LAM-MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márquez Diaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra cómo funciona el algoritmo voraz PRlM, tanto en ambientes paralelos como en secuenciales. El objetivo de estas pruebas es ver cómo la herramienta mpi puede trabajar en red y mostrar cómo los algoritmos voraces en lafase de ejecución pueden arrojar resultados satisfactorios al momento de utilizarlos. Para poder ejecutar el algoritmo voraz PRlM se usó un entorno de procesamiento secuencial utilizando un único computador y un entorno de procesamiento paralelo a partir de la implementaci6n dada con la programación de paso de mensajes (MP¡, denominada l.AM (Local Area MuIticomputer sobre el sistema operativo Linux. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que a través del paralelismo virtual se logra disminuir el tiempo de procesamiento de un programa de esta naturaleza.

  17. Study of MPI based on parallel MOM on PC clusters for EM-beam scattering by 2-D PEC rough surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jun; Guo Li-Xin; Wang An-Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper firstly applies the finite impulse response filter (FIR) theory combined with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to generate two-dimeusionai Gaussian rough surface.Using the electric field integral equation (EFIE),it introduces the method of moment (MOM) with RWG vector basis function and Galerkin's method to investigate the electromagnetic beam scattering by a two-dimensional PEC Ganssian rough surface on personal computer (PC) clusters.The details of the parallel conjugate gradient method (CGM) for solving the matrix equation are also presented and the numerical simulations are obtained through the message passing interface (MPI) platform on the PC clusters.It finds significantly that the parallel MOM supplies a novel technique for solving a two-dimensional rough surface electromagnetic-scattering problem.The influences of the root-mean-square height,the correlation length and the polarization on the beam scattering characteristics by two-dimensional PEC Gaussian rough surfaces are finally discussed.

  18. Analysis and Comparison between Networkbased MPI and PVM%网络环境中MPI和PVM的分析与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨; 李仕锋; 许小刚; 王萃寒

    2003-01-01

    消息传递接口(Message Passing Interface,MPI)和并行虚拟机(Parallel Virtual Machine,PVM)是两种广泛应用的网络分布式并行计算环境.论文首先介绍了消息传递接口和并行虚拟机两者各自的起源和特点,然后在此基础上从可移植性、点对点通信、集体通信、资源管理和容错能力等多方面分析和比较了这两者的功能特点.

  19. Numerical Studies of Perturbed Static Solutions Decay in the Coupled System of Yang-Mills-Dilaton Equations with use of MPI technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hayryan, E A; Donets, E E; Pokorny, I; Streltsova, O I

    2004-01-01

    Numerical study results for nonlinear decay of perturbed static spherically symmetric regular solutions in the coupled system of Yang-Mills-dilaton equations are presented. The system under consideration is a coupled system of nonlinear evolution equations of a hyperbolic type. The parallel computing technique with use of multiprocessor computing system was applied in order to reduce sufficiently a total simulation time. We used parallelization of counter Thomas algorithm, which is effective for solving on two processors, as well as the partition method that allows one to solve the problem in parallel on $p$ processors with the scope to solve tridiagonal systems of linear equations that arise from finite difference approximations to the original problem. Parallel computing with use of the message passing interface (MPI) was done on cluster with $p=1,2,3,\\dots,7$ processors.

  20. 雷达散射截面并行计算中的MPI实现技术研究%On MPI Implementation of Radar Cross Section Parallel Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战合; 何政道; 李莹; 武哲

    2009-01-01

    基于MPI(Message Passing Interface)并行计算平台,开发了高效的并行多层快速多极子算法程序,可用于飞行器等目标RCS计算分析.为提高通信效率、增加程序的鲁棒性,提出了优化的通信措施,分析了点对点通信、阻塞通信、非阻塞通信的使用优缺点,针对RCS计算,组建了完整的通信方法,从而有效防止死锁的发生.算例证明,程序能胜任于电大尺寸的RCS散射计算,具有较高的精确度.

  1. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  2. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    between and exploit the multiple, potentially contradictory institutional logics of the different spheres in which they operate. While much research has elucidated how institutional entrepreneurs effect change, this study illustrates how effective entrepreneurs managing and exploiting institutional...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  3. 基于MPI+FreeFem++的有限元并行计算%Parallel Finite Element Computations Based on MPI and FreeFem+ +

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚月强

    2012-01-01

    有限元方法是一种灵活而高效的数值求解偏微分方程的计算方法,是工程分析和计算中不可缺少的重要工具之一。在计算机技术的快速发展使得并行机的价格日益下降的今天,并行有限元计算方法受到了学术界和工程界的普遍关注。讨论了基于MPI+FreeFem++的有限元并行计算环境的构建,阐述了在该环境下有限元并行程序的编写、编译及运行等过程,并通过具体编程实例,说明了MPI+FreeFem++环境下的有限元并行编程的简单和高效。%Finite element methods are a type of flexible and highly efficient methods for numerical solution of partial differential equations. They are one of the important and indispensable tools in engineering analysis and computations. As the price of parallel computers quickly drops with the development of computer technology, parallel finite element methods nowadays attract popular attentions in both academic and engineering fields. This paper discusses the construction of par- allel environment based on MPI and FreeFem++for finite element computations, states the writing, compiling and run- ning of a parallel finite element program in the environment. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the simplicity and high efficiency of parallel finite element computations based on MPI and FreeFem++.

  4. Assessment of precipitation and temperature data from CMIP3 global climate models for hydrologic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T. A.; Peel, M. C.; Karoly, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify better performing Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) global climate models (GCMs) that reproduce grid-scale climatological statistics of observed precipitation and temperature for input to hydrologic simulation over global land regions. Current assessments are aimed mainly at examining the performance of GCMs from a climatology perspective and not from a hydrology standpoint. The performance of each GCM in reproducing the precipitation and temperature statistics was ranked and better performing GCMs identified for later analyses. Observed global land surface precipitation and temperature data were drawn from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) 3.10 gridded data set and re-sampled to the resolution of each GCM for comparison. Observed and GCM-based estimates of mean and standard deviation of annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, mean monthly precipitation and temperature and Köppen-Geiger climate type were compared. The main metrics for assessing GCM performance were the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) index and root mean square error (RMSE) between modelled and observed long-term statistics. This information combined with a literature review of the performance of the CMIP3 models identified the following better performing GCMs from a hydrologic perspective: HadCM3 (Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research), MIROCm (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) (Center for Climate System Research (The University of Tokyo), National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Frontier Research Center for Global Change), MIUB (Meteorological Institute of the University of Bonn, Meteorological Research Institute of KMA, and Model and Data group), MPI (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology) and MRI (Japan Meteorological Research Institute). The future response of these GCMs was found to be representative of the 44 GCM ensemble members which confirms that the selected GCMs are reasonably

  5. PETASCALE DATA STORAGE INSTITUTE (PDSI) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Garth [Carnegie Mellon University

