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Sample records for max-planck institut mpi

  1. IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma of Physics at Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The cost accounting system of the IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics at Garching is described with all details as there are cost class accounting, cost centers, cost units and resulting overall cost summary. Detailed instructions are given about the implementation of this cost accounting system into the organisational structure of the IPP. (A.N.)

  2. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  3. [German research institute/Max-Planck Institute for psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, D

    1999-12-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie (DFA, German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich was founded in 1917 bel Emil Kraepelin. For a long time it was the only institution in Germany entirely devoted to psychiatric research. Because of its strictly science-oriented and multidisciplinary approach it also became a model for institutions elsewhere. Kraepelin's ideas have certainly had a strong influence on psychiatry in the twentieth century. The fascinating and instructive history of the DFA reflects the central issues and determinants of psychiatric research. First, talented individuals are needed to conduct such research, and there was no lack in this regard. Second, the various topics chosen are dependent on the available methods and resources. And finally, the issues addressed and the ethical standards of the researchers are heavily dependent on the zeitgeist, as is evident in the three epochs of research at the DFA, from 1917 to 1933, from 1933 to 1945, and from the postwar period to the present. With the introduction of molecular biology and neuroimaging techniques into psychiatric research a change in paradigm took place and a new phase of the current epoch began.

  4. Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education: Annual Report 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    The Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education in Germany consists of four research centers dealing with the following topics: sociology and the study of the life course; development and socialization; psychology and human development; and school systems and instruction. This English-language annual report of the Planck Institute,…

  5. Stages in Educational Reform; The Max Planck Institute Has Produced a Report on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Gottfried

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the Max Planck Institute's exhaustive report on West German educational trends since World War II. An analysis of the effects of changing social values and demographic factors on educational policy, school organization, enrollment trends, curriculum design, and teaching methods is included. (AM)

  6. 77 FR 14504 - Max Planck Florida Institute, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Max Planck Florida Institute, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscope This is a... Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC. Docket Number: 11-061. Applicant: Max Planck Florida Institute...

  7. The eDoc-Server Project Building an Institutional Repository for the Max Planck Society

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    With the eDoc-Server the Heinz Nixdorf Center for Information Management in the Max Planck Society (ZIM) provides the research institutes of the Max Planck Society (MPS) with a platform to disseminate, store, and manage their scientific output. Moreover, eDoc serves as a tool to facilitate and promote open access to scientific information and primary sources. Since its introduction in October 2002 eDoc has gained high visibility within the MPS. It has been backed by strong institutional commitment to open access as documented in the 'Berlin Declaration on Open Access to the Data of the Sciences and Humanities', which was initiated by the MPS and found large support among major research organizations in Europe. This paper will outline the concept as well as the current status of the eDoc-Server, providing an example for the development and introduction of an institutional repository in a multi-disciplinary research organization.

  8. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Jessberger, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    This annual report contains short notes and abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The work concerns technical developments of accelerators and ion sources, experimental and theoretical studies on nuclear structure and reactions, high-energy physics, studies on meteorites and lunar rocks, comets, interplanetary and interstellar dust, interstellar dynamics, nuclear geology, and archaeometry. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  9. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1993 the first particle injector of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak was put into operation up to 6 MW of heating power. The main diagnostics were put into operation as also was a newly developed pellet centrifuge. At the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator experiment the cooperation with Russian and German research institutes an electron cyclotron resonance heating was successful. The works of the Berlin Division of IPP and the coordination of research efforts with Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe are reported. (DG)

  10. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Jessberger, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    This annual report contains short communications and extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The work concerns technical developments on accelerators and ion sources, developments of detectors and experimental setups, electronics, data processing, target developments, giant resonances, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, atomic physics, medium- and high-energy physics, statistical models of nuclei and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions at high energies, many-particle theory, quantum chromodynamics, meteorites, comets, interstellar dust, planetary atmospheres, cosmic radiation, molecular collisions in the earth atmosphere, nuclear geology and geochemistry, as well as archaeology. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  11. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Jessberger, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the research performed at the given institute together with an extensive list of publications. The research in nuclear physics is concerned with developments in accelerators and ion sources, radiation detectors, solid-state studies by nuclear methods, counting circuits, data processing, target preparation, fission, fusion, and nuclear friction, giant resonances, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, atomic physics and interaction of charged particles with matter, medium and high energy physics. The research in cosmophysics works on meteorites and lunar rocks, the gallium-solar-neutrino experiment (project GALLEX), problems of Halley's comet, interplanetary and interstellar dust, planetary atmospheres, interstellar medium and cosmic rays, molecular collision processes in the gas phase, nuclear geology and geochemistry, and archaeometry. (GG)

  12. ["A decision meaning a new foundation...": from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics to the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin-Dahlem dates its establishment to 1964. Its homepage makes no mention of its predecessor institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics (KWIA) and the subsequent MPI for Comparative Genetics and Hereditary Pathology (MPIVEE). This article traces the two critical phases of transition regarding the constellations of academic staff, institutional and epistemic ruptures and continuities specific to the era. Only one of the five department heads from the final war years, Hans Nachtsheim, remained a researcher within the Max Planck Society (MPG); he nevertheless continued to advocate the pre-war and wartime eugenic agenda in the life sciences and social policy. The generational change of 1959/60 became a massive struggle within the institute, in which microbial genetics (with Fritz Kaudewitz) was pitted against human genetics (with Friedrich Vogel) and managed to establish itself after a fresh change in personnel in 1964/65. For the Dahlem institute, this involved a far-reaching reorientation of its research, but for the genetically oriented life sciences in the Max Planck Society as a whole it only meant that molecular biology, which was already being pursued in the West German institutes, gained an additional facility. With this realignment of research traditions, the Society was able to draw a line under the Nazi past without having to address it head-on.

  13. On the retrieval of significant wave heights from spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar using the Max-Planck Institut algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-Carvalho, Nelson

    2005-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) onboard satellites is the only source of directional wave spectra with continuous and global coverage. Millions of SAR Wave Mode (SWM) imagettes have been acquired since the launch in the early 1990's of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 and its successors ERS-2 and ENVISAT, which has opened up many possibilities specially for wave data assimilation purposes. The main aim of data assimilation is to improve the forecasting introducing available observations into the modeling procedures in order to minimize the differences between model estimates and measurements. However there are limitations in the retrieval of the directional spectrum from SAR images due to nonlinearities in the mapping mechanism. The Max-Planck Institut (MPI) scheme, the first proposed and most widely used algorithm to retrieve directional wave spectra from SAR images, is employed to compare significant wave heights retrieved from ERS-1 SAR against buoy measurements and against the WAM wave model. It is shown that for periods shorter than 12 seconds the WAM model performs better than the MPI, despite the fact that the model is used as first guess to the MPI method, that is the retrieval is deteriorating the first guess. For periods longer than 12 seconds, the part of the spectrum that is directly measured by SAR, the performance of the MPI scheme is at least as good as the WAM model.

  14. German science. Max Planck charts new path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-06-09

    Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.

  15. Developing whole mycobacteria cell vaccines for tuberculosis: Workshop proceedings, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany, July 9, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    On July 9, 2014, Aeras and the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology convened a workshop entitled "Whole Mycobacteria Cell Vaccines for Tuberculosis" at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology on the grounds of the Charité Hospital in Berlin, Germany, close to the laboratory where, in 1882, Robert Koch first identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of the meeting was to discuss progress in the development of TB vaccines based on whole mycobacteria cells. Live whole cell TB vaccines discussed at this meeting were derived from Mtb itself, from Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against TB, which was genetically modified to reduce pathogenicity and increase immunogenicity, or from commensal non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Inactivated whole cell TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterial vaccines, intended as immunotherapy or as safer immunization alternatives for HIV+ individuals, also were discussed. Workshop participants agreed that TB vaccine development is significantly hampered by imperfect animal models, unknown immune correlates of protection and the absence of a human challenge model. Although a more effective TB vaccine is needed to replace or enhance the limited effectiveness of BCG in all age groups, members of the workshop concurred that an effective vaccine would have the greatest impact on TB control when administered to adolescents and adults, and that use of whole mycobacteria cells as TB vaccine candidates merits greater support, particularly given the limited understanding of the specific Mtb antigens necessary to generate an immune response capable of preventing Mtb infection and/or disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik. Werner-Heisenberg-Institut. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Institute's main field of activity is research into elementary particles and their interactions. The verification of the standard model of elementary particle physics was at the center of interest in the phenomenological investigations. The spectrum of experimental activities on particle accelerators is supplemented by experiments on astro-particle physics and cosmic sources. Segmented semiconductor detectors were developed for investigations in high-energy physics. The 1993 annual report also contains organisational and staff data and a survey of activities. (DG) [de

  17. Annual report 1980 of the Institut fuer Physik of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    In this annual report the fields of research done at the MPI for Physics and Astrophysics are summarized. These concern mainly high energy physics. The theoretical work deals with field theory with special regards to unified gauge theories while the Institute contributes to some experiments at DESY and CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications and theses is given. (HSI)

  18. Response of the middle atmosphere to anthropogenic and natural forcings in the CMIP5 simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, H.; Rast, S.; Bunzel, F.; Esch, M.; Giorgetta, M.; Kinne, S.; Krismer, T.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Timmreck, C.; Tomassini, L.; Walz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ECHAM6 atmospheric general circulation model is the atmosphere component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that is used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations. As ECHAM6 has its uppermost layer centered at 0.01 hPa in the upper mesosphere, these simulations offer the opportunity to study the middle atmosphere climate change and its relation to the troposphere on the basis of a very comprehensive set of state-of-the-art model simulations. The goals of this paper are (a) to introduce those new features of ECHAM6 particularly relevant for the middle atmosphere, including external forcing data, and (b) to evaluate the simulated middle atmosphere and describe the simulated response to natural and anthropogenic forcings. New features in ECHAM6 with respect to ECHAM5 include a new short-wave radiation scheme, the option to vary spectral irradiance independent of total solar irradiance, and a latitude-dependent gravity-wave source strength. The description of external forcing data focuses on solar irradiance and ozone. Stratospheric temperature trends simulated with the MPI-ESM for the last decades of the 20th century agree well with observations. The future projections depend strongly on the scenario. Under the high emission scenario RCP8.5, simulated temperatures are locally lower by more than 20 K than preindustrial values. Many of the simulated patterns of the responses to natural forcings as provided by solar variability, volcanic aerosols, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, largely agree with the observations. 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Response of the middle atmosphere to anthropogenic and natural forcings in the CMIP5 simulations with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, H.

    2013-03-06

    The ECHAM6 atmospheric general circulation model is the atmosphere component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that is used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations. As ECHAM6 has its uppermost layer centered at 0.01 hPa in the upper mesosphere, these simulations offer the opportunity to study the middle atmosphere climate change and its relation to the troposphere on the basis of a very comprehensive set of state-of-the-art model simulations. The goals of this paper are (a) to introduce those new features of ECHAM6 particularly relevant for the middle atmosphere, including external forcing data, and (b) to evaluate the simulated middle atmosphere and describe the simulated response to natural and anthropogenic forcings. New features in ECHAM6 with respect to ECHAM5 include a new short-wave radiation scheme, the option to vary spectral irradiance independent of total solar irradiance, and a latitude-dependent gravity-wave source strength. The description of external forcing data focuses on solar irradiance and ozone. Stratospheric temperature trends simulated with the MPI-ESM for the last decades of the 20th century agree well with observations. The future projections depend strongly on the scenario. Under the high emission scenario RCP8.5, simulated temperatures are locally lower by more than 20 K than preindustrial values. Many of the simulated patterns of the responses to natural forcings as provided by solar variability, volcanic aerosols, and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, largely agree with the observations. 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Max Planck Institute for Radiation Chemistry, Muelheim a.d. Ruhr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute carriers out research in the field of radiation chemistry, which is understood as a field of science combining photochemistry and radiation chemistry. The research programme focuses on: the radiation chemistry of the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), DNA constituents, and DNA model compounds; photobiochemistry and fundamentals of photobiology; organic and organometallic photochemistry, particularly reaction mechanisms and synthesis; photophysics. (orig.) [de

  1. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Kiko, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute's activities cover basic research work in nuclear physics and particle physics and in cosmophysics. The nuclear physics department reports experimental and theoretical investigations of the structure of atomic nuclei and hadrons, including technical developments on accelerators and storage rings and work on highly charged ions, particle detectors, ion implantations, ionometry and proton-induced X-ray spectroscopy. The cosmophysics department reports studies into the formation of the planetary system, of the comets, the interstellar medium, the cosmic radiation, the extraterrestrial matter, solar neutrions, planetary atmosphere, the chemistry of the stratosphere, and archeometry. (DG) [de

  2. [Critical mass, explosive participation at the Max-Planck Institute about research of the living conditions of the scientific-technical world in Starnberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers of the Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPIL) did focus upon an abundance of vague reports of evaluative commissions, of benchmarking, of scientific modes. Thus it remained rather neglected, what staff actually had researched. An example: Progression and end of project AKR (Work-Consumption-Assessment) does display all kinds of related emotions at MPIL, and the sensitive guidance by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker.

  3. Studying the impact of different climate engineering techniques on ocean acidification with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M. F.; Ilyina, T.; Sonntag, S.

    2016-02-01

    In order to counterbalance the consequences of climate change, different climate engineering (CE) technologies have been suggested. Nonetheless, knowledge about their mitigation potential and side-effects remains sparse. Ocean alkalinization (OA) is an ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method, that aims at enhancing the natural process of weathering by which atmospheric CO2 is absorbed and stored in the ocean via chemical sequestration. Large-scale afforestation can also boost the uptake of CO2 by terrestrial biological systems and it is commonly considered as CE method. Stratospheric sulfur injection is a solar radiation management technique that has been proposed in order to enhance the Earth's albedo, mimicking the release of sulfur particles into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions and the subsequent decrease in surface atmospheric temperatures. We explore the mitigation potential and side-effects of these CE technologies using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. Our scenarios are designed in order to test under what conditions it is possible to achieve a climate state that resembles the one of the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 under RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions. Direct and indirect effects of the OA method on the oceanic carbon cycle, differ strongly from those associated with afforestation and stratospheric sulfur injection. This is because they depend upon joint responses and synergies between different elements of the Earth system; thus, effects on the oceanic carbon cycle are not intuitively understood. Changes in the strength of the marine carbon sink, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals will be discussed. Additionally, collateral changes in marine biota and ocean biogeochemistry will be presented.

  4. One hundred years at the intersection of chemistry and physics the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, 1911-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Steinhauser, Thomas; James, Jeremiah

    2011-01-01

    This volume, occasioned by the centenary of the Fritz Haber Institute, formerly the Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, covers the Institute's scientific and institutional history from its founding in 1911 as one the earliest institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, through its renaming for its founding director in 1952 and incorporation in the Max Planck Society, until the present. The Institute's pace-setting research in physical chemistry and chemical physics has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel Laureates.

  5. [A failed experiment - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Jürgen Habermas and the Max-Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leendertz, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    From 1970 to 1980 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker headed the Max-Planck-lnstitut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPI for the study of the living conditions of the world of science and technology) in Starnberg, jointly with Jürgen Habermas since 1971. From the start, the Max Planck Society regarded the new institute as an experiment that might perhaps be aborted a few years later. This is exactly what happened. With the retirement of Weizsäcker, his section was closed and the whole institute was renamed. In 1981. Habermas resigned, and then the institute was closed. This paper focusses on some of the problem constellations within the institute that partly explain its development and eventual closure: its birth out of the idea of scientific policy advice, the debates within the Max Planck Society and the complex relationship between Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.

  6. De Max-Planck medaille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.G.; van Woerkom, P.Th.L.M.; Ankersmit, W.; Hagman, R.; Heijmans, H.G.; Olsder, G.J.; van de Schootbrugge, G.

    2017-01-01

    De Max-Planck-Medaille is een onderscheiding die sinds 1929 jaarlijks wordt uitgereikt door de toentertijd grootste vereniging van natuurkundigen ter wereld: de Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. Het is als het ware de Nobelprijs voor de theoretische natuurkunde, volgens de natuurkundigen zelf. In

  7. Max Planck and modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Max Planck (1858-1947) is according to the words of Max von Laue the ''father of quantum physics''. This characteristic has until today continuance, although Planck stood for long time sceptically in front of his quantum hypothesis and so became a revolutionary in spite of his wishes. Eclipted by this pioneer role of the scholar for the foundation of the quantum theory are the numerous further works of the scholer, by which he has in many other fields provided eminent things. Starting with his fundamental contribution to thermodynamics, which make him to an excellent researcher of the field, until the works in the early history of relativity theory and the promotion of the young Einstein, which let him become also to a pioneer of the second central pillar of modern physics. The present collection attempts to show the whole spectrum of the physical works of Max Planck and his role in the formation of modern physics. [de

  8. Max Planck et les quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Boudenot, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    « Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...

  9. Diagnostic standards for dopaminergic augmentation of restless legs syndrome: report from a World Association of Sleep Medicine-International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group consensus conference at the Max Planck Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Borreguero, Diego; Allen, Richard P; Kohnen, Ralf; Högl, Birgit; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang; Hening, Wayne A; Paulus, Walter; Rye, David; Walters, Arthur; Winkelmann, Juliane; Earley, Christopher J

    2007-08-01

    Augmentation of symptom severity is the main complication of dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The current article reports on the considerations of augmentation that were made during a European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (EURLSSG)-sponsored Consensus Conference in April 2006 at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) in Munich, Germany, the conclusions of which were endorsed by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) and the World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM). The Consensus Conference sought to develop a better understanding of augmentation and generate a better operational definition for its clinical identification. Current concepts of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and therapy of RLS augmentation were evaluated by subgroups who presented a summary of their findings for general consideration and discussion. Recent data indicating sensitivity and specificity of augmentation features for identification of augmentation were also evaluated. The diagnostic criteria of augmentation developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conference in 2002 were reviewed in light of current data and theoretical understanding of augmentation. The diagnostic value and criteria for each of the accepted features of augmentation were considered by the group. A consensus was then developed for a revised statement of the diagnostic criteria for augmentation. Five major diagnostic features of augmentation were identified: usual time of RLS symptom onset each day, number of body parts with RLS symptoms, latency to symptoms at rest, severity of the symptoms when they occur, and effects of dopaminergic medication on symptoms. The quantitative data available relating the time of RLS onset and the presence of other features indicated optimal augmentation criteria of either a 4-h advance in usual starting time for RLS symptoms or a combination of the occurrence of other features. A paradoxical response to changes in medication dose also indicates

  10. [A utopian episode - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in the networks of the Max-Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Horst; Renn, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was a key figure in the history of the Max Planck Society (MPS). This essay contextualises his work with the development of the MPS, highlighting the institutional and personal networks upon which it was based. Some of the stations addressed in the following are his role in the German Uranium Project, in preparing the Mainau Declaration, the Göttingen Manifesto, and the Memorandum of Tübingen as well as his involvement in the foundation of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Human Development and his own MPI for the Research of Living Conditions in the Modern World located in Starnberg. The relationship between Weizsäcker and Hellmut Becker, long-time friend and founding director of the MPI for Human Development, will be of particular interest. Another issue broached here is the connection between natural science and the humanities in Weizsäcker's work, and subsequently the relation between these two science cultures in the MPS. Finally, we look at the challenges Weizsäcker's work could present to the MPS today.

  11. NRAO Astronomer Wins Max-Planck Research Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Dr. Christopher Carilli, a National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer in Socorro, New Mexico, has been chosen to receive the prestigious Max Planck Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society in Germany. Christopher Carilli Dr. Christopher Carilli Click on image for more photos CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Carilli, a radio astronomer, and German particle physicist Christof Wetterich are the 2005 recipients of the award, conferred on "one researcher working in Germany and one working abroad who have already gained an international reputation and who are expected to produce outstanding achievements in the framework of international collaboration," according to an announcement from the Humboldt Foundation. "This is a great honor for Chris, and we are proud to see him receive such important international recognition for the excellence of his research," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. Carilli's research has focused on studying very distant galaxies in the early Universe, and a quest to find the first luminous objects, such as stars or galaxies, to emerge. His most recent interests focus on unveiling the mysteries of what cosmologists call the "Epoch of Reionization," when the first stars and galaxies ionized the neutral hydrogen that pervaded the young Universe. Carilli and his research colleagues have used NRAO's Very Large Array and other radio telescopes to discover that the molecular raw material for star formation already was present in a galaxy seen as it was about 800 million years after the Big Bang, less than 1/16 the current age of the Universe. The Max Planck Research Award provides 750,000 Euros (currently about $900,000), to be used over five years, for research. The funding is provided by the German Ministry of Education and Research. Carilli will use the funding to support young researchers and to build scientific instrumentation, with a focus on fostering radio studies of cosmic reionization and the first

  12. The International Max Planck Research Schools for Molecular Biology and Neurosciences in Gttingen (Germany) as Examples for Joint Doctoral Training by a German University and Its Non-University Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Steffen; Neher, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    New concepts of higher education have recently been implemented through the MSc/PhD programmes in Molecular Biology and Neurosciences in the International Max Planck Research Schools, due to close cooperation between the University of Gttingen, three Max Planck Institutes and the German Primate Centre. The novel measures include a three stage…

  13. The physicist. Max Planck and the decay of the world; Der Physiker. Max Planck und das Zerfallen der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2010-06-15

    The live of the physicist Max Planck was as exciting, conflicting, and rich on catastrophes as the epoch, in which he lived. Ernst Peter Fischer draws in this fascinatingly told biography the eventful history of the Nobel-price bearer and illustrates simultaneously the unique attainment of Planck, the quantum theory of whom not only revolted the science but also changed fundamentally our picture of the world.

  14. Unterstützung des Grünen Weges zu Open Access an der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft / Support of the Green Road to Open Access within the Max Planck Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengenfelder, Anja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; MPG with equal weight supports both the Golden and Green Road to Open Access in practice and politically in a sustainable way.In the context of the Green Road it runs with eDoc a central institutional repository for the MPG. The software of the same name is an in-house development. Based on the experiences and wishes of the users, currently, a new application (PubMan which is built upon the eSciDoc framework is introduced within the institutes. eSciDoc is a co-operation with the FIZ Karlsruhe and is funded until 2009 by the BMBF. All applications and services are Open Source and can therefore be re-used and be further developed. Apart from the development and maintenance of technical infrastructures, the Green Road within the MPG is furthered via direct and indirect personal support for scientists during the publication process. In this regard the close exchange between single Max Planck Institutes, the Max Planck Digital Library and other national and international partners plays an important role. With the Berlin Declaration in 2003 and currently in the Priority Initiative “Digital Information” of the Alliance of the German Research Organizations this commitment for Open Access is also politically represented.In this article are introduced and explained both eDoc and PubMan respectively as well as the Open Access Policy of the MPG with a special focus on the activities within the Green Road.

  15. Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repnow, R.; Kiko, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research in the fields of nuclear physics and particle physics focusses on experimental investigations into the structure of hadrons, hadron interactions, and the relation between the hadronic properties and nuclearphysics phenomena. The experimental and theoretical cosmophysics studies investigate solar neutrinos, cosmic radiation, the interstellar and extragalactic media, C 60 , the atmosphere of the planetary system, extraterrestric solid matter, and archaeometry. (DG) [de

  16. The historical development of modern virus research in Germany, especially in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-/Max-Planck-Society, 1936--1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenandt, A

    1977-01-01

    This is lecture on the historical development of modern virus research in Germany to introduce a symposium dedicated to Prof. Werner Schäfer, Tübingen, on the occasion of his 65th birthday. The author was set the task of relating from his memories the beginning of modern virus research in Germany. This research has, since 1936, essentially taken place in the Kaiser-Wilhelm/Max-Planck-Society and in 1954 led to the founding of the Max-Planck-Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen, an institute which to the present day owes its scientific reputation in considerable part to the activity of Werner Schäfer. Since the author personally experienced and participated in the Institute's development from 1936-1954, his remarks are predominantly influenced by personal recollections, which have been sharpended by a renewed study of old records in the 'Library and Archive of the History of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft', Berlin-Dahlem.

  17. The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)

  18. Sensor development at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, A.; Lechner, P.; Ninkovic, J.

    2017-12-01

    For more than twenty years the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck Society (MPG-HLL) is developing high-performing, specialised, scientific silicon sensors including the integration of amplifying electronics on the sensor chip. This paper summarises the actual status of these devices like pnCCDs and DePFET Active Pixel Sensors and their applications.

  19. Report from the Third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2014-08-15

    The third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology was held at Ringberg castle, May 21-24, 2014. At this meeting 45 scientists from Japan and Germany presented the latest results from their research spanning a broad range of topics in chemical biology and glycobiology.

  20. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik. Werner-Heisenberg-Institut. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    After a short introduction, the projects and activitites of the scientific and technical departments are presented. The spectrum of theoretical studies ranges from problems of particle physics and field theory to astrophysical problems. The experimental activities focus mainly on accelerated particles and detectors for high-energy physics. The 1994 annual report also contains staff reports and reports on general activities in the year under report. (DG) [de

  1. Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Werner-Heisenberg-Institute. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The projects carried out by the department of theoretical physics comprise a broad spectrum of current and fundamental problems of elementary particle physics, especially the interaction of the two. The examinations carried out by the department of experimental physics concern themselves with the production and transformation processes of elementary particles, their features, interactions and their underlying physical laws. This includes the construction of detectors such as HEGRA for high-energy cosmic ray detection. Problems from the area of condensed matter were also dealt with. (DG) [de

  2. [The history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the Third Reich. Interim reports of the president's commission of the Max Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2002-11-01

    In 1997 the Max Planck Society set up a presidential commission to do research on the historical development of its precursor organization, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG), during the Third Reich. This paper presents some of the important results given in the interim reports of this commission that are relevant to psychiatry. It focuses on brain research, anthropology, psychiatric genetics, and the role of the well-known biochemist Adolf Butenandt. In general, the interim reports reflect the numerous links between the biomedical research of the KWG and the institutions of the National Socialist (Nazi) state. However, they do not yet allow a final historical assessment as to the complex situation of this field of research during National Socialism.

  3. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun; Olsen, Jesper V; Shi, Rong; de Souza, Gustavo; Pasini, Erica; Foster, Leonard J; Macek, Boris; Zougman, Alexandre; Kumar, Chanchal; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Jun, Wang; Mann, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and stringent validation criteria, false positive identification rates in MAPU are lower than 1:1000. Thus MAPU datasets can serve as reference proteomes in biomarker discovery. MAPU contains the peptides identifying each protein, measured masses, scores and intensities and is freely available at http://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic annotation information and links to other public databases are provided in MAPU and we plan to add further analysis tools.

  4. [The meaning of "apology": the survivors of Nazi medical crimes and the Max Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-09-01

    Around the turn of the twenty-first century a new practice in international politics became established: representatives of political, economic and religious organisations apologised for the historical and political crimes of their own collectives, addressing the victims or the victims' descendants. At a public event in June 2001, a formal apology of this kind was made by the president of the Max Planck Society (MPS), who had previously launched an extensive programme of research into the National Socialist history of what was then the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The majority of the eight invited survivors of human experimentation in Nazi concentration camps refused forgiveness. Instead, they called for the MPS not to content itself with historical research and analysis, but to ensure the continued remembrance of the victims and their suffering. Starting from this 2001 ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism, and asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  5. Apology, responsibility, memory. Coming to terms with Nazi medical crimes: the example of the Max Planck Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-11-01

    In June 2001, the then president of the Max Planck Society addressed a formal apology to survivors of Nazi medical crimes. Starting from this ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism. In comparison with the DGPPN, it asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  6. IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The scientific activities of IPP comprise two programmes, tokamaks and stellarators, the main results of which are summarized in two overviews introducing the corresponding sections in the body of the report. The scientific work is firmly integrated into a network of cooperation. In Germany, we collaborate with the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in the 'Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Kernfusion'; of the collaboration with universities the most successful has been that with Stuttgart on ECRH. The IPP programme forms an integral part of the European fusion programme. (orig./GG)

  7. The Fringe Reading Facility at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Stroemungsforschung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F.; Meier, G. E. A.; Wegner, H.; Timm, R.; Wenskus, R.

    1987-01-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for optical flow measurements in a transonic wind tunnel. Holographic interferograms are reconstructed by illumination with a He-Ne-laser and viewed by a video camera through wide angle optics. This setup was used for investigating industrial double exposure holograms of truck tires in order to develop methods of automatic recognition of certain manufacturing faults. Automatic input is achieved by a transient recorder digitizing the output of a TV camera and transferring the digitized data to a PDP11-34. Interest centered around sequences of interferograms showing the interaction of vortices with a profile and subsequent emission of sound generated by this process. The objective is the extraction of quantitative data which relates to the emission of noise.

  8. Annual report for 1980 of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific departments of IPP Garching give a review of their R + D activities in 1980. Other subjects discussed are the work of the central technical services, the organisational structure, the managing directors, administration, general services, and public relations. Publications and conference reports are listed, and projects carried out by the Universities of Stuttgart, Munich, and Frankfurt/Main on behalf of IPP are described. (GG)

  9. The Fringe Reading Facility at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Stroemungsforschung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F.; Meier, G. E. A.; Wegner, H.; Timm, R.; Wenskus, R.

    1987-05-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for optical flow measurements in a transonic wind tunnel. Holographic interferograms are reconstructed by illumination with a He-Ne-laser and viewed by a video camera through wide angle optics. This setup was used for investigating industrial double exposure holograms of truck tires in order to develop methods of automatic recognition of certain manufacturing faults. Automatic input is achieved by a transient recorder digitizing the output of a TV camera and transferring the digitized data to a PDP11-34. Interest centered around sequences of interferograms showing the interaction of vortices with a profile and subsequent emission of sound generated by this process. The objective is the extraction of quantitative data which relates to the emission of noise.

  10. The backstairs to the quantum jump. The research of the smallest particles from Max Planck to Anton Zeilinger; Die Hintertreppe zum Quantensprung. Die Erforschung der kleinsten Teilchen von Max Planck bis Anton Zeilinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2015-07-01

    It's madness, yet there is method. The physical phenomenon of the quantum jump has already brought some well-known physicists at the edge of dispair. Then nothing seems to be such illogical, undetermined, and unpredictable as the behaviour of the atoms that ultimatively form our world. The renowned historian of sciences Ernst Peter Fischer tells the fascinating story of quantum physics by means of poignant portraits of selected researchers like Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Richard P. Feynman, and ''Mr. Beam'' Anton Zeilinger. A great story of science a bout the smallest particles of the nature.

  11. The backstairs to the quantum jump. The research of the smallest particles from Max Planck to Anton Zeilinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2010-01-01

    Who doesn't know the quantum jumps, which politicians like to promise in their speeched? But what the quantum jump in physics precisely means know only very few people. For this brings no enormous progress, but is in an ironical way the smallest change, which an atom can perform. This and other misunderstandings discovers Professor Ernst Peter Fischer in his new book. With funny comparisons from daily life he leads even laymen via ''The Backstairs to the Quantum Jump'' to the most important physical results. For this he characterizes important physicists like Niels Bohr, Alber Einstein, or Max Planck, and enters not only their discoveries, but also their personalities behind the genius.

  12. The backstairs to the quantum jump. The research of the smallest particles from Max Planck to Anton Zeilinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2015-01-01

    It's madness, yet there is method. The physical phenomenon of the quantum jump has already brought some well-known physicists at the edge of dispair. Then nothing seems to be such illogical, undetermined, and unpredictable as the behaviour of the atoms that ultimatively form our world. The renowned historian of sciences Ernst Peter Fischer tells the fascinating story of quantum physics by means of poignant portraits of selected researchers like Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Richard P. Feynman, and ''Mr. Beam'' Anton Zeilinger. A great story of science a bout the smallest particles of the nature.

  13. Processing MPI Datatypes Outside MPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert; Latham, Robert; Gropp, William; Lusk, Ewing; Thakur, Rajeev

    The MPI datatype functionality provides a powerful tool for describing structured memory and file regions in parallel applications, enabling noncontiguous data to be operated on by MPI communication and I/O routines. However, no facilities are provided by the MPI standard to allow users to efficiently manipulate MPI datatypes in their own codes.

  14. The backstairs to the quantum jump. The research of the smallest particles from Max Planck to Anton Zeilinger; Die Hintertreppe zum Quantensprung. Die Erforschung der kleinsten Teilchen von Max Planck bis Anton Zeilinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2010-07-01

    Who doesn't know the quantum jumps, which politicians like to promise in their speeched? But what the quantum jump in physics precisely means know only very few people. For this brings no enormous progress, but is in an ironical way the smallest change, which an atom can perform. This and other misunderstandings discovers Professor Ernst Peter Fischer in his new book. With funny comparisons from daily life he leads even laymen via ''The Backstairs to the Quantum Jump'' to the most important physical results. For this he characterizes important physicists like Niels Bohr, Alber Einstein, or Max Planck, and enters not only their discoveries, but also their personalities behind the genius.

  15. Special report: a century of chemistry. History of sciences: Max Planck and the birth of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudenot, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1892 Lord Kelvin said 'that the fundamental concepts of physics had been established'. However, quantum mechanics in 1900, and relativity in 1905 were going to profoundly upset this science. Jean-Claude Boudenot allows us to relive the essential discoveries, which have given rise to the majority of the technologies of the 20. century through the life of Max Planck (1858-1947). The first scientific hit of M.Planck was to solve the problem of the black body at the turn of last century, he postulated that the exchange of energy between radiation and the walls of the cavity had the form of a flow of very small and indivisible quantities of energy called energy quantum. This discovery allowed him to receive the Nobel prize of physics in 1918

  16. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  17. Vegetation and land carbon feedbacks in the high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the MPI Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, Victor; Lorenz, Stephan; Raddatz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Plants influence climate through changes in the land surface biophysics (albedo, transpiration) and concentrations of the atmospheric greenhouse gases. One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon due to productivity decrease. This decadal- scale variability helps to quantify the vegetation and land carbon feedbacks during the past periods when the temporal resolution of the ice-core CO2 record is not sufficient to capture fast CO2 variations. From a set of Holocene simulations with prescribed or interactive atmospheric CO2, we get estimates of climate-carbon feedback useful for future climate studies. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader1, Sebastian Bathiany2, Victor Brovkin1, Martin Claussen1,3, Traute Cr

  18. People are Conditional Rule Followers : Preprints of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods Bonn 2017/9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.M. Desmet (Pieter); C.W. Engel (Christoph)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractExperimental participants are more likely to follow an arbitrary rule the more of their peers do so as well. The difference between unconditional and conditional rule following is most pronounced for individuals who follow few rules unconditionally.

  19. [Clinical electro-ophthalmology at the Max Planck Institute of the Frankfurt University Ophthalmology Clinic 1970-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R; Baier, M; Eckl, G; Raile, A

    1996-07-01

    The survey shows the frequency and distribution of diseases evaluated by electroophthalmological methods. Patients with retinal diseases (51.2%) and those with diseases of the optic nerve (21.8%) were examined most frequently. In a high percentage these investigations lead to a clinically useful assessment: described as confirmation or exclusion of a clinical diagnosis, as establishing a possible differential diagnosis or clearing up formerly unknown aspects of a disease. In cases of hereditary retinal disorders only 11% remained unclear, with presumed optic neuritis only 6%. The importance of electroophthalmological investigations is there ability to assess functional deficits in the visual system especially in somehow more rare retinal and centrally located disorders, functional deficits of unknown origins or in general diseases including the visual system.