    2012-11-26

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability. The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools. The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz. Because the Institute focuses on low level files systems and storage systems, its role in improving SciDAC systems was one of supporting application middleware such as data management and system-level performance tuning. In retrospect, the Petascale Data Storage Institute’s most innovative and impactful contribution is the Parallel Log-structured File System (PLFS). Published in SC09, PLFS is middleware that operates in MPI-IO or embedded in FUSE for non-MPI applications. Its function is to decouple concurrently written files into a per-process log file, whose impact (the contents of the single file that the parallel application was concurrently writing) is determined on later reading, rather than during its writing. PLFS is transparent to the parallel application, offering a POSIX or MPI-IO interface, and it shows an order of magnitude speedup to the Chombo benchmark and two orders of magnitude to the FLASH benchmark. Moreover, LANL production applications see speedups of 5X to 28X, so PLFS has been put into production at LANL. Originally conceived and prototyped in a PDSI collaboration between LANL and CMU, it has grown to engage many other PDSI institutes, international partners like AWE

  6. PETASCALE DATA STORAGE INSTITUTE (PDSI) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Garth [Carnegie Mellon University

    2012-11-26

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability. The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools. The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz. Because the Institute focuses on low level files systems and storage systems, its role in improving SciDAC systems was one of supporting application middleware such as data management and system-level performance tuning. In retrospect, the Petascale Data Storage Institute’s most innovative and impactful contribution is the Parallel Log-structured File System (PLFS). Published in SC09, PLFS is middleware that operates in MPI-IO or embedded in FUSE for non-MPI applications. Its function is to decouple concurrently written files into a per-process log file, whose impact (the contents of the single file that the parallel application was concurrently writing) is determined on later reading, rather than during its writing. PLFS is transparent to the parallel application, offering a POSIX or MPI-IO interface, and it shows an order of magnitude speedup to the Chombo benchmark and two orders of magnitude to the FLASH benchmark. Moreover, LANL production applications see speedups of 5X to 28X, so PLFS has been put into production at LANL. Originally conceived and prototyped in a PDSI collaboration between LANL and CMU, it has grown to engage many other PDSI institutes, international partners like AWE

  7. Multidimensional Prognostic Index in Association with Future Mortality and Number of Hospital Days in a Population-Based Sample of Older Adults: Results of the EU Funded MPI_AGE Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B Angleman

    Full Text Available The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI has been found to predict mortality in patients with a variety of clinical conditions. We aimed to assess the association of the MPI with future mortality and number of in-hospital days for the first time in a population-based cohort.The study population consisted of 2472 persons, aged 66-99 years, from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, Sweden, who underwent the baseline visit 2001-4, and were followed up >10 years for in-hospital days and >12 years for mortality. The MPI was a modified version of the original and aggregated seven domains (personal and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive function, illness severity and comorbidity, number of medications, co-habitation status, and nutritional status. The MPI score was divided into risk groups: low, medium and high. Number of in-hospital days (within 1, 3 and 10 years and mortality data were derived from official registries. All analyses were age-stratified (sexagenarians, septuagenarians, octogenarians, nonagenarians.During the follow-up 1331 persons (53.8% died. Laplace regression models, suggested that median survival in medium risk groups varied by age from 2.2-3.6 years earlier than for those in the corresponding low risk groups (p = 0.002-p<0.001, and median survival in high risk groups varied by age from 3.8-9.0 years earlier than for corresponding low risk groups (p<0.001. For nonagenarians, the median age at death was 3.8 years earlier in the high risk group than for the low risk group (p<0.001. The mean number of in-hospital days increased significantly with higher MPI risk score within 1 and 3 years for people of each age group.For the first time, the effectiveness of MPI has been verified in a population-based cohort. Higher MPI risk scores associated with more days in hospital and with fewer years of survival, across a broad and stratified age range.

  8. Preface to the Rostock Debate on Demographic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bernardi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The first Rostock Debate on Demographic Change, which took place on February 21, 2006, centered on the following question: Should governments in Europe push much more aggressively for gender equality to raise fertility? The four debaters were Laurent Toulemon from the Institut National d'Etudes Demograhiques (France, Dimiter Philipov from the Vienna Institute of Demography (Austria, Livia Oláh from Stockholm University (Sweden, and Gerda Neyer from the Max Planck Institute (Germany

  9. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... 25 September 21, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  10. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  11. Furthering critical institutionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleaver, Frances; Koning, De Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI) is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focus

  12. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  13. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and fjord system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaste, OE. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Southern Branch, Televeien 3, N-4879 Grimstad (Norway); Wright, R.F.; Barkved, L.J.; Bjerkeng, B.; Magnusson, J.; Saelthun, N.R. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O. Box 173, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Engen-Skaugen, T. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, N-0313 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-07-15

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km{sup 2}) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1{sup o}C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3{sup o}C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N

  14. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and FJORD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, Ø; Wright, R F; Barkved, L J; Bjerkeng, B; Engen-Skaugen, T; Magnusson, J; Saelthun, N R

    2006-07-15

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km(2)) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1 degrees C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3 degrees C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N

  15. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  16. DOE SciDAC’s Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report for University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervenak, Ann Louise [University of Southern California

    2013-12-19

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  17. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create...... a pressure for new experimental forms of institutions that are themselves searching for ways to improve their relevance. This change calls for extending the study of industrial relations and employment systems in the current era to investigate how new dynamic complementarities among employees, managers...

  18. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-25

    Ernaehrungsphysiologie Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie Institut fuer Biochemie, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Instituto di Chimica, Facolt’ di Medicina ...properly promote and manage the HFSP as an interna - tional program through cooperation among many coun- tries. To this end, the Organization must be...established and managed on the basis of the following premises: (1) The implementation scheme should be open interna - tionally. a. All activities

  19. European Scientific Notes, Volume 37, Number 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-31

    as glycine , ß-alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and piperidinic acid. There was a pronounced maximum in the curve of anticoagulant activity...presented by research- ers from the Technical Institute of Munich and the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart. By correlating the concentration of...of transition metal impurities in InP. Their reported work concentrated on manganese and copper. Both ion-implan- tation and diffusion techniques

  20. Is human resource management profitable for small firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kok; Deanne den Hartog

    2006-01-01

    The impact of high performance work systems on labour productivity and profit of small and medium sized enterprises. Previous versions of this paper have been presented at the 2005 conference of the Dutch HRM Network on HRM and performance (held on 4 and 5 November of that year) and the invited workshop 'Entrepreneurship from the employee's perspective' at the Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena (Februari 2006). The paper presented at the Mack Planck Institute has been published as EIM ...

  1. Italia: bibliotecas de arte y bibliotecas de museos en Florencia: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Las visitas realizadas fueron las siguientes: bibliotecas de Museos (Biblioteca degli Uffizi), bibliotecas de instituciones especializadas de enseñanza (Kunsthistorisches Institut-Max Planck Institut, Biblioteca Berenson); de bibliotecas patrimoniales (Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Biblioteca Riccardiana) e incluso de una de las dos bibliotecas nacionales centrales italianas. Ésto permitió recabar información referente a aspectos logísticos, procesos técnicos especializados, aplicación d...

  2. Laser Physics and Laser Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Other types of laser-assisted materials process- Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. Garching . West ing and machining, including laser cutting, welding...detectors with microstructured electrodes, 134[ G. N. Maracas. G. L. Harrs, C. A. Lee. and R. A. McFarlane. Opt. Le’tt., vol. 7, pp. 575-577, Dcc . 1982...A. E. Siegman Max-Planck Institut f’r Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching , West Germany and E. L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford

  3. MPI + OpenCL implementation of a phase-field method incorporating CALPHAD description of Gibbs energies on heterogeneous computing platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Tennyson, P.; G. M., Karthik; Phanikumar, G.

    2015-01-01

    Phase-field method uses a non-conserved order parameter to define the phase state of a system and is a versatile method for moving boundary problems. It is a method of choice for simulating microstructure evolution in the domain of materials engineering. Solution of phase-field evolution equations avoids explicit tracking of interfaces and is often implemented on a structured grid to capture microstructure evolution in a simple and elegant manner. Restrictions on the grid size to accurately capture the interface curvature effects lead to large number of grid points in the computational domain and render the simulation computationally intensive for realistic simulations in 3D. However, the availability of powerful heterogeneous computing platforms and super clusters provides the advantage to perform large scale phase-field simulations efficiently. This paper discusses a portable implementation to extend simulations across multiple CPUs using MPI to include use of GPUs using OpenCL. The solution scheme adapts an isotropic stencil that avoids grid-induced anisotropy. Use of separate OpenCL kernels for problem specific portions of the code ensure that the approach can be extended to different problems. Performance analysis of parallel strategies used in the study illustrate the massively parallel computing possibility for phase-field simulations across heterogeneous platforms.

  4. Constructing a Beowulf Parallel Computing System Based on Windows and MPI%构建基于Windows和MPI的Beowulf并行计算系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 黄卡玛

    2003-01-01

    利用普通微机构建并行计算集群(常称为Beowulf系统),能够以低廉的价格获得强大的计算能力.文章介绍了利用16台微机构建一套Beowulf并行计算系统,节点微机上运行Windows 2000操作系统,采用MPI(Message-Passing-Interface)的MPICH最新版本:MPICH.NT 1.23作为并行计算的支撑环境,并以100M bps高速交换式以太网作为互连网络.通过编制的并行计算程序对该Beowulf系统进行了并行效率的实际测试,测试结果表明该Beowulf系统能够达到非常高的并行加速比和并行效率.

  5. MPI-based Optimization Design of Injection Forming Gates%基于MPI的注塑件浇口优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂云

    2012-01-01

    针对注射模具中合理的浇口位置在塑料制品成型中的重要地位,应用MPI软件对插座上盖在其不同浇口位置和数量下进行模拟分析,预测了在不同浇口方案下的缺陷,确定了最佳浇口设计方案,为模具设计人员优化注塑模设计提供了借鉴.%In view of the importance of proper gate location for plastic injection mould in the design of plastic product forming,the injection molding simulation of socket cover was analyzed under different gate position and quantity with MPI software. The defects of injection molding were predicted for several different design plans of the gate and the optimum design plan of the gate was selected. The foundations of optimum design injection mold was provided for mold designers.

  6. TESLA GPUs versus MPI with OpenMP for the Forward Modeling of Gravity and Gravity Gradient of Large Prisms Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Couder-Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An implementation with the CUDA technology in a single and in several graphics processing units (GPUs is presented for the calculation of the forward modeling of gravitational fields from a tridimensional volumetric ensemble composed by unitary prisms of constant density. We compared the performance results obtained with the GPUs against a previous version coded in OpenMP with MPI, and we analyzed the results on both platforms. Today, the use of GPUs represents a breakthrough in parallel computing, which has led to the development of several applications with various applications. Nevertheless, in some applications the decomposition of the tasks is not trivial, as can be appreciated in this paper. Unlike a trivial decomposition of the domain, we proposed to decompose the problem by sets of prisms and use different memory spaces per processing CUDA core, avoiding the performance decay as a result of the constant calls to kernels functions which would be needed in a parallelization by observations points. The design and implementation created are the main contributions of this work, because the parallelization scheme implemented is not trivial. The performance results obtained are comparable to those of a small processing cluster.

  7. Parallel Imaging of MPI and Pthread Mixed Programming Based on Cluster%MPI和Pthread混合编程在NCS算法中的设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田蕾; 范士明

    2010-01-01

    根据星载合成孔径雷达(Synthetic Aperture Radar,SAR)实时和准实时成像的需求,论文设计和实现了一种混合编程模式的非线性CS(Nonlinear Chirp Scaling, NCS)成像算法.此方法基于SMP(Symmetric Multiprocessing)集群系统,利用MPI(Message Passing Interface)和Pthread混合编程,实现了多进程和多线程的两级流水线并行成像处理.通过在HP刀片系统上的实验验证和结果分析,这种混合编程的流水线NCS并行成像算法既能较好适应前端系统传输一景原始回波数据时间不小于8s的情况,又能较好适应大规模原始回波数据堆积并且等待处理的情况.

  8. MPI/OpenMP Hybrid Parallel Algorithm of Resolution of Identity Second-Order Møller-Plesset Perturbation Calculation for Massively Parallel Multicore Supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouda, Michio; Nakajima, Takahito

    2013-12-10

    A new algorithm for massively parallel calculations of electron correlation energy of large molecules based on the resolution of identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (RI-MP2) technique is developed and implemented into the quantum chemistry software NTChem. In this algorithm, a Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) hybrid parallel programming model is applied to attain efficient parallel performance on massively parallel supercomputers. An in-core storage scheme of intermediate data of three-center electron repulsion integrals utilizing the distributed memory is developed to eliminate input/output (I/O) overhead. The parallel performance of the algorithm is tested on massively parallel supercomputers such as the K computer (using up to 45 992 central processing unit (CPU) cores) and a commodity Intel Xeon cluster (using up to 8192 CPU cores). The parallel RI-MP2/cc-pVTZ calculation of two-layer nanographene sheets (C150H30)2 (number of atomic orbitals is 9640) is performed using 8991 node and 71 288 CPU cores of the K computer.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of three dimensional Edwards Anderson model with multi-spin coding and parallel tempering using MPI and CUDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sheng; Fang, Ye; Tam, Ka-Ming; Thakur, Bhupender; Yun, Zhifeng; Tomko, Karen; Moreno, Juana; Ramanujam, Jagannathan; Jarrell, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The Edwards Anderson model is a typical example of random frustrated system. It has been a long standing problem in computational physics due to its long relaxation time. Some important properties of the low temperature spin glass phase are still poorly understood after decades of study. The recent advances of GPU computing provide a new opportunity to substantially improve the simulations. We developed an MPI-CUDA hybrid code with multi-spin coding for parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulation of Edwards Anderson model. Since the system size is relatively small, and a large number of parallel replicas and Monte Carlo moves are required, the problem suits well for modern GPUs with CUDA architecture. We use the code to perform an extensive simulation on the three-dimensional Edwards Anderson model with an external field. This work is funded by the NSF EPSCoR LA-SiGMA project under award number EPS-1003897. This work is partly done on the machines of Ohio Supercomputer Center.