  20. MPI fuer Physik und Astrophysik. Werner-Heisenberg-Institut fuer Physik - annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This annual report contains short description of the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and speeches. The work concerns experiments at CERN and at the storage rings PETRA and CESR, theoretical work on unified field theories and supersymmetry, as well as developments of the ALEPH detector for the LEP storage ring. (HSI) [de

  1. Proceedings of 11. Symposium and 9. Congress of the Cuban Society of Physics. International Symposium: Physics on the 150th Anniversary of Max Planck's Birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Booklet contains the abstracts of the invited lectures, courses and contributions to the symposium is intended to be an international meeting of physicists to celebrate the anniversary 150 of the Max Planck birth. In this context it is expected to encourage the exchange among researchers and professors of different countries, in particular from the Iberoamerican region and obviously from Germany. The main area will be Quantum Mechanics, its consequences and applications. On the other hand, the debate on current challenges of Physics: teaching, collaboration and application will be promoted. Topics: Historical aspects related with the development of Quantum Physics; Recent Advances in Quantum Physics (specific topics will be published later on) and Panel: Current challenges of Physics for Iberoamerica: teaching, collaboration, applications, popularization. (author)

  2. "The Theory of Heat Radiation" Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck's Claim of Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k , universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain b lack, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies a re specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, “ The Theory of Heat Radiation ’, it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polar- ized. Through the use of an element, d σ , at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective prop- erties. His Eq.40 ( ρ = ρ ′ , constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stew- art had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also d id not correctly address

  3. Content of a novel online collection of traditional east African food habits (1930s-1960s): data collected by the Max-Planck-Nutrition Research Unit, Bumbuli, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Verena; Oltersdorf, Ulrich; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Cheema, Birinder Sb; Kouris-Blazos, Antigone

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of traditional African foods and food habits has been, and continues to be, systematically extirpated. With the primary intent of collating data for our online collection documenting traditional African foods and food habits (available at: www.healthyeatingclub.com/Africa/), we reviewed the Oltersdorf Collection, 75 observational investigations conducted throughout East Africa (i.e. Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) between the 1930s and 1960s as compiled by the Max Planck Nutrition Research Unit, formerly located in Bumbuli, Tanzania. Data were categorized as follows: (1) food availability, (2) chemical composition, (3) staple foods (i.e. native crops, cereals, legumes, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, spices, oils and fats, beverages, and animal foods), (4) food preparation and culture, and (5) nutrient intake and health status indicators. Many of the traditional foods identified, including millet, sorghum, various legumes, root and tubers, green leafy vegetables, plant oils and wild meats have known health benefits. Food preparatory practices during this period, including boiling and occasional roasting are superior to current practices which favor frying and deep-frying. Overall, our review and data extraction provide reason to believe that a diversified diet was possible for the people of East Africa during this period (1930s-1960s). There is a wealth of knowledge pertaining to traditional East African foods and food habits within the Oltersdorf Collection. These data are currently available via our online collection. Future efforts should contribute to collating and honing knowledge of traditional foods and food habits within this region, and indeed throughout the rest of Africa. Preserving and disseminating this knowledge may be crucial for abating projected trends for non-communicable diseases and malnutrition in Africa and abroad.

  4. Representation of riverine DOC within a GCM: First framework for coupling soil carbon and lateral hydrology in MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, V.; Gehlot, S.; Hagemann, S.

    2017-12-01

    The current state of the art General Circulation Models (GCMs) do not consider the lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from land to ocean via rivers/streams and the global carbon budget is primarily evaluated based only on vertical gas exchange processes between land or ocean carbon reservoirs. In high latitudes, the permafrost plays an important role in contributing to riverine organic carbon. Moreover, the vertical gas exchange processes are active during the lateral riverine carbon transport but are not considered in the impact of thawing permafrost on global climate. The interplay between permafrost and lateral hydrology is a substantial factor impacting the organic carbon inflow to the Arctic and its associated atmospheric exchange. In this research, we propose a framework of coupling the soil carbon transport via rivers using the hydrological discharge scheme (HD-Model) of MPI-ESM (Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model). The soil carbon classification is based on the solubility (YASSO soil carbon pools) and their subsequent attribution to the dissolved organic carbon via runoff (fast carbon pool) and baseflow (slow carbon pool). The HD-model, which simulates the river discharge for all land areas at a resolution of 0.5 degree, will be modified with inclusion of the DOC as tracer over test areas. Evaluation of DOC transport scheme is intended at reservoir level via available site measurements. The analysis will include global river networks for organic carbon transport with focus on permafrost and high latitude areas. Decomposition of DOC en-route land to ocean via vertical gas exchange processes will be included.

  5. Holocene climate change in North Africa and the end of the African humid period - results of new high-resolution transient simulations with the MPI-ESM 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Lorenz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology has recently undertaken high-resolution transient Holocene simulations using the fully-coupled Earth System Model MPI-ESM 1.3. The simulations cover the last 8000 years and are forced not only by reconstructed Holocene orbital variations and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, but also by recent compilations of Holocene volcanic aerosol distributions, variations in spectral solar irradiance, stratospheric ozone and land-use change. The simulations reveal the ubiquitous "Holocene conundrum": simulated global mean temperatures increase during the mid-Holocene and stay constant during the late Holocene. Simulated mid-Holocene near-surface temperatures are too cold in large parts of the world. Simulated precipitation, however, agrees much better with reconstruction than temperatures do. Likewise simulated global biome pattern fit reconstructions nicely, except for North Western America. First results of these simulations are presented with the main focus on the North African monsoon region. The amplitude of the mid-Holocene African Humid Period (AHP) is well captured in terms of precipitation and vegetation cover, so is the south-ward transgression of the termination of the AHP seen in reconstructions. The Holocene weakening and southward retreat of the North African monsoon as well as changes in the monsoon dynamic including shifts in the seasonal cycle and their relation to the locally varying termination of the AHP are discussed in detail. Members of the Hamburg Holocene Team: Jürgen Bader (1), Sebastian Bathiany (2), Victor Brovkin (1), Martin Claussen (1,3), Traute Crüger (1), Roberta D'agostino (1), Anne Dallmeyer (1), Sabine Egerer (1), Vivienne Groner (1), Matthias Heinze (1), Tatiana Ilyina (1), Johann Jungclaus (1), Thomas Kleinen (1), Alexander Lemburg (1), Stephan Lorenz (1), Thomas Raddatz (1), Hauke Schmidt (1), Gerhard Schmiedl (3), Bjorn Stevens (1), Claudia Timmreck (1), Matthew Toohey (4) (1) Max-Planck-Institut

  6. Exposing MPI Objects for Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.

    Developers rely on debuggers to inspect application state. In applications that use MPI, the Message Passing Interface, the MPI runtime contains an important part of this state. The MPI Tools Working Group has proposed an interface for MPI Handle Introspection. It allows debuggers and MPI impleme...

  7. Vegetation and Carbon Cycle Dynamics in the High-Resolution Transient Holocene Simulations Using the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkin, V.; Lorenz, S.; Raddatz, T.; Claussen, M.; Dallmeyer, A.

    2017-12-01

    One of the interesting periods to investigate a climatic role of terrestrial biosphere is the Holocene, when, despite of the relatively steady global climate, the atmospheric CO2 grew by about 20 ppm from 7 kyr BP to pre-industrial. We use a new setup of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model MPI-ESM1 consisting of the latest version of the atmospheric model ECHAM6, including the land surface model JSBACH3 with carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, coupled to the ocean circulation model MPI-OM, which includes the HAMOCC model of ocean biogeochemistry. The model has been run for several simulations over the Holocene period of the last 8000 years under the forcing data sets of orbital insolation, atmospheric greenhouse gases, volcanic aerosols, solar irradiance and stratospheric ozone, as well as land-use changes. In response to this forcing, the land carbon storage increased by about 60 PgC between 8 and 4 kyr BP, stayed relatively constant until 2 kyr BP, and decreased by about 90 PgC by 1850 AD due to land use changes. At 8 kyr BP, vegetation cover was much denser in Africa, mainly due to increased rainfall in response to the orbital forcing. Boreal forests moved northward in both, North America and Eurasia. The boreal forest expansion in North America is much less pronounced than in Eurasia. Simulated physical ocean fields, including surface temperatures and meridional overturning, do not change substantially in the Holocene. Carbonate ion concentration in deep ocean decreases in both, prescribed and interactive CO2simulations. Comparison with available proxies for terrestrial vegetation and for the ocean carbonate chemistry will be presented. Vegetation and soil carbon changes significantly affected atmospheric CO2 during the periods of strong volcanic eruptions. In response to the eruption-caused cooling, the land initially stores more carbon as respiration decreases, but then it releases even more carbon die to productivity decrease. This decadal

  8. pupyMPI - MPI implemented in pure Python

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromer, Rune; Hantho, Frederik; Vinter, Brian

    2011-01-01

    As distributed memory systems have become common, the de facto standard for communication is still the Message Passing Interface (MPI). pupyMPI is a pure Python implementation of a broad subset of the MPI 1.3 specifications that allows Python programmers to utilize multiple CPUs with datatypes...

  9. MPI@LHC Talk.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392933; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Draft version of talk for MPI@LHC, regarding the topic of "Monte Carlo Tuning @ ATLAS". The talk introduces the event generator chain, concepts of tuning, issues/problems with over tuning, and then proceeds to explain 3(4) tunes performed at ATLAS. A 4th tune known as A15-MG5aMC@NLO(-TTBAR) is also included, but is awaiting note approval.

  10. MPI_XSTAR: MPI-based parallelization of XSTAR program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, A.

    2017-12-01

    MPI_XSTAR parallelizes execution of multiple XSTAR runs using Message Passing Interface (MPI). XSTAR (ascl:9910.008), part of the HEASARC's HEAsoft (ascl:1408.004) package, calculates the physical conditions and emission spectra of ionized gases. MPI_XSTAR invokes XSTINITABLE from HEASoft to generate a job list of XSTAR commands for given physical parameters. The job list is used to make directories in ascending order, where each individual XSTAR is spawned on each processor and outputs are saved. HEASoft's XSTAR2TABLE program is invoked upon the contents of each directory in order to produce table model FITS files for spectroscopy analysis tools.

  11. Predictability over the North Atlantic ocean in hindcast ensembles of MPI-ESM initialized by EnKF and three nudging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Holger; Düsterhus, Andre; Kröger, Jürgen; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    We investigate hindcast skill for surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content (0-700m) in the North Atlantic for yearly mean values from 1960 to 2014 in four prediction systems based on the global coupled Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We find that in the North Atlantic and within the four prediction systems under consideration only the EnKF initialized hindcasts reproduce the variability of the reference data well both in terms of anomaly correlation and representation of the probability density function. The systems under consideration only differ in the method how they incorporate surface and sub-surface oceanic temperatures and salinities during assimilation: ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), anomaly nudging of ORA reanalysis (BS-1), full field nudging of ORA and GECCO reanalysis, respectively (PT-ORA, PT-GEC). We assess the hindcast skill of each prediction system with reference to HadCRUT4 near surface air temperature data (Morice et al. 2012) and NOAA OC5 upper ocean heat content data (Levitus et al. 2012) using anomaly correlation (ACC) and by analysing the interquartile range (IQR) of the probability density function (PDF). Firstly, we calculate hindcast skill in terms of ACC and IQR against reference data over the whole time period. Here, the hindcast skills of EnKF and BS-1 are better for both ACC and IQR in lead years 2 to 5 when compared to PT-ORA and PT-GEC, their hindcast skill drops off after lead year 1. Secondly, the PDF of the reference data is not uniformly distributed over time. We therefore calculate ACC and IQR for a 20 year moving window. We find hindcast skill in terms of ACC for EnKF and BS-1 in the 1960s and from the 1990s onwards, up to eight lead years in advance, with almost no skill for the time period inbetween. In contrast, there is no skill for PT-ORA and PT-GEC in any period after lead year one. The IQR of reference data is best captured by the EnKF, in the 1960s and 1990s up to lead year

  12. Max Planck in the Social Context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1983-01-01

    Planck was the founder of quantum theory, and therefore of modern physics. Moreover, because of the strength of his character and of his towering position in scientific life he had strong public influence. In respect to atomistics Planck went over from the negative position of Mach to the positive position of Boltzmann when he established his radiation law and introduced the quantum of action. Einstein was a supporter of atomistics all his life. From the beginning, Planck furthered the Theory of Relativity and Einstein. In the Weimar Republic he supported Einstein against the socalled 'German Physics'. Planck had the courage to praise Einstein in public even after Hitler came to power. Always interested in philosophy, Planck was initially under the influence of Mach's positivism, but later he turned, like Einstein, to realism. Boltzmann had always been arealist and materialist. Planck produced important ideas also on the problem of Free Will. In politics, Planck was a conventional, conservative, PrussianGerman patriot before the First War. However, under Hitler he became reserved towards the State. As well as he could, but with little success, Planck tried to prevent the worst. Planck was always religious, and he ascribed a strong role to religion also in public life. But he did not accept a personal, and therefore not a Christian, God. An attempt is made to interpret Planck's contradictory position in this respect. Planck's life was full of professional success, but it was tragically darkened by personal blows of fate. A relationship with the path of Germany and of her conservative intellectual leadership is sought. (author) [de

  13. Max Planck in the Social Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1983-07-01

    Planck was the founder of quantum theory, and therefore of modern physics. Moreover, because of the strength of his character and of his towering position in scientific life he had strong public influence. In respect to atomistics Planck went over from the negative position of Mach to the positive position of Boltzmann when he established his radiation law and introduced the quantum of action. Einstein was a supporter of atomistics all his life. From the beginning, Planck furthered the Theory of Relativity and Einstein. In the Weimar Republic he supported Einstein against the socalled 'German Physics'. Planck had the courage to praise Einstein in public even after Hitler came to power. Always interested in philosophy, Planck was initially under the influence of Mach's positivism, but later he turned, like Einstein, to realism. Boltzmann had always been arealist and materialist. Planck produced important ideas also on the problem of Free Will. In politics, Planck was a conventional, conservative, PrussianGerman patriot before the First War. However, under Hitler he became reserved towards the State. As well as he could, but with little success, Planck tried to prevent the worst. Planck was always religious, and he ascribed a strong role to religion also in public life. But he did not accept a personal, and therefore not a Christian, God. An attempt is made to interpret Planck's contradictory position in this respect. Planck's life was full of professional success, but it was tragically darkened by personal blows of fate. A relationship with the path of Germany and of her conservative intellectual leadership is sought. (author) [German] Planck war der Begründer der Quantentheorie und daher der modernen Physik. Außerdem hatte er sowohl durch die Kraft seines Charakters als auch durch seine überragenden Funktionen im wissenschaftlichen Leben starken öffentlichen Einfluß. In Bezug auf die Stellung zur Atomistik ging Planck, als er sein Strahlungsgesetz begründete und die Quantisierung einführte, von Mach zu Boltzmann über. Einstein war zeit seines Lebens ein Verfechter der Atomistik, während Mach bis zum Ende ein Gegner blieb. Planck war von Anfang an ein Förderer der Relativitätstheorie und Einsteins. In der Weimarer Republik trat er für Einstein gegen die sogenannte 'Deutsche Physik' ein. Er hatte sogar den Mut, Einstein noch unter dem Naziregime in Ansprachen zu würdigen. Stets philosophisch interessiert, stand Planck zuerst im Banne des Positivismus von Mach, doch wandte er sich später ähnlich wie Einstein dem Realismus zu. Boltzmann war schon immer Realist und Materialist gewesen. Man verdankt Planck auch wichtige Überlegungen zum Problem der Willensfreiheit. In der Politik war Planck vor dem ersten Weltkrieg ein konventioneller, konservativer preußisch-deutscher Patriot. Nach der Machtergreifung Hitlers ging er jedoch auf Distanz zum Staat. Er versuchte nach Kräften, wenn auch mit wenig Erfolg, das ärgste Unheil zu verhindern. Planck war stets religiös und er schrieb der Religion auch im öffentlichen Leben eine große Rolle zu. Jedoch akzeptierte er keinen persönlichen und daher auch keinen christlichen Gott. Es wird versucht, die diesbezügliche, widerspruchsvolle Stellung Plancks zu deuten. Plancks Leben war zwar voller beruflicher Erfolge, doch wurde es in tragischer Weise durch Schicksalsschläge verdüstert. Zusammenhänge mit dem Schicksal Deutschlands und seiner konservativen intellektuellen Obetschicht werden hergestellt. (author)

  14. [Following the American example? American models for hospital medicine and research: the case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max Planck Institutes). The history of this institution illustrates which local and specific considerations drove historical actors to embrace American models. German academic and administrative realities, however, imposed tight constraints on the implementation of US institutional models.

  15. MPI Debugging with Handle Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.

    The Message Passing Interface, MPI, is the standard programming model for high performance computing clusters. However, debugging applications on large scale clusters is difficult. The widely used Message Queue Dumping interface enables inspection of message queue state but there is no general in...

  16. Following the American Example? American Models for Hospital Medicine and Research: The Case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, C

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max P...

  17. Development of an MPI benchmark program library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Hitoshi

    2001-03-01

    Distributed parallel simulation software with message passing interfaces has been developed to realize large-scale and high performance numerical simulations. The most popular API for message communication is an MPI. The MPI will be provided on the Earth Simulator. It is known that performance of message communication using the MPI libraries gives a significant influence on a whole performance of simulation programs. We developed an MPI benchmark program library named MBL in order to measure the performance of message communication precisely. The MBL measures the performance of major MPI functions such as point-to-point communications and collective communications and the performance of major communication patterns which are often found in application programs. In this report, the description of the MBL and the performance analysis of the MPI/SX measured on the SX-4 are presented. (author)

  18. Static Deadlock Detection in MPI Synchronization Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xue, Liao; Xiao-Xin, He; Zhi-Hua, Fan

    2007-01-01

    It is very common to use dynamic methods to detect deadlocks in MPI programs for the reason that static methods have some restrictions. To guarantee high reliability of some important MPI-based application software, a model of MPI synchronization communication is abstracted and a type of static method is devised to examine deadlocks in such modes. The model has three forms with different complexity: sequential model, single-loop model and nested-loop model. Sequential model is a base for all ...

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M D; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Saurí, J; Widerström-Noga, E G

    2013-07-01

    Postal surveys. To confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI (MPI-SCI-S, Multidimensional Pain Inventory in the SCI population) and to test its internal consistency and construct validity in a Spanish population. Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain. The MPI-SCI-S along with Spanish measures of pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), functional independence (Functional Independence Measure), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), locus of control (Multidimensional health Locus of Control), support (Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC)), psychological well-being (Psychological Global Well-Being Index) and demographic/injury characteristics were assessed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pain (n=126). Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an adequate factor structure for the MPI-SCI-S. The internal consistency of the MPI-SCI-S subscales ranged from acceptable (r=0.66, Life Control) to excellent (r=0.94, Life Interference). All MPI-SCI-S subscales showed adequate construct validity, with the exception of the Negative and Solicitous Responses subscales. The Spanish version of the MPI-SCI is adequate for evaluating chronic pain impact following SCI in a Spanish-speaking population. Future studies should include additional measures of pain-related support in the Spanish-speaking SCI population.

  20. SKaMPI: A Comprehensive Benchmark for Public Benchmarking of MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Reussner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the MPI communication library is to enable portable parallel programming with high performance within the message-passing paradigm. Since the MPI standard has no associated performance model, and makes no performance guarantees, comprehensive, detailed and accurate performance figures for different hardware platforms and MPI implementations are important for the application programmer, both for understanding and possibly improving the behavior of a given program on a given platform, as well as for assuring a degree of predictable behavior when switching to another hardware platform and/or MPI implementation. We term this latter goal performance portability, and address the problem of attaining performance portability by benchmarking. We describe the SKaMPI benchmark which covers a large fraction of MPI, and incorporates well-accepted mechanisms for ensuring accuracy and reliability. SKaMPI is distinguished among other MPI benchmarks by an effort to maintain a public performance database with performance data from different hardware platforms and MPI implementations.

  1. OpenMPI and ExxonMobil Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Nathan Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchard, Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-09

    These are a series of slides for a presentation for ExxonMobil's visit to Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered are: Open MPI - The Release Story, MPI-3 RMA in Open MPI, MPI dynamic process management and Open MPI, and new options with CLE 6. Open MPI RMA features are: since v2.0.0 full support for the MPI-3.1 specification, support for non-contiguous datatypes, support for direct use of the RDMA capabilities of high performance networks (Cray Gemini/Aries, Infiniband), starting in v2.1.0 will have support for using network atomic operations for MPI_Fetch_and_op and MPI_Compare_and_swap, tested with MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE.

  2. X-space MPI: magnetic nanoparticles for safe medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Patrick William; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Croft, Laura Rose; Kim, Tyson N; Krishnan, Kannan M; Schaffer, David V; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-07-24

    One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), to replace X-ray and CT iodinated angiography, especially for CKD patients. MPI uses magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents that are much safer than iodine for CKD patients. MPI already offers superb contrast and extraordinary sensitivity. The iron oxide nanoparticle tracers required for MPI are also used in MRI, and some are already approved for human use, but the contrast agents are far more effective at illuminating blood vessels when used in the MPI modality. We have recently developed a systems theoretic framework for MPI called x-space MPI, which has already dramatically improved the speed and robustness of MPI image reconstruction. X-space MPI has allowed us to optimize the hardware for fi ve MPI scanners. Moreover, x-space MPI provides a powerful framework for optimizing the size and magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used in MPI. Currently MPI nanoparticles have diameters in the 10-20 nanometer range, enabling millimeter-scale resolution in small animals. X-space MPI theory predicts that larger nanoparticles could enable up to 250 micrometer resolution imaging, which would represent a major breakthrough in safe imaging for CKD patients.

  3. Impacts of deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region as simulated by the MPI atmospheric GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dümenil Gates, Lydia; Ließ, Stefan

    2001-10-01

    For two reasons it is important to study the sensitivity of the global climate to changes in the vegetation cover over land. First, in the real world, changes in the vegetation cover may have regional and global implications. Second, in numerical simulations, the sensitivity of the simulated climate may depend on the specific parameterization schemes employed in the model and on the model's large-scale systematic errors. The Max-Planck-Institute's global general circulation model ECHAM4 has been used to study the sensitivity of the local and global climate during a full annual cycle to deforestation and afforestation in the Mediterranean region. The deforestation represents an extreme desertification scenario for this region. The changes in the afforestation experiment are based on the pattern of the vegetation cover 2000 years before present when the climate in the Mediterranean was more humid. The comparison of the deforestation integration to the control shows a slight cooling at the surface and reduced precipitation during the summer as a result of less evapotranspiration of plants and less evaporation from the assumption of eroded soils. There is no significant signal during the winter season due to the stronger influence of the mid-latitude baroclinic disturbances. In general, the results of the afforestation experiment are opposite to those of the deforestation case. A significant response was found in the vicinity of grid points where the land surface characteristics were modified. The response in the Sahara in the afforestation experiment is in agreement with the results from other general circulation model studies.

  4. Cryogenic Concept for the Low-energy Electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) at MPI-K in Heidelberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R. von; Andrianarijaona, V.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.; Fadil, H.; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Orlov, D. A.; Schroeter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Ullrich, J.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Quack, H.; Rappaport, M.; Zajfman, D.

    2006-01-01

    At the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg a next generation electrostatic storage ring for cryogenic temperatures is under development. The main focus of this unique machine is the research on ions, molecules and clusters up to bio molecules in the energy range of 20-300 keV at low temperatures down to 2 Kelvin. The achievement of this low temperature for all material walls seen by the ions in the storage ring will allow novel experiments to be performed, such as rotational and vibrational state control of molecular ions and their interaction with ultra-low energy electrons and laser radiation. The low temperature of the storage ring not only causes a strong reduction of black body radiation incident onto the stored particles, but also acts as a large cryopump, expected to lead to a vacuum in the 10-15 mbar range. In this paper the cryogenic concept of the storage ring and the related vacuum design will be presented

  5. Max Planck Virtual Library (VLib) - Erfahrungen aus zwei Jahren Produktionsbetrieb

    OpenAIRE

    Overkamp, I.; Altmann, E.

    2004-01-01

    The poster gives an overview how the VLib project has developed during the last two years, regarding project history, structure, organization, usage statistics, important facts, development issues and problems which have not been solved up to now.

  6. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  7. MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A; Hamar, V

    2012-01-01

    Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

  8. DISP: Optimizations towards Scalable MPI Startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Huansong [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Pophale, Swaroop S [ORNL; Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Florida State University, Tallahassee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of MPI for high performance computing, the startup of MPI programs faces a scalability challenge as both the execution time and memory consumption increase drastically at scale. We have examined this problem using the collective modules of Cheetah and Tuned in Open MPI as representative implementations. Previous improvements for collectives have focused on algorithmic advances and hardware off-load. In this paper, we examine the startup cost of the collective module within a communicator and explore various techniques to improve its efficiency and scalability. Accordingly, we have developed a new scalable startup scheme with three internal techniques, namely Delayed Initialization, Module Sharing and Prediction-based Topology Setup (DISP). Our DISP scheme greatly benefits the collective initialization of the Cheetah module. At the same time, it helps boost the performance of non-collective initialization in the Tuned module. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on Titan supercomputer at ORNL with up to 4096 processes. The results show that our delayed initialization can speed up the startup of Tuned and Cheetah by an average of 32.0% and 29.2%, respectively, our module sharing can reduce the memory consumption of Tuned and Cheetah by up to 24.1% and 83.5%, respectively, and our prediction-based topology setup can speed up the startup of Cheetah by up to 80%.

  9. MPI_XSTAR: MPI-based Parallelization of the XSTAR Photoionization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Nowak, Michael A.; Lee, Julia C.; Smith, Randall K.

    2018-02-01

    We describe a program for the parallel implementation of multiple runs of XSTAR, a photoionization code that is used to predict the physical properties of an ionized gas from its emission and/or absorption lines. The parallelization program, called MPI_XSTAR, has been developed and implemented in the C++ language by using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocol, a conventional standard of parallel computing. We have benchmarked parallel multiprocessing executions of XSTAR, using MPI_XSTAR, against a serial execution of XSTAR, in terms of the parallelization speedup and the computing resource efficiency. Our experience indicates that the parallel execution runs significantly faster than the serial execution, however, the efficiency in terms of the computing resource usage decreases with increasing the number of processors used in the parallel computing.

  10. MPI-AMRVAC FOR SOLAR AND ASTROPHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, O. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Xia, C.; Hendrix, T.; Moschou, S. P.; Keppens, R., E-mail: o.porth@leeds.ac.uk [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present an update to the open source MPI-AMRVAC simulation toolkit where we focus on solar and non-relativistic astrophysical magnetofluid dynamics. We highlight recent developments in terms of physics modules, such as hydrodynamics with dust coupling and the conservative implementation of Hall magnetohydrodynamics. A simple conservative high-order finite difference scheme that works in combination with all available physics modules is introduced and demonstrated with the example of monotonicity-preserving fifth-order reconstruction. Strong stability-preserving high-order Runge-Kutta time steppers are used to obtain stable evolutions in multi-dimensional applications, realizing up to fourth-order accuracy in space and time. With the new distinction between active and passive grid cells, MPI-AMRVAC is ideally suited to simulate evolutions where parts of the solution are controlled analytically or have a tendency to progress into or out of a stationary state. Typical test problems and representative applications are discussed with an outlook toward follow-up research. Finally, we discuss the parallel scaling of the code and demonstrate excellent weak scaling up to 30, 000 processors, allowing us to exploit modern peta-scale infrastructure.

  11. Automatic Migration from PARMACS to MPI in Parallel Fortran Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Hempel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The PARMACS message passing interface has been in widespread use by application projects, especially in Europe. With the new MPI standard for message passing, many projects face the problem of replacing PARMACS with MPI. An automatic translation tool has been developed which replaces all PARMACS 6.0 calls in an application program with their corresponding MPI calls. In this paper we describe the mapping of the PARMACS programming model onto MPI. We then present some implementation details of the converter tool.

  12. Full-field initialized decadal predictions with the MPI earth system model: an initial shock in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Jürgen; Pohlmann, Holger; Sienz, Frank; Marotzke, Jochem; Baehr, Johanna; Köhl, Armin; Modali, Kameswarrao; Polkova, Iuliia; Stammer, Detlef; Vamborg, Freja S. E.; Müller, Wolfgang A.

    2017-12-01

    Our decadal climate prediction system, which is based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model, is initialized from a coupled assimilation run that utilizes nudging to selected state parameters from reanalyses. We apply full-field nudging in the atmosphere and either full-field or anomaly nudging in the ocean. Full fields from two different ocean reanalyses are considered. This comparison of initialization strategies focuses on the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG) region, where the transition from anomaly to full-field nudging reveals large differences in prediction skill for sea surface temperature and ocean heat content (OHC). We show that nudging of temperature and salinity in the ocean modifies OHC and also induces changes in mass and heat transports associated with the ocean flow. In the SPG region, the assimilated OHC signal resembles well OHC from observations, regardless of using full fields or anomalies. The resulting ocean transport, on the other hand, reveals considerable differences between full-field and anomaly nudging. In all assimilation runs, ocean heat transport together with net heat exchange at the surface does not correspond to OHC tendencies, the SPG heat budget is not closed. Discrepancies in the budget in the cases of full-field nudging exceed those in the case of anomaly nudging by a factor of 2-3. The nudging-induced changes in ocean transport continue to be present in the free running hindcasts for up to 5 years, a clear expression of memory in our coupled system. In hindcast mode, on annual to inter-annual scales, ocean heat transport is the dominant driver of SPG OHC. Thus, we ascribe a significant reduction in OHC prediction skill when using full-field instead of anomaly initialization to an initialization shock resulting from the poor initialization of the ocean flow.

  13. Parallelizing AT with MatlabMPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Toolbox (AT) is a high-level collection of tools and scripts specifically oriented toward solving problems dealing with computational accelerator physics. It is integrated into the MATLAB environment, which provides an accessible, intuitive interface for accelerator physicists, allowing researchers to focus the majority of their efforts on simulations and calculations, rather than programming and debugging difficulties. Efforts toward parallelization of AT have been put in place to upgrade its performance to modern standards of computing. We utilized the packages MatlabMPI and pMatlab, which were developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory, to set up a message-passing environment that could be called within MATLAB, which set up the necessary pre-requisites for multithread processing capabilities. On local quad-core CPUs, we were able to demonstrate processor efficiencies of roughly 95% and speed increases of nearly 380%. By exploiting the efficacy of modern-day parallel computing, we were able to demonstrate incredibly efficient speed increments per processor in AT's beam-tracking functions. Extrapolating from prediction, we can expect to reduce week-long computation runtimes to less than 15 minutes. This is a huge performance improvement and has enormous implications for the future computing power of the accelerator physics group at SSRL. However, one of the downfalls of parringpass is its current lack of transparency; the pMatlab and MatlabMPI packages must first be well-understood by the user before the system can be configured to run the scripts. In addition, the instantiation of argument parameters requires internal modification of the source code. Thus, parringpass, cannot be directly run from the MATLAB command line, which detracts from its flexibility and user-friendliness. Future work in AT's parallelization will focus on development of external functions and scripts that can be called from within MATLAB and configured on multiple nodes, while

  14. Design of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. T. Pong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particle imaging (MPI is a promising medical imaging technique producing quantitative images of the distribution of tracer materials (superparamagnetic nanoparticles without interference from the anatomical background of the imaging objects (either phantoms or lab animals. Theoretically, the MPI platform can image with relatively high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. In practice, the quality of the MPI images hinges on both the applied magnetic field and the properties of the tracer nanoparticles. Langevin theory can model the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and predict the crucial influence of nanoparticle core size on the MPI signal. In addition, the core size distribution, anisotropy of the magnetic core and surface modification of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles also determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the MPI images. As a result, through rational design of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the performance of MPI could be effectively optimized. In this review, the performance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in MPI is investigated. Rational synthesis and modification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and summarized. The potential medical application areas for MPI, including cardiovascular system, oncology, stem cell tracking and immune related imaging are also analyzed and forecasted.

  15. Benchmarking MILC code with OpenMP and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, Steven; Tamhankar, Sonali

    2001-01-01

    A trend in high performance computers that is becoming increasingly popular is the use of symmetric multi-processing (SMP) rather than the older paradigm of MPP. MPI codes that ran and scaled well on MPP machines can often be run on an SMP machine using the vendor's version of MPI. However, this approach may not make optimal use of the (expensive) SMP hardware. More significantly, there are machines like Blue Horizon, an IBM SP with 8-way SMP nodes at the San Diego Supercomputer Center that can only support 4 MPI processes per node (with the current switch). On such a machine it is imperative to be able to use OpenMP parallelism on the node, and MPI between nodes. We describe the challenges of converting MILC MPI code to using a second level of OpenMP parallelism, and benchmarks on IBM and Sun computers

  16. A Principled Approach to Online Publication Listings and Scientific Resource Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelijn Ringersma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Max Planck Institute (MPI for Psycholinguistics has developed a service to manage and present the scholarly output of their researchers. The PubMan database manages publication metadata and full-texts of publications published by their scholars. All relevant information regarding a researcher's work is brought together in this database, including supplementary materials and links to the MPI database for primary research data. The PubMan metadata is harvested into the MPI website CMS (Plone. The system developed for the creation of the publication lists, allows the researcher to create a selection of the harvested data in a variety of formats.

  17. GASFLOW-MPI. A scalable computational fluid dynamics code for gases, aerosols and combustion. Vol. 2. Users' manual (Revision 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jianjun; Travis, Jack; Royl, Peter; Necker, Gottfried; Svishchev, Anatoly; Jordan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing the parallel computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW-MPI as a best-estimate tool for predicting transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facility buildings. GASFLOW-MPI is a finite-volume code based on proven computational fluid dynamics methodology that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional volumes in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates.

  18. GASFLOW-MPI. A scalable computational fluid dynamics code for gases, aerosols and combustion. Vol. 1. Theory and computational model (Revision 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jianjun; Travis, Jack; Royl, Peter; Necker, Gottfried; Svishchev, Anatoly; Jordan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing the parallel computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW-MPI as a best-estimate tool for predicting transport, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen and other gases in nuclear reactor containments and other facility buildings. GASFLOW-MPI is a finite-volume code based on proven computational fluid dynamics methodology that solves the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional volumes in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates.

  19. Development of a parallel genetic algorithm using MPI and its application in a nuclear reactor core. Design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waintraub, Marcel; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Baptista, Rafael P.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the development of a distributed parallel genetic algorithm applied to a nuclear reactor core design optimization. In the implementation of the parallelism, a 'Message Passing Interface' (MPI) library, standard for parallel computation in distributed memory platforms, has been used. Another important characteristic of MPI is its portability for various architectures. The main objectives of this paper are: validation of the results obtained by the application of this algorithm in a nuclear reactor core optimization problem, through comparisons with previous results presented by Pereira et al.; and performance test of the Brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) cluster in reactors physics optimization problems. The experiments demonstrated that the developed parallel genetic algorithm using the MPI library presented significant gains in the obtained results and an accentuated reduction of the processing time. Such results ratify the use of the parallel genetic algorithms for the solution of nuclear reactor core optimization problems. (author)

  20. Towards deductive verification of MPI programs against session types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. B. Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Message Passing Interface (MPI is the de facto standard message-passing infrastructure for developing parallel applications. Two decades after the first version of the library specification, MPI-based applications are nowadays routinely deployed on super and cluster computers. These applications, written in C or Fortran, exhibit intricate message passing behaviours, making it hard to statically verify important properties such as the absence of deadlocks. Our work builds on session types, a theory for describing protocols that provides for correct-by-construction guarantees in this regard. We annotate MPI primitives and C code with session type contracts, written in the language of a software verifier for C. Annotated code is then checked for correctness with the software verifier. We present preliminary results and discuss the challenges that lie ahead for verifying realistic MPI program compliance against session types.

  1. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan

    2017-05-29

    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  2. Development of Mixed Mode MPI / OpenMP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Smith

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available MPI / OpenMP mixed mode codes could potentially offer the most effective parallelisation strategy for an SMP cluster, as well as allowing the different characteristics of both paradigms to be exploited to give the best performance on a single SMP. This paper discusses the implementation, development and performance of mixed mode MPI / OpenMP applications. The results demonstrate that this style of programming will not always be the most effective mechanism on SMP systems and cannot be regarded as the ideal programming model for all codes. In some situations, however, significant benefit may be obtained from a mixed mode implementation. For example, benefit may be obtained if the parallel (MPI code suffers from: poor scaling with MPI processes due to load imbalance or too fine a grain problem size, memory limitations due to the use of a replicated data strategy, or a restriction on the number of MPI processes combinations. In addition, if the system has a poorly optimised or limited scaling MPI implementation then a mixed mode code may increase the code performance.