  10. Parallel Kriging on Interpolation of Spatial Precipitation Based on MPI%基于MPI的并行Kriging空间降水插值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白树仁; 李涛; 宁锦阳

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the calculation speed for interpolation of Spatial Precipitation(SP). using MPI parallel interface library and modeling approach using data partitioning, achieve parallel Kriging algorithm for interpolation of SP. The parallel computing environment is based on the Linux operating system. Experimental results show that the parallel algorithm can effectively save computing time and has a good Speedup, parallel efficiency and scalability. It also provides a meaningful reference for the parallel implementation and application of Kriging interpolation algorithm.%为减少空间降水插值的计算时间,以MPI并行接口为技术手段,采用数据划分建模方法,实现改进Kriging算法的并行算法.在Linux操作系统上搭建并行计算环境,试验数据表明,该并行算法能有效节省计算时间并具有良好的加速比、并行效率和扩展性.为Kriging插值算法的并行化实现和应用提供有意义的参考.

  11. Institutions as Knowledge Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....

  12. Modeling Inefficient Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Why do inefficient %uF818 non-growth enhancing %uF818 institutions emerge and persist? This paper develops a simple framework to provide some answers to this question. Political institutions determine the allocation of political power, and economic institutions determine the framework for policy-making and place constraints on various policies. Groups with political power, the elite, choose policies to increase their income and to directly or indirectly transfer resources from the rest of soc...

  13. Institutional pressures and HRM: developing institutional fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Paauwe, J.; Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Research in strategic human resource management (HRM) has focused mainly on the effects of HRM practices or systems on organizational effectiveness. However, institutional theory argues that besides being financially successful, organizations also need legitimacy to survive. Owing to the t

  14. PARALLELIZATION AND PERFECTION OF MCNP MONTE CARLO PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE IN MPI%粒子输运蒙特卡罗程序MCNP在MPI下的并行化及完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓力; 刘杰; 张文勇

    2003-01-01

    The particle transport Monte Carlo code MCNP had been realized the paral-lelization in MPI (Message Passing Interface) in 1999. But due to adopting the leap random number producer, some differences were existed between the parallel result and the serial result. Now the same results have been achieved by using the segment random number. The speedup of the applied problem is the liner ups to 53 in 64-Processors and the parallel efficiencv is up to 83% in 64-Processors.

  15. RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSPARENT MPI PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR SINGLE SYSTEM IMAGING%面向单一系统映像的透明 MPI编程模型研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠义; 金同标; 殷进勇

    2013-01-01

    We propose the concept and structure formation of message passing interface ( MPI) in two different transparent levels , and expatiate on the motivation of presenting the transparent MPI from two levels respectively , the application level transparency and the communication level transparency , as well as their specific architecture and the implementation process based on MPICH 2, followed by the comprehensive analyses on their advantages and disadvantages .It is found from the measurement that the transparent MPI is simple and easy in use under the single system imaging computer cluster condition , and wins the improvement in performance .%提出两种不同级别透明MPI( Message Passing Interface )的概念和结构组成,分别从应用级透明和通信级透明两个层面来阐述提出透明MPI的动机,以及它们的具体架构和基于MPICH2的实现过程,并对其优缺点进行全面分析。通过测量发现,在单一系统映像的机群下,透明MPI不仅简单易用,还获得了性能上的提高。

  16. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  17. Institutionalism "Old" and "New."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  18. Discipline as Institutional Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Hommel, Ulrich; Cornuel, Eric

    Drawing on the case of business school rankings, we study how institutions are maintained and remain persistent despite their contested nature. We argue that rankings as institutions can be maintained through subtle disciplinary practices that freeze power relations in recipient organizations. Ou...

  19. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  20. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  1. Heterogeneous parallel compressible flow solver based on MPI+CUDA%基于MPI+CUDA的异构并行可压缩流求解器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘枫; 李桦; 田正雨; 潘沙

    2014-01-01

    A compressible flow heterogeneous parallel solver based on MPI+CUDA on CPU/GPU heterogeneous system was established.Then different parallel computing models and optimizing methods of compressible flow parallel computing algorithm were discussed.This solver runs different codes with difference resources:the codes which are complex or have low computing density are run on CPU,while the codes which are simple or have high computing density are run on GPU.The heterogeneous systems’computing results and the efficiencies with homogeneous systems were compared through several problems.Finally,the heterogeneous algorithm was applied to the hypersonic flow.The result shows that the algorithm is robust and the computing efficiency is improved ten times more than that of the homogeneous algorithm.%在CPU/GPU异构体系结构计算集群上,建立了基于MPI+CUDA的异构并行可压缩流求解器。讨论了异构结构上的可压缩流并行算法的并行模式,在CPU上执行计算密集度低、指令复杂的计算任务,在GPU上执行计算密集度高、指令单一的计算任务。通过数个算例,对比了异构并行计算和传统CPU并行计算计算结果和计算效率。将该算法运用于高超声速流动的数值模拟中,数值结果显示,基于MPI+CUDA的异构并行可压缩流求解器鲁棒性好,计算效率较CPU同构并行计算提高10倍以上。

  2. Hindcast skill for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N within two MPI-ESM decadal climate prediction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Vasco; Pohlmann, Holger; Düsterhus, André; Matei, Daniela; Marotzke, Jochem; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Zeller, Mathias; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-12-01

    We analyse the hindcast skill for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) against 10 years of RAPID/MOCHA AMOC observations, which are now long enough to remove the mean seasonal cycle prior to the hindcast skill analysis. We analyse AMOC hindcast skill in two hindcast ensembles generated with two differently initialised decadal prediction systems that are both based on the earth system model MPI-ESM. We evaluate the hindcast skill for the AMOC and its components in both prediction systems against RAPID/MOCHA observations both with and without the mean seasonal cycle removed using anomaly correlation (COR) and root-mean-square error as skill measures. We find significant hindcast skill for most lead years up to 5 for monthly-mean AMOC variations only in the newer of the two prediction systems and only using COR, but with and without the mean seasonal cycle removed. In both systems and for all analysed lead years, the two geostrophic transport components (the upper-mid-ocean transport and Florida Strait combined, that is: AMOC minus Ekman) are the main source of hindcast skill. In the present model setup and with the currently available observational time series, we cannot relate AMOC hindcast skill to the upper-mid-ocean transport alone. Yet, we can show that the seasonal variability of the upper-mid-ocean transport in the free coupled model originates from eastern boundary density variability. Overall, our results indicate modest yet robust AMOC hindcast skill above the uninitialized simulation, independent of the treatment of the seasonal cycle, although we cannot directly link this hindcast skill to the initialisation of the density field with either initialisation method.