  3. Practical Formal Verification of MPI and Thread Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Kirby, Robert M.

    Large-scale simulation codes in science and engineering are written using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Shared memory threads are widely used directly, or to implement higher level programming abstractions. Traditional debugging methods for MPI or thread programs are incapable of providing useful formal guarantees about coverage. They get bogged down in the sheer number of interleavings (schedules), often missing shallow bugs. In this tutorial we will introduce two practical formal verification tools: ISP (for MPI C programs) and Inspect (for Pthread C programs). Unlike other formal verification tools, ISP and Inspect run directly on user source codes (much like a debugger). They pursue only the relevant set of process interleavings, using our own customized Dynamic Partial Order Reduction algorithms. For a given test harness, DPOR allows these tools to guarantee the absence of deadlocks, instrumented MPI object leaks and communication races (using ISP), and shared memory races (using Inspect). ISP and Inspect have been used to verify large pieces of code: in excess of 10,000 lines of MPI/C for ISP in under 5 seconds, and about 5,000 lines of Pthread/C code in a few hours (and much faster with the use of a cluster or by exploiting special cases such as symmetry) for Inspect. We will also demonstrate the Microsoft Visual Studio and Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform integrations of ISP (these will be available on the LiveCD).

  4. What does fault tolerant Deep Learning need from MPI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatya, Vinay C.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Siegel, Charles M.; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2017-09-25

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become the {\\em de facto} Machine Learning (ML) algorithm for large scale data analysis. DL algorithms are computationally expensive -- even distributed DL implementations which use MPI require days of training (model learning) time on commonly studied datasets. Long running DL applications become susceptible to faults -- requiring development of a fault tolerant system infrastructure, in addition to fault tolerant DL algorithms. This raises an important question: {\\em What is needed from MPI for designing fault tolerant DL implementations?} In this paper, we address this problem for permanent faults. We motivate the need for a fault tolerant MPI specification by an in-depth consideration of recent innovations in DL algorithms and their properties, which drive the need for specific fault tolerance features. We present an in-depth discussion on the suitability of different parallelism types (model, data and hybrid); a need (or lack thereof) for check-pointing of any critical data structures; and most importantly, consideration for several fault tolerance proposals (user-level fault mitigation (ULFM), Reinit) in MPI and their applicability to fault tolerant DL implementations. We leverage a distributed memory implementation of Caffe, currently available under the Machine Learning Toolkit for Extreme Scale (MaTEx). We implement our approaches by extending MaTEx-Caffe for using ULFM-based implementation. Our evaluation using the ImageNet dataset and AlexNet neural network topology demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant DL implementation using OpenMPI based ULFM.

  5. Computational mathematics models, methods, and analysis with Matlab and MPI

    CERN Document Server

    White, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    Computational Mathematics: Models, Methods, and Analysis with MATLAB and MPI explores and illustrates this process. Each section of the first six chapters is motivated by a specific application. The author applies a model, selects a numerical method, implements computer simulations, and assesses the ensuing results. These chapters include an abundance of MATLAB code. By studying the code instead of using it as a "black box, " you take the first step toward more sophisticated numerical modeling. The last four chapters focus on multiprocessing algorithms implemented using message passing interface (MPI). These chapters include Fortran 9x codes that illustrate the basic MPI subroutines and revisit the applications of the previous chapters from a parallel implementation perspective. All of the codes are available for download from www4.ncsu.edu./~white.This book is not just about math, not just about computing, and not just about applications, but about all three--in other words, computational science. Whether us...

  6. Overlapping Communication and Computation with OpenMP and MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Machines comprised of a distributed collection of shared memory or SMP nodes are becoming common for parallel computing. OpenMP can be combined with MPI on many such machines. Motivations for combing OpenMP and MPI are discussed. While OpenMP is typically used for exploiting loop-level parallelism it can also be used to enable coarse grain parallelism, potentially leading to less overhead. We show how coarse grain OpenMP parallelism can also be used to facilitate overlapping MPI communication and computation for stencil-based grid programs such as a program performing Gauss-Seidel iteration with red-black ordering. Spatial subdivision or domain decomposition is used to assign a portion of the grid to each thread. One thread is assigned a null calculation region so it was free to perform communication. Example calculations were run on an IBM SP using both the Kuck & Associates and IBM compilers.

  7. Power-aware load balancing of large scale MPI applications

    OpenAIRE

    Etinski, Maja; Corbalán González, Julita; Labarta Mancho, Jesús José; Valero Cortés, Mateo; Veidenbaum, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Power consumption is a very important issue for HPC community, both at the level of one application or at the level of whole workload. Load imbalance of a MPI application can be exploited to save CPU energy without penalizing the execution time. An application is load imbalanced when some nodes are assigned more computation than others. The nodes with less computation can be run at lower frequency since otherwise they have to wait for the nodes with more computation blocked in MPI calls. A te...

  8. Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Applications Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Quinlan, D; Lumsdaine, A; Hoefler, T

    2012-04-10

    The complexity of petascale and exascale machines makes it increasingly difficult to develop applications that can take advantage of them. Future systems are expected to feature billion-way parallelism, complex heterogeneous compute nodes and poor availability of memory (Peter Kogge, 2008). This new challenge for application development is motivating a significant amount of research and development on new programming models and runtime systems designed to simplify large-scale application development. Unfortunately, DoE has significant multi-decadal investment in a large family of mission-critical scientific applications. Scaling these applications to exascale machines will require a significant investment that will dwarf the costs of hardware procurement. A key reason for the difficulty in transitioning today's applications to exascale hardware is their reliance on explicit programming techniques, such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model to enable parallelism. MPI provides a portable and high performance message-passing system that enables scalable performance on a wide variety of platforms. However, it also forces developers to lock the details of parallelization together with application logic, making it very difficult to adapt the application to significant changes in the underlying system. Further, MPI's explicit interface makes it difficult to separate the application's synchronization and communication structure, reducing the amount of support that can be provided by compiler and run-time tools. This is in contrast to the recent research on more implicit parallel programming models such as Chapel, OpenMP and OpenCL, which promise to provide significantly more flexibility at the cost of reimplementing significant portions of the application. We are developing CoMPI, a novel compiler-driven approach to enable existing MPI applications to scale to exascale systems with minimal modifications that can be made incrementally over

  9. The particular prediction of normal MPI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.-F.; Li, S.-J.; Liu, H.-Y.; Liu, J.Z.; Li, X.F.; Cheng, Y.; Zhang, Y.W.; Wang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To explore the prognostic value of normal SPECT MPI in diabetic pts. Methods: 1371 consecutively registered pts suspected with CAD were studied using rest SPECT MPI, and 1047 cases (76.37%) were followed up successfully. The mean interval of following up was 33.25±14.95(1∼56) months, and even longer than 18 months for pts with no cardiac events (CE). Results: Of 1047 pts, 172 were diabetic. During the follow up period, there are 42 cardiac events in 172 diabetic patients, and 86 in 857 non-diabetics. Diabetic pts had significantly higher rates of cardiac events (24.4% versus 9.8%; chi-square 28.5, P<0.0001). In the 567 pts with normal MPI, there are 4 cardiac events in 54 diabetic pts and 6 cases in 513 nondiabetic pts. The diabetic pts had significantly higher rates of cardiac events compared with the non-diabetic pts (7.41% versus 1.17%, Fisher's Exact Test, P=0.01). Conclusions: A normal SPECT has a high negative predictive value, but diabetic patients had significantly higher cardiac events rate compared with non-diabetic patients, what ever the MPI is normal or abnormal. (author)

  10. 32 CFR 637.8 - Identification of MPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.8 Identification of MPI. (a... referring to themselves as “INVESTIGATOR.” When signing military police records the title “Military Police Investigator” may be used in lieu of military titles. Civilian personnel will refer to themselves as...

  11. Fenix, A Fault Tolerant Programming Framework for MPI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    Fenix provides APIs to allow the users to add fault tolerance capability to MPI-based parallel programs in a transparent manner. Fenix-enabled programs can run through process failures during program execution using a pool of spare processes accommodated by Fenix.

  12. Fault Tolerance Assistant (FTA): An Exception Handling Programming Model for MPI Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Aiman [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Laguna, Ignacio [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sato, Kento [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Islam, Tanzima [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    Future high-performance computing systems may face frequent failures with their rapid increase in scale and complexity. Resilience to faults has become a major challenge for large-scale applications running on supercomputers, which demands fault tolerance support for prevalent MPI applications. Among failure scenarios, process failures are one of the most severe issues as they usually lead to termination of applications. However, the widely used MPI implementations do not provide mechanisms for fault tolerance. We propose FTA-MPI (Fault Tolerance Assistant MPI), a programming model that provides support for failure detection, failure notification and recovery. Specifically, FTA-MPI exploits a try/catch model that enables failure localization and transparent recovery of process failures in MPI applications. We demonstrate FTA-MPI with synthetic applications and a molecular dynamics code CoMD, and show that FTA-MPI provides high programmability for users and enables convenient and flexible recovery of process failures.

  13. Coupling of THALES and FROST using MPI Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Seok Hee; Jung, Chan Do; Jung, Jee Hoon; Um, Kil Sup; Lee, Jae Il

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the coupling method between THALES and FROST and the simulation results with the coupled code system. In this study, subchannel analysis code THALES and transient fuel performance code FROST were coupled using MPI method as the first stage of the development of the multi-dimensional safety analysis methodology. As a part of the validation, the CEA ejection accident was simulated using the coupled THALES-FROST code and the results were compared with the ShinKori 3 and 4 FSAR. Comparison results revealed that CHASER using MPI method predicts fuel temperatures and heat flux quantitatively well. Thus it was confirmed that the THALES and FROST are properly coupled. In near future, ASTRA, multi-dimensional core neutron kinetics code, will be linked to THALESFROST code for the detailed three-dimensional CEA ejection analysis. The current safety analysis methodology for a CEA ejection accident based on numerous conservative assumptions with the point kinetics model results in quite adverse consequences. Thus, KNF is developing the multi-dimensional safety analysis methodology to enhance the consequences of the CEA ejection accident. For this purpose, three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, subchannel analysis code THALES, and transient fuel performance analysis code FROST are being coupled using message passing interface(MPI). For the first step, THALES and FROST are coupled and tested

  14. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A; Iurino, A; Settanni, G; Andrisani, A; Stifanelli, P F; Larizza, P; Mazzia, F; Mininni, R M; Tangaro, S; Bellotti, R

    2016-06-07

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  15. The bumpy road Max Planck from radiation theory to the quantum (1896-1906)

    CERN Document Server

    Badino, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the different areas of knowledge, traditions, and conceptual resources that contributed to the building of Max Planck’s theory of radiation. It presents an insightful comparative analysis that not only sheds light upon a fundamental chapter in the history of modern physics, but also enlarges our understanding of how theoreticians work. Coverage offers a deep investigation into the technical aspects behind the theory and extends in time the notion of quantum revolution. It also presents a full-fledged discussion of the combinatorial part of Planck’s theory and places emphasis on the epistemological role of mathematical practices. By painstakingly reconstructing both the electromagnetic and the combinatorial part of Planck’s black-body theory, the author shows how some apparently merely technical resources, such as the Fourier series, effectively contributed to shape the final form of Planck’s theory. For decades, historians have debated the conditions of possibility of Max Planck’s...

  16. Molecular beams entwined with quantum theory: a bouquet for Max Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschbach, D.

    2001-01-01

    In an era when the fledgling quantum theory was ''uncertain and even gave contradictory answers,'' Otto Stern undertook to employ molecular beams to test directly fundamental aspects of the theory. During 1921-1935, this led to five decisive experiments reviewed here, resulting in the discovery or demonstration of space quantization, de Broglie matter waves, anomalous magnetic moments of the proton and neutron, recoil of an atom on emission of a photon, and the limitation of scattering cross-sections for molecular collisions imposed by the uncertainty principle. (orig.)

  17. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun

    2007-01-01

    and stringent validation criteria, false positive identification rates in MAPU are lower than 1:1000. Thus MAPU datasets can serve as reference proteomes in biomarker discovery. MAPU contains the peptides identifying each protein, measured masses, scores and intensities and is freely available at http......://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic...... annotation information and links to other public databases are provided in MAPU and we plan to add further analysis tools....

  18. Experiences implementing the MPI standard on Sandia`s lightweight kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    This technical report describes some lessons learned from implementing the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard, and some proposed extentions to MPI, at Sandia. The implementations were developed using Sandia-developed lightweight kernels running on the Intel Paragon and Intel TeraFLOPS platforms. The motivations for this research are discussed, and a detailed analysis of several implementation issues is presented.

  19. High-Level Topology-Oblivious Optimization of MPI Broadcast Algorithms on Extreme-Scale Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid; Quintin, Jean-Noë l; Lastovetsky, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a very simple and at the same time general approach to optimize legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and OpenMPI. Theoretical analysis

  20. Implementation and validation of a model of the MPI Stewart platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, F.M.; Van Paasen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bülthoff, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    A simulated model of the MPI Stewart platform can be used to identify the influence of motion system characteristics on human control behaviour in active closed-loop control experiments on the SIMONA Research Simulator. In this paper, a previously identified model of the MPI Stewart platform was

  1. Evaluation of iron oxide nanoparticle micelles for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) of thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, L.W.E.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Aussems-Custers, E.; Daemen, M.J.A.P.; Strijkers, G. J.; Nicolay, K.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging medical imaging modality that directly visualizes magnetic particles in a hot-spot like fashion. We recently developed an iron oxide nanoparticle-micelle (ION-Micelle) platform that allows highly sensitive MPI. The goal of this study was to assess the

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...

  3. Scalable High Performance Message Passing over InfiniBand for Open MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedley, A; Hoefler, T; Leininger, M L; Lumsdaine, A

    2007-10-24

    InfiniBand (IB) is a popular network technology for modern high-performance computing systems. MPI implementations traditionally support IB using a reliable, connection-oriented (RC) transport. However, per-process resource usage that grows linearly with the number of processes, makes this approach prohibitive for large-scale systems. IB provides an alternative in the form of a connectionless unreliable datagram transport (UD), which allows for near-constant resource usage and initialization overhead as the process count increases. This paper describes a UD-based implementation for IB in Open MPI as a scalable alternative to existing RC-based schemes. We use the software reliability capabilities of Open MPI to provide the guaranteed delivery semantics required by MPI. Results show that UD not only requires fewer resources at scale, but also allows for shorter MPI startup times. A connectionless model also improves performance for applications that tend to send small messages to many different processes.

  4. SBML-PET-MPI: a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Zhike

    2011-04-01

    Parameter estimation is crucial for the modeling and dynamic analysis of biological systems. However, implementing parameter estimation is time consuming and computationally demanding. Here, we introduced a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)-based models (SBML-PET-MPI). SBML-PET-MPI allows the user to perform parameter estimation and parameter uncertainty analysis by collectively fitting multiple experimental datasets. The tool is developed and parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) protocol, which provides good scalability with the number of processors. SBML-PET-MPI is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.bioss.uni-freiburg.de/cms/sbml-pet-mpi.html or http://sites.google.com/site/sbmlpetmpi/.

  5. Parallel MCNP Monte Carlo transport calculations with MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.; Haghighat, A.

    1996-01-01

    The steady increase in computational performance has made Monte Carlo calculations for large/complex systems possible. However, in order to make these calculations practical, order of magnitude increases in performance are necessary. The Monte Carlo method is inherently parallel (particles are simulated independently) and thus has the potential for near-linear speedup with respect to the number of processors. Further, the ever-increasing accessibility of parallel computers, such as workstation clusters, facilitates the practical use of parallel Monte Carlo. Recognizing the nature of the Monte Carlo method and the trends in available computing, the code developers at Los Alamos National Laboratory implemented the message-passing general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP (version 4A). The PVM package was chosen by the MCNP code developers because it supports a variety of communication networks, several UNIX platforms, and heterogeneous computer systems. This PVM version of MCNP has been shown to produce speedups that approach the number of processors and thus, is a very useful tool for transport analysis. Due to software incompatibilities on the local IBM SP2, PVM has not been available, and thus it is not possible to take advantage of this useful tool. Hence, it became necessary to implement an alternative message-passing library package into MCNP. Because the message-passing interface (MPI) is supported on the local system, takes advantage of the high-speed communication switches in the SP2, and is considered to be the emerging standard, it was selected

  6. High-Level Topology-Oblivious Optimization of MPI Broadcast Algorithms on Extreme-Scale Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant research in collective communication operations, in particular in MPI broadcast, on distributed memory platforms. Most of the research works are done to optimize the collective operations for particular architectures by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a very simple and at the same time general approach to optimize legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and OpenMPI. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on IBM BlueGene/P and a cluster of Grid’5000 platform are presented.

  7. MPI to Coarray Fortran: Experiences with a CFD Solver for Unstructured Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution numerical methods and unstructured meshes are required in many applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. These methods are quite computationally expensive and hence benefit from being parallelized. Message Passing Interface (MPI has been utilized traditionally as a parallelization strategy. However, the inherent complexity of MPI contributes further to the existing complexity of the CFD scientific codes. The Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS parallelization paradigm was introduced in an attempt to improve the clarity of the parallel implementation. We present our experiences of converting an unstructured high-resolution compressible Navier-Stokes CFD solver from MPI to PGAS Coarray Fortran. We present the challenges, methodology, and performance measurements of our approach using Coarray Fortran. With the Cray compiler, we observe Coarray Fortran as a viable alternative to MPI. We are hopeful that Intel and open-source implementations could be utilized in the future.

  8. Topology-oblivious optimization of MPI broadcast algorithms on extreme-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid; Quintin, Jean-Noë l; Lastovetsky, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    operations for particular architectures by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a simple but general approach to optimization of the legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and Open

  9. Cell verification of parallel burnup calculation program MCBMPI based on MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wankui; Liu Yaoguang; Ma Jimin; Wang Guanbo; Yang Xin; She Ding

    2014-01-01

    The parallel burnup calculation program MCBMPI was developed. The program was modularized. The parallel MCNP5 program MCNP5MPI was employed as neutron transport calculation module. And a composite of three solution methods was used to solve burnup equation, i.e. matrix exponential technique, TTA analytical solution, and Gauss Seidel iteration. MPI parallel zone decomposition strategy was concluded in the program. The program system only consists of MCNP5MPI and burnup subroutine. The latter achieves three main functions, i.e. zone decomposition, nuclide transferring and decaying, and data exchanging with MCNP5MPI. Also, the program was verified with the pressurized water reactor (PWR) cell burnup benchmark. The results show that it,s capable to apply the program to burnup calculation of multiple zones, and the computation efficiency could be significantly improved with the development of computer hardware. (authors)

  10. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Committee - KTA); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Technological Surveillance Association - Technische Ueberwachungsvereine-TUV; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS)mbH; Karlsruhe Research Centre - Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe; Juelich Research Centre - Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht - Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH; Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy; The Electron-Synchrotron in Hamburg - Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron-DESY; Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics at Garching/Munich - Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik-IPP; Company for Heavy Ion Research - Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH-GSI; Rossendorf Association for Nuclear Technology and Analysis - Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Anlaytik)

  11. Specification of Fenix MPI Fault Tolerance library version 1.0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Marc [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Van Der Wijngaart, Rob [Intel Corps., Mountain View, CA (United States); Teranishi, Keita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parashar, Manish [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document provides a specification of Fenix, a software library compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) to support fault recovery without application shutdown. The library consists of two modules. The first, termed process recovery , restores an application to a consistent state after it has suffered a loss of one or more MPI processes (ranks). The second specifies functions the user can invoke to store application data in Fenix managed redundant storage, and to retrieve it from that storage after process recovery.

  12. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel's MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Proceedings of the first international workshop on multiple partonic interactions at the LHC. MPI'08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalini, Paolo [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China); Fano, Livio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of this first workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions (MPI) at the LHC, that can be regarded as a continuation and extension of the dedicated meetings held at DESY in the years 2006 and 2007, is to raise the profile of MPI studies, summarizing the legacy from the older phenomenology at hadronic colliders and favouring further specific contacts between the theory and experimental communities. The MPI are experiencing a growing popularity and are currently widely invoked to account for observations that would not be explained otherwise: the activity of the Underlying Event, the cross sections for multiple heavy flavour production, the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in hard diffraction, etc. At the same time, the implementation of the MPI effects in the Monte Carlo models is quickly proceeding through an increasing level of sophistication and complexity that in perspective achieves deep general implications for the LHC physics. The ultimate ambition of this workshop is to promote the MPI as unification concept between seemingly heterogeneous research lines and to profit of the complete experimental picture in order to constrain their implementation in the models, evaluating the spin offs on the LHC physics program. The workshop is structured in five sections, with the first one dedicated to few selected hot highlights in the High Energy Physics and directly connected to the other ones: Multiple Parton Interactions (in both the soft and the hard regimes), Diffraction, Monte Carlo Generators and Heavy Ions. (orig.)

  15. Safety and efficacy of Regadenoson in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) stress tests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2018-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) tests are often used to help diagnose coronary heart disease (CAD). The tests usually involve applying stress, such as hard physical exercise together with administration of vasodilators, to the patients. To date, many of these tests use non-selective A2A adenosine receptor agonists which, however, can be associated with highly undesirable and life-threatening side effects such as chest pain, dyspnea, severe bronchoconstriction and atrioventricular conduction anomalies. Regadenoson is a relatively new, highly selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, suitable for use in MPI tests which exhibits far fewer adverse side effects and, unlike others testing agents, can be used without the necessity of excessive concomitant exercise. Also, the dose of regadenoson required is not dependent upon patient weight or renal impairment, and it can be rapidly administered by i.v. Injection. Regadenoson use in MPI testing thus has the potential as a simplified, relatively safe, time-saving and cost-effective method for helping diagnose CAD. The present study was designed to review several articles on the safety, efficacy, and suitability of regadenoson in MPI testing for CAD. Overall, the combined studies demonstrated that use of regadenoson in conjunction with low-level exercise in MPI is a highly efficient and relatively safe test for CAD, especially for more severe health-compromised patients.

  16. How to use MPI communication in highly parallel climate simulations more easily and more efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Jörg; Hanke, Moritz; Jahns, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this talk we present a way to facilitate efficient use of MPI communication for developers of climate models. Exploitation of the performance potential of today's highly parallel supercomputers with real world simulations is a complex task. This is partly caused by the low level nature of the MPI communication library which is the dominant communication tool at least for inter-node communication. In order to manage the complexity of the task, climate simulations with non-trivial communication patterns often use an internal abstraction layer above MPI without exploiting the benefits of communication aggregation or MPI-datatypes. The solution for the complexity and performance problem we propose is the communication library YAXT. This library is built on top of MPI and takes high level descriptions of arbitrary domain decompositions and automatically derives an efficient collective data exchange. Several exchanges can be aggregated in order to reduce latency costs. Examples are given which demonstrate the simplicity and the performance gains for selected climate applications.

  17. Proceedings of the first international workshop on multiple partonic interactions at the LHC. MPI'08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalini, Paolo; Fano, Livio

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this first workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions (MPI) at the LHC, that can be regarded as a continuation and extension of the dedicated meetings held at DESY in the years 2006 and 2007, is to raise the profile of MPI studies, summarizing the legacy from the older phenomenology at hadronic colliders and favouring further specific contacts between the theory and experimental communities. The MPI are experiencing a growing popularity and are currently widely invoked to account for observations that would not be explained otherwise: the activity of the Underlying Event, the cross sections for multiple heavy flavour production, the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in hard diffraction, etc. At the same time, the implementation of the MPI effects in the Monte Carlo models is quickly proceeding through an increasing level of sophistication and complexity that in perspective achieves deep general implications for the LHC physics. The ultimate ambition of this workshop is to promote the MPI as unification concept between seemingly heterogeneous research lines and to profit of the complete experimental picture in order to constrain their implementation in the models, evaluating the spin offs on the LHC physics program. The workshop is structured in five sections, with the first one dedicated to few selected hot highlights in the High Energy Physics and directly connected to the other ones: Multiple Parton Interactions (in both the soft and the hard regimes), Diffraction, Monte Carlo Generators and Heavy Ions. (orig.)

  18. QGM Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaetz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    I outlined my joint work with Camilo Arias Abad (Max Planck Institute, Bonn) on higher holonomies for flat superconnections and explained some background material.......I outlined my joint work with Camilo Arias Abad (Max Planck Institute, Bonn) on higher holonomies for flat superconnections and explained some background material....

  19. On the quantization of wave fields⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, L.

    2017-04-01

    Originally published in German "Zur Quantelung der Wellenfelder" in Annalen der Physik 397, 113 (1930). Submitted for publication on March 18, 1930Translated by Donald Salisbury, Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin and Austin College, Sherman, TX, USA and Kurt Sundermeyer, Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin. DSalisbury@austincollege.edu

  20. Exploiting Efficient Transpacking for One-Sided Communication and MPI-IO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Faisal Ghias; Träff, Jesper Larsson

    Based on a construction of socalled input-output datatypes that define a mapping between non-consecutive input and output buffers, we outline an efficient method for copying of structured data. We term this operation transpacking, and show how transpacking can be applied for the MPI implementation of one-sided communication and MPI-IO. For one-sided communication via shared-memory, we demonstrate the expected performance improvements by up to a factor of two. For individual MPI-IO, the time to read or write from file dominates the overall time, but even here efficient transpacking can in some scenarios reduce file I/O time considerably. The reported results have been achieved on a single NEC SX-8 vector node.

  1. Conflict Detection Algorithm to Minimize Locking for MPI-IO Atomicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Saba; Wang, Jun; Thakur, Rajeev

    Many scientific applications require high-performance concurrent I/O accesses to a file by multiple processes. Those applications rely indirectly on atomic I/O capabilities in order to perform updates to structured datasets, such as those stored in HDF5 format files. Current support for atomicity in MPI-IO is provided by locking around the operations, imposing lock overhead in all situations, even though in many cases these operations are non-overlapping in the file. We propose to isolate non-overlapping accesses from overlapping ones in independent I/O cases, allowing the non-overlapping ones to proceed without imposing lock overhead. To enable this, we have implemented an efficient conflict detection algorithm in MPI-IO using MPI file views and datatypes. We show that our conflict detection scheme incurs minimal overhead on I/O operations, making it an effective mechanism for avoiding locks when they are not needed.

  2. Performance of MPI parallel processing implemented by MCNP5/ MCNPX for criticality benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Dennis Usang; Mohd Hairie Rabir; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh; Mohamad Puad Abu

    2012-01-01

    MPI parallelism are implemented on a SUN Workstation for running MCNPX and on the High Performance Computing Facility (HPC) for running MCNP5. 23 input less obtained from MCNP Criticality Validation Suite are utilized for the purpose of evaluating the amount of speed up achievable by using the parallel capabilities of MPI. More importantly, we will study the economics of using more processors and the type of problem where the performance gain are obvious. This is important to enable better practices of resource sharing especially for the HPC facilities processing time. Future endeavours in this direction might even reveal clues for best MCNP5/ MCNPX coding practices for optimum performance of MPI parallelisms. (author)

  3. Topology-oblivious optimization of MPI broadcast algorithms on extreme-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid

    2015-11-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Significant research has been conducted in collective communication operations, in particular in MPI broadcast, on distributed memory platforms. Most of the research efforts aim to optimize the collective operations for particular architectures by taking into account either their topology or platform parameters. In this work we propose a simple but general approach to optimization of the legacy MPI broadcast algorithms, which are widely used in MPICH and Open MPI. The proposed optimization technique is designed to address the challenge of extreme scale of future HPC platforms. It is based on hierarchical transformation of the traditionally flat logical arrangement of communicating processors. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on IBM BlueGene/P and a cluster of the Grid\\'5000 platform are presented.

  4. Relationship between coronary contrast-flow quantitative flow ratio and myocardial ischemia assessed by SPECT MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Jeff M.; Rosendael, Alexander R. van; Jukema, J.W.; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J.; Scholte, Arthur J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Koning, Gerhard [Medis Medical Imaging Systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Mertens, Bart J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Medical Statistics, Leiden (Netherlands); Reiber, Johan H.C. [Medis Medical Imaging Systems B.V., Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    A new method has been developed to calculate fractional flow reserve (FFR) from invasive coronary angiography, the so-called ''contrast-flow quantitative flow ratio (cQFR)''. Recently, cQFR was compared to invasive FFR in intermediate coronary lesions showing an overall diagnostic accuracy of 85%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cQFR and myocardial ischemia assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI). Patients who underwent SPECT MPI and coronary angiography within 3 months were included. The cQFR computation was performed offline, using dedicated software. The cQFR computation was based on 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and computational fluid dynamics. The standard 17-segment model was used to determine the vascular territories. Myocardial ischemia was defined as a summed difference score ≥2 in a vascular territory. A cQFR of ≤0.80 was considered abnormal. Two hundred and twenty-four coronary arteries were analysed in 85 patients. Overall accuracy of cQFR to detect ischemia on SPECT MPI was 90%. In multivariable analysis, cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI (OR per 0.01 decrease of cQFR: 1.10; 95% CI 1.04-1.18, p = 0.002), whereas clinical and QCA parameters were not. Furthermore, cQFR showed incremental value for the detection of ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters (global chi square 48.7 to 62.6; p <0.001). A good relationship between cQFR and SPECT MPI was found. cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI and showed incremental value to detect ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters. (orig.)

  5. Relationship Between Coronary Contrast-Flow Quantitative Flow Ratio and Myocardial Ischemia Assessed by SPECT MPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeff M; Koning, Gerhard; van Rosendael, Alexander R; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Mertens, Bart J; Jukema, J Wouter; Delgado, Victoria; Reiber, Johan H C; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2017-10-01

    A new method has been developed to calculate fractional flow reserve (FFR) from invasive coronary angiography, the so-called "contrast-flow quantitative flow ratio (cQFR)". Recently, cQFR was compared to invasive FFR in intermediate coronary lesions showing an overall diagnostic accuracy of 85%. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cQFR and myocardial ischemia assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI). Patients who underwent SPECT MPI and coronary angiography within 3 months were included. The cQFR computation was performed offline, using dedicated software. The cQFR computation was based on 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and computational fluid dynamics. The standard 17-segment model was used to determine the vascular territories. Myocardial ischemia was defined as a summed difference score ≥2 in a vascular territory. A cQFR of ≤0.80 was considered abnormal. Two hundred and twenty-four coronary arteries were analysed in 85 patients. Overall accuracy of cQFR to detect ischemia on SPECT MPI was 90%. In multivariable analysis, cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI (OR per 0.01 decrease of cQFR: 1.10; 95% CI 1.04-1.18, p = 0.002), whereas clinical and QCA parameters were not. Furthermore, cQFR showed incremental value for the detection of ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters (global chi square 48.7 to 62.6; p relationship between cQFR and SPECT MPI was found. cQFR was independently associated with ischemia on SPECT MPI and showed incremental value to detect ischemia compared to clinical and QCA parameters.

  6. MSAProbs-MPI: parallel multiple sequence aligner for distributed-memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Jorge; Liu, Yongchao; Touriño, Juan; Schmidt, Bertil

    2016-12-15

    MSAProbs is a state-of-the-art protein multiple sequence alignment tool based on hidden Markov models. It can achieve high alignment accuracy at the expense of relatively long runtimes for large-scale input datasets. In this work we present MSAProbs-MPI, a distributed-memory parallel version of the multithreaded MSAProbs tool that is able to reduce runtimes by exploiting the compute capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation on a cluster with 32 nodes (each containing two Intel Haswell processors) shows reductions in execution time of over one order of magnitude for typical input datasets. Furthermore, MSAProbs-MPI using eight nodes is faster than the GPU-accelerated QuickProbs running on a Tesla K20. Another strong point is that MSAProbs-MPI can deal with large datasets for which MSAProbs and QuickProbs might fail due to time and memory constraints, respectively. Source code in C ++ and MPI running on Linux systems as well as a reference manual are available at http://msaprobs.sourceforge.net CONTACT: jgonzalezd@udc.esSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Lemon : An MPI parallel I/O library for data encapsulation using LIME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuzeman, Albert; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten

    We introduce Lemon, an MPI parallel I/O library that provides efficient parallel I/O of both binary and metadata on massively parallel architectures. Motivated by the demands of the lattice Quantum Chromodynamics community, the data is stored in the SciDAC Lattice QCD Interchange Message

  8. Research Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-16

    plasma physics, nuclear physics, space research, astronomy, radioastronomy , solid state physics, meteorology, and social and educational sciences. Most of...fUr Radioastronomie ( radioastronomy ) Max-Planck-Institut fur Str~5mungsforschung (fluid dynamics) Humanities Section Bibliotheca Hertziana (Max-Planck

  9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C T Achutankutty, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. Rajesh Agnihotri, Max Planck Institute For Chemistry, Germany. S Ahmed, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad. B R Arora, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun. K Balakrishna, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal.

  10. Improved Seasonal Prediction of European Summer Temperatures With New Five-Layer Soil-Hydrology Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Felix; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Fröhlich, Kristina; Hagemann, Stefan; Pohlmann, Holger; Stacke, Tobias; Baehr, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of a new five-layer soil-hydrology scheme on seasonal hindcast skill of 2 m temperatures over Europe obtained with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Assimilation experiments from 1981 to 2010 and 10-member seasonal hindcasts initialized on 1 May each year are performed with MPI-ESM in two soil configurations, one using a bucket scheme and one a new five-layer soil-hydrology scheme. We find the seasonal hindcast skill for European summer temperatures to improve with the five-layer scheme compared to the bucket scheme and investigate possible causes for these improvements. First, improved indirect soil moisture assimilation allows for enhanced soil moisture-temperature feedbacks in the hindcasts. Additionally, this leads to improved prediction of anomalies in the 500 hPa geopotential height surface, reflecting more realistic atmospheric circulation patterns over Europe.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Innate Responses in a New Model of Lung Alveolar Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Minjeong; Wood, Connor; Kwon, Doyoon; Park, Kyu-Ho Paul; Fejer, György; Delorme, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Lung alveolar macrophages (AMs) are in the first line of immune defense against respiratory pathogens and play key roles in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) in humans. Nevertheless, AMs are available only in limited amounts for in vitro studies, which hamper the detailed molecular understanding of host- Mtb interactions in these macrophages. The recent establishment of the self-renewing and primary Max Planck Institute (MPI) cells, functionally very close to lung AMs, opens unique opportunities for in vitro studies of host-pathogen interactions in respiratory diseases. Here, we investigated the suitability of MPI cells as a host cell system for Mtb infection. Bacterial, cellular, and innate immune features of MPI cells infected with Mtb were characterized. Live bacteria were readily internalized and efficiently replicated in MPI cells, similarly to primary murine macrophages and other cell lines. MPI cells were also suitable for the determination of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug activity. The primary innate immune response of MPI cells to live Mtb showed significantly higher and earlier induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1α, and IL-1β, as compared to stimulation with heat-killed (HK) bacteria. MPI cells previously showed a lack of induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to a wide range of stimuli, including HK Mtb . By contrast, we show here that live Mtb is able to induce significant amounts of IL-10 in MPI cells. Autophagy experiments using light chain 3B immunostaining, as well as LysoTracker labeling of acidic vacuoles, demonstrated that MPI cells efficiently control killed Mtb by elimination through phagolysosomes. MPI cells were also able to accumulate lipid droplets in their cytoplasm following exposure to lipoproteins. Collectively, this study establishes the MPI cells as a relevant, versatile host cell model for TB research, allowing a deeper understanding of AMs functions in this

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Innate Responses in a New Model of Lung Alveolar Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjeong Woo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung alveolar macrophages (AMs are in the first line of immune defense against respiratory pathogens and play key roles in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb in humans. Nevertheless, AMs are available only in limited amounts for in vitro studies, which hamper the detailed molecular understanding of host-Mtb interactions in these macrophages. The recent establishment of the self-renewing and primary Max Planck Institute (MPI cells, functionally very close to lung AMs, opens unique opportunities for in vitro studies of host-pathogen interactions in respiratory diseases. Here, we investigated the suitability of MPI cells as a host cell system for Mtb infection. Bacterial, cellular, and innate immune features of MPI cells infected with Mtb were characterized. Live bacteria were readily internalized and efficiently replicated in MPI cells, similarly to primary murine macrophages and other cell lines. MPI cells were also suitable for the determination of anti-tuberculosis (TB drug activity. The primary innate immune response of MPI cells to live Mtb showed significantly higher and earlier induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL-6, IL-1α, and IL-1β, as compared to stimulation with heat-killed (HK bacteria. MPI cells previously showed a lack of induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 to a wide range of stimuli, including HK Mtb. By contrast, we show here that live Mtb is able to induce significant amounts of IL-10 in MPI cells. Autophagy experiments using light chain 3B immunostaining, as well as LysoTracker labeling of acidic vacuoles, demonstrated that MPI cells efficiently control killed Mtb by elimination through phagolysosomes. MPI cells were also able to accumulate lipid droplets in their cytoplasm following exposure to lipoproteins. Collectively, this study establishes the MPI cells as a relevant, versatile host cell model for TB research, allowing a deeper understanding of AMs functions

  13. Feasibility of using auto Mod-MPI system, a novel technique for automated measurement of fetal modified myocardial performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-Y; Won, H-S; Jeon, E-J; Yoon, H C; Choi, J Y; Hong, S J; Kim, M-J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of measurement of the fetal left modified myocardial performance index (Mod-MPI) determined using a novel automated system. This was a prospective study of 116 ultrasound examinations from 110 normal singleton pregnancies at 12 + 1 to 37 + 1 weeks' gestation. Two experienced operators each measured the left Mod-MPI twice manually and twice automatically using the Auto Mod-MPI system. Intra- and interoperator reproducibility were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the manual and automated measurements obtained by the more experienced operator were compared using Bland-Altman plots and ICCs. Both operators successfully measured the left Mod-MPI in all cases using the Auto Mod-MPI system. For both operators, intraoperator reproducibility was higher when performing automated measurements (ICC = 0.967 and 0.962 for Operators 1 and 2, respectively) than when performing manual measurements (ICC = 0.857 and 0.856 for Operators 1 and 2, respectively). Interoperator agreement was also better for automated than for manual measurements (ICC = 0.930 vs 0.723, respectively). There was good agreement between the automated and manual values measured by the more experienced operator. The Auto Mod-MPI system is a reliable technique for measuring fetal left Mod-MPI and demonstrates excellent reproducibility. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Automatic translation of MPI source into a latency-tolerant, data-driven form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tan; Cicotti, Pietro; Bylaska, Eric; Quinlan, Dan; Baden, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Hiding communication behind useful computation is an important performance programming technique but remains an inscrutable programming exercise even for the expert. We present Bamboo, a code transformation framework that can realize communication overlap in applications written in MPI without the need to intrusively modify the source code. We reformulate MPI source into a task dependency graph representation, which partially orders the tasks, enabling the program to execute in a data-driven fashion under the control of an external runtime system. Experimental results demonstrate that Bamboo significantly reduces communication delays while requiring only modest amounts of programmer annotation for a variety of applications and platforms, including those employing co-processors and accelerators. Moreover, Bamboo’s performance meets or exceeds that of labor-intensive hand coding. As a result, the translator is more than a means of hiding communication costs automatically; it demonstrates the utility of semantic level optimization against a well-known library.