  3. Introduction to EU Grants and Fellowships for PhD students and early Post-docs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Julia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This talk is based on the presentation “Introduction to EU Grants and Fellowships for PhD students and early Post-docs” and aims at informing young scientists about individual funding schemes in FP7 Specific Programmes “People” and “Ideas”. It also aims at encouraging young scientists employed at Max Planck Institutes in the “Regional Cluster Bavaria”, or scientists who wish to come to Max Planck Institutes which are part of the cluster, to benefit from the support of the Regional EU Office Bavaria, whose consultants can give valuable administrative and tailor-made internal advice to add on the success of a competitive scientific proposal.

  4. An Efficient, Movable Single-Particle Detector for Use in Cryogenic Ultra-High Vacuum Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Spruck, Kaija; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2014-01-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to $\\sim$ 10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible, high-temperature bakeable and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR). We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  5. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  6. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue...... for combining the resource-based theory with an institutions-based approach towards constructing a more practical and empirical oriented analytical framework. After the preliminary discussion and introduction to the different theories used, the authors then take a focus on the analytical framework used to study...

  7. Study Of Museum Institutional Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Rohanda

    2016-11-01

    development of information and library science, particularly institution of information in addition to the library. Second, it provides an overview of the governance of the museum in government institutions. Third, the scope of study is limited to institutional management of museums in government institutions, thus there is a need for the development of studies on institutional management of museums for other types of museums, such as museums that are managed by private or personal institutions. Keywords: Gawitra, information institution, management, museum.

  8. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine today with a keynote from Texas State Senator Paul Bettencourt Dr. Taylor received the ... in cardiovascular discovery is happening here at the Texas Heart Institute. Visit www.thenextfirst.org . Your Heart ...

  9. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  10. Institutions and Venture Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Josh; Tåg, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    We survey the literature on venture capital and institutions and present a case study comparing the development of the venture capital market in the US to Sweden. Our literature survey underscores that the legal environment, financial market development, the tax system, labor market regulations, and public spending on research and development correlates with venture capital activities across countries. Our case study suggests these institutional differences led to the later development of an ...

  11. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    - and professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers....... In the future specialization will be supplemented by horizontal and vertical interdisciplinary and innovative competences integrating the complex process industrialized construction sector. Schools, teachers and digital teaching materials need be developed to support this change supported by front running...

  12. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  13. Blogs in cultural institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kaczyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses examples of three blogs of the National Library, both in terms of their structure and content as highlighting elements that impact on the promotion of both the blog and the institutions they lead. Discussed the advantages of one of Poland’s most popular blogging platforms WordPress. It also presents a short briefings to customize the look of your blog based on WordPress platform needs to actuate the institution.

  14. Climate change impacts on hydrological processes in Norway based on two methods for transferring regional climate model results to meteorological station sites

    OpenAIRE

    Beldring, Stein; Engen-Skaugen, Torill; Førland, Eirik J.; Roald, Lars A.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts on hydrological processes in Norway have been estimated through combination of results from the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios, global climate models from the Hadley Centre and the Max-Planck Institute, and dynamical downscaling using the RegClim HIRHAM regional climate model. Temperature and precipitation simulations from the regional climate model were transferred to meteorological station sites using two different approaches, the delta change or perturbation ...

  15. Symposium I: Nanoscale Magnetic Materials and Applications. Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 25-30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    imaging and drug delivery while S. Wang (Stanford) outlined approaches for magnetic sifters and micro-fluidic devices for molecular biology...Nielschl; ’Experimental Department 11, Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle, Germany; 2Departamento de Fisica , Universidad de Santiago de...11:00 AM 12.2 Large Current Suppression Induced by Magnetic Molecular Channels on the Exposed Sides of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. Pawan Tyagil, Bruce

  16. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger A; Pawlowski M.; Kimura M

    2015-01-01

    Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM...

  17. Society News: Welcome to Griffiths Bay; RAS Associate wins Shaw Prize; Postgraduate prize preparations; Council minutes on-line; Birthday Honours; Kavli Prize; New Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The late Donald Griffiths will be commemorated in the name of a bay on the Antarctic Peninsula. Prof. Reinhard Genzel, Associate of the Society since 1994, Darwin Lecturer in 2007, and Director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics has been awarded the Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2008. While postgrad students complete their PhD theses, supervisors should note the deadline for submissions to the annual Michael Penston and Keith Runcorn Prizes.

  18. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  19. Die Rechtsstellung von Ausländern nach staatlichem Recht und Völkerrecht. Herausgegeben von Jochen Abr. Frowein und Torsten Stein. (Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, Band 94) / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Die Rechtsstellung von Ausländern nach staatlichem Recht und Völkerrecht = The legal position of aliens in national and international law = Le régime juridique des étrangers en droit national et international / Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht ; herausgegeben von Jochen A. Frowein, Torsten Stein. Berlin [etc.] : Springer, 1987

  20. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  1. Magnetic Turbulence in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    éstos cúmulos puede ser estudiada a través de la emisión radio-sincrotrón del medio intra-cúmulo en forma de rélicas y halos de los cúmulos. El...magnetic field orientation in 1Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl- Schwarzschild Str.1, 85741 Garching, Germany. 2Interferometrics Inc., Naval

  2. Concepts of highly excited electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Jamal Berakdar is an outstanding young researcher who has accomplished in less than ten years remarkable contributions to the field. He is well acknowledged by the scientific community. PhD-thesis at University of Freiburg (Prof. Klar, 1994), Humboldt- and Research fellow at Atomic & Molecular Physics Laboratories, Australian National University; since 1998 researcher at Max-Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany.

  3. Measurement of time dilation by laser spectroscopy on fast stored Lithium ions

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, S.

    2005-01-01

    In der hier vorgelegten Arbeit werden Frequenzmessungen an schnellen Lithium Ionen als Test der Zeitdilatation vorgestellt. Die Messungen sind am Speicherring TSR am Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik durchgeführt worden. Die Übergangsfrequenz eines Zwei-Niveau-Systems im Lithium Ion wird bestimmt, indem eine dopplerfreie Fluoreszens-Sättigungsspektroskopie verwendet wird. Die Spektroskopie wird durch zwei gegenläufige Laser verwirklicht, die kollinear zum Ionenstrahl sind. Zwei Messungen bei...

  4. Segueing from a Data Category Registry to a Data Concept Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, S. E.; Windhouwer, Menzo; Schuurman, I.; Broeder, D.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The terminology Community of Practice has long standardized data categories in the framework of ISO TC 37. ISO 12620:2009 specifies the data model and procedures for a Data Category Registry (DCR), which has been implemented by the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics as the ISOcat DCR. The DCR has been used by not only ISO TC 37, but also by the CLARIN research infrastructure. This paper describes how the needs of these communities have started to diverge and th...

  5. First light of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccini Calia, D.; Allaert, E.; Alvarez, J. L.; Araujo Hauck, C.; Avila, G.; Bendek, E.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Cullum, M.; Davies, R.; Dimmler, M.; Guidolin, I.; Hackenberg, W.; Hippler, S.; Kellner, S.; van Kesteren, A.; Koch, F.; Neumann, U.; Ott, T.; Popovic, D.; Pedichini, F.; Quattri, M.; Quentin, J.; Rabien, S.; Silber, A.; Tapia, M.

    2006-06-01

    Two teams of scientists and engineers at Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and at the European Southern Observatory have joined forces to design, build and install the Laser Guide Star Facility for the VLT. The Laser Guide Star Facility has now been completed and installed on the VLT Yepun telescope at Cerro Paranal. In this paper we report on the first light and first results from the Commissioning of the LGSF.

  6. Special Session on Adaptive Optics in Russia and China. Volume 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Brandl of the Max Planck Institute and Martyn Wells of the University of Edinburgh. The presentations will last until 10:45 am and closing remarks... recognition and tracking optical correlator. One contractor, Martin Marietta, used ferroelectric binary-phase SLMs from Boulder Nonlinear Systems to add an...brightest star in the field (See Brandl et al. Messenger). Secondly, a faint companion in K with a flux ratio of 10’ at 4ý’ have been detected around the

  7. Die Rechtsstellung von Ausländern nach staatlichem Recht und Völkerrecht. Herausgegeben von Jochen Abr. Frowein und Torsten Stein. (Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, Band 94) / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Die Rechtsstellung von Ausländern nach staatlichem Recht und Völkerrecht = The legal position of aliens in national and international law = Le régime juridique des étrangers en droit national et international / Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht ; herausgegeben von Jochen A. Frowein, Torsten Stein. Berlin [etc.] : Springer, 1987

  8. (Studies of ocean predictability at decade to century time scales using a global ocean general circulation model in a parallel competing environment). [Large Scale Geostrophic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-10

    The first phase of the proposed work is largely completed on schedule. Scientists at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) succeeded in putting a version of the Hamburg isopycnal coordinate ocean model (OPYC) onto the INTEL parallel computer. Due to the slow run speeds of the OPYC on the parallel machine, another ocean is being model used during the first part of phase 2. The model chosen is the Large Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model form the Max Planck Institute.

  9. [Studies of ocean predictability at decade to century time scales using a global ocean general circulation model in a parallel competing environment]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-10

    The first phase of the proposed work is largely completed on schedule. Scientists at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) succeeded in putting a version of the Hamburg isopycnal coordinate ocean model (OPYC) onto the INTEL parallel computer. Due to the slow run speeds of the OPYC on the parallel machine, another ocean is being model used during the first part of phase 2. The model chosen is the Large Scale Geostrophic (LSG) model form the Max Planck Institute.

  10. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  11. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  12. Financial institutions as an example of institutions of public trust

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jakubowska

    2013-01-01

    Financial institutions are commonly known as institutions of public trust and they are fundamental for activities of other economic entities. The level of trust determines the competitive position of financial institutions. That is why care about the best standards is the most important task for these institutions. Financial institutions are called institutions of public trust and thus high professionalism and more responsibility is demanded from them. This article presents basic problems con...

  13. The role of internal variability for decadal carbon uptake anomalies in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Aaron; Hi, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Ocean is a major sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions and hence it plays an essential role in modulating global carbon cycle and climate change. Previous studies based on observations (e.g., Landschützer et al. 2015) show pronounced decadal variations of carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean in recent decades and this variability is largely driven by internal climate variability. However, due to limited ensemble size of simulations, the variability of this important ocean sink is still poorly assessed by the state-of-the-art earth system models (ESMs). To assess the internal variability of carbon sink in the Southern Ocean, we use a large ensemble of 100 member simulations based on the Max Planck Institute-ESM (MPI-ESM). The large ensemble of simulations is generated via perturbed initial conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. Each ensemble member includes a historical simulation from 1850 to 2005 with an extension until 2100 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 future projections. Here we use model simulations from 1980-2015 to compare with available observation-based dataset. We found several ensemble members showing decadal decreasing trends in the carbon sink, which are similar to the trend shown in observations. This result suggests that MPI-ESM large ensemble simulations are able to reproduce decadal variation of carbon sink in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, the decreasing trends of Southern Ocean carbon sink in MPI-ESM are mainly contributed by region between 50-60°S. To understand the internal variability of the air-sea carbon fluxes in the Southern Ocean, we further investigate the variability of underlying processes, such as physical climate variability and ocean biological processes. Our results indicate two main drivers for the decadal decreasing trend of carbon sink: i) Intensified winds enhance upwelling of old carbon-rich waters, this leads to increase of the ocean surface pCO2; ii) Primary production is reduced in area

  14. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  15. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  16. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our

  17. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our t

  18. Analysis of the influence of lateral boundary conditions based on REMO RCM simulations over the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépszó, G.

    2010-09-01

    The REMO5.0 regional climate model developed by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg was adapted at the Hungarian Meteorological Service a couple of years ago. In the framework of the CLAVIER project, two experiments were accomplished with the model: a simulation of a past period from 1961 to 2000, driven and initialized by the ECMWF ERA40 re-analysis data, and a transient run for the hundred years of 1951 to 2050 driven by A1B scenario experiment of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM global coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The integration domain was the same in both experiments: it covers continental Europe with 25 km horizontal resolution. The results for the control part of the period were compared on the one hand with gridded observational dataset, and on the other hand, with each other in order to assess the impact of the different lateral boundary conditions on the results. The evaluation indicated that the re-analyses driven experiment provides warm and dry past climate over the Carpathian Basin, whereas lower temperature and higher precipitation values are obtained when the lateral boundary information is derived from global simulations. Validating the results with respect to observations, it is concluded that the temperature characteristics in the simulation-driven case outperformed that of the experiment forced by quasi-perfect (i.e., re-analysis) data, however, similar apparent conclusion cannot be drawn for precipitation. The presentation is undertaking to give deeper insight into the details and possible reasons for these outcomes.

  19. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  20. Modeling long-term, large-scale sediment storage using a simple sediment budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the anthropogenic perturbation of the biogeochemical cycles remains unquantified due to the poor representation of lateral fluxes of carbon and nutrients in Earth system models (ESMs). This lateral transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems is strongly affected by accelerated soil erosion rates. However, the quantification of global soil erosion by rainfall and runoff, and the resulting redistribution is missing. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to estimate global soil erosion and redistribution by presenting and evaluating a new large-scale coarse-resolution sediment budget model that is compatible with ESMs. This model can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends of soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslopes, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. We applied the model to the Rhine catchment using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (here AD 850-2005). Validation is done using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling between sediment storage and catchment area. We find that the model reproduces the spatial distribution of floodplain sediment storage and the scaling behavior for floodplains and hillslopes as found in observations. After analyzing the dependence of the scaling behavior on the main parameters of the model, we argue that the scaling is an emergent feature of the model and mainly dependent on the underlying topography. Furthermore, we find that land use change is the main contributor to the change in sediment storage in the Rhine catchment during the last millennium. Land use change also explains most of the temporal variability in sediment storage in floodplains and on hillslopes.