  15. Enabling Highly-Scalable Remote Memory Access Programming with MPI-3 One Sided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerstenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern interconnects offer remote direct memory access (RDMA features. Yet, most applications rely on explicit message passing for communications albeit their unwanted overheads. The MPI-3.0 standard defines a programming interface for exploiting RDMA networks directly, however, it's scalability and practicability has to be demonstrated in practice. In this work, we develop scalable bufferless protocols that implement the MPI-3.0 specification. Our protocols support scaling to millions of cores with negligible memory consumption while providing highest performance and minimal overheads. To arm programmers, we provide a spectrum of performance models for all critical functions and demonstrate the usability of our library and models with several application studies with up to half a million processes. We show that our design is comparable to, or better than UPC and Fortran Coarrays in terms of latency, bandwidth and message rate. We also demonstrate application performance improvements with comparable programming complexity.

  16. Study on MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelism for Monte Carlo neutron transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jingang; Xu Qi; Wang Kan; Liu Shiwen

    2013-01-01

    Parallel programming with mixed mode of messages-passing and shared-memory has several advantages when used in Monte Carlo neutron transport code, such as fitting hardware of distributed-shared clusters, economizing memory demand of Monte Carlo transport, improving parallel performance, and so on. MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelism was implemented based on a one dimension Monte Carlo neutron transport code. Some critical factors affecting the parallel performance were analyzed and solutions were proposed for several problems such as contention access, lock contention and false sharing. After optimization the code was tested finally. It is shown that the hybrid parallel code can reach good performance just as pure MPI parallel program, while it saves a lot of memory usage at the same time. Therefore hybrid parallel is efficient for achieving large-scale parallel of Monte Carlo neutron transport. (authors)

  17. Machine-learning model observer for detection and localization tasks in clinical SPECT-MPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parages, Felipe M.; O'Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we propose a machine-learning MO based on Naive-Bayes classification (NB-MO) for the diagnostic tasks of detection, localization and assessment of perfusion defects in clinical SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI), with the goal of evaluating several image reconstruction methods used in clinical practice. NB-MO uses image features extracted from polar-maps in order to predict lesion detection, localization and severity scores given by human readers in a series of 3D SPECT-MPI. The population used to tune (i.e. train) the NB-MO consisted of simulated SPECT-MPI cases - divided into normals or with lesions in variable sizes and locations - reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) method. An ensemble of five human specialists (physicians) read a subset of simulated reconstructed images, and assigned a perfusion score for each region of the left-ventricle (LV). Polar-maps generated from the simulated volumes along with their corresponding human scores were used to train five NB-MOs (one per human reader), which are subsequently applied (i.e. tested) on three sets of clinical SPECT-MPI polar maps, in order to predict human detection and localization scores. The clinical "testing" population comprises healthy individuals and patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) in three possible regions, namely: LAD, LcX and RCA. Each clinical case was reconstructed using three reconstruction strategies, namely: FBP with no SC (i.e. scatter compensation), OSEM with Triple Energy Window (TEW) SC method, and OSEM with Effective Source Scatter Estimation (ESSE) SC. Alternative Free-Response (AFROC) analysis of perfusion scores shows that NB-MO predicts a higher human performance for scatter-compensated reconstructions, in agreement with what has been reported in published literature. These results suggest that NB-MO has good potential to generalize well to reconstruction methods not used during training, even for reasonably dissimilar datasets (i

  18. Parallel Computing Characteristics of CUPID code under MPI and Hybrid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Han Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byoung Jin; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, a characteristic of parallel algorithm is presented for solving an elliptic type equation of CUPID via domain decomposition method using the MPI and the parallel performance is estimated in terms of a scalability which shows the speedup ratio. In addition, the time-consuming pattern of major subroutines is studied. Two different grid systems are taken into account: 40,000 meshes for coarse system and 320,000 meshes for fine system. Since the matrix of the CUPID code differs according to whether the flow is single-phase or two-phase, the effect of matrix shape is evaluated. Finally, the effect of the preconditioner for matrix solver is also investigated. Finally, the hybrid (OpenMP+MPI) parallel algorithm is introduced and discussed in detail for solving pressure solver. Component-scale thermal-hydraulics code, CUPID has been developed for two-phase flow analysis, which adopts a three-dimensional, transient, three-field model, and parallelized to fulfill a recent demand for long-transient and highly resolved multi-phase flow behavior. In this study, the parallel performance of the CUPID code was investigated in terms of scalability. The CUPID code was parallelized with domain decomposition method. The MPI library was adopted to communicate the information at the neighboring domain. For managing the sparse matrix effectively, the CSR storage format is used. To take into account the characteristics of the pressure matrix which turns to be asymmetric for two-phase flow, both single-phase and two-phase calculations were run. In addition, the effect of the matrix size and preconditioning was also investigated. The fine mesh calculation shows better scalability than the coarse mesh because the number of coarse mesh does not need to decompose the computational domain excessively. The fine mesh can be present good scalability when dividing geometry with considering the ratio between computation and communication time. For a given mesh, single-phase flow

  19. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, John; The ATLAS collaboration; Mazzaferro, Luca; Walker, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The possible usage of HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. In recent years the architecture of HPC systems has evolved, moving away from specialized monolithic systems, to a more generic Linux type platform. This change means that the deployment of non HPC specific codes has become much easier. The timing of this evolution perfectly suits the needs of ATLAS and opens a new window of opportunity. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. This high luminosity phase will be accompanied by a need for increasing amounts of simulated data which is expected to exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This paper presents the results of a pilot project undertaken by ATLAS and the MPP and RZG to provide access to...

  20. Fortran code for SU(3) lattice gauge theory with and without MPI checkerboard parallelization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Wu, Hao

    2012-10-01

    We document plain Fortran and Fortran MPI checkerboard code for Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory with the Wilson action in D dimensions. The Fortran code uses periodic boundary conditions and is suitable for pedagogical purposes and small scale simulations. For the Fortran MPI code two geometries are covered: the usual torus with periodic boundary conditions and the double-layered torus as defined in the paper. Parallel computing is performed on checkerboards of sublattices, which partition the full lattice in one, two, and so on, up to D directions (depending on the parameters set). For updating, the Cabibbo-Marinari heatbath algorithm is used. We present validations and test runs of the code. Performance is reported for a number of currently used Fortran compilers and, when applicable, MPI versions. For the parallelized code, performance is studied as a function of the number of processors. Program summary Program title: STMC2LSU3MPI Catalogue identifier: AEMJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26666 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 233126 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 compatible with the use of Fortran 90/95 compilers, in part with MPI extensions. Computer: Any capable of compiling and executing Fortran 77 or Fortran 90/95, when needed with MPI extensions. Operating system: Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6.1 with OpenMPI + pgf77 11.8-0, Centos 5.3 with OpenMPI + gfortran 4.1.2, Cray XT4 with MPICH2 + pgf90 11.2-0. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, parallelized using MPI extensions. Number of processors used: 2 to 11664 RAM: 200 Mega bytes per process. Classification: 11

  1. Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Vargas-Félix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.

  2. 8 years of experience in international, interdisciplinary and structured doctoral training in Earth system modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Antje; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling (IMPRS-ESM) is to provide a high quality, modern and structured graduate education to students pursuing a doctoral degree in Earth system modelling. In so doing, the IMPRS-ESM also strives to advance the emerging discipline (or cross-discipline) of Earth system modelling; to provide a framework for attracting the most talented and creative young women and men from around the world to pursue their doctoral education in Germany; to provide advanced as well as specialized academic training and scientific guidance to doctoral students; to encourage academic networking and publication of research results; to better integrate doctoral research at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with education and research at the University of Hamburg and other cooperating institutions. Core elements are rigorous selection of doctoral students, effective academic supervision, advanced academic training opportunities and interdisciplinary communication as well as administrative support. IMPRS-ESM graduates have been recognized with a variety of awards. 85% of our alumni continue a career in research. In this presentation we review the challenges for an interdisciplinary PhD program in Earth system sciences and the types of routines we have implemented to surmount them as well as key elements that we believe contribute to the success of our doctoral program.

  3. CORBA and MPI-based 'backbone' for coupling advanced simulation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydaliev, M.; Caswell, D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing international interest in using coupled, multidisciplinary computer simulations for a variety of purposes, including nuclear reactor safety analysis. Reactor behaviour can be modeled using a suite of computer programs simulating phenomena or predicting parameters that can be categorized into disciplines such as Thermalhydraulics, Neutronics, Fuel, Fuel Channels, Fission Product Release and Transport, Containment and Atmospheric Dispersion, and Severe Accident Analysis. Traditionally, simulations used for safety analysis individually addressed only the behaviour within a single discipline, based upon static input data from other simulation programs. The limitation of using a suite of stand-alone simulations is that phenomenological interdependencies or temporal feedback between the parameters calculated within individual simulations cannot be adequately captured. To remove this shortcoming, multiple computer simulations for different disciplines must exchange data during runtime to address these interdependencies. This article describes the concept of a new framework, which we refer to as the 'Backbone', to provide the necessary runtime exchange of data. The Backbone, currently under development at AECL for a preliminary feasibility study, is a hybrid design using features taken from the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), a standard defined by the Object Management Group, and the Message Passing Interface (MPI), a standard developed by a group of researchers from academia and industry. Both have well-tested and efficient implementations, including some that are freely available under the GNU public licenses. The CORBA component enables individual programs written in different languages and running on different platforms within a network to exchange data with each other, thus behaving like a single application. MPI provides the process-to-process intercommunication between these programs. This paper outlines the different CORBA and

  4. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Proceedings of the first international workshop on multiple partonic interactions at the LHC. MPI'08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalini, Paolo [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China); Fano, Livio (eds.) [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of this first workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions (MPI) at the LHC, that can be regarded as a continuation and extension of the dedicated meetings held at DESY in the years 2006 and 2007, is to raise the profile of MPI studies, summarizing the legacy from the older phenomenology at hadronic colliders and favouring further specific contacts between the theory and experimental communities. The MPI are experiencing a growing popularity and are currently widely invoked to account for observations that would not be explained otherwise: the activity of the Underlying Event, the cross sections for multiple heavy flavour production, the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in hard diffraction, etc. At the same time, the implementation of the MPI effects in the Monte Carlo models is quickly proceeding through an increasing level of sophistication and complexity that in perspective achieves deep general implications for the LHC physics. The ultimate ambition of this workshop is to promote the MPI as unification concept between seemingly heterogeneous research lines and to profit of the complete experimental picture in order to constrain their implementation in the models, evaluating the spin offs on the LHC physics program. The workshop is structured in five sections, with the first one dedicated to few selected hot highlights in the High Energy Physics and directly connected to the other ones: Multiple Parton Interactions (in both the soft and the hard regimes), Diffraction, Monte Carlo Generators and Heavy Ions. (orig.)

  6. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Aminophylline and caffeine for reversal of adverse symptoms associated with regadenoson SPECT MPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jesse A; Sajjad, Waseem; Schneider, Marabel D; Gupta, Rohit; Mackin, Maria L; Schwartz, Ronald G

    2017-06-01

    Aminophylline shortages led us to compare intravenous (IV) aminophylline with IV and oral (PO) caffeine during routine pharmacologic stress testing with SPECT MPI. We measured presence, duration, and reversal of adverse symptoms and cardiac events following regadenoson administration in consecutive patients randomized to IV aminophylline (100 mg administered over 30-60 seconds), IV caffeine citrate (60 mg infused over 3-5 minutes), or PO caffeine as coffee or diet cola. Of 241 patients, 152 (63%) received regadenoson reversal intervention. Complete (CR), predominant (PRE), or partial (PR) reversal was observed in 99%. CR by IV aminophylline (87%), IV caffeine (87%), and PO caffeine (78%) were similar (P = NS). Time to CR (162 ± 12.6 seconds, mean ± SD) was similar in treatment arms. PO caffeine was inferior to IV aminophylline for CR + PRE. IV aminophylline and IV caffeine provide rapid, safe reversal of regadenoson-induced adverse effects during SPECT MPI. Oral caffeine appeared similarly effective for CR but not for the combined CR + PRE. Our results suggest PO caffeine may be an effective initial strategy for reversal of regadenoson, but IV aminophylline or IV caffeine should be available to optimize symptom reversal as needed.

  8. Optimization approaches to mpi and area merging-based parallel buffer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfu Fan

    Full Text Available On buffer zone construction, the rasterization-based dilation method inevitably introduces errors, and the double-sided parallel line method involves a series of complex operations. In this paper, we proposed a parallel buffer algorithm based on area merging and MPI (Message Passing Interface to improve the performances of buffer analyses on processing large datasets. Experimental results reveal that there are three major performance bottlenecks which significantly impact the serial and parallel buffer construction efficiencies, including the area merging strategy, the task load balance method and the MPI inter-process results merging strategy. Corresponding optimization approaches involving tree-like area merging strategy, the vertex number oriented parallel task partition method and the inter-process results merging strategy were suggested to overcome these bottlenecks. Experiments were carried out to examine the performance efficiency of the optimized parallel algorithm. The estimation results suggested that the optimization approaches could provide high performance and processing ability for buffer construction in a cluster parallel environment. Our method could provide insights into the parallelization of spatial analysis algorithm.

  9. SeMPI: a genome-based secondary metabolite prediction and identification web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierep, Paul F; Padilla, Natàlia; Yonchev, Dimitar G; Telukunta, Kiran K; Klementz, Dennis; Günther, Stefan

    2017-07-03

    The secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants yields a vast number of bioactive substances. The constantly increasing amount of published genomic data provides the opportunity for an efficient identification of gene clusters by genome mining. Conversely, for many natural products with resolved structures, the encoding gene clusters have not been identified yet. Even though genome mining tools have become significantly more efficient in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, structural elucidation of the actual secondary metabolite is still challenging, especially due to as yet unpredictable post-modifications. Here, we introduce SeMPI, a web server providing a prediction and identification pipeline for natural products synthesized by polyketide synthases of type I modular. In order to limit the possible structures of PKS products and to include putative tailoring reactions, a structural comparison with annotated natural products was introduced. Furthermore, a benchmark was designed based on 40 gene clusters with annotated PKS products. The web server of the pipeline (SeMPI) is freely available at: http://www.pharmaceutical-bioinformatics.de/sempi. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Pthreads vs MPI Parallel Performance of Angular-Domain Decomposed S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnett, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two programming models for parallelizing the Angular Domain Decomposition (ADD) of the discrete ordinates (S n ) approximation of the neutron transport equation are examined. These are the shared memory model based on the POSIX threads (Pthreads) standard, and the message passing model based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. These standard libraries are available on most multiprocessor platforms thus making the resulting parallel codes widely portable. The question is: on a fixed platform, and for a particular code solving a given test problem, which of the two programming models delivers better parallel performance? Such comparison is possible on Symmetric Multi-Processors (SMP) architectures in which several CPUs physically share a common memory, and in addition are capable of emulating message passing functionality. Implementation of the two-dimensional,(S n ), Arbitrarily High Order Transport (AHOT) code for solving neutron transport problems using these two parallelization models is described. Measured parallel performance of each model on the COMPAQ AlphaServer 8400 and the SGI Origin 2000 platforms is described, and comparison of the observed speedup for the two programming models is reported. For the case presented in this paper it appears that the MPI implementation scales better than the Pthreads implementation on both platforms

  11. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  12. Automatic Transformation of MPI Programs to Asynchronous, Graph-Driven Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baden, Scott B [University of California, San Diego; Weare, John H [University of California, San Diego; Bylaska, Eric J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2013-04-30

    The goals of this project are to develop new, scalable, high-fidelity algorithms for atomic-level simulations and program transformations that automatically restructure existing applications, enabling them to scale forward to Petascale systems and beyond. The techniques enable legacy MPI application code to exploit greater parallelism though increased latency hiding and improved workload assignment. The techniques were successfully demonstrated on high-end scalable systems located at DOE laboratories. Besides the automatic MPI program transformations efforts, the project also developed several new scalable algorithms for ab-initio molecular dynamics, including new massively parallel algorithms for hybrid DFT and new parallel in time algorithms for molecular dynamics and ab-initio molecular dynamics. These algorithms were shown to scale to very large number of cores, and they were designed to work in the latency hiding framework developed in this project. The effectiveness of the developments was enhanced by the direct application to real grand challenge simulation problems covering a wide range of technologically important applications, time scales and accuracies. These included the simulation of the electronic structure of mineral/fluid interfaces, the very accurate simulation of chemical reactions in microsolvated environments, and the simulation of chemical behavior in very large enzyme reactions.

  13. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the explicit Volterra integral equation solver for multi-core computer architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    A hybrid MPI/OpenMP scheme for efficiently parallelizing the explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based solution of the time-domain volume (Volterra) integral equation (TD-VIE) is presented. The proposed scheme equally distributes tested field values and operations pertinent to the computation of tested fields among the nodes using the MPI standard; while the source field values are stored in all nodes. Within each node, OpenMP standard is used to further accelerate the computation of the tested fields. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed parallelization scheme scales well for problems involving three million or more spatial discretization elements. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015; Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Jahresbericht 2014/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu{sup 2}: competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  15. IB: A Monte Carlo simulation tool for neutron scattering instrument design under PVM and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    Design of modern neutron scattering instruments relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulation tools for optimization. IB is one such tool written in C++ and implemented under Parallel Virtual Machine and the Message Passing Interface. The program was initially written for the design and optimization of the EQ-SANS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. One of its features is the ability to group simple instrument components into more complex ones at the user input level, e.g. grouping neutron mirrors into neutron guides and curved benders. The simulation engine manages the grouped components such that neutrons entering a group are properly operated upon by all components, multiple times if needed, before exiting the group. Thus, only a few basic optical modules are needed at the programming level. For simulations that require higher computer speeds, the program can be compiled and run in parallel modes using either the PVM or the MPI architectures.

  16. Warm Paleocene/Eocene climate as simulated in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heinemann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the late Paleocene/early Eocene (PE climate using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The surface in our PE control simulation is on average 297 K warm and ice-free, despite a moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration of 560 ppm. Compared to a pre-industrial reference simulation (PR, low latitudes are 5 to 8 K warmer, while high latitudes are up to 40 K warmer. This high-latitude amplification is in line with proxy data, yet a comparison to sea surface temperature proxy data suggests that the Arctic surface temperatures are still too low in our PE simulation.

    To identify the mechanisms that cause the PE-PR surface temperature differences, we fit two simple energy balance models to the ECHAM5/MPI-OM results. We find that about 2/3 of the PE-PR global mean surface temperature difference are caused by a smaller clear sky emissivity due to higher atmospheric CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR; 1/3 is due to a smaller planetary albedo. The reduction of the pole-to-equator temperature gradient in PE compared to PR is due to (1 the large high-latitude effect of the higher CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR, (2 the lower Antarctic orography, (3 the smaller surface albedo at high latitudes, and (4 longwave cloud radiative effects. Our results support the hypothesis that local radiative effects rather than increased meridional heat transports were responsible for the "equable" PE climate.

  17. The MPI facial expression database--a validated database of emotional and conversational facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kaulard

    Full Text Available The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural

  18. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions

  19. Hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the explicit Volterra integral equation solver for multi-core computer architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid MPI/OpenMP scheme for efficiently parallelizing the explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT)-based solution of the time-domain volume (Volterra) integral equation (TD-VIE) is presented. The proposed scheme equally distributes tested field values

  20. High-order finite-element seismic wave propagation modeling with MPI on a large GPU cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatitsch, Dimitri; Erlebacher, Gordon; Goeddeke, Dominik; Michea, David

    2010-01-01

    We implement a high-order finite-element application, which performs the numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation resulting for instance from earthquakes at the scale of a continent or from active seismic acquisition experiments in the oil industry, on a large cluster of NVIDIA Tesla graphics cards using the CUDA programming environment and non-blocking message passing based on MPI. Contrary to many finite-element implementations, ours is implemented successfully in single precision, maximizing the performance of current generation GPUs. We discuss the implementation and optimization of the code and compare it to an existing very optimized implementation in C language and MPI on a classical cluster of CPU nodes. We use mesh coloring to efficiently handle summation operations over degrees of freedom on an unstructured mesh, and non-blocking MPI messages in order to overlap the communications across the network and the data transfer to and from the device via PCIe with calculations on the GPU. We perform a number of numerical tests to validate the single-precision CUDA and MPI implementation and assess its accuracy. We then analyze performance measurements and depending on how the problem is mapped to the reference CPU cluster, we obtain a speedup of 20x or 12x.

  1. Variations of trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during the summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I A Girach

    2018-02-16

    Feb 16, 2018 ... Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany. 3 ... fossil fuel and biomass burning supplemented with oxidation of ... About 90% of CH4 is removed through its reaction.

  2. Pleiotropic consequences of misexpression of the developmentally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Moushami Mallik1 2 Subhash C Lakhotia1. Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India; Molecular Neurogenetics Laboratory, Max-Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Roentgenstrasse 20, 48149 Muenster, Germany ...

  3. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  4. W7-AS/W7-X contributions to the 20th European conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report contains the 23 contributions of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik to the above mentioned conference. The contributions deal with plasma heating problems in the Wendelstein stellarators. (WL)

  5. Experiences Using Hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the Real World: Parallelization of a 3D CFD Solver for Multi-Core Node Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Jost

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today most systems in high-performance computing (HPC feature a hierarchical hardware design: shared-memory nodes with several multi-core CPUs are connected via a network infrastructure. When parallelizing an application for these architectures it seems natural to employ a hierarchical programming model such as combining MPI and OpenMP. Nevertheless, there is the general lore that pure MPI outperforms the hybrid MPI/OpenMP approach. In this paper, we describe the hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of IR3D (Incompressible Realistic 3-D code, a full-scale real-world application, which simulates the environmental effects on the evolution of vortices trailing behind control surfaces of underwater vehicles. We discuss performance, scalability and limitations of the pure MPI version of the code on a variety of hardware platforms and show how the hybrid approach can help to overcome certain limitations.

  6. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  7. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Johannes; Hofmann, Martin; Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  8. Influence of North Atlantic modes on European climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proemmel, K.; Cubasch, U.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the North Atlantic strongly influences European climate. Only few studies exist that focus on its impact on climate extremes. We are interested in these extremes and the processes and mechanisms behind it. For the analysis of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) we use simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The NAO has a strong impact especially on European winter and the changes in minimum temperature are even larger than in maximum temperature. The impact of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability (AMV) on climate extremes is analyzed in ECHAM6 simulations forced with AMV warm and AMV cold sea surface temperature patterns. We analyze different extreme indices and try to understand the processes.

  9. Future Projections of Air Temperature and Precipitation for the CORDEX-MENA Domain by Using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the projected changes for the periods of 2016 - 2035, 2046 - 2065, and 2081 - 2100 in the seasonal averages of air temperature and precipitation variables with respect to the reference period of 1981 - 2000 were examined for the Middle East and North Africa region. In this context, Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics) was run by using two different global climate models. MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and HadGEM2 of the Met Office Hadley Centre were dynamically downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX-MENA domain. The projections were realized according to the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 emission scenarios of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change).

  10. Fraunhofer Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie (IME). Annual report 2014/2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual report 2014/2015 of the Fraunhofer Institute for molecular biology and applied ecology includes the following contributions: (A) Molecular Biology: TheraSECOURE - Novel immunotherapeutics for targeted cancer therapy; ''MultiNaBel ''- Automated diagnosis of leukemia; Breeding potato for optimized specialty starches; NGS-based zygosity detection in transgenic maize; High-throughput screen ing system for cellulases based on microfluidic devices; Filter aids reduce production costs for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals; Transient expression of recombinant proteins in packed plant cells; ERA-NET Biodiversa EXOTIC project on the invasive harlequin ladybird; AIM-Biotech supported by the Fraunhofer-Max Planck Cooperation program; Metabolic control analysis of the MEP pathway; Metabolic engineering of Clostridium spp. by genomic integration; The Fraunhofer Future Foundation malaria project; Autoantibodies to type 11 collagen as biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis; Development of a new drug for the treatment of sepsis; Databionic drug research; Structure-based drug design; Neu 2 : competence consortium for multiple sclerosis drug development; Natural compounds from marine fungi for the treatment of cancer; FCR Center for Systems Biotechnology (CSB): Two selected projects; Development and implementation of a plant-derived vaccine against yellow fever. (B) Applied Ecology: Comparison and improvement of laboratory water/sediment test systems; Inter-laboratory comparison of Hyalella Azteca exposure tests lasting 10-42 days; Substance- and matrix-related environmental monitoring of biocides; GERDA-geobased runoff, erosion and drainage risk assessment; The minimum detectable difference and reliability of mesocosm studies; Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides; Molecular biology test for the online analysis of spontaneously-fermented wines; Coupling two test systems to determine the effect of wastewater

  11. Superconductivity is pair work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenmayr, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Electric cables that routinely conduct electricity without loss - physicists have been motivated by this idea ever since superconductivity was discovered 100 years ago. Researchers working with Bernhard Keimer at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart and Frank Steglich at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden want to gain a detailed understanding of how unconventional superconductors lose their resistivity. (orig.)

  12. Equations of discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenmayr, R.

    2008-01-01

    Max Planck founded quantum physics in 1900 - accidentally. In the years following 1920, many physicists developed modern quantum mechanics - through labyrinthine paths and amid intense disputes. This complex history is being studied by a group of historians working with JUeRGEN RENN, Director at the MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE, his colleague Christoph Lehner, and a group of physicists working with MATTHIAS SCHEFFLER, Director at the FRITZ HABER INSTITUTE. (orig.)

  13. Performance characteristics of hybrid MPI/OpenMP implementations of NAS parallel benchmarks SP and BT on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with the fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore supercomputers provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use SP and BT benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore supercomputers. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76%, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58% on up to 10,000 cores on BlueGene/P at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these supercomputers to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT.

  14. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementations of NAS Parallel Benchmarks SP and BT on Large-Scale Multicore Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.; Taylor, V.

    2011-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore clusters provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node, and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Block Tridiagonal (BT) benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore clusters, Intrepid (BlueGene/P) at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76 %, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58 % on up to 10 000 cores on Intrepid and Jaguar. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these clusters to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance characteristics of hybrid MPI/OpenMP implementations of NAS parallel benchmarks SP and BT on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-03-29

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with the fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore supercomputers provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use SP and BT benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore supercomputers. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76%, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58% on up to 10,000 cores on BlueGene/P at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these supercomputers to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT.

  16. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementations of NAS Parallel Benchmarks SP and BT on Large-Scale Multicore Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.

    2011-07-18

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore clusters provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node, and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Block Tridiagonal (BT) benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore clusters, Intrepid (BlueGene/P) at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76 %, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58 % on up to 10 000 cores on Intrepid and Jaguar. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these clusters to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Large Scale Frequent Pattern Mining using MPI One-Sided Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a work-stealing runtime --- Library for Work Stealing LibWS --- using MPI one-sided model for designing scalable FP-Growth --- {\\em de facto} frequent pattern mining algorithm --- on large scale systems. LibWS provides locality efficient and highly scalable work-stealing techniques for load balancing on a variety of data distributions. We also propose a novel communication algorithm for FP-growth data exchange phase, which reduces the communication complexity from state-of-the-art O(p) to O(f + p/f) for p processes and f frequent attributed-ids. FP-Growth is implemented using LibWS and evaluated on several work distributions and support counts. An experimental evaluation of the FP-Growth on LibWS using 4096 processes on an InfiniBand Cluster demonstrates excellent efficiency for several work distributions (87\\% efficiency for Power-law and 91% for Poisson). The proposed distributed FP-Tree merging algorithm provides 38x communication speedup on 4096 cores.

  18. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A. [TUV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. (Germany); Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  19. PhyloBayes MPI: phylogenetic reconstruction with infinite mixtures of profiles in a parallel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Stubbs, Daniel; Richer, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Modeling across site variation of the substitution process is increasingly recognized as important for obtaining more accurate phylogenetic reconstructions. Both finite and infinite mixture models have been proposed and have been shown to significantly improve on classical single-matrix models. Compared with their finite counterparts, infinite mixtures have a greater expressivity. However, they are computationally more challenging. This has resulted in practical compromises in the design of infinite mixture models. In particular, a fast but simplified version of a Dirichlet process model over equilibrium frequency profiles implemented in PhyloBayes has often been used in recent phylogenomics studies, while more refined model structures, more realistic and empirically more fit, have been practically out of reach. We introduce a message passing interface version of PhyloBayes, implementing the Dirichlet process mixture models as well as more classical empirical matrices and finite mixtures. The parallelization is made efficient thanks to the combination of two algorithmic strategies: a partial Gibbs sampling update of the tree topology and the use of a truncated stick-breaking representation for the Dirichlet process prior. The implementation shows close to linear gains in computational speed for up to 64 cores, thus allowing faster phylogenetic reconstruction under complex mixture models. PhyloBayes MPI is freely available from our website www.phylobayes.org.

  20. A Combined MPI-CUDA Parallel Solution of Linear and Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Colmenares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson-Boltzmann equation models the electrostatic potential generated by fixed charges on a polarizable solute immersed in an ionic solution. This approach is often used in computational structural biology to estimate the electrostatic energetic component of the assembly of molecular biological systems. In the last decades, the amount of data concerning proteins and other biological macromolecules has remarkably increased. To fruitfully exploit these data, a huge computational power is needed as well as software tools capable of exploiting it. It is therefore necessary to move towards high performance computing and to develop proper parallel implementations of already existing and of novel algorithms. Nowadays, workstations can provide an amazing computational power: up to 10 TFLOPS on a single machine equipped with multiple CPUs and accelerators such as Intel Xeon Phi or GPU devices. The actual obstacle to the full exploitation of modern heterogeneous resources is efficient parallel coding and porting of software on such architectures. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a full Poisson-Boltzmann solver based on a finite-difference scheme using different and combined parallel schemes and in particular a mixed MPI-CUDA implementation. Results show great speedups when using the two schemes, achieving an 18.9x speedup using three GPUs.

  1. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, A.; Langenbuch, S.

    2003-01-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  2. Study on High Performance of MPI-Based Parallel FDTD from WorkStation to Super Computer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel FDTD method is applied to analyze the electromagnetic problems of the electrically large targets on super computer. It is well known that the more the number of processors the less computing time consumed. Nevertheless, with the same number of processors, computing efficiency is affected by the scheme of the MPI virtual topology. Then, the influence of different virtual topology schemes on parallel performance of parallel FDTD is studied in detail. The general rules are presented on how to obtain the highest efficiency of parallel FDTD algorithm by optimizing MPI virtual topology. To show the validity of the presented method, several numerical results are given in the later part. Various comparisons are made and some useful conclusions are summarized.

  3. Thermodynamic behavior of binary mixtures CnMpyNTf2 ionic liquids with primary and secondary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, N.; Gómez, E.; Domínguez, Á.; Macedo, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with C n MpyNTf 2 (n = 2, 3, 4) are determined. ► Experimental data were correlated with Extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. ► Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. ► The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. - Abstract: In this paper, the osmotic and activity coefficients and vapor pressures of the binary mixtures containing the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 2 MpyNTf 2 , and 1-methyl-3-propylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 3 MpyNTf 2 , with 1-propanol, or 2-propanol and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 4 MpyNTf 2 , with 1-propanol or 2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The influence of the structure of the alcohol and of the ionic liquid on both coefficients and vapor pressures is discussed and a comparison with literature data on binary mixtures containing ionic liquids with different cations and anion is also performed. Besides, the results have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and ion–ion interactions. The experimental osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the Modified Non-Random Two Liquids model obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.059 and 0.102 respectively, and the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures were calculated.

  4. McMPI – a managed-code message passing interface library for high performance communication in C#

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Daniel John

    2012-01-01

    This work endeavours to achieve technology transfer between established best-practice in academic high-performance computing and current techniques in commercial high-productivity computing. It shows that a credible high-performance message-passing communication library, with semantics and syntax following the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) Standard, can be built in pure C# (one of the .Net suite of computer languages). Message-passing has been the dominant paradigm in high-pe...

  5. RRTMGP: A High-Performance Broadband Radiation Code for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    NOAA), Robin Hogan (ECMWF), a number of colleagues at the Max - Planck Institute, and Will Sawyer and Marcus Wetzstein (Swiss Supercomputer Center...on a GPU for implementation into their GCM (based on the Max Planck Institutes’s ICON model). A completely new driver has been developed for this...are (per g-point and atmospheric column) gas optical depths, the internal (i.e. Planck ) layer source irradiances, the internal source irradiances for

  6. Novel magnetic multicore nanoparticles designed for MPI and other biomedical applications: From synthesis to first in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kratz

    Full Text Available Synthesis of novel magnetic multicore particles (MCP in the nano range, involves alkaline precipitation of iron(II chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. This step yields green rust, which is oxidized to obtain magnetic nanoparticles, which probably consist of a magnetite/maghemite mixed-phase. Final growth and annealing at 90°C in the presence of a large excess of carboxymethyl dextran gives MCP very promising magnetic properties for magnetic particle imaging (MPI, an emerging medical imaging modality, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The magnetic nanoparticles are biocompatible and thus potential candidates for future biomedical applications such as cardiovascular imaging, sentinel lymph node mapping in cancer patients, and stem cell tracking. The new MCP that we introduce here have three times higher magnetic particle spectroscopy performance at lower and middle harmonics and five times higher MPS signal strength at higher harmonics compared with Resovist®. In addition, the new MCP have also an improved in vivo MPI performance compared to Resovist®, and we here report the first in vivo MPI investigation of this new generation of magnetic nanoparticles.

  7. MPI-AMRVAC 2.0 for Solar and Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Teunissen, J.; El Mellah, I.; Chané, E.; Keppens, R.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the development of MPI-AMRVAC version 2.0, which is an open-source framework for parallel, grid-adaptive simulations of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) astrophysical applications. The framework now supports radial grid stretching in combination with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The advantages of this combined approach are demonstrated with one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional examples of spherically symmetric Bondi accretion, steady planar Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton flows, and wind accretion in supergiant X-ray binaries. Another improvement is support for the generic splitting of any background magnetic field. We present several tests relevant for solar physics applications to demonstrate the advantages of field splitting on accuracy and robustness in extremely low-plasma β environments: a static magnetic flux rope, a magnetic null-point, and magnetic reconnection in a current sheet with either uniform or anomalous resistivity. Our implementation for treating anisotropic thermal conduction in multi-dimensional MHD applications is also described, which generalizes the original slope-limited symmetric scheme from two to three dimensions. We perform ring diffusion tests that demonstrate its accuracy and robustness, and show that it prevents the unphysical thermal flux present in traditional schemes. The improved parallel scaling of the code is demonstrated with three-dimensional AMR simulations of solar coronal rain, which show satisfactory strong scaling up to 2000 cores. Other framework improvements are also reported: the modernization and reorganization into a library, the handling of automatic regression tests, the use of inline/online Doxygen documentation, and a new future-proof data format for input/output.

  8. Applications Performance Under MPL and MPI on NAS IBM SP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    On July 5, 1994, an IBM Scalable POWER parallel System (IBM SP2) with 64 nodes, was installed at the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Facility Each node of NAS IBM SP2 is a "wide node" consisting of a RISC 6000/590 workstation module with a clock of 66.5 MHz which can perform four floating point operations per clock with a peak performance of 266 Mflop/s. By the end of 1994, 64 nodes of IBM SP2 will be upgraded to 160 nodes with a peak performance of 42.5 Gflop/s. An overview of the IBM SP2 hardware is presented. The basic understanding of architectural details of RS 6000/590 will help application scientists the porting, optimizing, and tuning of codes from other machines such as the CRAY C90 and the Paragon to the NAS SP2. Optimization techniques such as quad-word loading, effective utilization of two floating point units, and data cache optimization of RS 6000/590 is illustrated, with examples giving performance gains at each optimization step. The conversion of codes using Intel's message passing library NX to codes using native Message Passing Library (MPL) and the Message Passing Interface (NMI) library available on the IBM SP2 is illustrated. In particular, we will present the performance of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) kernel from NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) under MPL and MPI. We have also optimized some of Fortran BLAS 2 and BLAS 3 routines, e.g., the optimized Fortran DAXPY runs at 175 Mflop/s and optimized Fortran DGEMM runs at 230 Mflop/s per node. The performance of the NPB (Class B) on the IBM SP2 is compared with the CRAY C90, Intel Paragon, TMC CM-5E, and the CRAY T3D.

  9. MPI version of NJOY and its application to multigroup cross-section generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpan, A.; Haghighat, A.

    1999-07-01

    , temperatures assigned for broadening, or the number of fine energy groups. To speed up the process of multigroup cross-section generation, the NJOY code has been parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) library.

  10. MPI version of NJOY and its application to multigroup cross-section generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpan, A.; Haghighat, A.

    1999-01-01

    assigned for broadening, or the number of fine energy groups. To speed up the process of multigroup cross-section generation, the NJOY code has been parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) library

  11. Der grüne Weg zu Open Access: institutionelle und fachliche Repositorien / The Green Road to Open access: institutional and subject repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent issue 1/2009 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information has a focus on „The green road to open Access: institutional and subject repositories“. Self-archiving and storing scholarly publications on a print server were also central topics in many presentations at the 9th International Bielefeld Conference in February 2009. The authors in this issue are Birgit Schmidt and Karin Ilg-Hartecke (Open Access in Deutschland – erweiterte Perspektiven für die Wissenschaft, Christoph Bruch and Anja Lengenfelder (Unterstützung des Grünen Weges zu Open Access an der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Ulrich Herb and Matthias Müller (Nuancen in Grün: Betrieb eines institutionellen und disziplinären Repositoriums – Erfahrungen und Entwicklungen an der Saarländischen Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, Timo Borst and Jan B. Weiland (EconStor: ein fachliches Repositorium für die Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Antonella de Robbio and Michael Katzmayr (The management of an international open access repository: the case of E-LIS and Christian Gumpenberger (The EPrints story: Southampton as the cradle of institutional self-archiving.Furthermore this focus issue features an interview of a representative of a research funding organisation (Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation. 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds and an interview of a publisher (Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive der International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs bei STM.

  12. Initialization shock in decadal hindcasts due to errors in wind stress over the tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Holger; Kröger, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Müller, Wolfgang A.

    2017-10-01

    Low prediction skill in the tropical Pacific is a common problem in decadal prediction systems, especially for lead years 2-5 which, in many systems, is lower than in uninitialized experiments. On the other hand, the tropical Pacific is of almost worldwide climate relevance through its teleconnections with other tropical and extratropical regions and also of importance for global mean temperature. Understanding the causes of the reduced prediction skill is thus of major interest for decadal climate predictions. We look into the problem of reduced prediction skill by analyzing the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) decadal hindcasts for the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project and performing a sensitivity experiment in which hindcasts are initialized from a model run forced only by surface wind stress. In both systems, sea surface temperature variability in the tropical Pacific is successfully initialized, but most skill is lost at lead years 2-5. Utilizing the sensitivity experiment enables us to pin down the reason for the reduced prediction skill in MPI-ESM to errors in wind stress used for the initialization. A spurious trend in the wind stress forcing displaces the equatorial thermocline in MPI-ESM unrealistically. When the climate model is then switched into its forecast mode, the recovery process triggers artificial El Niño and La Niña events at the surface. Our results demonstrate the importance of realistic wind stress products for the initialization of decadal predictions.

  13. An approach to computing discrete adjoints for MPI-parallelized models applied to Ice Sheet System Model 4.11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Larour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of sea-level rise projections, there is a strong need for hindcast validation of the evolution of polar ice sheets in a way that tightly matches observational records (from radar, gravity, and altimetry observations mainly. However, the computational requirements for making hindcast reconstructions possible are severe and rely mainly on the evaluation of the adjoint state of transient ice-flow models. Here, we look at the computation of adjoints in the context of the NASA/JPL/UCI Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM, written in C++ and designed for parallel execution with MPI. We present the adaptations required in the way the software is designed and written, but also generic adaptations in the tools facilitating the adjoint computations. We concentrate on the use of operator overloading coupled with the AdjoinableMPI library to achieve the adjoint computation of the ISSM. We present a comprehensive approach to (1 carry out type changing through the ISSM, hence facilitating operator overloading, (2 bind to external solvers such as MUMPS and GSL-LU, and (3 handle MPI-based parallelism to scale the capability. We demonstrate the success of the approach by computing sensitivities of hindcast metrics such as the misfit to observed records of surface altimetry on the northeastern Greenland Ice Stream, or the misfit to observed records of surface velocities on Upernavik Glacier, central West Greenland. We also provide metrics for the scalability of the approach, and the expected performance. This approach has the potential to enable a new generation of hindcast-validated projections that make full use of the wealth of datasets currently being collected, or already collected, in Greenland and Antarctica.

  14. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  15. How to stir a revolution as a reluctant rebel: Rudolf Trümpy in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Bernoulli, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Rudolf Trümpy (1921-2009) was one of the great Alpine geologists of the twentieth century and an influential figure in the international geological community. He played a dominant role in the change of opinion concerning the Alpine evolution by showing that normal faulting dominated the early development of the Alpine realm from the Triassic to the early Cretaceous. This provided a convenient model for later plate-tectonic interpretations of collisional mountain belts. His further recognition of strike-slip faulting during all stages of the Alpine evolution presaged the realisation that the Alps were not built by a simple open-and-shut mechanism. Trümpy was educated during an intellectual lull, a time when simplistic models of the earth behaviour inherited from the middle of the nineteenth century became prevalent under the influence of a close-minded, positivist approach to geological problems. This period, which we term the Dark Intermezzo, lasted from about 1925 to 1965. The grand syntheses of Suess and Argand which preceded this period were viewed from this narrow angle and consequently misunderstood. It was thought that earth history was punctuated by global orogenic events of short duration taking place within and among continents and oceans whose relative positions had remained fixed since the origin of the planet. These views, summarised under the term `fixism', were developed when the ocean floors were almost totally unknown. When data began coming in from the post World War II oceanographic surveys, the world geological community was slow to receive and digest them. Trümpy followed these developments closely, realising that his work was important in placing the geology of the mountain belts within the emerging, new theoretical framework. He adopted the position of a critic and emphasised where detailed knowledge of the Alps, unquestionably the best known mountain belt in the world, supported and where it contradicted the new ideas. His voice was

  16. Coupling Computer Codes for The Analysis of Severe Accident Using A Pseudo Shared Memory Based on MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Chul; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min

    2016-01-01

    As there are four codes in-vessel analysis code (CSPACE), ex-vessel analysis code (SACAP), corium behavior analysis code (COMPASS), and fission product behavior analysis code, for the analysis of severe accident, it is complex to implement the coupling of codes with the similar methodologies for RELAP and CONTEMPT or SPACE and CAP. Because of that, an efficient coupling so called Pseudo shared memory architecture was introduced. In this paper, coupling methodologies will be compared and the methodology used for the analysis of severe accident will be discussed in detail. The barrier between in-vessel and ex-vessel has been removed for the analysis of severe accidents with the implementation of coupling computer codes with pseudo shared memory architecture based on MPI. The remaining are proper choice and checking of variables and values for the selected severe accident scenarios, e.g., TMI accident. Even though it is possible to couple more than two computer codes with pseudo shared memory architecture, the methodology should be revised to couple parallel codes especially when they are programmed using MPI

  17. Coupling Computer Codes for The Analysis of Severe Accident Using A Pseudo Shared Memory Based on MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Chul; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Min [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As there are four codes in-vessel analysis code (CSPACE), ex-vessel analysis code (SACAP), corium behavior analysis code (COMPASS), and fission product behavior analysis code, for the analysis of severe accident, it is complex to implement the coupling of codes with the similar methodologies for RELAP and CONTEMPT or SPACE and CAP. Because of that, an efficient coupling so called Pseudo shared memory architecture was introduced. In this paper, coupling methodologies will be compared and the methodology used for the analysis of severe accident will be discussed in detail. The barrier between in-vessel and ex-vessel has been removed for the analysis of severe accidents with the implementation of coupling computer codes with pseudo shared memory architecture based on MPI. The remaining are proper choice and checking of variables and values for the selected severe accident scenarios, e.g., TMI accident. Even though it is possible to couple more than two computer codes with pseudo shared memory architecture, the methodology should be revised to couple parallel codes especially when they are programmed using MPI.

  18. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  19. Parallel Fortran-MPI software for numerical inversion of the Laplace transform and its application to oscillatory water levels in groundwater environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X.

    2005-01-01

    A parallel Fortran-MPI (Message Passing Interface) software for numerical inversion of the Laplace transform based on a Fourier series method is developed to meet the need of solving intensive computational problems involving oscillatory water level's response to hydraulic tests in a groundwater environment. The software is a parallel version of ACM (The Association for Computing Machinery) Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) Algorithm 796. Running 38 test examples indicated that implementation of MPI techniques with distributed memory architecture speedups the processing and improves the efficiency. Applications to oscillatory water levels in a well during aquifer tests are presented to illustrate how this package can be applied to solve complicated environmental problems involved in differential and integral equations. The package is free and is easy to use for people with little or no previous experience in using MPI but who wish to get off to a quick start in parallel computing. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 28th January 2011-Vice-President Max Planck Society-Prof. Martin Stratmann-Germany-visiting the ATLAS experimental area and the LHC Tunnel at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2011-01-01

    Photo 1:ATLAS visitor Center with P. Jenni, ATLAS Collaboration former spokesperson Photo 2-10:visiting the ATLAS cavern Photo 10:D. Hoppe,P. Jenni,M. Stratmann,S. Bethke,S. Braun,D. Klammer Photo 11-15:visiting the LHC tunnel Photo 16-18:Signature of the Guest Book with S. Lettow,Director for Administration and General Infrastructure

  1. Matrix Factorizations at Scale: a Comparison of Scientific Data Analytics in Spark and C+MPI Using Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittens, Alex; Devarakonda, Aditya; Racah, Evan; Ringenburg, Michael; Gerhardt, Lisa; Kottalam, Jey; Liu, Jialin; Maschhoff, Kristyn; Canon, Shane; Chhugani, Jatin; Sharma, Pramod; Yang, Jiyan; Demmel, James; Harrell, Jim; Krishnamurthy, Venkat; Mahoney, Michael; Prabhat, Mr

    2016-05-12

    We explore the trade-offs of performing linear algebra using Apache Spark, compared to traditional C and MPI implementations on HPC platforms. Spark is designed for data analytics on cluster computing platforms with access to local disks and is optimized for data-parallel tasks. We examine three widely-used and important matrix factorizations: NMF (for physical plausibility), PCA (for its ubiquity) and CX (for data interpretability). We apply these methods to 1.6TB particle physics, 2.2TB and 16TB climate modeling and 1.1TB bioimaging data. The data matrices are tall-and-skinny which enable the algorithms to map conveniently into Spark’s data parallel model. We perform scaling experiments on up to 1600 Cray XC40 nodes, describe the sources of slowdowns, and provide tuning guidance to obtain high performance.

  2. PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PADA PROGRAM STUDI MPI FAKULTAS TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUAN UIN ALAUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Syahid Syahid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe (1) the concept of total quality mana-gement, (2) the theoretical foundation of total quality management, and (3) the application of total quality management in Education management study program at the Faculty of Education and Teaching Science, UIN Alauddin Ma-kassar. There are some theoretical bases to support the implementation of TQM in educational institutions. One is the theory of Deming which can be identified from (a) Deming’s chain reaction mo...

  3. A relationship between regional and global GCM surface air temperature changes and its application to an integrated model of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, M.; Ganopolski, A.V.; Krabec, J.; Olendrzyski, K.; Petoukhov, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    This study outlines the advantages of combining the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse affect (IMAGE, an integrated quick turnaround, global model of climate change) with a spatially detailed General Circulation Model (GCM), in this case developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI) in Hamburg. The outcome is a modified IMAGE model that simulates the MPI GCM projections of annual surface air temperature change globally and regionally. IMAGE thus provides policy analysts with integrated and regional information about global warming for a great range of policy-dependent greenhouse gas emission or concentration scenarios, while preserving its quick turnaround time. With the help of IMAGE various regional temperature response simulations have been produced. None of these simulations has yet been performed by any GCM. The simulations reflect the uncertainty range of a future warming. In this study the authors deal only with a simplified subsystem of such an integrated model of climate change, which begins with policy options, neglects the societal component in the greenhouse gas accounting tool, and ends with temperature change as the only output of the climate model. The model the authors employ is the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE, version 1.0), which was developed by the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). IMAGE is a scientifically based, parameterized simulation policy model designed to calculate the historical and future effects of greenhouse gases on global surface and surface air temperatures and sea-level rise

  4. Hybrid MPI-OpenMP Parallelism in the ONETEP Linear-Scaling Electronic Structure Code: Application to the Delamination of Cellulose Nanofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Karl A; Hine, Nicholas D M; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2014-11-11

    We present a hybrid MPI-OpenMP implementation of Linear-Scaling Density Functional Theory within the ONETEP code. We illustrate its performance on a range of high performance computing (HPC) platforms comprising shared-memory nodes with fast interconnect. Our work has focused on applying OpenMP parallelism to the routines which dominate the computational load, attempting where possible to parallelize different loops from those already parallelized within MPI. This includes 3D FFT box operations, sparse matrix algebra operations, calculation of integrals, and Ewald summation. While the underlying numerical methods are unchanged, these developments represent significant changes to the algorithms used within ONETEP to distribute the workload across CPU cores. The new hybrid code exhibits much-improved strong scaling relative to the MPI-only code and permits calculations with a much higher ratio of cores to atoms. These developments result in a significantly shorter time to solution than was possible using MPI alone and facilitate the application of the ONETEP code to systems larger than previously feasible. We illustrate this with benchmark calculations from an amyloid fibril trimer containing 41,907 atoms. We use the code to study the mechanism of delamination of cellulose nanofibrils when undergoing sonification, a process which is controlled by a large number of interactions that collectively determine the structural properties of the fibrils. Many energy evaluations were needed for these simulations, and as these systems comprise up to 21,276 atoms this would not have been feasible without the developments described here.

  5. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].

  6. Oak Ridge Institutional Cluster Autotune Test Drive Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibonananda, Sanyal [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    The Oak Ridge Institutional Cluster (OIC) provides general purpose computational resources for the ORNL staff to run computation heavy jobs that are larger than desktop applications but do not quite require the scale and power of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). This report details the efforts made and conclusions derived in performing a short test drive of the cluster resources on Phase 5 of the OIC. EnergyPlus was used in the analysis as a candidate user program and the overall software environment was evaluated against anticipated challenges experienced with resources such as the shared memory-Nautilus (JICS) and Titan (OLCF). The OIC performed within reason and was found to be acceptable in the context of running EnergyPlus simulations. The number of cores per node and the availability of scratch space per node allow non-traditional desktop focused applications to leverage parallel ensemble execution. Although only individual runs of EnergyPlus were executed, the software environment on the OIC appeared suitable to run ensemble simulations with some modifications to the Autotune workflow. From a standpoint of general usability, the system supports common Linux libraries, compilers, standard job scheduling software (Torque/Moab), and the OpenMPI library (the only MPI library) for MPI communications. The file system is a Panasas file system which literature indicates to be an efficient file system.

  7. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Max-Planck-Institut f ur Physik, Munich, Germany; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, Hungary; Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland; Birmingham University, Birmingham, England ...

  8. PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PADA PROGRAM STUDI MPI FAKULTAS TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUAN UIN ALAUDDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahid Syahid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe (1 the concept of total quality mana-gement, (2 the theoretical foundation of total quality management, and (3 the application of total quality management in Education management study program at the Faculty of Education and Teaching Science, UIN Alauddin Ma-kassar. There are some theoretical bases to support the implementation of TQM in educational institutions. One is the theory of Deming which can be identified from (a Deming’s chain reaction model, (b Deming’s continuous improvement cycle, (c Deming’s theory of Variance, and (d Deming's fourteen points of management. The application of TQM in Management Studies Program Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching Education UIN Alauddin have not maximized. The data indicated that 70.19% respondents said that the implementation of TQM is at a mediocre level, 0.90% respondents said good, and 1.85% respondents said that the implementation of TQM has been very good.

  9. Plant functional diversity affects climate-vegetation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Vivienne P.; Raddatz, Thomas; Reick, Christian H.; Claussen, Martin

    2018-04-01

    We present how variations in plant functional diversity affect climate-vegetation interaction towards the end of the African Humid Period (AHP) in coupled land-atmosphere simulations using the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (MPI-ESM). In experiments with AHP boundary conditions, the extent of the green Sahara varies considerably with changes in plant functional diversity. Differences in vegetation cover extent and plant functional type (PFT) composition translate into significantly different land surface parameters, water cycling, and surface energy budgets. These changes have not only regional consequences but considerably alter large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and the position of the tropical rain belt. Towards the end of the AHP, simulations with the standard PFT set in MPI-ESM depict a gradual decrease of precipitation and vegetation cover over time, while simulations with modified PFT composition show either a sharp decline of both variables or an even slower retreat. Thus, not the quantitative but the qualitative PFT composition determines climate-vegetation interaction and the climate-vegetation system response to external forcing. The sensitivity of simulated system states to changes in PFT composition raises the question how realistically Earth system models can actually represent climate-vegetation interaction, considering the poor representation of plant diversity in the current generation of land surface models.

  10. Current and Future Decadal Trends in the Oceanic Carbon Uptake Are Dominated by Internal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the internal decadal variability of the ocean carbon uptake using 100 ensemble simulations based on the Max Planck Institute Earth system model (MPI-ESM). We find that on decadal time scales, internal variability (ensemble spread) is as large as the forced temporal variability (ensemble mean), and the largest internal variability is found in major carbon sink regions, that is, the 50-65°S band of the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific, and the North Atlantic. The MPI-ESM ensemble produces both positive and negative 10 year trends in the ocean carbon uptake in agreement with observational estimates. Negative decadal trends are projected to occur in the future under RCP4.5 scenario. Due to the large internal variability, the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific require the most ensemble members (more than 53 and 46, respectively) to reproduce the forced decadal trends. This number increases up to 79 in future decades as CO2 emission trajectory changes.

  11. A satellite simulator for TRMM PR applied to climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangehl, T.; Schroeder, M.; Bodas-Salcedo, A.; Hollmann, R.; Riley Dellaripa, E. M.; Schumacher, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate model simulations have to be compared against observation based datasets in order to assess their skill in representing precipitation characteristics. Here we use a satellite simulator for TRMM PR in order to evaluate simulations performed with MPI-ESM (Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany) performed within the MiKlip project (https://www.fona-miklip.de/, funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany). While classical evaluation methods focus on geophysical parameters such as precipitation amounts, the application of the satellite simulator enables an evaluation in the instrument's parameter space thereby reducing uncertainties on the reference side. The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) provides a framework for the application of satellite simulators to climate model simulations. The approach requires the introduction of sub-grid cloud and precipitation variability. Radar reflectivities are obtained by applying Mie theory, with the microphysical assumptions being chosen to match the atmosphere component of MPI-ESM (ECHAM6). The results are found to be sensitive to the methods used to distribute the convective precipitation over the sub-grid boxes. Simple parameterization methods are used to introduce sub-grid variability of convective clouds and precipitation. In order to constrain uncertainties a comprehensive comparison with sub-grid scale convective precipitation variability which is deduced from TRMM PR observations is carried out.

  12. X-Ray Spectrometer For ROSAT II (SPECTROSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predehl, Peter; Brauninger, Heinrich

    1986-01-01

    The objective transmission grating was one of the earliest inventions in the field of X-ray astronomy and has been incorporated into Skylab, HERO-P, and EXOTAT. In recent years there have been advances in grating technology and spectrometer design. A high precision mechanical ruling and replication process for manufacturing large self-supporting transmission gratings has been developed by an industrial manufacturer in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI). Theoretical analyses have determined the optimum configuration of the grating facets and the grating surface in order to correct third order aberations and obtain maximum resolving power. We have verified experimentally that the predicted efficiencies may be achieved. In addition, an experimental study of large grating assemblies for space telescopes was made in industry with scientific guidance by MPI. Main objectives of this study were the determination of mechanical loads during launch, as well as the design, construction and fabrication of a representative model of a ROSAT grating ring. Performancy studies including instrument pro-perties as well as the simulated radiation from hot plasmas have shown the ability of SPECTROSAT to perform high efficiency, high resolution line-spectroscopy on a wide variety of cosmic X-ray sources.

  13. Incorporating nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in the global biogeochemical model HAMOCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Hanna; Ilyina, Tatiana; Six, Katharina

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fixation by marine diazotrophs plays a fundamental role in the oceanic nitrogen and carbon cycle as it provides a major source of 'new' nitrogen to the euphotic zone that supports biological carbon export and sequestration. Since most global biogeochemical models include nitrogen fixation only diagnostically, they are not able to capture its spatial pattern sufficiently. Here we present the incorporation of an explicit, dynamic representation of diazotrophic cyanobacteria and the corresponding nitrogen fixation in the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC (Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model), which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth system model (MPI-ESM). The parameterization of the diazotrophic growth is thereby based on available knowledge about the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp., which is considered as the most significant pelagic nitrogen fixer. Evaluation against observations shows that the model successfully reproduces the main spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and nitrogen fixation, covering large parts of the tropical and subtropical oceans. Besides the role of cyanobacteria in marine biogeochemical cycles, their capacity to form extensive surface blooms induces a number of bio-physical feedback mechanisms in the Earth system. The processes driving these interactions, which are related to the alteration of heat absorption, surface albedo and momentum input by wind, are incorporated in the biogeochemical and physical model of the MPI-ESM in order to investigate their impacts on a global scale. First preliminary results will be shown.

  14. The prediction of surface temperature in the new seasonal prediction system based on the MPI-ESM coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, J.; Fröhlich, K.; Botzet, M.; Domeisen, D. I. V.; Kornblueh, L.; Notz, D.; Piontek, R.; Pohlmann, H.; Tietsche, S.; Müller, W. A.

    2015-05-01

    A seasonal forecast system is presented, based on the global coupled climate model MPI-ESM as used for CMIP5 simulations. We describe the initialisation of the system and analyse its predictive skill for surface temperature. The presented system is initialised in the atmospheric, oceanic, and sea ice component of the model from reanalysis/observations with full field nudging in all three components. For the initialisation of the ensemble, bred vectors with a vertically varying norm are implemented in the ocean component to generate initial perturbations. In a set of ensemble hindcast simulations, starting each May and November between 1982 and 2010, we analyse the predictive skill. Bias-corrected ensemble forecasts for each start date reproduce the observed surface temperature anomalies at 2-4 months lead time, particularly in the tropics. Niño3.4 sea surface temperature anomalies show a small root-mean-square error and predictive skill up to 6 months. Away from the tropics, predictive skill is mostly limited to the ocean, and to regions which are strongly influenced by ENSO teleconnections. In summary, the presented seasonal prediction system based on a coupled climate model shows predictive skill for surface temperature at seasonal time scales comparable to other seasonal prediction systems using different underlying models and initialisation strategies. As the same model underlying our seasonal prediction system—with a different initialisation—is presently also used for decadal predictions, this is an important step towards seamless seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions.

  15. An efficient MPI/OpenMP parallelization of the Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method for the first generation of Intel® Xeon Phi™ processor architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Moskovsky, Alexander; D’Mello, Michael; Alexeev, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock (HF) method in the quantum chemistry package GAMESS represents one of the most irregular algorithms in computation today. Major steps in the calculation are the irregular computation of electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) and the building of the Fock matrix. These are the central components of the main Self Consistent Field (SCF) loop, the key hotspot in Electronic Structure (ES) codes. By threading the MPI ranks in the official release of the GAMESS code, we not only speed up the main SCF loop (4x to 6x for large systems), but also achieve a significant (>2x) reduction in the overall memory footprint. These improvements are a direct consequence of memory access optimizations within the MPI ranks. We benchmark our implementation against the official release of the GAMESS code on the Intel R Xeon PhiTM supercomputer. Here, scaling numbers are reported on up to 7,680 cores on Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors.

  16. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichit Sharma

    Full Text Available The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture

  17. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  18. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  19. A comprehensive study of MPI parallelism in three-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) simulation of complex-shaped granular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beichuan; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2018-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) DEM code for simulating complex-shaped granular particles is parallelized using message-passing interface (MPI). The concepts of link-block, ghost/border layer, and migration layer are put forward for design of the parallel algorithm, and theoretical scalability function of 3-D DEM scalability and memory usage is derived. Many performance-critical implementation details are managed optimally to achieve high performance and scalability, such as: minimizing communication overhead, maintaining dynamic load balance, handling particle migrations across block borders, transmitting C++ dynamic objects of particles between MPI processes efficiently, eliminating redundant contact information between adjacent MPI processes. The code executes on multiple US Department of Defense (DoD) supercomputers and tests up to 2048 compute nodes for simulating 10 million three-axis ellipsoidal particles. Performance analyses of the code including speedup, efficiency, scalability, and granularity across five orders of magnitude of simulation scale (number of particles) are provided, and they demonstrate high speedup and excellent scalability. It is also discovered that communication time is a decreasing function of the number of compute nodes in strong scaling measurements. The code's capability of simulating a large number of complex-shaped particles on modern supercomputers will be of value in both laboratory studies on micromechanical properties of granular materials and many realistic engineering applications involving granular materials.

  20. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on a Large-Scale Multithreaded BlueGene/Q Supercomputer

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance characteristics of five hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications (two NAS Parallel benchmarks Multi-Zone SP-MZ and BT-MZ, an earthquake simulation PEQdyna, an aerospace application PMLB and a 3D particle-in-cell application GTC) on a large-scale multithreaded Blue Gene/Q supercomputer at Argonne National laboratory, and quantify the performance gap resulting from using different number of threads per node. We use performance tools and MPI profile and trace libraries available on the supercomputer to analyze and compare the performance of these hybrid scientific applications with increasing the number OpenMP threads per node, and find that increasing the number of threads to some extent saturates or worsens performance of these hybrid applications. For the strong-scaling hybrid scientific applications such as SP-MZ, BT-MZ, PEQdyna and PLMB, using 32 threads per node results in much better application efficiency than using 64 threads per node, and as increasing the number of threads per node, the FPU (Floating Point Unit) percentage decreases, and the MPI percentage (except PMLB) and IPC (Instructions per cycle) per core (except BT-MZ) increase. For the weak-scaling hybrid scientific application such as GTC, the performance trend (relative speedup) is very similar with increasing number of threads per node no matter how many nodes (32, 128, 512) are used. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on a Large-Scale Multithreaded BlueGene/Q Supercomputer

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance characteristics of five hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications (two NAS Parallel benchmarks Multi-Zone SP-MZ and BT-MZ, an earthquake simulation PEQdyna, an aerospace application PMLB and a 3D particle-in-cell application GTC) on a large-scale multithreaded Blue Gene/Q supercomputer at Argonne National laboratory, and quantify the performance gap resulting from using different number of threads per node. We use performance tools and MPI profile and trace libraries available on the supercomputer to analyze and compare the performance of these hybrid scientific applications with increasing the number OpenMP threads per node, and find that increasing the number of threads to some extent saturates or worsens performance of these hybrid applications. For the strong-scaling hybrid scientific applications such as SP-MZ, BT-MZ, PEQdyna and PLMB, using 32 threads per node results in much better application efficiency than using 64 threads per node, and as increasing the number of threads per node, the FPU (Floating Point Unit) percentage decreases, and the MPI percentage (except PMLB) and IPC (Instructions per cycle) per core (except BT-MZ) increase. For the weak-scaling hybrid scientific application such as GTC, the performance trend (relative speedup) is very similar with increasing number of threads per node no matter how many nodes (32, 128, 512) are used. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Portable and Transparent Message Compression in MPI Libraries to Improve the Performance and Scalability of Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albonesi, David; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-04-17

    The goal of this project has been to develop a lossless compression algorithm for message-passing libraries that can accelerate HPC systems by reducing the communication time. Because both compression and decompression have to be performed in software in real time, the algorithm has to be extremely fast while still delivering a good compression ratio. During the first half of this project, they designed a new compression algorithm called FPC for scientific double-precision data, made the source code available on the web, and published two papers describing its operation, the first in the proceedings of the Data Compression Conference and the second in the IEEE Transactions on Computers. At comparable average compression ratios, this algorithm compresses and decompresses 10 to 100 times faster than BZIP2, DFCM, FSD, GZIP, and PLMI on the three architectures tested. With prediction tables that fit into the CPU's L1 data acache, FPC delivers a guaranteed throughput of six gigabits per second on a 1.6 GHz Itanium 2 system. The C source code and documentation of FPC are posted on-line and have already been downloaded hundreds of times. To evaluate FPC, they gathered 13 real-world scientific datasets from around the globe, including satellite data, crash-simulation data, and messages from HPC systems. Based on the large number of requests they received, they also made these datasets available to the community (with permission of the original sources). While FPC represents a great step forward, it soon became clear that its throughput was too slow for the emerging 10 gigabits per second networks. Hence, no speedup can be gained by including this algorithm in an MPI library. They therefore changed the aim of the second half of the project. Instead of implementing FPC in an MPI library, they refocused their efforts to develop a parallel compression algorithm to further boost the throughput. After all, all modern high-end microprocessors contain multiple CPUs on a

  3. Development of whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT. 4. Simplified fuel assembly model and parallelization by MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2001-10-01

    A whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT is being developed for the purpose of evaluating detailed in-core thermal hydraulic phenomena of fast reactors including the effect of the flow between wrapper-tube walls (inter-wrapper flow) under various reactor operation conditions. As appropriate boundary conditions in addition to a detailed modeling of the core are essential for accurate simulations of in-core thermal hydraulics, ACT consists of not only fuel assembly and inter-wrapper flow analysis modules but also a heat transport system analysis module that gives response of the plant dynamics to the core model. This report describes incorporation of a simplified model to the fuel assembly analysis module and program parallelization by a message passing method toward large-scale simulations. ACT has a fuel assembly analysis module which can simulate a whole fuel pin bundle in each fuel assembly of the core and, however, it may take much CPU time for a large-scale core simulation. Therefore, a simplified fuel assembly model that is thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the detailed one has been incorporated in order to save the simulation time and resources. This simplified model is applied to several parts of fuel assemblies in a core where the detailed simulation results are not required. With regard to the program parallelization, the calculation load and the data flow of ACT were analyzed and the optimum parallelization has been done including the improvement of the numerical simulation algorithm of ACT. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is applied to data communication between processes and synchronization in parallel calculations. Parallelized ACT was verified through a comparison simulation with the original one. In addition to the above works, input manuals of the core analysis module and the heat transport system analysis module have been prepared. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Oceanic Surface Observation for Reproducing the Upper Ocean Structure in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Zheng, Fei; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Better constraints of initial conditions from data assimilation are necessary for climate simulations and predictions, and they are particularly important for the ocean due to its long climate memory; as such, ocean data assimilation (ODA) is regarded as an effective tool for seasonal to decadal predictions. In this work, an ODA system is established for a coupled climate model (ECHAM5/MPI-OM), which can assimilate all available oceanic observations using an ensemble optimal interpolation approach. To validate and isolate the performance of different surface observations in reproducing air-sea climate variations in the model, a set of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) was performed over 150 model years. Generally, assimilating sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface height (SSH) can reasonably reproduce the climate variability and vertical structure of the upper ocean, and assimilating SSH achieves the best results compared to the true states. For the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), assimilating different surface observations captures true aspects of ENSO well, but assimilating SSH can further enhance the accuracy of ENSO-related feedback processes in the coupled model, leading to a more reasonable ENSO evolution and air-sea interaction over the tropical Pacific. For ocean heat content, there are still limitations in reproducing the long time-scale variability in the North Atlantic, even if SSH has been taken into consideration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of assimilating surface observations in capturing the interannual signal and, to some extent, the decadal signal but still highlight the necessity of assimilating profile data to reproduce specific decadal variability.

  5. Time dependency of the prediction skill for the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in initialized decadal hindcasts with MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Düsterhus, Andre; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the time dependency of decadal hindcast skill in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre within the time period 1961-2013. We compare anomaly correlation coefficients and interquartile ranges of total upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature for three differently initialized sets of hindcast simulations with the global coupled model MPI-ESM. All initializations use weakly coupled assimilation with the same full-field nudging in the atmospheric component and different assimilation techniques for oceanic temperature and salinity: (1) ensemble Kalman filter assimilating EN4 and HadISST observations, (2) nudging of anomalies to ORAS4 reanalysis, (3) nudging of full values to ORAS4 reanalysis. We find that hindcast skill depends strongly on the evaluation time period, with higher hindcast skill during strong multiyear trends and lower hindcast skill in the absence of such trends. While there may only be small differences between the prediction systems in the analysis focusing on the entire hindcast period, these differences between the hindcast systems are much more pronounced when investigating any 20-year subperiod within the entire hindcast period. For the ensemble Kalman filter high skill in the assimilation experiment is generally linked to high skill in the initialized hindcasts. Such direct link does not seem to exist in the hindcasts initialized by either nudged system. In the ensemble Kalman filter initialized hindcasts, we find significant hindcast skill for up to 5 to 8 lead years, except for the 1970s. In the nudged system initialized hindcasts, hindcast skill is consistently diminished in lead years 2 and 3 with lowest skill in the 1970s as well. Overall, we find that a model-consistent assimilation technique can improve hindcast skill. Further, the evaluation of 20 year subperiods within the full hindcast period provides essential insights to judge the success of both the assimilation and the subsequent hindcast skill.