  1. Development and evaluation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and evaluate its skill to represent the global wetland distribution. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimise global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model evaluation reveals a good agreement for the spatial distribution of simulated wetlands compared to different observations on the global scale. The best results are achieved for the Northern Hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellites for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the evaluation demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations for most regions. Thus, the DWES can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES may be implemented into an Earth

  2. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimize global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model validation reveals a good agreement between the occurrence of simulated and observed wetlands on the global scale. The best result is achieved for the northern hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellite for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the validation analysis demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the global distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations. Thus, the dynamical wetland extent scheme can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES should be implemented into an earth system model

  3. The Seasonal Cycle of Satellite Chlorophyll Fluorescence Observations and its Relationship to Vegetation Phenology and Ecosystem Atmosphere Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Schaefer, K.; Jung, M.; Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y; Garrity, S.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Gu, L.; Marchesini, L. Belelli

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial chlorophyll uorescence from space has shown potentialfor providing global measurements related to gross primary productivity(GPP). In particular, space-based fluorescence may provide information onthe length of the carbon uptake period that can be of use for global carboncycle modeling. Here, we examine the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis asestimated from satellite fluorescence retrievals at wavelengths surroundingthe 740nm emission feature. These retrievals are from the Global OzoneMonitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) flying on the MetOp A satellite. Wecompare the fluorescence seasonal cycle with that of GPP as estimated froma diverse set of North American tower gas exchange measurements. Because the GOME-2 has a large ground footprint (40 x 80km2) as compared with that of the flux towers and requires averaging to reduce random errors, we additionally compare with seasonal cycles of upscaled GPP in the satellite averaging area surrounding the tower locations estimated from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) machine learning algorithm. We also examine the seasonality of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation(APAR) derived with reflectances from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Finally, we examine seasonal cycles of GPP as produced from an ensemble of vegetation models. Several of the data-driven models rely on satellite reflectance-based vegetation parameters to derive estimates of APAR that are used to compute GPP. For forested sites(particularly deciduous broadleaf and mixed forests), the GOME-2 fluorescence captures the spring onset and autumn shutoff of photosynthesis as delineated by the tower-based GPP estimates. In contrast, the reflectance-based indicators and many of the models tend to overestimate the length of the photosynthetically-active period for these and other biomes as has been noted previously in the literature. Satellite fluorescence measurements therefore show potential for

  4. Observational uncertainty of Arctic sea-ice concentration significantly affects seasonal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Baehr, Johanna; Müller, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    We examine how the choice of a particular satellite-retrieved sea-ice concentration dataset used for initialising seasonal climate forecasts impacts the prediction skill of Arctic sea-ice area and Northern hemispheric 2-meter air temperatures. To do so, we performed two assimilation runs with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) from 1979 to 2012, where atmospheric and oceanic parameters as well as sea-ice concentration were assimilated using Newtonian relaxation. The two assimilation runs differ only in the sea-ice concentration dataset used for assimilating sea ice. In the first run, we use sea-ice concentrations as derived by the NASA-Team algorithm, while in the second run we use sea-ice concentrations as derived from the Bootstrap algorithm. A major difference between these two sea-ice concentration data products involves the treatment of melt ponds. While for both products melt ponds appear as open water in the raw satellite data, the Bootstrap algorithm more strongly attempts to offset this systematic bias by synthetically increasing the retrieved ice concentration during summer months. For each year of the two assimilation runs we performed a 10-member ensemble of hindcast experiments starting on 1 May and 1 November with a hindcast length of 6 months. For hindcasts started in November, initial differences in Arctic sea-ice area and surface temperature decrease rapidly throughout the freezing period. For hindcasts started in May, initial sea-ice area differences increase over time. By the end of the melting period, this causes significant differences in 2-meter air temperature of regionally more than 3°C. Hindcast skill for surface temperatures over Europe and North America is higher with Bootstrap initialization during summer and with NASA Team initialisation during winter. This implies that the choice of the sea-ice data product and, thus, the observational uncertainty also affects forecasts of teleconnections that depend on Northern

  5. Impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions on regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeckner, E.; Stier, P.; Feichter, J.; Kloster, S.; Esch, M.; Fischer-Bruns, I.

    2006-11-01

    The past and future evolution of atmospheric composition and climate has been simulated with a version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The system consists of the atmosphere, including a detailed representation of tropospheric aerosols, the land surface, and the ocean, including a model of the marine biogeochemistry which interacts with the atmosphere via the dust and sulfur cycles. In addition to the prescribed concentrations of carbon dioxide, ozone and other greenhouse gases, the model is driven by natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol), and by emissions of mineral dust, sea salt, sulfur, black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM). Transient climate simulations were performed for the twentieth century and extended into the twenty-first century, according to SRES scenario A1B, with two different assumptions on future emissions of carbonaceous aerosols (BC, POM). In the first experiment, BC and POM emissions decrease over Europe and China but increase at lower latitudes (central and South America, Africa, Middle East, India, Southeast Asia). In the second experiment, the BC and POM emissions are frozen at their levels of year 2000. According to these experiments the impact of projected changes in carbonaceaous aerosols on the global mean temperature is negligible, but significant changes are found at low latitudes. This includes a cooling of the surface, enhanced precipitation and runoff, and a wetter surface. These regional changes in surface climate are caused primarily by the atmospheric absorption of sunlight by increasing BC levels and, subsequently, by thermally driven circulations which favour the transport of moisture from the adjacent oceans. The vertical redistribution of solar energy is particularly large during the dry season in central Africa when the anomalous atmospheric heating of up to 60 W m-2 and a corresponding decrease in surface solar radiation leads to a marked surface cooling, reduced

  6. Cloud-resolving regional climate modeling approach in decade-long simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nikolina; Schmidli, Jürg; Schär, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The uncertainties in current global and regional climate model integrations are partly related to the representation of clouds, moist convection, and complex topography. Reducing the grid spacing down to some few kilometers and switching off the convection parameterization (cloud-resolving models) is thus an attractive approach. On climate time scales, cloud-resolving methods have been used for process studies, but application to long-term scenario simulations has been very limited. Here we present cloud-resolving simulations for 10-year-long periods integrated with the COSMO-CLM model and driven by reanalysis data (for present day climate) and a global climate model (control and scenario run). Two one-way nested grids are used with horizontal resolutions of 2.2 km for a cloud-resolving model (CRM) over an extended Alpine domain (1100 km x 1100 km), and 12 km for a cloud-parameterizing simulation (CPM) covering Europe. The CRM is driven by lateral boundary conditions from the CPM run, while the CPM run is driven by lateral boundary conditions from ERA-Interim reanalysis and the Earth-System Model of the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI-ESM-LR). Validation is conducted against high-resolution surface data. The CRM model strongly improves the simulation of the diurnal cycles of temperature and precipitation, while CPM has a poor diurnal cycle associated with the use of parameterized convection. The assessment of precipitation statistics reveals that both models adequately represent the frequency-intensity distribution for day-long events. For hourly events the CRM has a realistic representation of heavy precipitation events, while the CPM suffers from a strong underestimation. We also present results on the scaling of precipitation extremes with local daily-mean temperature and preliminary results on the projection of heavy precipitation events.