  6. Implementing the PM Programming Language using MPI and OpenMP - a New Tool for Programming Geophysical Models on Parallel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2015-04-01

    PM (Parallel Models) is a new parallel programming language specifically designed for writing environmental and geophysical models. The language is intended to enable implementers to concentrate on the science behind the model rather than the details of running on parallel hardware. At the same time PM leaves the programmer in control - all parallelisation is explicit and the parallel structure of any given program may be deduced directly from the code. This paper describes a PM implementation based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) standards, looking at issues involved with translating the PM parallelisation model to MPI/OpenMP protocols and considering performance in terms of the competing factors of finer-grained parallelisation and increased communication overhead. In order to maximise portability, the implementation stays within the MPI 1.3 standard as much as possible, with MPI-2 MPI-IO file handling the only significant exception. Moreover, it does not assume a thread-safe implementation of MPI. PM adopts a two-tier abstract representation of parallel hardware. A PM processor is a conceptual unit capable of efficiently executing a set of language tasks, with a complete parallel system consisting of an abstract N-dimensional array of such processors. PM processors may map to single cores executing tasks using cooperative multi-tasking, to multiple cores or even to separate processing nodes, efficiently sharing tasks using algorithms such as work stealing. While tasks may move between hardware elements within a PM processor, they may not move between processors without specific programmer intervention. Tasks are assigned to processors using a nested parallelism approach, building on ideas from Reyes et al. (2009). The main program owns all available processors. When the program enters a parallel statement then either processors are divided out among the newly generated tasks (number of new tasks number of processors

  7. Power plants at the bottom of the sea; Kraftwerke auf dem Meeresgrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    The depths of the ocean are a hostile environment. In a bid to defy these adverse conditions, many organisms have teamed up to form close relationships called symbioses. Nicole Dubilier and her colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen keep discovering new symbioses that provide these deep-sea inhabitants with a guaranteed energy supply. (orig.) [German] Die Tiefen der Ozeane sind ein lebensfeindlicher Ort. Um den widrigen Bedingungen zu trotzen, haben sich viele Organismen zu Lebensgemeinschaften zusammengeschlossen. Nicole Dubilier und ihre Mitarbeiter am Max-Planck-Institut fuer marine Mikrobiologie in Bremen entdecken immer wieder neue Symbiosen, mit denen die Tiefseebewohner ihre Energieversorgung sicherstellen.

  8. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  9. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  10. How Does a Regional Climate Model Modify the Projected Climate Change Signal of the Driving GCM: A Study over Different CORDEX Regions Using REMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Teichmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global and regional climate model simulations are frequently used for regional climate change assessments and in climate impact modeling studies. To reflect the inherent and methodological uncertainties in climate modeling, the assessment of regional climate change requires ensemble simulations from different global and regional climate model combinations. To interpret the spread of simulated results, it is useful to understand how the climate change signal is modified in the GCM-RCM modelmodelgeneral circulation model-regional climate model (GCM-RCM chain. This kind of information can also be useful for impact modelers; for the process of experiment design and when interpreting model results. In this study, we investigate how the simulated historical and future climate of the Max-Planck-Institute earth system model (MPI-ESM is modified by dynamic downscaling with the regional model REMO in different world regions. The historical climate simulations for 1950–2005 are driven by observed anthropogenic forcing. The climate projections are driven by projected anthropogenic forcing according to different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. The global simulations are downscaled with REMO over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX domains Africa, Europe, South America and West Asia from 2006–2100. This unique set of simulations allows for climate type specific analysis across multiple world regions and for multi-scenarios. We used a classification of climate types by Köppen-Trewartha to define evaluation regions with certain climate conditions. A systematic comparison of near-surface temperature and precipitation simulated by the regional and the global model is done. In general, the historical time period is well represented by the GCM and the RCM. Some different biases occur in the RCM compared to the GCM as in the Amazon Basin, northern Africa and the West Asian domain. Both models project similar warming

  11. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  12. A comparison between the measurements of Kr-85 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation and proportional counters; Comparacion de resultados de la medida radiactiva del Kr-85 ambiental por centelleo liquido y contadores proporcionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    The most used methods for the measurement of Kr-81 beta-activity after their concentration and aisolation are the liquid scintillation counting and the proportional counter. In this work the beta activity of concentrated and aisolated Kr-85 samples measured in collaboration with the Max-Planck Institut fur Kernphyslk, Aussenstelle Freiburg. Samples taken both In Madrid and Frelburg are measured by proportional counters in the Max-Planck lnstitut, Freibury and by liquid scintillation counting in JEN, Madrid. The comparison of both measurements do not show appreciable discrepancy between the results obtained to both techniques. (Author)

  13. A comparison between the measurements of Kr-85 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation and proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras Iniquez, M.C.; Perez Garcia, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The most used methods for the measurement of Kr-81 beta-activity after their concentration and aisolation are the liquid scintillation counting and the proportional counter. In this work the beta activity of concentrated and aisolated Kr-85 samples measured in collaboration with the Max-Planck Institut fur Kernphyslk, Aussenstelle Freiburg. Samples taken both In Madrid and Frelburg are measured by proportional counters in the Max-Planck lnstitut, Freibury and by liquid scintillation counting in JEN, Madrid. The comparison of both measurements do not show appreciable discrepancy between the results obtained to both techniques. (Author)

  14. The Bonn Astro/Geo Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, Simone; Alef, Walter; Bertarini, Alessandra; La Porta, Laura; Muskens, Arno; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Bonn Distributed FX (DiFX) correlator is a software correlator operated jointly by the Max- Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie (MPIfR), the Institut fur Geodasie und Geoinformation der Universitat Bonn (IGG), and the Bundesamt fur Kartographie und Geodasie (BKG) in Frankfurt.

  15. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  16. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  17. Numerical Modeling of 3D Seismic Wave Propagation around Yogyakarta, the Southern Part of Central Java, Indonesia, Using Spectral-Element Method on MPI-GPU Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmaji; Rudianto, Indra; Eka Nurcahya, Budi

    2018-04-01

    A strong tectonic earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 Richter scale has been occurred in Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 26, 2006. The earthquake has caused severe damage in Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java, Indonesia. The understanding of seismic response of earthquake among ground shaking and the level of building damage is important. We present numerical modeling of 3D seismic wave propagation around Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java using spectral-element method on MPI-GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computer cluster to observe its seismic response due to the earthquake. The homogeneous 3D realistic model is generated with detailed topography surface. The influences of free surface topography and layer discontinuity of the 3D model among the seismic response are observed. The seismic wave field is discretized using spectral-element method. The spectral-element method is solved on a mesh of hexahedral elements that is adapted to the free surface topography and the internal discontinuity of the model. To increase the data processing capabilities, the simulation is performed on a GPU cluster with implementation of MPI (Message Passing Interface).

  18. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  19. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12025

    2010-01-01

    The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm−2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the ...

  20. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  1. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  2. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  3. Using WEED to simulate the global wetland distribution in a ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Lakes and wetlands are an important land surface feature. In terms of hydrology, they regulate river discharge, mitigate flood events and constitute a significant surface water storage. Considering physical processes, they link the surface water and energy balances by altering the separation of incoming energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Finally, they impact biogeochemical processes and may act as carbon sinks or sources. Most global hydrology and climate models regard wetland extent and properties as constant in time. However, to study interactions between wetlands and different states of climate, it is necessary to implement surface water bodies (thereafter referred to as wetlands) with dynamical behavior into these models. Besides an improved representation of geophysical feedbacks between wetlands, land surface and atmosphere, a dynamical wetland scheme could also provide estimates of soil wetness as input for biogeochemical models, which are used to compute methane production in wetlands. Recently, a model for the representation of wetland extent dynamics (WEED) was developed as part of the hydrology model (MPI-HM) of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M). The WEED scheme computes wetland extent in agreement with the range of observations for the high northern latitudes. It simulates a realistic seasonal cycle which shows sensitivity to northern snow-melt as well as rainy seasons in the tropics. Furthermore, flood peaks in river discharge are mitigated. However, the WEED scheme overestimates wetland extent in the Tropics which might be related to the MPI-HM's simplified potential evapotranspiration computation. In order to overcome this limitation, the WEED scheme is implemented into the MPI-M's land surface model JSBACH. Thus, not only its effect on water fluxes can be investigated but also its impact on the energy cycle, which is not included in the MPI-HM. Furthermore, it will be possible to analyze the physical effects of wetlands in a

  4. Characterization of Sendai virus persistently infected L929 cells and Sendai virus pi strain: recombinant Sendai viruses having Mpi protein shows lower cytotoxicity and are incapable of establishing persistent infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Machiko; Tsurudome, Masato; Ito, Morihiro; Kawano, Mitsuo; Komada, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the temperature-sensitive phenotype of Sendai virus (SeV) persistently infected cells is caused by the M and/or HN proteins. Expression level of the L, M, HN, and V proteins is extremely low in L929 cells persistently infected with SeVpi (L929/SeVpi cells) incubated at 38 deg. C. The HN protein quickly disappears in L929/SeVpi cells following a temperature shift up to 38 deg. C, and pulse-chase experiments show that the Lpi, HNpi, and Mpi proteins are unstable at 38 deg. C. Following a temperature shift either upward or downward, M protein is translocated into the nucleus and then localizes to the perinuclear region. None of virus-specific polypeptides are detected in the cells primarily infected with SeVpi and incubated at 38 deg. C and virus proteins are not pulse-labeled at 38 deg. C, indicating that temperature-sensitive step is at an early stage of infection. The Mpi protein is transiently located in the nucleus of the SeVpi primarily infected cells. Recombinant SeVs possessing the HNpi or/and Mpi proteins are not temperature-sensitive. The HN protein is expressed at very low levels and the F protein localizes to the perinuclear region in rSeV(Mpi)-infected cells incubated at 38 deg. C for 18 h. rSeVs having the Mpi protein exhibit lower cytotoxicity and are incapable of establishing persistent infection. Amino acid 116 of the Mpi protein is related to the nuclear translocation and lower cytopathogenesis, whereas aa183 is involved in the interaction between M protein and viral glycoproteins

  5. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  6. Powerhouse in the foliage; Kraftwerk im Blattwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Harald

    2010-07-01

    Photosynthesis, a veritable stroke of genius on the part of nature, makes the existence of higher life forms possible. If it can be optimized, it may be able to make an even greater contribution to the resolution of future energy problems. Manajit Hayer-Hartl and Ulrich Hartl are currently working on this possibility at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried. (orig.)

  7. Global reactive nitrogen deposition from lightning NOx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepon, A.; Gildor, H.; Labrador, L.J.; Butler, T.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of the deposition of nitrogen compounds formed from lightning (LNO x ) using the global chemical transport Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry¿Max Planck Institute for Chemistry version. The model indicates an approximately equal deposition of LNO x in both terrestrial

  8. AGF activieties in the field of systems analysis and technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Activities of the following West German organisation in the field of systems analysis are reviewed: Kernforschungsanlage Juelich (KFA), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR), Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF), Gesellschaft fuer Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMD), Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP). (UA) [de

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ''for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" to. John L Hall - University of Colorado, JILA; National Institute of Standards and. Technology Boulder, CO, USA. Theodor W Hinsch - Max-Planck-Insti tnt fur Quantenoptik Garching, Germany; ...

  10. Das Minderheitenrecht europäischer Staaten. Teil 2 / Carmen Schmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schmidt, Carmen, 1956-

    1996-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Das Minderheitenrecht europäischer Staaten. Teil 2 / herausgegeben von Jochen Abr. Frowein, Rainer Hofmann, Stefan Oeter ; Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht. Berlin [etc.] : Springer-Verlag, 1994

  11. Constitutional Law and International Law at the Turn of the Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Prof Dr Jochen Abr. Frowein, Director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public. Law and ... To consider how Constitutional Law or International Law were understood in 1900 means to notice the immense .... In the relationship between the political organs of a state the role of the Constitutional Court should be seen ...

  12. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 7 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1985-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (7. History of International Law. Foundations and Principles of International Law. Sources of International Law. Law of Treaties). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1984

  13. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 3 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus.: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 3 (A_M) and 4 (N-Z): Use of Force. War and Neutrality. Peace treaties. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982

  14. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 2 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1982-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (2. Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals and International Arbitrations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981

  15. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 5 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1983-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. 5. International Organizations in General. Universal International Organisazations and Cooperation. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  16. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 8 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1986-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (8. Human Rights and the Individual in International Law. International Economic Relations). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1985

  17. Contribution of computer science to the evaluation of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuerwald, J.

    1978-11-01

    The GALE data acquisition system and EDDAR data processing system, used at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, serve to illustrate some of the various ways in which computer science plays a major role in developing the evaluation of experimental data. (orig.) [de

  18. Hamburg: privaatrechtelijk paradijsje aan de Aussenalster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    In dit verslag wil ik mij beperken tot een beschrijving van mijn ervaringen aan het Max Planck Institut te Hamburg. Dat instituut telt een kleine honderd 'vaste' juridische onderzoekers, voornamelijk uit Duitsland, maar ook uit Frankrijk, Griekenland, Iran, Italië en Rusland. Nederlandse

  19. Secretary of the Navy Professor of Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA; 5-10 June 2011 Attended: Algae + Fish = Ocean Mixing? Conference, La Jolla, CA; 5-6 July 2011 Attended: JASON Summer...the scientific work of Klaus Hasselmann at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology; Hamburg , Germany; 09 November 2011 Keynote Address: Nansen

  20. Relativität, Quanten theorie und Große Vereinigung

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein's general relativity theory is so successful - It remains a classic description, that considers no quantum effects. In t his interview, Hermann Nicolai, Director of the Max Planck Institute for gravitationnal physics in Postdam, describe possible ways to come to a standardized theory

  1. High-Resolution Spectrum and Rovibrational Analysis of the .nu..sub.2./sub./.nu..sub.5./sub. Dyad of D.sub.3./sub.SiF near 700 cm.sup.-1./sup..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badaoui, M.; Sari-Zizi, N. B.; Graner, G.; Mkadmi, E. B.; Bürger, H.; Pracna, Petr

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 1 (2000), s. 72-88 ISSN 0022-2852 Grant - others: Max - Planck -Gesellschaft(DE) PICS 599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901; CEZ:A54/98:Z4-040-9-ii Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.397, year: 2000

  2. Thermo-mechanical analysis of retro-reflectors for interferometry and polarimetry in W7-X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köppen, M.; Hirsch, M.; Ernst, J.; Vliegenthart, W.A.; Ye, M.Y.; Bykov, V.; Schauer, F.

    2011-01-01

    The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is presently under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald, Germany. The plasma density profile will be measured by two-colour interferometry where for each line of sight through the plasma the phase shifts of two far-infrared

  3. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  4. Body temperature predicts the direction of internal desynchronization in humans isolated from time cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a new analysis of experiments that were carried out in human subjects in isolation from time cues, under supervision of Jurgen Aschoff and Rutger Wever at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology (Erling-Andechs, Germany, 1964-1974). Mean rectal temperatures

  5. Unicellular organisms with an appetite for oil; Einzeller auf Oeldiaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Tim

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria can live on almost anything - some even on oil. Friedrich Widdel, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, is studying microbes that break down oil hydrocarbons without oxygen, deep down in the sediment. Could they be useful in oil spills? (orig.)

  6. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... research visits, and the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law,. Freiburg, Germany ... Whether or not a pre-sentence report should be obtained before a child offender is sentenced has ...... the Criminal Procedure Act. It is important to read the quoted part of section 85(1) as a single ...

  7. Attosecond-correlated dynamics of two electrons in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... 2Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany ... involving a highly correlated electronic transition state. ... laser is low, the recolliding electron can have a maximum energy of about 15 eV which.

  8. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 6 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1984-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law, published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (6. regional Cooperation, Organization Problems). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1983

  9. Catastrophe or psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, A.

    1994-01-01

    The article gives a state-of-the-art report on climate research into the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. In particular, recent findings of coupled circulation models of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg, are presented as well as analyses of drill cares from Greenland which will provide information on climate changes during the past 150000 years. (KW) [de

  10. Catastrophe or psychosis; The greenhouse problem faces a solution. Katastrophe oder Psychose; Treibhausraetsel vor der Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, A.

    1994-02-01

    The article gives a state-of-the-art report on climate research into the anthropogenic greenhouse effect. In particular, recent findings of coupled circulation models of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology, Hamburg, are presented as well as analyses of drill cares from Greenland which will provide information on climate changes during the past 150000 years. (KW)

  11. Concept study and validation of Antartic telescope tower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanford, E.; Swain, M.; Meyers, C.; Muramatsu, T.; Nielson, G.; Olson, V.; Ronsse, S.; Vinding Nyden, E.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Little, P.

    2006-01-01

    Studies by Mark Swain and a colleague at the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, coupled with results from past and ongoing projects at Harvey Mudd College, strongly suggest that it may be possible to achieve imaging performance comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope at relatively low cost using

  12. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  13. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  14. Study of MPI based on parallel MOM on PC clusters for EM-beam scattering by 2-D PEC rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Ma; Li-Xin, Guo; An-Qi, Wang

    2009-01-01

    This paper firstly applies the finite impulse response filter (FIR) theory combined with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method to generate two-dimensional Gaussian rough surface. Using the electric field integral equation (EFIE), it introduces the method of moment (MOM) with RWG vector basis function and Galerkin's method to investigate the electromagnetic beam scattering by a two-dimensional PEC Gaussian rough surface on personal computer (PC) clusters. The details of the parallel conjugate gradient method (CGM) for solving the matrix equation are also presented and the numerical simulations are obtained through the message passing interface (MPI) platform on the PC clusters. It finds significantly that the parallel MOM supplies a novel technique for solving a two-dimensional rough surface electromagnetic-scattering problem. The influences of the root-mean-square height, the correlation length and the polarization on the beam scattering characteristics by two-dimensional PEC Gaussian rough surfaces are finally discussed. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  15. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  16. Further determination of the characteristics of magnetospheric plasma vortices with Isee 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Birn, J.; Bame, S.J.; Asbridge, J.R.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Haerendel, G.

    1981-01-01

    Further studies of the vortices in magnetospheric plasma flow with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory/Max-Planck-Institut (LASL/MPI) fast plasma experiment on Isee 1 and 2 have revealed that the pattern of vortical flow has a wavelength of approx.20-40 R/sub E/ and moves tailward through the magnetosphere at speed of several hundred kilometers per second. The tendency toward vorticity pervades the total breadth of the plasma sheet tailward of the dawn-dusk meridian. The sense of rotation of the plasma flow (as viewed from above the ecliptic plane) is clockwise in the morningside of the plasma sheet and counterclockwise in the eveningside. The sense of rotation in the morning and evening boundary layers is reversed from that in the contiguous regions of the plasma sheet. The occurrence of vortical flow is independent of the level of geomagnetic activity but is associated with long-period geomagnetic pulsations. We believe that the source of the vortical motion is a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the plasma boundary layer's inner surface (i.e., the interface between the plasma sheet and the boundary layer) that has recently been proposed by Sonnerup [1980

  17. The influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, Andrew E.; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2018-04-01

    Our climate is constrained by the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and terrestrial energy radiated to space. This energy balance has been widely used to infer equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) from observations of 20th-century warming. Such estimates yield lower values than other methods, and these have been influential in pushing down the consensus ECS range in recent assessments. Here we test the method using a 100-member ensemble of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.1) simulations of the period 1850-2005 with known forcing. We calculate ECS in each ensemble member using energy balance, yielding values ranging from 2.1 to 3.9 K. The spread in the ensemble is related to the central assumption in the energy budget framework: that global average surface temperature anomalies are indicative of anomalies in outgoing energy (either of terrestrial origin or reflected solar energy). We find that this assumption is not well supported over the historical temperature record in the model ensemble or more recent satellite observations. We find that framing energy balance in terms of 500 hPa tropical temperature better describes the planet's energy balance.

  18. Climate impact of idealized winter polar mesospheric and stratospheric ozone losses as caused by energetic particle precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, Katharina; Schmidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    Energetic particles enter the polar atmosphere and enhance the production of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen oxides in the winter stratosphere and mesosphere. Both components are powerful ozone destroyers. Recently, it has been inferred from observations that the direct effect of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) causes significant long-term mesospheric ozone variability. Satellites observe a decrease in mesospheric ozone up to 34 % between EPP maximum and EPP minimum. Stratospheric ozone decreases due to the indirect effect of EPP by about 10-15 % observed by satellite instruments. Here, we analyze the climate impact of winter boreal idealized polar mesospheric and polar stratospheric ozone losses as caused by EPP in the coupled Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Using radiative transfer modeling, we find that the radiative forcing of mesospheric ozone loss during polar night is small. Hence, climate effects of mesospheric ozone loss due to energetic particles seem unlikely. Stratospheric ozone loss due to energetic particles warms the winter polar stratosphere and subsequently weakens the polar vortex. However, those changes are small, and few statistically significant changes in surface climate are found.

  19. Climate impact of idealized winter polar mesospheric and stratospheric ozone losses as caused by energetic particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meraner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energetic particles enter the polar atmosphere and enhance the production of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen oxides in the winter stratosphere and mesosphere. Both components are powerful ozone destroyers. Recently, it has been inferred from observations that the direct effect of energetic particle precipitation (EPP causes significant long-term mesospheric ozone variability. Satellites observe a decrease in mesospheric ozone up to 34 % between EPP maximum and EPP minimum. Stratospheric ozone decreases due to the indirect effect of EPP by about 10–15 % observed by satellite instruments. Here, we analyze the climate impact of winter boreal idealized polar mesospheric and polar stratospheric ozone losses as caused by EPP in the coupled Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Using radiative transfer modeling, we find that the radiative forcing of mesospheric ozone loss during polar night is small. Hence, climate effects of mesospheric ozone loss due to energetic particles seem unlikely. Stratospheric ozone loss due to energetic particles warms the winter polar stratosphere and subsequently weakens the polar vortex. However, those changes are small, and few statistically significant changes in surface climate are found.

  20. Regional climate projections for the MENA-CORDEX domain: analysis of projected temperature and precipitation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsler, Andreas; Weber, Torsten; Eggert, Bastian; Saeed, Fahad; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Within the CORDEX initiative a multi-model suite of regionalized climate change information will be made available for several regions of the world. The German Climate Service Center (CSC) is taking part in this initiative by applying the regional climate model REMO to downscale global climate projections of different coupled general circulation models (GCMs) for several CORDEX domains. Also for the MENA-CORDEX domain, a set of regional climate change projections has been established at the CSC by downscaling CMIP5 projections of the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 with the regional model REMO for the time period from 1950 to 2100 to a horizontal resolution of 0.44 degree. In this study we investigate projected changes in future climate conditions over the domain towards the end of the 21st century. Focus in the analysis is given to projected changes in the temperature and rainfall characteristics and their differences for the two scenarios will be highlighted.

  1. Quantifying and Comparing Effects of Climate Engineering Methods on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana; Kracher, Daniela; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian H.; Schmidt, Hauke

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to a quantitative comparison of climate engineering (CE) methods, we assess atmosphere-, ocean-, and land-based CE measures with respect to Earth system effects consistently within one comprehensive model. We use the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) with prognostic carbon cycle to compare solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection and two carbon dioxide removal methods: afforestation and ocean alkalinization. The CE model experiments are designed to offset the effect of fossil-fuel burning on global mean surface air temperature under the RCP8.5 scenario to follow or get closer to the RCP4.5 scenario. Our results show the importance of feedbacks in the CE effects. For example, as a response to SRM the land carbon uptake is enhanced by 92 Gt by the year 2100 compared to the reference RCP8.5 scenario due to reduced soil respiration thus reducing atmospheric CO2. Furthermore, we show that normalizations allow for a better comparability of different CE methods. For example, we find that due to compensating processes such as biogeophysical effects of afforestation more carbon needs to be removed from the atmosphere by afforestation than by alkalinization to reach the same global warming reduction. Overall, we illustrate how different CE methods affect the components of the Earth system; we identify challenges arising in a CE comparison, and thereby contribute to developing a framework for a comparative assessment of CE.

  2. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  3. Rugged optical mirrors for the operation of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers in rough environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Dietrich G.

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a growing number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTS) that measure the total column of several atmospheric trace gases. For these measurements, the sun is used as a light source. This is typically achieved by a solar tracker that uses a pair of optical mirrors to guide the sunlight into the instrument. There is a growing demand to operate these instruments in remote locations that fill the gaps in the global observation network. Besides the logistical challenges of running a remote site, the environment at these locations can be very harsh compared to the sheltered environment of the instruments' home institutions. While the FTS itself is usually well protected inside a building or container, the solar tracker and especially its mirrors are exposed to the environment. There they may suffer from - temperature fluctuations - high humidity - sea salt corrosion at coastal sites - dirt and dust - air pollution from anthropogenic sources - deposition from plants or animals The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) operates a TCCON station on Ascension Island, about 200 m from the sea. Under the rough conditions at this site, typical optical mirrors that are made for laboratory conditions are destroyed by sea salt spray within a few weeks. Besides, typical gold-coated mirrors cannot be cleaned as their soft surface is easily scratched or damaged. To overcome these problems, the MPI-BGC has developed optical mirrors that - offer good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared - are highly resistant to salt and chlorine - have a hard surface so that they can be cleaned often and easily - are not affected by organic solvents - last for months in very harsh environments - can be reused after polishing These mirrors could be applied to most TCCON and NDACC sites. This way, the network could be expanded to regions where operation

  4. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  5. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  6. The role of local sea surface temperature pattern changes in shaping climate change in the North Atlantic sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ralf; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Bader, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    2018-03-01

    Beside its global effects, climate change is manifested in many regionally pronounced features mainly resulting from changes in the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Here we investigate the influence of the North Atlantic SST on shaping the winter-time response to global warming. Our results are based on a long-term climate projection with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to investigate the influence of North Atlantic sea surface temperature pattern changes on shaping the atmospheric climate change signal. In sensitivity experiments with the model's atmospheric component we decompose the response into components controlled by the local SST structure and components controlled by global/remote changes. MPI-ESM simulates a global warming response in SST similar to other climate models: there is a warming minimum—or "warming hole"—in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the sharp SST gradients associated with the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current shift northward by a few a degrees. Over the warming hole, global warming causes a relatively weak increase in rainfall. Beyond this, our experiments show more localized effects, likely resulting from future SST gradient changes in the North Atlantic. This includes a significant precipitation decrease to the south of the Gulf Stream despite increased underlying SSTs. Since this region is characterised by a strong band of precipitation in the current climate, this is contrary to the usual case that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier in a warmer climate. A moisture budget analysis identifies a complex interplay of various processes in the region of modified SST gradients: reduced surface winds cause a decrease in evaporation; and thermodynamic, modified atmospheric eddy transports, and coastal processes cause a change in the moisture convergence. The changes in the the North Atlantic storm track are mainly controlled by the non-regional changes in the forcing. The impact of

  7. Transient Atmospheric Circulation Changes in a Grand ensemble of Idealized CO2 Increase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpechko, A.; Manzini, E.; Kornblueh, L.

    2017-12-01

    The yearly evolution with increasing forcing of the large-scale atmospheric circulation is examined in a 68-member ensemble of 1pctCO2 scenario experiments performed with the MPI-ESM model. Each member of the experiment ensemble is integrated for 155 years, from initial conditions taken from a 2000-yr long pre-industrial control climate experiment. The 1pctCO2 scenario experiments are conducted following the protocol of including as external forcing only a CO2 concentration increase at 1%/year, till quadrupling of CO2 concentrations. MPI-ESM is the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (including coupling between the atmosphere, ocean and seaice). By averaging over the 68 members (ensemble mean), atmospheric variability is greatly reduced. Thus, it is possible to investigate the sensitivity to the climate state of the atmospheric response to CO2 doubling. Indicators of global change show the expected monotonic evolution with increasing CO2 and a weak dependence of the thermodynamical response to CO2 doubling on the climate state. The surface climate response of the atmospheric circulation, diagnosed for instance by the pressure at sea level, and the eddy-driven jet response show instead a marked dependence to the climate state, for the Northern winter season. We find that as the CO2 concentration increases above doubling, Northern winter trends in some indicators of atmospheric circulation changes decrease or even reverse, posing the question on what are the causes of this nonlinear behavior. The investigation of the role of stationary waves, the meridional overturning circulation, the decrease in Arctic sea ice and the stratospheric vortex points to the latter as a plausible cause of such nonlinear response.

  8. TESLA GPUs versus MPI with OpenMP for the Forward Modeling of Gravity and Gravity Gradient of Large Prisms Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Couder-Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An implementation with the CUDA technology in a single and in several graphics processing units (GPUs is presented for the calculation of the forward modeling of gravitational fields from a tridimensional volumetric ensemble composed by unitary prisms of constant density. We compared the performance results obtained with the GPUs against a previous version coded in OpenMP with MPI, and we analyzed the results on both platforms. Today, the use of GPUs represents a breakthrough in parallel computing, which has led to the development of several applications with various applications. Nevertheless, in some applications the decomposition of the tasks is not trivial, as can be appreciated in this paper. Unlike a trivial decomposition of the domain, we proposed to decompose the problem by sets of prisms and use different memory spaces per processing CUDA core, avoiding the performance decay as a result of the constant calls to kernels functions which would be needed in a parallelization by observations points. The design and implementation created are the main contributions of this work, because the parallelization scheme implemented is not trivial. The performance results obtained are comparable to those of a small processing cluster.

  9. Influence of the ionic liquid [C4mpy][Tf2N] on the structure of the miniprotein Trp-cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Furbish, Jeffrey; Lindberg, Gerrick E

    2015-11-01

    We examine the effect of the ionic liquid [C4mpy][Tf2N] on the structure of the miniprotein Trp-cage and contrast these results with the behavior of Trp-cage in water. We find the ionic liquid has a dramatic effect on Trp-cage, though many similarities with aqueous Trp-cage are observed. We assess Trp-cage folding by monitoring root mean square deviation from the crystallographic structure, radius of gyration, proline cis/trans isomerization state, protein secondary structure, amino acid contact formation and distance, and native and non-native contact formation. Starting from an unfolded configuration, Trp-cage folds in water at 298 K in less than 500 ns of simulation, but has very little mobility in the ionic liquid at the same temperature, which can be ascribed to the higher ionic liquid viscosity. At 365 K, the mobility of the ionic liquid is increased and initial stages of Trp-cage folding are observed, however Trp-cage does not reach the native folded state in 2 μs of simulation in the ionic liquid. Therefore, in addition to conventional molecular dynamics, we also employ scaled molecular dynamics to expedite sampling, and we demonstrate that Trp-cage in the ionic liquid does closely approach the aqueous folded state. Interestingly, while the reduced mobility of the ionic liquid is found to restrict Trp-cage motion, the ionic liquid does facilitate proline cis/trans isomerization events that are not seen in our aqueous simulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Linked models to assess the impacts of climate change on nitrogen in a Norwegian river basin and fjord system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, O.; Wright, R.F.; Barkved, L.J.; Bjerkeng, B.; Engen-Skaugen, T.; Magnusson, J.; Saelthun, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamically downscaled data from two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs), ECHAM4 from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI), Germany and HadAm3H from the Hadley Centre (HAD), UK, driven with two scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (IS92a and A2, respectively) were used to make climate change projections. These projections were then used to drive four effect models linked to assess the effects on hydrology, and nitrogen (N) concentrations and fluxes, in the Bjerkreim river basin (685-km 2 ) and its coastal fjord, southwestern Norway. The four effect models were the hydrological model HBV, the water quality models MAGIC, INCA-N and the NIVA FJORD model. The downscaled climate scenarios project a general temperature increase in the study region of approximately 1 deg. C by 2030-2049 (MPI IS92a) and approximately 3 deg. C by 2071-2100 (HAD A2). Both scenarios imply increased winter precipitation, whereas the projections of summer and autumn precipitation are quite different, with the MPI scenario projecting a slight increase and the HAD scenario a significant decrease. As a response to increased winter temperature, the HBV model simulates a dramatic reduction of snow accumulation in the upper parts of the catchment, which in turn lead to higher runoff during winter and lower runoff during snowmelt in the spring. With the HAD scenario, runoff in summer and early autumn is substantially reduced as a result of reduced precipitation, increased temperatures and thereby increased evapotranspiration. The water quality models, MAGIC and INCA-N project no major changes in nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and fluxes within the MPI scenario, but a significant increase in concentrations and a 40-50% increase in fluxes in the HAD scenario. As a consequence, the acidification of the river could increase, thus offsetting ongoing recovery from acidification due to reductions in acid deposition. Additionally, the increased N loading may stimulate growth of N-limited benthic

  11. MiKlip-PRODEF: Probabilistic Decadal Forecast for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Mark; Haas, Rabea; Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    The demand for skilful climate predictions on time-scales of several years to decades has increased in recent years, in particular for economic, societal and political terms. Within the BMBF MiKlip consortium, a decadal prediction system on the global to local scale is currently being developed. The subproject PRODEF is part of the MiKlip-Module C, which aims at the regionalisation of decadal predictability for Central and Western Europe. In PRODEF, a combined statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) and a probabilistic forecast tool are developed and applied to the new Earth system model of the Max-Planck Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM), which is part of the CMIP5 experiment. Focus is given on the decadal predictability of windstorms, related wind gusts as well as wind energy potentials. SDD combines the benefits of both high resolution dynamical downscaling and purely statistical downscaling of GCM output. Hence, the SDD approach is used to obtain a very large ensemble of highly resolved decadal forecasts. With respect to the focal points of PRODEF, a clustering of temporal evolving atmospheric fields, a circulation weather type (CWT) analysis, and a storm damage indices analysis is applied to the full ensemble of the decadal hindcast experiments of the MPI-ESM in its lower resolution (MPI-ESM-LR). The ensemble consists of up to ten realisations per yearly initialised decadal hindcast experiments for the period 1960-2010 (altogether 287 realisations). Representatives of CWTs / clusters and single storm episodes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 0.22°. For each model grid point, the distributions of the local climate parameters (e.g. surface wind gusts) are determined for different periods (e.g. each decades) by recombining dynamical downscaled episodes weighted with the respective weather type frequencies. The applicability of the SDD approach is illustrated with examples of decadal forecasts of the MPI

  12. PETASCALE DATA STORAGE INSTITUTE (PDSI) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Garth [Carnegie Mellon University

    2012-11-26

    Petascale computing infrastructures for scientific discovery make petascale demands on information storage capacity, performance, concurrency, reliability, availability, and manageability. The Petascale Data Storage Institute focuses on the data storage problems found in petascale scientific computing environments, with special attention to community issues such as interoperability, community buy-in, and shared tools. The Petascale Data Storage Institute is a collaboration between researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of Michigan, and the University of California at Santa Cruz. Because the Institute focuses on low level files systems and storage systems, its role in improving SciDAC systems was one of supporting application middleware such as data management and system-level performance tuning. In retrospect, the Petascale Data Storage Institute’s most innovative and impactful contribution is the Parallel Log-structured File System (PLFS). Published in SC09, PLFS is middleware that operates in MPI-IO or embedded in FUSE for non-MPI applications. Its function is to decouple concurrently written files into a per-process log file, whose impact (the contents of the single file that the parallel application was concurrently writing) is determined on later reading, rather than during its writing. PLFS is transparent to the parallel application, offering a POSIX or MPI-IO interface, and it shows an order of magnitude speedup to the Chombo benchmark and two orders of magnitude to the FLASH benchmark. Moreover, LANL production applications see speedups of 5X to 28X, so PLFS has been put into production at LANL. Originally conceived and prototyped in a PDSI collaboration between LANL and CMU, it has grown to engage many other PDSI institutes, international partners like AWE

  13. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-25

    Ernaehrungsphysiologie Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie Institut fuer Biochemie, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Instituto di Chimica, Facolt’ di Medicina ...issue to be discussed from the administrative and legal perspectives] (1) Board of Directors This is a board whose members are scientists. The...envisaged; 3. The participants urge that the time is now ripe for the governments of the countries involved to discuss an appropriate legal

  14. Solar Observations on Magneto-Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    Technical Library National Solar Observatory Sunspot, NM 88349 Karl - Schwarzschild -Strasse 1 8046 Garching bei Mundhen Solar Observations On Magneto...Schmidt, Hermann-Ulrich Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Thomas (eds.) Max-Planck-Institut fir Physik und Astrophysik Institut fiur Astrophysik Karl ... Schwarzschild -St-. 1 D-8046 Garching, FklG 14TIS CRiA.&l DTIC TA. U~Jar,iou8:ed B ......... ... Distribution I -- Availability COcý----- Avail and or Dist special

  15. Radiation protection research during the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    The president commission of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft studied the contribution of German scientists to research projects during the Second World War, classified as ''important for the war''. The study is also thought as remembrance to the victims of these research projects. During the last years the history of the field office Oberschlema of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for biophysics was and the radium research institute Oberschlema was investigated. Obviously there were no casualties among the voluntary test persons.