  7. Projected changes in temperature and precipitation climatology of Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated projected future changes in seasonal mean air temperature (°C) and precipitation (mm/day) climatology for the three periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100, with respect to the control period of 1971-2000 for the Central Asia domain via regional climate model simulations. In order to investigate the projected changes in near future climate conditions, the Regional Climate Model, RegCM4.3.5 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was driven by two different CMIP5 global climate models. The HadGEM2-ES global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and the MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of the Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model projects relatively high warming in the warm season with a decrease in precipitation in almost all parts of the domain. A warming trend is notable, especially for the northern part of the domain during the cold season. The results of our study show that surface air temperatures in the region will increase between 3 °C and about 7 °C on average, according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2071-2100 with respect to past period of 1971-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation might adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment.

  8. The influence of vegetation dynamics on anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Port

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vegetation–climate and vegetation–carbon cycle interactions during anthropogenic climate change are assessed by using the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI ESM that includes vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle. We assume anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the RCP 8.5 scenario in the time period from 1850 to 2120. For the time after 2120, we assume zero emissions to evaluate the response of the stabilising Earth System by 2300.

    Our results suggest that vegetation dynamics have a considerable influence on the changing global and regional climate. In the simulations, global mean tree cover extends by 2300 due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming. Thus, land carbon uptake is higher and atmospheric CO2 concentration is lower by about 40 ppm when considering dynamic vegetation compared to the static pre-industrial vegetation cover. The reduced atmospheric CO2 concentration is equivalent to a lower global mean temperature. Moreover, biogeophysical effects of vegetation cover shifts influence the climate on a regional scale. Expanded tree cover in the northern high latitudes results in a reduced albedo and additional warming. In the Amazon region, declined tree cover causes a regional warming due to reduced evapotranspiration. As a net effect, vegetation dynamics have a slight attenuating effect on global climate change as the global climate cools by 0.22 K due to natural vegetation cover shifts in 2300.

  9. Soil-frost-enabled soil-moisture-precipitation feedback over northern high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. The currently observed global warming is most pronounced in the Arctic region and is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input. This warming will certainly have effects on the ecosystems of the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of such effects, however, is still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, including several feedback mechanisms between land and atmosphere. In this study we contribute to increasing our understanding of such land-atmosphere interactions using an Earth system model (ESM) which includes a representation of cold-region physical soil processes, especially the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water on thermal and hydrological states and processes. The coupled atmosphere-land models of the ESM of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, MPI-ESM, have been driven by prescribed observed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without newly implemented cold-region soil processes. Results show a large improvement in the simulated discharge. On the one hand this is related to an improved snowmelt peak of runoff due to frozen soil in spring. On the other hand a subsequent reduction in soil moisture enables a positive feedback to precipitation over the high latitudes, which reduces the model's wet biases in precipitation and evapotranspiration during the summer. This is noteworthy as soil-moisture-atmosphere feedbacks have previously not been the focus of research on the high latitudes. These results point out the importance of high-latitude physical processes at the land surface for regional climate.

  10. REDD+ and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kronenberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between payments made under the REDD+ umbrella (Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks and the quality of institutions in countries that are expected to receive these payments. Using scatter plots and simple correlation analysis, we can see that countries receiving the most significant REDD+ payments (at least in relative terms have the poorest quality of institutions. Although the REDD+ concept has evolved significantly since a similar analysis was carried out by Ebeling and Yasué in 2008, the institutional problems have remained equally important. This is also in line with the recently formulated “ecosystem service curse” and “REDD paradox” hypotheses, whereby payments for ecosystem services (including those offered within REDD+ might lead to socio-economic problems in recipient countries.

  11. Institutional social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić-Samaržija Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I am referring to social engagement as a value-based choice to actively intervene in social reality in order to modify existing collective identities and social practices with the goal of realizing the public good. The very term ‘engagement’, necessarily involves the starting awareness of a social deficit or flaw and presupposes a critical attitude towards social reality. In this article, I will attempt to provide arguments in favour of the thesis about the possibility (and, later, necessity of institutional engagement, critical action and even institutional protest, basing this view on the thesis that institutions are fundamentally collective or social agents whose actions must be guided by ethical and epistemic virtues.

  12. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  13. Institutionalism and "psychosomatic" diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberakis, E A

    In a review of 324 long stay psychiatric patients, 37 per cent of them were found to suffer also from physical disorders. A little over half of them (18% of the total) suffered from "psychosomatic" disorder. While in the total populations 38.5 per cent of the patients were free from institutionalism, in the "psychosomatic" patients the percentage was only 25.8 per cent (p less than 0.05). It is possible that "psychosomatic" diseases are a biological inferiority predisposing to institutionalism.

  14. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  15. Parallel Algorithm of MPI in TEM Forward and Inversion%MPI环境的并行算法在瞬变电磁正反演中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史维; 严良俊; 谢兴兵

    2012-01-01

    针对瞬变电磁法正反演所需时间相对较长的问题,将MPI(Message Passing Interface)环境的并行算法应用到瞬变电磁法正反演计算中,对所给一维层状介质模型进行正反演并行算法设计和计算,并对结果进行了分析.分析表明,该方法对于减少瞬变电磁法正反演计算时间是有效的.

  16. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  17. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    for combining the resource-based theory with an institutions-based approach towards constructing a more practical and empirical oriented analytical framework. After the preliminary discussion and introduction to the different theories used, the authors then take a focus on the analytical framework used to study...

  18. Rescaling or Institutional Flexibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2010-01-01

    -border integration has given rise? Does a process exist whereby the ‘problem' and its solution are readily identified and absorbed by existing institutional structures with actions carried out through ‘selective competence delegation'? Based on two case studies, the integration of the labour market and the creation...

  19. Honors and Institutional Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Honors colleges and programs often evolve in response to a mandate from boards of regents or trustees. Such mandates can lead to new or accelerated change within the institution, change that in many cases is linked to and represented by honors. Such has been the case at Western Kentucky University (WKU), where the honors program has played a key…

  20. The Francis Crick Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Keith; Smith, Jim

    2017-04-01

    The Francis Crick Institute Laboratory, opened in 2016, is supported by the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust, and University College London, King's College London and Imperial College London. The emphasis on research training and early independence of gifted scientists in a multidisciplinary environment provides unique opportunities for UK medical science, including clinical and translational research.