  16. DOE SciDAC’s Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report for University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervenak, Ann Louise [Univ. of Southern California Information Sciences Inst., Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

    2013-12-19

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  17. Contribution IFJ PAN to the construction of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (2008 - 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Hajduk, L.; Kotula, J.; Stodulski, M.; Sulek, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is now being assembled at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physic (IPP), Greifswald, Germany. The Agreement on Cooperation between the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow (IFJ PAN) was signed off in 2007. The intention of the agreement is to cover the whole period of the W7-X construction. According to the agreement IFJ PAN has taken over the following tasks: 1. to assembly of the bus bar system powering the superconducting coils of the stellarator; 2. to take part in design of equipment used during handling, transportation and assembly of outer vessels; 3. to manufacture 30 polichromators used for plasma diagnostics. Task No 2 was completed in 2008 while tasks No 1 and 3 are to be continued. (authors)

  18. Institutions as Knowledge Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1......) Lachmann held a sophisticated institutional position to economics that anticipated developments in contemporary new institutional economics. (2) Lachmann's sociological and economic reading of institutions offers insights for the problem of coordination. (3) Lachmann extends contemporary new institutional...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....

  19. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...

  20. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  1. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimforde, M; Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H-G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P, E-mail: Michael.Beimforde@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The presented R and D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2} have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

  2. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimforde, M; Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H-G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P

    2010-01-01

    The presented R and D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 10 16 n eq cm -2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

  3. FY 1999 cold demonstration of the Multi-Point Injection (MPI) process for stabilizing contaminated sludge in buried horizontal tanks with limited access at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Spence, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of buried tank waste. Exhumation of the sludge is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation does not typically remove all the contaminated material from the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and uniformly mixed with the sludge. Ground Environmental Services, Inc., has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity, jet-delivery system, which is termed Multi-Point-Injection (MPItrademark). This robust jet-delivery system has been used to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow-buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in a cylindrical test tank (FY 1998). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process was able to successfully form a 32-ton uniform monolith in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of a zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within the 40-inch-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies of Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily mixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing

  4. What are Institutional Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...

  5. Greenhouse windows are closing;. and the ozone layer is still being depleted. Ozone and climate experts have worked in vain. Die Treibhaus-Fenster schliessen sich. ;. und die Ozonschicht versproedet weiter / Ozon- und Klimaforscher haben vergeblich 'Bringschuld' geleistet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, W

    1994-02-14

    Forecast dont change a thing: This is the resumee that Prof. Paul Crutzen, Director of the Mainz Max-Planck-Institut of Chemistry and Prof. Hartmut Grassl, Director of the Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut of Meteorology draw from their many year of public information work for the cause of the ozone layer and the climate. The earth's atmosphere is in greater danger today than ever before: The ground layers are gradually warming up beneath an ozone layer that is steadily getting thinner. The fate of the ozone layer is meanwhile beyond our influence. The climate could still grant us a reprieve if we succeed in containing the temperature rise. Should we fail to make us of this time, the worst of scientists' predictions will come fine. (orig.)

  6. Greenhouse windows are closing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frese, W.

    1994-01-01

    Forecast dont change a thing: This is the resumee that Prof. Paul Crutzen, Director of the Mainz Max-Planck-Institut of Chemistry and Prof. Hartmut Grassl, Director of the Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut of Meteorology draw from their many year of public information work for the cause of the ozone layer and the climate. The earth's atmosphere is in greater danger today than ever before: The ground layers are gradually warming up beneath an ozone layer that is steadily getting thinner. The fate of the ozone layer is meanwhile beyond our influence. The climate could still grant us a reprieve if we succeed in containing the temperature rise. Should we fail to make us of this time, the worst of scientists' predictions will come fine. (orig.) [de

  7. Tuning the climate sensitivity of a global model to match 20th Century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, T.; Roeckner, E.

    2015-12-01

    A climate models ability to reproduce observed historical warming is sometimes viewed as a measure of quality. Yet, for practical reasons historical warming cannot be considered a purely empirical result of the modelling efforts because the desired result is known in advance and so is a potential target of tuning. Here we explain how the latest edition of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) atmospheric model (ECHAM6.3) had its climate sensitivity systematically tuned to about 3 K; the MPI model to be used during CMIP6. This was deliberately done in order to improve the match to observed 20th Century warming over the previous model generation (MPI-ESM, ECHAM6.1) which warmed too much and had a sensitivity of 3.5 K. In the process we identified several controls on model cloud feedback that confirm recently proposed hypotheses concerning trade-wind cumulus and high-latitude mixed-phase clouds. We then evaluate the model fidelity with centennial global warming and discuss the relative importance of climate sensitivity, forcing and ocean heat uptake efficiency in determining the response as well as possible systematic biases. The activity of targeting historical warming during model development is polarizing the modeling community with 35 percent of modelers stating that 20th Century warming was rated very important to decisive, whereas 30 percent would not consider it at all. Likewise, opinions diverge as to which measures are legitimate means for improving the model match to observed warming. These results are from a survey conducted in conjunction with the first WCRP Workshop on Model Tuning in fall 2014 answered by 23 modelers. We argue that tuning or constructing models to match observed warming to some extent is practically unavoidable, and as such, in many cases might as well be done explicitly. For modeling groups that have the capability to tune both their aerosol forcing and climate sensitivity there is now a unique

  8. Impact of physical permafrost processes on hydrological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Beer, Christian; Ekici, Altug

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. Within the European Union FP7 project PAGE21, the land surface scheme JSBACH of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology ESM (MPI-ESM) has been equipped with the representation of relevant physical processes for permafrost studies. These processes include the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. In the present study, it will be analysed how these permafrost relevant processes impact projected hydrological changes over northern hemisphere high latitude land areas. For this analysis, the atmosphere-land part of MPI-ESM, ECHAM6-JSBACH, is driven by prescribed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without the newly implemented permafrost processes. Observed SST and sea ice for 1979-1999 are used to consider induced changes in the simulated hydrological cycle. In addition, simulated SST and sea ice are taken from a MPI-ESM simulation conducted for CMIP5 following the RCP8.5 scenario. The

  9. Institute for Defense Analysis. Annual Report 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    staff have been involved in the community-wide development of MPI as well as in its application to specific NSA problems. 35 Parallel Groebner ...Basis Code — Symbolic Computing on Parallel Machines The Groebner basis method is a set of algorithms for reformulating very complex algebraic expres

  10. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  11. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  12. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright Quasar 3C273

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    on the analysis of the Einstein data, it was argued that the broken power law or power law + black body model is ... power law ( soft) is 2.7 when the photon index ( hard) of the harder power law is fixed at 1.5, and there are small but ..... J. Trümper for the kind hospitality at the Max-Planck-Institut für. Extraterrestrische Physik ...

  13. First principles based transport theory. Report on the IAEA technical committee meeting held at Kloster Seeon, Germany, 21-23 June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biskamp, D.; Nuehrenberg, J.; Diamond, P.H.; Garbet, X.; Lin, Z.; Rogers, R.N.

    2000-01-01

    This IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on plasma transport theory was organized jointly by the Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, and the IAEA, Vienna. It took place on 21-23 June 1999 in Kloster Seeon, Germany. The topics were: 1. Turbulent transport in the tokamak core plasma; 2. Turbulence suppression, shear amplification and transport bifurcation dynamics; 3. Turbulence transport in the tokamak edge plasma; 4. Global aspects of turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas; 5. Neoclassical transport, in particular in stellarators

  14. Concepts of highly excited electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2006-01-01

    Jamal Berakdar is an outstanding young researcher who has accomplished in less than ten years remarkable contributions to the field. He is well acknowledged by the scientific community. PhD-thesis at University of Freiburg (Prof. Klar, 1994), Humboldt- and Research fellow at Atomic & Molecular Physics Laboratories, Australian National University; since 1998 researcher at Max-Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany.

  15. Quarterly title list for the period ending September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The title list of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik and the Projektgruppe fuer Laserforschung of the MPG is concerned with the period from July until September 1976, and it contains: a) 12 titles and abstracts of laboratory reports, b) 37 titles of publications (30 abstracts), c) 20 titles of articles submitted for publication (16 abstracts), and d) 25 titles of lectures (12 abstracts). (GG) [de

  16. Gauge Invariance and the Goldstone Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnik, Gerald S.

    This paper was originally created for and printed in the "Proceedings of seminar on unified theories of elementary particles" held in Feldafing, Germany from July 5 to 16, 1965 under the auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in Munich. It details and expands upon the 1964 Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble paper demonstrating that the Goldstone theorem does not require physical zero mass particles in gauge theories.

  17. Magnetic Turbulence in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    plasmas que nos permiten confrontar conceptos teóricos del origen del campo magnético con observaciones detalladas. La turbulencia magnética en...por la turbulencia, entre el enfriamiento del gas y la actividad del chorro de la galaxia central. Finalmente se discuten métodos para medir ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS( ES ) Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics,Karl-Schwarzschild Str.1,85741 Garching, Germany, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  18. On coupling global biome models with climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Claussen, M.

    1994-01-01

    The BIOME model of Prentice et al. (1992; J. Biogeogr. 19: 117-134), which predicts global vegetation patterns in equilibrium with climate, was coupled with the ECHAM climate model of the Max-Planck-Institut fiir Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany. It was found that incorporation of the BIOME model into ECHAM, regardless at which frequency, does not enhance the simulated climate variability, expressed in terms of differences between global vegetation patterns. Strongest changes are seen only betw...

  19. International Research and Development in Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Genetics Berlin, Germany Hans Lehrach, Edda Klipp, Silke Sperling Yeast stress response and mitochondrial damage; Downs syndrome; cardiac...molgen.mpg.de, Dr. Edda Klipp, Axel Kowald, Christoph Wierling, Dr. Silke Sperling BACKGROUND The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics was...the cardiovascular genetics group. RESEARCH PROJECTS Dr. Edda Klipp is the head of the kinetic modeling group. She described her group’s

  20. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 6, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on new ITER Home Page and contains a report on the combined workshop of the ITER confinement and transport expert group and of the confinement modeling and database expert group, by D. Boucher, V. Mukhavatov (both ITER JCT), J.G. Cordey, JET Joint Undertaking , M. Wakatani, Kyoto University held at the Max-Planck-Institut for Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany on September 25 - 30 1997

  1. Encyclopedia of Public International Law, 9 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Tutvustus: Encyclopedia of Public International Law / published under the Auspices of the Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law under the Direction of Rudolf Bernhardt. (9. International Relations and Legal Cooperation in General. Diplomacy and Consular Relations and 10. States. Responsibility of Sates. International Law and Municipal Law). Amsterdam, New York, Oxford : North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986-1987. Pp. XV, 425 and pp. XV, 543

  2. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Italy; 2CNST @PoliMI, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , Milano, Italy; 3Physical Chemistry of Solids, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research...Coughlin5; 1Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e la Tecnologia dei Materiali...Germany; 2Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica , Valencia, Spain; 3Ernst Ruska Center, Jülich, Germany. 4:50 PM J5.05 Hydrogen Permeation through CO2-Stable

  3. Characterization of the first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type prototype HPGe detector for the gerda project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Gutknecht, D.; Kroeninger, K.; Lampert, M.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Quirion, D.; Stelzer, F.; Wendling, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type HPGe prototype detector produced by Canberra-France for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay project was tested both at Canberra-France and at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik in Munich. The main characteristics of the detector are given and measurements concerning detector properties are described. A novel method to establish contacts between the crystal and a Kapton cable is presented

  4. A mutation linked to retinitis pigmentosa in HPRP31 causes protein instability and impairs its interactions with spliceosomal snRNPs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huranová, Martina; Hnilicová, Jarmila; Fleischer, Branislav; Cvačková, Zuzana; Staněk, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2009), s. 2014-2023 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Grant - others: Max Planck Society(DE) Partner group program Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : retinitis pigmentosa * snRNP * splicing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.386, year: 2009

  5. The stuff of enlightening diagnoses; Stoff fuer erhellende Diagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Doctors today already frequently rely on positron emission tomography - PET for short - in cancer diagnostics. However, in order to use this method for other diseases, too, they need suitable tracer substances containing radioactive fluorine-18 - a challenge for Tobias Ritter and his team at the Max Planck Institut fuer Kohlenforschung in Muelheim an der Ruhr. The chemists are searching for ways to label diverse molecules with fluorine-18 and thus expand the range of possibilities for medical specialists.

  6. A DirtI Application for LBT Commissioning Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, J. L.

    2009-09-01

    In order to characterize the Gregorian focal stations and test the performance achieved by the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) adaptive optics system, two infrared test cameras were constructed within a joint project between INAF (Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Italy) and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (Germany). Is intended here to describe the functionality and successful results obtained with the Daemon for the Infrared Test Camera Interface (DirtI) during commissioning campaigns.

  7. Radio measurements in the fields of gamma-ray sources. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, W.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The γ-ray source CG 195+04 has been searched for radio counterparts at wavelengths between 2.8 cm and 18 cm with the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn. We have detected a number of sources and measured their spectra. Our positions may form the basis for future surveys in other frequency ranges. Different physical emission models suggest compactness of the γ-ray source. (orig.)

  8. CO J=2-1 observations toward southern HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Ruf, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Zimmermann, P.; Emerson, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    A spectral line receiver system developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie in Bonn was installed on the ESO 3.6-m and 1-m telescopes in July 1981. The cooled mixer front end gave DSB receiver temperatures of 260-600 K at 230 GHz. The spectrometer was a 256 x 1 MHz filterbank. The authors have observed the CO 2-1 transition towards 42 positions corresponding to the brightest southern HII regions. (Auth.)

  9. A new imaging riometer based on Mills Cross technique

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, M.; Honary, F.; Nielsen, E.; Hagfors, T.; Dekoulis, G.; Chapman, P.; Yamagishi, H.

    2003-01-01

    A new type of imaging riometer system based on a Mills Cross antenna array is currently under construction by the Ionosphere and Radio Propagation Group, Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster in collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Germany. The system will have an unprecedented spatial resolution in a viewing area of 300x300km. It is located at Ramfjordmoen, near Tromsø, Norway. The riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) determines the radio-wave absorptio...

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Genomic Instability in Brca-Deficient Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    increased by hydroxyurea, ATR inhibition, deregulated c-Myc expression and by PARPi treatment of BRCA1 deficient cells. This work was recently published...Genome Stability." 6: May 27, 2013-Collaborative Research Center 655 from Cells to Tissues seminar series at the Max-Planck-Institute in Dresden, Germany ...Eisenach, Germany -“Genome Stability during DNA Replication” 8: May 3, 2013- Chemical and Systems Biology Department Seminar Series at Stanford

  11. Die Rechtsstellung von Ausländern nach staatlichem Recht und Völkerrecht. Herausgegeben von Jochen Abr. Frowein und Torsten Stein. (Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, Band 94) / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1988-01-01

    Raamatuarvustus: Die Rechtsstellung von Ausländern nach staatlichem Recht und Völkerrecht = The legal position of aliens in national and international law = Le régime juridique des étrangers en droit national et international / Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht ; herausgegeben von Jochen A. Frowein, Torsten Stein. Berlin [etc.] : Springer, 1987

  12. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 1, February 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    This first issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings including eighth ITER Negotiations meeting, held on 18-19 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia, first meeting of the ITER preparatory committee, held on 17 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia and the third meeting of the ITPA (International Tokamak Physics Activity) coordinating committee, held on 24-25 October 2002 at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching

  13. The tamers of cold chaos; Die Dompteure des kalten Chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergersberg, P.

    2008-07-01

    The ISS International Space Station hosts only a select number of scientific experiments - like those of GREGOR E. MORFILL and his staff at the MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL PHYSICS. These physicists whip cold plasmas consisting of charged microparticles into line in order to study their crystallization, turbulence or flow properties through a nozzle. The results of these studies are relevant for applications in medicine and the microchip industry. (orig.)

  14. On the Exciton Coupling between Two Chlorophyll Pigments in the Absence of a Protein Environment: Intrinsic Effects Revealed by Theory and Experiment (German ed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    red of the monomers under the same conditions. First-principles calculations predict shifts that somewhat depend on the relative orientation of the two...phys.au.dk Dr. Y. Toker Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002 (Israel) Prof. A. Rubio Max Planck...important to note that although the overall band shape slightly depends on the power correction, the band maximum does not within the exper- imental

  15. Studies on a double-interferometer and mesospheric temperature measurements with a sodium-LIDAR-instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serwazi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The first part of this report describes the integration and alignment of a second Fabry-Perot-Interferometer into the optical bench of the sodium LIDAR experiment in Northern Norway. The spectral efficiency of this double interferometer was instrumentally and theoretically examined. The second part of the report presents results of temperature measurements in March 1989, which were made jointly with a Rayleigh LIDAR from the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy. Measured temperatures and Na densities of three nights are presented. (orig.)

  16. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  17. A comparison of observed extreme water levels at the German Bight elaborated through an extreme value analysis (EVA) with extremes derived from a regionally coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model (MPI-OM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of climate change atmospheric and oceanographic extremes and their potential impacts on coastal regions are of growing concern for governmental authorities responsible for the transportation infrastructure. Highest risks for shipping as well as for rail and road traffic originate from combined effects of extremes of storm surges and heavy rainfall which sometimes lead to insufficient dewatering of inland waterways. The German Ministry of Transport and digital Infrastructure therefore has tasked its Network of Experts to investigate the possible evolutions of extreme threats for low lands and especially for Kiel Canal, which is an important shortcut for shipping between the North and Baltic Seas. In this study we present results of a comparison of an Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) carried out on gauge observations and values derived from a coupled Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Climate Model (MPI-OM). High water levels at the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas are one of the most important hazards which increase the risk of flooding of the low-lying land and prevents such areas from an adequate dewatering. In this study changes in the intensity (magnitude of the extremes) and duration of extreme water levels (above a selected threshold) are investigated for several gauge stations with data partly reaching back to 1843. Different methods are used for the extreme value statistics, (1) a stationary general Pareto distribution (GPD) model as well as (2) an instationary statistical model for better reproduction of the impact of climate change. Most gauge stations show an increase of the mean water level of about 1-2 mm/year, with a stronger increase of the highest water levels and a decrease (or lower increase) of the lowest water levels. Also, the duration of possible dewatering time intervals for the Kiel-Canal was analysed. The results for the historical gauge station observations are compared to the statistics of modelled water levels from the coupled

  18. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  19. Development of the focal plane PNCCD camera system for the X-ray space telescope eROSITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Ebermayer, Stefanie; Elbs, Johannes; Haelker, Olaf; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Kimmel, Nils; Schaechner, Gabriele; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Strueder, Lothar; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2010-01-01

    A so-called PNCCD, a special type of CCD, was developed twenty years ago as focal plane detector for the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency ESA. Based on this detector concept and taking into account the experience of almost ten years of operation in space, a new X-ray CCD type was designed by the 'MPI semiconductor laboratory' for an upcoming X-ray space telescope, called eROSITA (extended Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). This space telescope will be equipped with seven X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven CCD cameras, placed in their foci. The instrumentation permits the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 up to 10 keV by spectroscopic measurements with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384x384 pixels. Main scientific goals are an all-sky survey and investigation of the mysterious 'Dark Energy'. The eROSITA space telescope, which is developed under the responsibility of the 'Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics', is a scientific payload on the new Russian satellite 'Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma' (SRG). The mission is already approved by the responsible Russian and German space agencies. After launch in 2012 the destination of the satellite is Lagrange point L2. The planned observational program takes about seven years. We describe the design of the eROSITA camera system and present important test results achieved recently with the eROSITA prototype PNCCD detector. This includes a comparison of the eROSITA detector with the XMM-Newton detector.

  20. The Seasonal Cycle of Satellite Chlorophyll Fluorescence Observations and its Relationship to Vegetation Phenology and Ecosystem Atmosphere Carbon Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Schaefer, K.; Jung, M.; Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y; Garrity, S.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial chlorophyll uorescence from space has shown potentialfor providing global measurements related to gross primary productivity(GPP). In particular, space-based fluorescence may provide information onthe length of the carbon uptake period that can be of use for global carboncycle modeling. Here, we examine the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis asestimated from satellite fluorescence retrievals at wavelengths surroundingthe 740nm emission feature. These retrievals are from the Global OzoneMonitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) flying on the MetOp A satellite. Wecompare the fluorescence seasonal cycle with that of GPP as estimated froma diverse set of North American tower gas exchange measurements. Because the GOME-2 has a large ground footprint (40 x 80km2) as compared with that of the flux towers and requires averaging to reduce random errors, we additionally compare with seasonal cycles of upscaled GPP in the satellite averaging area surrounding the tower locations estimated from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI-BGC) machine learning algorithm. We also examine the seasonality of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation(APAR) derived with reflectances from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Finally, we examine seasonal cycles of GPP as produced from an ensemble of vegetation models. Several of the data-driven models rely on satellite reflectance-based vegetation parameters to derive estimates of APAR that are used to compute GPP. For forested sites(particularly deciduous broadleaf and mixed forests), the GOME-2 fluorescence captures the spring onset and autumn shutoff of photosynthesis as delineated by the tower-based GPP estimates. In contrast, the reflectance-based indicators and many of the models tend to overestimate the length of the photosynthetically-active period for these and other biomes as has been noted previously in the literature. Satellite fluorescence measurements therefore show potential for

  1. Multi-centennial upper-ocean heat content reconstruction using online data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. A.; Hakim, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Last Millennium Reanalysis (LMR) provides an advanced paleoclimate ensemble data assimilation framework for multi-variate climate field reconstructions over the Common Era. Although reconstructions in this framework with full Earth system models remain prohibitively expensive, recent work has shown improved ensemble reconstruction validation using computationally inexpensive linear inverse models (LIMs). Here we leverage these techniques in pursuit of a new multi-centennial field reconstruction of upper-ocean heat content (OHC), synthesizing model dynamics with observational constraints from proxy records. OHC is an important indicator of internal climate variability and responds to planetary energy imbalances. Therefore, a consistent extension of the OHC record in time will help inform aspects of low-frequency climate variability. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Max Planck Institute (MPI) last millennium simulations to derive the LIMs, and the PAGES2K v.2.0 proxy database to perform annually resolved reconstructions of upper-OHC, surface air temperature, and wind stress over the last 500 years. Annual OHC reconstructions and uncertainties for both the global mean and regional basins are compared against observational and reanalysis data. We then investigate differences in dynamical behavior at decadal and longer time scales between the reconstruction and simulations in the last-millennium Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5). Preliminary investigation of 1-year forecast skill for an OHC-only LIM shows largely positive spatial grid point local anomaly correlations (LAC) with a global average LAC of 0.37. Compared to 1-year OHC persistence forecast LAC (global average LAC of 0.30), the LIM outperforms the persistence forecasts in the tropical Indo-Pacific region, the equatorial Atlantic, and in certain regions near the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In other regions, the forecast correlations are less than the

  2. Does internal variability change in response to global warming? A large ensemble modelling study of tropical rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, S.; Bader, J.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Marotzke, J.

    2017-12-01

    There is some consensus on mean state changes of rainfall under global warming; changes of the internal variability, on the other hand, are more difficult to analyse and have not been discussed as much despite their importance for understanding changes in extreme events, such as droughts or floodings. We analyse changes in the rainfall variability in the tropical Atlantic region. We use a 100-member ensemble of historical (1850-2005) model simulations with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1) to identify changes of internal rainfall variability. To investigate the effects of global warming on the internal variability, we employ an additional ensemble of model simulations with stronger external forcing (1% CO2-increase per year, same integration length as the historical simulations) with 68 ensemble members. The focus of our study is on the oceanic Atlantic ITCZ. We find that the internal variability of rainfall over the tropical Atlantic does change due to global warming and that these changes in variability are larger than changes in the mean state in some regions. From splitting the total variance into patterns of variability, we see that the variability on the southern flank of the ITCZ becomes more dominant, i.e. explaining a larger fraction of the total variance in a warmer climate. In agreement with previous studies, we find that changes in the mean state show an increase and narrowing of the ITCZ. The large ensembles allow us to do a statistically robust differentiation between the changes in variability that can be explained by internal variability and those that can be attributed to the external forcing. Furthermore, we argue that internal variability in a transient climate is only well defined in the ensemble domain and not in the temporal domain, which requires the use of a large ensemble.

  3. Can decadal climate predictions be improved by ocean ensemble dispersion filtering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, C.; Illing, S.; Kröner, I.; Ulbrich, U.; Cubasch, U.

    2017-12-01

    Decadal predictions by Earth system models aim to capture the state and phase of the climate several years inadvance. Atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role for such climate forecasts. While short-termweather forecasts represent an initial value problem and long-term climate projections represent a boundarycondition problem, the decadal climate prediction falls in-between these two time scales. The ocean memorydue to its heat capacity holds big potential skill on the decadal scale. In recent years, more precise initializationtechniques of coupled Earth system models (incl. atmosphere and ocean) have improved decadal predictions.Ensembles are another important aspect. Applying slightly perturbed predictions results in an ensemble. Insteadof using and evaluating one prediction, but the whole ensemble or its ensemble average, improves a predictionsystem. However, climate models in general start losing the initialized signal and its predictive skill from oneforecast year to the next. Here we show that the climate prediction skill of an Earth system model can be improvedby a shift of the ocean state toward the ensemble mean of its individual members at seasonal intervals. Wefound that this procedure, called ensemble dispersion filter, results in more accurate results than the standarddecadal prediction. Global mean and regional temperature, precipitation, and winter cyclone predictions showan increased skill up to 5 years ahead. Furthermore, the novel technique outperforms predictions with largerensembles and higher resolution. Our results demonstrate how decadal climate predictions benefit from oceanensemble dispersion filtering toward the ensemble mean. This study is part of MiKlip (fona-miklip.de) - a major project on decadal climate prediction in Germany.We focus on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model using the low-resolution version (MPI-ESM-LR) andMiKlip's basic initialization strategy as in 2017 published decadal climate forecast: http

  4. The influence of vegetation dynamics on anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Port

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vegetation–climate and vegetation–carbon cycle interactions during anthropogenic climate change are assessed by using the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI ESM that includes vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle. We assume anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the RCP 8.5 scenario in the time period from 1850 to 2120. For the time after 2120, we assume zero emissions to evaluate the response of the stabilising Earth System by 2300.

    Our results suggest that vegetation dynamics have a considerable influence on the changing global and regional climate. In the simulations, global mean tree cover extends by 2300 due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming. Thus, land carbon uptake is higher and atmospheric CO2 concentration is lower by about 40 ppm when considering dynamic vegetation compared to the static pre-industrial vegetation cover. The reduced atmospheric CO2 concentration is equivalent to a lower global mean temperature. Moreover, biogeophysical effects of vegetation cover shifts influence the climate on a regional scale. Expanded tree cover in the northern high latitudes results in a reduced albedo and additional warming. In the Amazon region, declined tree cover causes a regional warming due to reduced evapotranspiration. As a net effect, vegetation dynamics have a slight attenuating effect on global climate change as the global climate cools by 0.22 K due to natural vegetation cover shifts in 2300.

  5. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  6. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  7. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... between and exploit the multiple, potentially contradictory institutional logics of the different spheres in which they operate. While much research has elucidated how institutional entrepreneurs effect change, this study illustrates how effective entrepreneurs managing and exploiting institutional...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  8. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... and institutions. In this paper, we emphasize that in the current context of globalization, firms and actors within firms are continuously developing the way in which they organize work and employment to produce goods and services that are competitive in global markets. The paper argues that new market conditions...... lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create...

  9. The Leishmania donovani complex: Genotypes of five metabolic enzymes (ICD, ME, MPI, G6PDH and FH), new targets for multilocus sequence typing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Eva; Jirků, Milan; Mauricio, I. L.; Horák, Aleš; Miles, M. A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2007), s. 149-160 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06129 Grant - others:EU(EU) QLK2-CT-2001-01810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Leishmania donovani complex * zymodeme * multilocus sequence typing * Leishmania * phylogenetic network Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.392, year: 2007

  10. Institutional Support : Ethiopian Development Research Institute ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) was established in 1999 and became operational in 2003 as a semi-autonomous organization accountable to ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  11. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seminars and conferences. Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology THI Spotlight Check out the ...

  12. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  13. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the

  14. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  15. Discipline as Institutional Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Hommel, Ulrich; Cornuel, Eric

    Drawing on the case of business school rankings, we study how institutions are maintained and remain persistent despite their contested nature. We argue that rankings as institutions can be maintained through subtle disciplinary practices that freeze power relations in recipient organizations. Ou...

  16. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  17. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  18. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    paper is to analyze enablers and barriers for this institutional change. The vocational education system in Denmark is strongly institutionalised with unions, employerÕs associations and the schools in central roles. Drawing on institutional theory contributions on labour market -, educational......In order to reach the EU 2020 goals for the climate, Danish vocational training units are currently in a process of institutional change triggered by the need of providing energy, and new process competences for the skilled and semiskilled workforce active in construction. The aim of the present...... - and professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers...

  19. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    for combining the resource-based theory with an institutions-based approach towards constructing a more practical and empirical oriented analytical framework. After the preliminary discussion and introduction to the different theories used, the authors then take a focus on the analytical framework used to study......This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue...

  20. AWOB: A Collaborative Workbench for Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Lemson, G.; Bulatovic, N.; Makarenko, V.; Vogler, A.; Voges, W.; Yao, Y.; Kiefl, R.; Koychev, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present the Astronomers Workbench (AWOB1), a web-based collaboration and publication platform for a scientific project of any size, developed in collaboration between the Max-Planck institutes of Astrophysics (MPA) and Extra-terrestrial Physics (MPE) and the Max-Planck Digital Library (MPDL). AWOB facilitates the collaboration between geographically distributed astronomers working on a common project throughout its whole scientific life cycle. AWOB does so by making it very easy for scientists to set up and manage a collaborative workspace for individual projects, where data can be uploaded and shared. It supports inviting project collaborators, provides wikis, automated mailing lists, calendars and event notification and has a built in chat facility. It allows the definition and tracking of tasks within projects and supports easy creation of e-publications for the dissemination of data and images and other resources that cannot be added to submitted papers. AWOB extends the project concept to larger scale consortia, within which it is possible to manage working groups and sub-projects. The existing AWOB instance has so far been limited to Max-Planck members and their collaborators, but will be opened to the whole astronomical community. AWOB is an open-source project and its source code is available upon request. We intend to extend AWOB's functionality also to other disciplines, and would greatly appreciate contributions from the community.

  1. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows how implicit racial biases are adversely affecting African American students--especially boys... read more Emphasis Areas ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three ...

  2. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  3. Contributions to institutional matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers included in this document deal with the institutional aspects and the legal framework of spent fuel management. The international management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel is addressed. Licensing procedures are discussed

  4. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  5. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  6. Southern Universities Nuclear Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Southern Universities Nuclear Institute was created in 1961 to provide postgraduate research and teaching facilities for the universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch. The main research tool is the 6,0 MV Van de Graaff accelerator installed in 1964. Developments and improvements over the years have maintained the Institute's research effectiveness. The work of local research groups has led to a large number of M Sc and doctorate degrees and numerous publications in international journals. Research at the Institute includes front-line studies of basic nuclear and atomic physics, the development and application of nuclear analytical techniques and the application of radioisotope tracers to problems in science, industry and medicine. The Institute receives financial support from the two southern universities, the Department of National Education, the CSIR and the Atomic Energy Board

  7. Institutional profile questionnaire

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    test

    Public (i.e., independent govt. body, corporate owned by govt., etc.) N.B. If you ... If yes, services threshold amount? ... How long is the procurement process? : ... Information on person authorized to sign financial reports on behalf of institution.

  8. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  9. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  10. Blogs in cultural institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kaczyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses examples of three blogs of the National Library, both in terms of their structure and content as highlighting elements that impact on the promotion of both the blog and the institutions they lead. Discussed the advantages of one of Poland’s most popular blogging platforms WordPress. It also presents a short briefings to customize the look of your blog based on WordPress platform needs to actuate the institution.

  11. Narrative and Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V. Volchik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a range of questions associated with the occurrence of a new field of study – narrative economics, which is considered in the context of modern institutionalism. Pioneering works of R. Shiller, G. Akerlof and D. Snower spotlighted the importance of analyzing narratives and narrative influence when studying economic processes. In this paper, a qualitative study of narratives is seen through the prism of an answer to the question: «How do prescribed narratives influence institutions and change them? ». Narratives have much in common with institutions since very often, explicitly or implicitly, they contain value judgements about social interactions or normative aspects shaping behavioral patterns. The identification of dominating narratives enables us to understand better how institutions influence economic (social action. Repeated interactions among social actors are structured through understanding and learning the rules. Understanding of social rules comes from the language – we articulate and perceive the rules drawing on common narratives. Narratives and institutions are helpful when actors gain knowledge about various forms of social communication. Digital technologies, mass media and social networking sites facilitate the spread of narratives, values and beliefs; this process is characterized by increasing returns. Studying narratives and institutions is crucial for modern economic theory because it helps to improve qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing empirical evidence and enables researchers to understand complex economic processes.

  12. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  13. Soil frost-induced soil moisture precipitation feedback and effects on atmospheric states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. Within the European Union FP7 project PAGE21, the land surface scheme JSBACH of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology ESM (MPI-ESM) has been equipped with the representation of relevant physical processes for permafrost studies. These processes include the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. In the present study, it will be analysed how these permafrost relevant processes impact large-scale hydrology and climate over northern hemisphere high latitude land areas. For this analysis, the atmosphere-land part of MPI-ESM, ECHAM6-JSBACH, is driven by prescribed observed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without the newly implemented permafrost processes. Results show a large improvement in the simulated discharge. On one hand this is related to an improved snowmelt peak of runoff due to frozen soil in spring. On the other hand a subsequent reduction of soil moisture leads to a positive

  14. Snow darkening caused by black carbon emitted from fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jessica; Kloster, Silvia; Bourgeois, Quentin

    2014-05-01

    We implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by black carbon (BC) emitted from forest fires into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM) to estimate its potential climate impact of present day fire occurrence. Considerable amounts of black carbon emitted from fires are transported into snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of black carbon reduce the snow reflectance, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. Therefore, the SNICAR (SNow And Ice Radiation) model (Flanner and Zender (2005)) is implemented in the land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at the MPI-M. The SNICAR model includes amongst other processes a complex calculation of the snow albedo depending on black carbon in snow and snow grain growth depending on water vapor fluxes for a five layer snow scheme. For the implementation of the SNICAR model into the one layer scheme of ECHAM6-JSBACH, we used the SNICAR-online version (http://snow.engin.umich.edu). This single-layer simulator provides the albedo of snow for selectable combinations of impurity content (e.g. black carbon), snow grain size, and incident solar flux characteristics. From this scheme we derived snow albedo values for black carbon in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) and for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 µm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 µm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 µm). Here, a radius of 50 µm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 µm corresponds to old snow. The required snow age is taken from the BATS (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Dickinson et al. (1986)) snow albedo implementation in ECHAM6-JSBACH. Here, we will present an extended evaluation of the model including a comparison of modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed

  15. Changes in Snow Albedo Resulting from Snow Darkening Caused by Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, J.; Kloster, S.; Bourgeois, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential impact of snow darkening caused by pre-industrial and present-day black carbon (BC) emissions on snow albedo and subsequently climate. To assess this impact, we implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by BC emitted from natural as well as anthropogenic sources into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM). Considerable amounts of BC are emitted e.g. from fires and are transported through the atmosphere for several days before being removed by rain or snow precipitation in snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of BC reduce the snow reflectance significantly, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. We implemented the snow albedo reduction caused by BC contamination and snow aging in the one layer land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at MPI-M. For this we used the single-layer simulator of the SNow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR-Online (Flanner et al., 2007); http://snow.engin.umich.edu) model to derive snow albedo values for BC in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 μm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 μm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 μm). Here, a radius of 50 μm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 μm corresponds to old snow. The deposition rates of BC on snow are prescribed from previous ECHAM6-HAM simulations for two time periods, pre-industrial (1880-1889) and present-day (2000-2009), respectively. We perform a sensitivity study regarding the scavenging of BC by snow melt. To evaluate the newly implemented albedo scheme we will compare the modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed ones. Moreover, we will show the impact of the BC contamination and snow aging on the simulated snow albedo. The

  16. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana ... the Institute of Economic Affairs' (IEA-Ghana) role as a credible public policy ... public policy, facilitate private sector-led economic growth, and strengthen democracy.

  17. NUCOR Institute for Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article discusses the Nucor Institute for Life Sciences. The institute was previously part of Nucor, but is now an autonomous institute of the University of Pretoria. The task of the institute is to promote the application of radioisotopes and radiation techniques in medicine and biology. Research projects of the institute are shortly discussed

  18. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  19. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  20. International Environmental Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSibio, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Environmental Institute is being established at the Hanford Site to provide training and education in environmental restoration and waste management technologies and to serve as an interface for exchange of information among government laboratories, regional and federal governments, universities, and US industries. Recognized as the flagship of the nation's environmental management effort, the Hanford Site provides a unique living environmental laboratory that represents the most extensive, complex, and diverse cleanup challenges anywhere. An Environmental Institute director has been selected, the organizational structure has been established, and initial phases of operation have begun. The combined resources of the Hanford Site and the Environmental Institute offer unprecedented technological capabilities for dealing with the nation's environmental issues

  1. Institutional control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides several possible principles to be used to guide future discussions and tries to place the need for institutional control into context for the various waste types. The proposed principles would allow institutional control to be used as one method to provide radiation protection in the future without presenting undue burdens to future generations. It also provides advice on how to apply the proposed principles in a practical manner. The key difference in the approach proposed is that institutional control should be viewed as a need to pass on information, knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. This would allow each successive generation to make its own decision as to whether such controls should be maintained. (author)

  2. Financial institutions as an example of institutions of public trust

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jakubowska

    2013-01-01

    Financial institutions are commonly known as institutions of public trust and they are fundamental for activities of other economic entities. The level of trust determines the competitive position of financial institutions. That is why care about the best standards is the most important task for these institutions. Financial institutions are called institutions of public trust and thus high professionalism and more responsibility is demanded from them. This article presents basic problems con...

  3. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  4. Legal and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Leaving aside the natural desire to avoid the difficulties imposed by the enormously complex siting and certification process, a utility might decide to forego adding new capacity because of a variety of legal and institutional disincentives. Some of these are discussed in this chapter. The addition of new lines to support a competitive generating market also raises unique institutional issues. Perhaps the most important of these is the question of who should pay for the necessary capital expenditures. This issue also is discussed in this section

  5. Navigating Institutions and Institutional Leadership to Address Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisneros, Kathy; Rivera, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Using an institutional example, this chapter offers strategies to effectively navigate institutional culture, processes, and structures to engage the entire campus community in addressing sexual violence.

  6. Institute for Nuclear Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.; Bertsch, G.; Henley, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly discussion the following programs of the Institute for Nuclear Theory: fundamental interactions in nuclei; strangeness in hadrons and nuclei; microscopic nuclear structure theory; nuclear physics in atoms and molecules; phenomenology and lattice QCD; and large amplitude collective motion

  7. Rescaling or Institutional Flexibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2010-01-01

    -border integration has given rise? Does a process exist whereby the ‘problem' and its solution are readily identified and absorbed by existing institutional structures with actions carried out through ‘selective competence delegation'? Based on two case studies, the integration of the labour market and the creation...

  8. Information for Institutional Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a planning, management, and evaluation system, an objective-based planning process, research databases, analytical reports, and transactional data as state-of-the-art tools available to generate data which link research directly to planning for institutional renewal. (RC)

  9. Danish Space Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present report presents a description of the activities and finances of the Danish Space Reserach Institute during 1989 and 1990. The research deals with infrared astronomy (ISOPHOT), X-ray astronomy (EXPECT/SODART), hard X-ray astronomy (WATCH), satellite projects and sounding rocket experiments. (CLS)

  10. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  11. Institute Born of Gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Vin

    1980-01-01

    The Wang Institute of Graduate Studies plans to offer a master's degree in software engineering. The development of an academic program to produce superior, technically qualified managers for the computer industry's software production is discussed. (Journal availability: Datamation, 666 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10103.) (MLW)

  12. Colorado Water Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Water Institute Colorado State University header HomeMission StatementGRAD592NewslettersPublications/ReportsCSU Water ExpertsFunding OpportunitiesScholarshipsSubscribeEmploymentAdvisory BoardStaffContact UsCommentsLinks Water Center Logo Water Resources Archive Office of Engagement Ag Water

  13. Global Green Growth Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    Har man fulgt historien om Venstres gruppeformand Lars Løkkes rejser på 1. klasse i forbindelse med formandsposten for Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) er der sikkert nogle der undrer sig over, hvad GGGI er for en størrelse. Medierne præsenterer GGGI som en international klimaorganisation, der...

  14. Approaches to Identification of Institutions in Institutional Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor M. Shiriaev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology for identification of institutions from institutional economics perspective. The differences between the perspectives provided by old and new institutional economics are highlighted. These differences are interpreted in the context of compared pragmatist and postpositivist methodologies. This paper applies to the post-positivist approach to the identification of institutions. One example of institution is provided by power-property institution. Identification of this institution in the historical and economic research is based on several theoretical generalizations and supported by array of historical facts. Another example is provided by identification of institution and institutional change in higher education based on discourse analysis and interviews with the main actors. In this paper, the regulatory institutions of higher education are analyzed as well. The concept of power-property institution is extended to the higher education by proposing hypotheses on the functioning of state governing-regulating institution in this sphere. This institution prescribes the actors to behave in accordance with the objectives of public policy, which can only be implemented in the form of bureaucratization of higher education. The paper describes the behavioral regularity generated by an identified institution. Functioning of the governing-regulating institution in higher education is illustrated by examples of behavioral regularities emerging from activities in accordance with this institution. The paper also shows the possibility of falsification of proposed hypothesis.

  15. Digitalization of daycare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    in the intergenerational interaction with as well as the intragenerational interaction among daycare children. To some extent, digital media usage, foremost of tablet computers, has seen a discursive and material normalization across a number Danish daycare institutions before at all clarifying how it could be rendered...... as on situated sociomaterial approaches to critical psychological practice research in order to inquire into possible specificities of digital media device usage: How is this usage similar to and different from interacting via other material-communicative devices in a pedagogical practice? How do digital media......The digitalization of Danish daycare institutions is not only affecting the ways staff is documenting and reporting on its pedagogical work. It also appears to be redefining what pedagogical work itself is about, given the drastic increase in deployment of digital (mobile) media devices...

  16. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  17. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  18. INSTITUT KESENIAN MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrul Rizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the value of art and culture in Makassar fading , while the higher the education that is expected to help develop arts and cultural preservation . The number of art enthusiasts are having trouble finding a good college and adequate facilities in Makassar divert them out of the area for study. The main purpose of this paper in order to plan and merancangan Art Institute building located in Makassar, which can accommodate the needs of artists to distribute and develop creativity, the result of design art institute building is located in the subdistrict Tamalanrea location is adjusted with the direction of the located area Spatial education, it is expected that the center will be able to accommodate students in distributing and developing creativity and the provision of facilities that can accommodate the development and preservation of local culture and art according to user requirements in accordance with the planning and design standards that apply.

  19. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  20. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based......-structured interview, students reflected on their hospitality experiences. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method. The emerging themes on hospitality activities were identified. It was found that hospitality activities could be characterized as a process where the individual...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  1. Institute for safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the area of nuclear reactor safety studies, the Institute for Safety Technology (STI) concentrated its efforts in analysing experimentally and numerically phenomena which characterize highly-improbable but very severe accidents either for light water or for sodium cooled reactors. In the STI nuclear isle, three new laboratories for waste (PETRA), fusion (ETHEL) and safeguards, (PERLA) activities are approaching completion and have made substantial progress in their licensing procedure. The Institute started activities in the non-nuclear safety research area only a few years ago and has been able this year to present its first significant experimental and theoretical results in the areas of runaway reactions, accidental release of products and their deflagration/detonation. Concerning Reference Methods for the Evaluation of Structure Reliability a better understanding was gained of the nonlinear cyclic and dynamic behaviour of materials and structures by performing experiments and developing constitutive and structural member models leading to the computer simulation of complete structures

  2. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  3. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  4. Institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is given of the personnel and activities of the Institute of Physics. Research by staff of the Nuclear Physics Group includes mainly work on heavy ion reactions and investigations of rare earth nuclei. The Elementary Particle Group has studied antineutron and antiproton annihilations, neutral current pions minus and has used the CERN ISRs. The Cosmic Physics Group has used rockets, satellite data and balloons to study the electron and proton precipitation in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, and aurorae. (JIW)

  5. Institutional entrepreneurship and agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weik, E.

    2011-01-01

    of collective entrepreneurship and institutional work to see if they can overcome these incongruities. I conclude that although they can remedy some of the problems, these notions run the risk of describing everything until they describe nothing. In order to limit and enable the entrepreneurship literature...... to discuss agency meaningfully, I argue, it needs to develop analytical frames of agency derived either from existing sociological theories or from further developing its own brand of agency theory. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd....

  6. The Francis Crick Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Keith; Smith, Jim

    2017-04-01

    The Francis Crick Institute Laboratory, opened in 2016, is supported by the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust, and University College London, King's College London and Imperial College London. The emphasis on research training and early independence of gifted scientists in a multidisciplinary environment provides unique opportunities for UK medical science, including clinical and translational research. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  7. First institutional congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coto, Z.; Munoz, J.

    1992-01-01

    They explain the different uses of nuclear energy in a generalize way. The fields included are: intense radiations, tracers, nucleonic galgs. These applications are analyzed basically in the industrial field. They also analyze the present usefulness of these techniques and their expectatives for the future. They suggests that the industrial applications of nuclear energy can be considered within the institutional plans of development of the ITCR. 12 refs

  8. HOLIDAY AS SOCIAL INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaktionova Nelli Anatolyevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with holiday as social institute, stages of its institutionalization, such as emergence of need; formation of general objects and ideology proving them; development of social norms and rules;practical adoption of rules and procedures; establishment sanction system; creation of statuses and role system. On the example of Russian festive tradition the general institutional signs of a holiday are described, it is specified that the majority of holidays are at a stage of cultural symbol search having the behavior code; system of ideas; utilitarian and cultural lines; installations and examples of behavior. Taking into consideration the view of Nelli Galaktionova, we can say, that these principles explain the popularity of the Victory Day Holiday and not stable Russian holiday on the 12-th of June- day of Russia. It is stated that the absence of the ritual prevents the popularity of holiday in society. In the article obvious and latent functions of a holiday as social institute are described - regulatory function, integrative, broadcasting, function of reproduction of the social relations, socializing, educational, guarding, forming the culture, communicative, sociocultural, actable, function of leisure and rest organization, adaptive and compensatory, function of removal of ethical regulations. According to the author of article, the holiday is a basis of formation of national and state and civil identity.

  9. Institutional Investors as Minority Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Hamdani; Yishay Yafeh

    2013-01-01

    We examine the link between minority shareholders' rights and corporate governance by studying institutional investors' voting patterns in a concentrated ownership environment. Institutions rarely vote against insider-sponsored proposals even when the law empowers the minority. Institutions vote against compensation-related proposals more often than against related party transactions even when minority shareholders cannot influence outcomes. Potentially conflicted institutions are more likely...

  10. Endogenous and costly institutional deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Kingsley; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Modern economies rely on central-authority institutions to regulate individual behaviour. Despite the importance of such institutions little is known about their formation within groups. In a public good experiment, groups selected the level of deterrence implemented by the institution, knowing that the administrative costs of the institution rose with the level of...

  11. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  12. Taking Stock on Institutional Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leca, Bernard; Battilana, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the literature that has been published on institutional entrepreneurship since Paul DiMaggio introduced this notion in 1988. Based on a systematic selection and analysis of articles, the paper outlines an emerging consensus on the definition and process of institutional entrep...... may use this paper to build targeted and sophisticated research designs that add value to the emerging body of literature on institutional entrepreneurship.Keywords: Institutional Entrepreneur, Institutional Change, Paradox of Embedded Agency...

  13. How institutions matter for international business : Institutional distance effects vs institutional profile effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, Andre; Maseland, Robbert

    Extant institutional research has failed to make a distinction between the effects of institutional profile and institutional distance on MNEs. The problem stems from the fact that, due to the use of a single reference country, variation in institutional distance between the reference country and

  14. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  15. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  16. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  17. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  18. Institute for Sustainable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Alternate fuels offer unique challenges and opportunities as energy source for power generation, vehicular transportation, and industrial applications. Institute for Sustainable Energy (ISE) at UA conducts innovative research to utilize the complex mix of domestically-produced alternate fuels to achieve low-emissions, high energy-efficiency, and fuel-flexibility. ISE also provides educational and advancement opportunities to students and researchers in the energy field. Basic research probing the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels has generated practical concepts investigated in a burner and engine test platforms.

  19. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Lossau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available DRIVER has a clear vision: All research institutions in Europe and worldwide make all their research publications openly accessible through institutional repositories. The vision follows the Berlin Declaration, which called in October 2003 for ‘free and unrestricted access to sciences and human knowledge representation worldwide’. Initiated by the internationally renowned German research organisation the Max-Planck-Society, and signed by many international research organisations and institutes, the Berlin Declaration has set a political statement. In building a sustainable infrastructure for scientific repositories, DRIVER brings to this statement the reality of scholarly communication in the future.

  20. MPI Enhancements in John the Ripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Edward R; Lin, Michael; Skoczen, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    John the Ripper (JtR) is an open source software package commonly used by system administrators to enforce password policy. JtR is designed to attack (i.e., crack) passwords encrypted in a wide variety of commonly used formats. While parallel implementations of JtR exist, there are several limitations to them. This research reports on two distinct algorithms that enhance this password cracking tool using the Message Passing Interface. The first algorithm is a novel approach that uses numerous processors to crack one password by using an innovative approach to workload distribution. In this algorithm the candidate password is distributed to all participating processors and the word list is divided based on probability so that each processor has the same likelihood of cracking the password while eliminating overlapping operations. The second algorithm developed in this research involves dividing the passwords within a password file equally amongst available processors while ensuring load-balanced and fault-tolerant behavior. This paper describes John the Ripper, the design of these two algorithms and preliminary results. Given the same amount of time, the original JtR can crack 29 passwords, whereas our algorithms 1 and 2 can crack an additional 35 and 45 passwords respectively.

  1. MPI Enhancements in John the Ripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Edward R.; Lin, Michael; Skoczen, Wesley

    2010-11-01

    John the Ripper (JtR) is an open source software package commonly used by system administrators to enforce password policy. JtR is designed to attack (i.e., crack) passwords encrypted in a wide variety of commonly used formats. While parallel implementations of JtR exist, there are several limitations to them. This research reports on two distinct algorithms that enhance this password cracking tool using the Message Passing Interface. The first algorithm is a novel approach that uses numerous processors to crack one password by using an innovative approach to workload distribution. In this algorithm the candidate password is distributed to all participating processors and the word list is divided based on probability so that each processor has the same likelihood of cracking the password while eliminating overlapping operations. The second algorithm developed in this research involves dividing the passwords within a password file equally amongst available processors while ensuring load-balanced and fault-tolerant behavior. This paper describes John the Ripper, the design of these two algorithms and preliminary results. Given the same amount of time, the original JtR can crack 29 passwords, whereas our algorithms 1 and 2 can crack an additional 35 and 45 passwords respectively.

  2. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. CRIS and Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asserson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CRIS (Current Research Information Systems provide researchers, research managers, innovators, and others with a view over the research activity of a domain. IRs (institutional repositories provide a mechanism for an organisation to showcase through OA (open access its intellectual property. Increasingly, organizations are mandating that their employed researchers deposit peer-reviewed published material in the IR. Research funders are increasingly mandating that publications be deposited in an open access repository: some mandate a central (or subject-based repository, some an IR. In parallel, publishers are offering OA but replacing subscription-based access with author (or author institution payment for publishing. However, many OA repositories have metadata based on DC (Dublin Core which is inadequate; a CERIF (Common-European Research Information Format CRIS provides metadata describing publications with formal syntax and declared semantics thus facilitating interoperation or homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources. The formality is essential for research output metrics, which are increasingly being used to determine future funding for research organizations.

  4. INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY: EMPLOYMENT IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «institutional repository» and determined the aspects of institutional repositories in higher education. Institutional Repositories are information systems that allow preserving, storing and disseminating scientific knowledge produced in higher education and scientific research institutions. This study presented the main aspects using institutional repositories in educational process (such as storage of scientific and educational information, means of organization activity of students, object of studying. This article produced the structure of communities and collections of the institutional. It is described the experience of implementing of DSpace in the learning process.

  5. Institutional failures and transaction costs of Bulgarian private research institutes

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the reasons for poor performance of private research institutes in Bulgaria. In this regard the Institutional Economics methods are used. A connection between smart growth policy goals and Bulgarian membership in EU is made. The gaps in the institutional environment are identified as well as measures for their elimination are proposed. The main accent of the study is put on the identification of transaction costs, arisen as a result of the failures of the institutional envi...

  6. Institutional Churn: Institutional Change in United Kingdom Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article considers how higher education institutions change over time, using the United Kingdom system as an exemplar, and focusing on the 15-year period between 1994/95 and 2009/10. While there are many aspects of institutional change worthy of study, the focus here is on how institutions appear to others. Thus, the article examines the…

  7. California Institute for Water Resources - California Institute for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Skip to Content Menu California Institute for Water Resources Share Print Site Map Resources Publications Keep in Touch QUICK LINKS Our Blog: The Confluence Drought & Water Information University of California California Institute for Water Resources California Institute for Water Resources

  8. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  9. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  10. International Security Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Institutional Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Terrence L.

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have devoted considerable attention to the informational role of international institutions. However, several questions about the informational aspects of institutional behavior remain underexplored: What determines how audiences respond to institutional decisions? Through what channels does information provision affect foreign policy? To…

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies' (IIDS) role as a credible public policy institution in India by strengthening its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies IIDS is a social sciences research centre with a focus on development ...

  12. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  13. Productivity and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Zoega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in productivity account for differences in output per capita between countries as well as changes in output and the standard of living for each country over long periods of time. During the first industrial revolution, one could already see the emergence of two groups of countries: the high- and the low-GDP per capita countries. The list of countries belonging to the highproductivity group has not changed much over the past century. Differences in institutions separate the two clubs. The high-productivity group is, amongst many other differences, characterized by less corruption, a better legal system, superior enforcement of contracts, a lower cost of starting a business and lower tariffs. Historical output series for Britain going back to the mid-19th century show that productivity has increased greatly and improved the standard of living.

  14. Budget institutions and taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    While a number of different studies have explored the effects of budgetary procedures and the centralization of the budget process on government debt, deficits and spending, few of them have explored whether such fiscal institutions matter for public revenue. This article argues that centralizing...... the budget process raises the levels of taxation by limiting the ability of individual government officials to veto tax increases in line with common-pool-problem arguments regarding public finances. Using detailed data on budgetary procedures from 15 EU countries, the empirical analysis shows that greater...... centralization of the budget process increases taxation as a share of GDP and that both the type of budget centralization and level of government fractionalization matter for the size of this effect. The results suggest that further centralizing the budget process limits government debt and deficits...

  15. Institute for Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Institute has in 1980 changed its name to 'Institutt for Energiteknikk' and this reflects a de facto change in programme emphasis in which a large part of the activity in 1979 was in energy systems analysis, energy technology and conservation, petroleum technology,etc. However previous projects in environmental and safety aspects of nuclear power, risk analysis and fundamental physics using neutron beams, have continued. Nuclear technology is now concentrated in the Halden Reactor Project, whose work is outlined. Isotope production based on the JEEP II reactor and irradiation there and in the Co-60 plant, and isotope applications in environmental and resource investigations continue as previously. Waste processing and safeguards are also carried out as national responsibilities. (JIW)

  16. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions...... the relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...

  17. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  18. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in

  19. Teacher Enhancement Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Bradley, Tina

    1994-01-01

    During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science

  20. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Recognition for teachers The Institute of Physics has continued its programme of recognition for inspiring teachers with nine Teachers Awards in 2000, one at primary level and eight at secondary. The quality and quantity of nominations for secondary awards was very encouraging, especially those nominations made by students, but the number of nominations for teachers in the primary sector was disappointing. The award winners are: Teacher of Primary Science Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Gill Stafford, Greens Norton Church of England Primary School, Towcester, Northants Teachers of Physics (Secondary) John Allen, All Hallows High School, Penwortham, Preston Tim Gamble, Lings Upper School, Northampton Denise Gault, Dalriada School, Ballymoney, Co Antrim Ian Lovat, Ampleforth College, North Yorkshire David Smith, Highgate School, North London Clive Thomas, Newcastle Emlyn Comprehensive School Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Mark Travis, Cape Cornwall School, St Just, Cornwall If you know a teacher in a local primary school who is doing an exceptional job in motivating youngsters and colleagues in the teaching and learning of science, why not consider nominating them for an award? Further details can be obtained from the Institute's Education Department (Steven Chapman) by post or e-mail (schools.education@iop.org .) Annual Congress More details are now available on the various activities at this event taking place on 27 - 30 March 2000 at the Brighton Conference Centre. Among those organized by the Education Department are general science and technology hands-on activities for pupils aged 10 to 12 and more specific physics activities on Static Electricity for older students: * A series of short talks with hands-on demonstrations of music and musical instruments given by musicians, manufacturers and physicists. * A chance for students in years 9 to 13 to experience music making from the professionals' perspective. Mornings, 28 to 30 March

  1. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  2. Current climate and climate change over India as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Adelina; Sushama, Laxmi

    2015-08-01

    The performance of the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) in reproducing the main climatic characteristics over India during the southwest (SW)-, post- and pre-monsoon seasons are presented in this article. To assess the performance of CRCM5, European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re- Analysis (ERA- 40) and Interim re-analysis (ERA-Interim) driven CRCM5 simulation is compared against independent observations and reanalysis data for the 1971-2000 period. Projected changes for two future periods, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, with respect to the 1971-2000 current period are assessed based on two transient climate change simulations of CRCM5 spanning the 1950-2100 period. These two simulations are driven by the Canadian Earth System Model version 2 (CanESM2) and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Low Resolution Model (MPI-ESM-LR), respectively. The boundary forcing errors associated with errors in the driving global climate models are also studied by comparing the 1971-2000 period of the CanESM2 and MPI-ESM-LR driven simulations with that of the CRCM5 simulation driven by ERA-40/ERA-Interim. Results show that CRCM5 driven by ERA-40/ERA-Interim is in general able to capture well the temporal and spatial patterns of 2 m-temperature, precipitation, wind, sea level pressure, total runoff and soil moisture over India in comparison with available reanalysis and observations. However, some noticeable differences between the model and observational data were found during the SW-monsoon season within the domain of integration. CRCM5 driven by ERA-40/ERA-Interim is 1-2 °C colder than CRU observations and generates more precipitation over the Western Ghats and central regions of India, and not enough in the northern and north-eastern parts of India and along the Konkan west coast in comparison with the observed precipitation. The monsoon onset seems to be relatively well captured over the southwestern coast of

  3. Radiation protection research during the Second World War; Strahlenschutzforschung in der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Dietrich

    2011-07-01

    The president commission of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft studied the contribution of German scientists to research projects during the Second World War, classified as ''important for the war''. The study is also thought as remembrance to the victims of these research projects. During the last years the history of the field office Oberschlema of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute for biophysics was and the radium research institute Oberschlema was investigated. Obviously there were no casualties among the voluntary test persons.

  4. Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity (5-8 April 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, Vladimir B

    2005-01-01

    As part of the celebration of the World Year of Physics, the Conference 'Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity' was held in Golm, near Potsdam, Germany, on April 5-8, 2005. The Conference was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (also known as the Albert Einstein Institute), which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2005. Conference participants discussed progress made in theoretical and experimental research during the 100 years since the publication of Einstein's famous papers in 1905, the year which has gone down in history as 'Albert Einstein's ANNUS MIRABILIS'. (annus mirabilis. physics of our days)

  5. Hard X-ray balloon observations of compact galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Pietsch, W.; Proctor, R.J.; Reppin, C.; Steinle, H.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1981-01-01

    A balloon program in hard X-ray astronomy (20-200 keV) is jointly pursued by the Astronomisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen (AIT) and the Max Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik in Garching (MPE). Since 1973 nine succussful balloon flights have been performed from Texas and Australia. Here results on Centaurus A and on several galactic binary X-ray sources are summarized. In particular the high energy photon spectrum of Hercules X-1 and the evidence for the cyclotron line feature which was discovered by us in 1976 is reviewed. (orig.)

  6. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  7. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  8. Studying institutional work in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – In order to provide new and other directions to institutional studies in organization theory, Lawrence and Suddaby forward the notion of institutional work of actors aimed at maintaining, changing and disrupting institutions. The purpose of this paper is to further theory and method...... in studying the institutional work of people in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – Methodological insights from the ways in which theories of human agency in institutional contexts have co-evolved with field study methodologies are analyzed in related fields of research, particularly in sociology...... and anthropology. Findings – The ways have been analyzed in which social theories of human agency in institutional contexts and field methodology have co-evolved in an inter-disciplinary perspective. The analysis shows how field methodologies may provide inspirations to theory and method in studying institutional...

  9. Integrative Bioengineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddington, David; Magin,L,Richard; Hetling, John; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-09

    Microfabrication enables many exciting experimental possibilities for medicine and biology that are not attainable through traditional methods. However, in order for microfabricated devices to have an impact they must not only provide a robust solution to a current unmet need, but also be simple enough to seamlessly integrate into standard protocols. Broad dissemination of bioMEMS has been stymied by the common aim of replacing established and well accepted protocols with equally or more complex devices, methods, or materials. The marriage of a complex, difficult to fabricate bioMEMS device with a highly variable biological system is rarely successful. Instead, the design philosophy of my lab aims to leverage a beneficial microscale phenomena (e.g. fast diffusion at the microscale) within a bioMEMS device and adapt to established methods (e.g. multiwell plate cell culture) and demonstrate a new paradigm for the field (adapt instead of replace). In order for the field of bioMEMS to mature beyond novel proof-of-concept demonstrations, researchers must focus on developing systems leveraging these phenomena and integrating into standard labs, which have largely been ignored. Towards this aim, the Integrative Bioengineering Institute has been established.

  10. PSI Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, M.; Pladys, D.

    2008-05-01

    From research activities focused on civil and military uses of nuclear energy and developed after the second world war, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) has been able to diversify its activities following 2 axis. First, the Gantry proton-therapy that is characterized by a compact equipment and an accurate 3-dimensional treatment of tumors (more than 260 patients have been treated by Gantry from 1996 to 2005). Secondly, new technologies in the fields of energy and transport. Nevertheless, PSI has been able to keep a high of valuation of its staff in nuclear engineering and materials that are the core of its activities. The main equipment of PSI are: -) SLS (Swiss Light Source): a synchrotron radiation source that is both a microscope and an X-ray source; -) SINQ: a neutron source based on spallation reactions; -)SμS: a muon source; and -) the Philips accelerator that is used in radiochemistry and the production of isotopes used for the treatment of eye tumors. PSI has established a large cooperation with French research laboratories on issues like: nuclear reactor safety, synchrotron radiation, the transmutation of nuclear wastes, the design of a source of ultra-cold neutrons, or the development of a hydrogen-fueled light vehicle. The total budget of PSI for 2007 reached 174.2 million euros. (A.C.)

  11. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    When Mary took up her appointment in the Institute's Education Department in June 1997, she indicated that she wished to return to teaching in two or three years. We have just heard that in September she will be joining the staff of the Science Department at Camden Girls' School, London. Mary's departure from the Institute is a great loss to the Department, where she has worked tirelessly, and with great imagination, to support those who teach physics at all secondary levels - and at primary level too when the opportunity presented itself. She has made tremendous contributions to the careers side of the Department's work, supporting careers events, providing informal training for others willing to do the same, helping to develop new careers materials and identifying people whom the Institute could use as role models or as the subject of case studies in print or electronic publications. Mary has been equally happy and willing to support pupils, students and teachers, and has been a wonderful role model herself, coming from an industrial research background, training for teaching after a career break and willing and able to teach biology, chemistry and design technology as well as physics. Mary has also written and edited Phases virtually single-handed. We are delighted to hear that Mary will continue to support the department's work as one of its teacher `volunteers'. Ilya Eigenbrot We are pleased to report that Ilya Eigenbrot, who will be known to some through his work at the Royal Institution and his appearances at the Christmas Lectures in a technical support role, has agreed to give the IOP Schools (touring) Lecture next year. The subject will be Lasers and this will follow nicely on to Zbig's lecture this year. Resources (print) Physics on Course The tenth issue of the Institute's popular guide to higher education, Physics on Course 2001, will be published early in July and distributed to all schools and colleges in the United Kingdom and the Republic of

  12. Informal institutions and radical ideologies under institutional transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Starodubrovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article questions one of the central postulates of institutional economic theory, i.e., that of the sustainability and purely evolutionary changes of informal institutions. To study the phenomenon of the destruction of informal institutions and its consequences, we use the tools of sociological theory, which acknowledge that a period of intensive urbanization is characterized by anomie, i.e., a lack of norms, in which traditional institutions are destroyed, while new urban institutions have not yet taken shape. We reviewed the possible reactions of communities and individuals to the conditions of anomie, including the compensatory mechanisms of ideologies. In the case of the Dagestan Republic, we show how the proliferation of fundamentalist Islamic ideology is associated with the state of anomie and the consequences to which it could lead from an institutional point of view. The analysis of the situation in Dagestan is based on long-term field research conducted in the region.

  13. Do Over or Make Do? Climate Models as a Software Development Challenge (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of the software engineering culture and practices at four different earth system modeling centers: the UK Met Office Hadley Centre, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), The Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie (MPI-M), and the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL). The study investigated the software tools and techniques used at each center to assess their effectiveness. We also investigated how differences in the organizational structures, collaborative relationships, and technical infrastructures constrain the software development and affect software quality. Specific questions for the study included 1) Verification and Validation - What techniques are used to ensure that the code matches the scientists’ understanding of what it should do? How effective are these are at eliminating errors of correctness and errors of understanding? 2) Coordination - How are the contributions from across the modeling community coordinated? For coupled models, how are the differences in the priorities of different, overlapping communities of users addressed? 3) Division of responsibility - How are the responsibilities for coding, verification, and coordination distributed between different roles (scientific, engineering, support) in the organization? 4) Planning and release processes - How do modelers decide on priorities for model development, how do they decide which changes to tackle in a particular release of the model? 5) Debugging - How do scientists debug the models, what types of bugs do they find in their code, and how they find them? The results show that each center has evolved a set of model development practices that are tailored to their needs and organizational constraints. These practices emphasize scientific validity, but tend to neglect other software qualities, and all the centers struggle frequently with software problems. The testing processes are effective at removing software errors prior to

  14. Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, K

    2012-09-15

    In 1917, Albert Einstein suggested the theory of stimulated emission of light that led to the development of the laser. The first laser, based on Einstein's theory, was demonstrated by the Maiman experiment in 1960. In association with the invention and developments of the laser, N.G. Basov, A. Prokorov and C.H. Towns received the Nobel prize for physics in 1963. On the other hand, it had been recognized that nuclear fusion energy is the energy source of our universe. It is the origin of the energy in our sun and in the stars. Right after the laser oscillation experiment, it was suggested by J. Nuckolls, E. Teller and S. Colgate in the USA and A. Sakharov in the USSR that nuclear fusion induced by lasers be used to solve the energy problem. Following the suggestion, the pioneering works for heating plasmas to a thermonuclear temperature with a laser were published by N. Basov, O.N. Krohin, J.M. Dawson, C.R. Kastler, H. Hora, F. Flux and S. Eliezer. The new concept of fusion ignition and burn by laser 'implosion' was proposed by J. Nuckolls, which extended the spherically imploding shock concept discovered by G. Guderley to the laser fusion concept. Since then, laser fusion research has started all over the world. For example, many inertial fusion energy (IFE) facilities have been constructed for investigating implosion physics: Lasers: GEKKO I, GEKKO II, GEKKO IV, GEKKO MII and GEKKO xII at ILE, Osaka University, Japan; JANUS, CYCLOPS, ARUGUS, SHIVA and NOVA at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA; OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester, USA; PHEBUS at Limeil, Paris, France; the ASTERIx iodine laser at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, Germany; MPI, GLECO at the Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), ecole Polytecnique, France; HELIOS at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Shengan II at the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China; VULCAN at the Rutherford

  15. The Uranium Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, Ted

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Uranium Institute has run a World Wide Web site since July 1995 and has seen user sessions reach around 5600 per week. The site comprises some 700 pages of news and information and has attracted a good deal of favourable comment. The site is intended as an information resource to augment the service provided by the UI Information Service and is aimed at both industry and non-industry web users. The actual user community includes UI members and others from the industry, mining and financial analysts, lots of students and school children, journalists and a large number of unknown individuals. Hopefully the workshop can be used to examine user reactions to industry sites and get some idea of the extent to which we are talking to ourselves over the net rather than talking to our 'publics'. Although the Ul was quite early on the web scene by nuclear standards, development of the UI site has proceeded fairly slowly and the accent has always been on good quality information. With 170,000 visitors per year site use indicates that there is a demand for nuclear information while responses indicate that there is a substantial body of quiet nuclear support which welcomes the opportunity to communicate with the industry. Does the web help to pull the industry and its supporters together? The WWW has often been portrayed as a vehicle which allows good news and information to be communicated direct to the 'public' but attempts to realise this opportunity have not always met with success. The UI has had a generally positive experience with its web site but this is not universally the case. I would like to explore the background to this both in my presentation and in the subsequent discussion. My general theme is to ask the question 'What do users want from a nuclear related web site and are we providing it?'. Conversely it is pertinent to ask the question, 'does what the users seem to want coincide with what we wish to supply?'. I will seek to address these

  16. Organizational responses to institutional contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Jonasson, Charlotte

    to the stabilization and maintenance of its institutional opposite. The reported findings are based on an ethnographic field study of the institutional change processes that occurred in a South Korean credit card company in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in 1997 during the IMF intervention. The development...... of contradictory logics in the Korean field gave, in some companies, rise to social struggles for defining the direction and aim of the institutional changes....

  17. Marketing of an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Šijan, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the area of marketing for educational institutions. First part is focused on general theoretical aspects of marketing of services, specificity of marketing for educational institutions and marketing communication. The operative part attends to a selection of an educational institution, an execution of an analysis of internal and external environment of the school, an implementation of a marketing research recognizing image of the school and based on that des...

  18. Workplace Innovation as Institutional Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Scheller, Vibeke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Workplace Innovation (WPI) ascribes to the tradition of Sociotechnical Systems (STS) in organisational development. Experiences of promoting STS show that neither economic arguments nor arguments of humanising work are sufficient to get companies to implement WPI activities. This chapter therefore...... that institutional alliances and coalitions are an important part of institutional entrepreneurship that creates change in the direction of WPI. The case studies also indicate that the sustainability of the introduced WPI activities depends on the institutional alliances related to their activity....

  19. Institutional Profiles: Some Strategic Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Vught

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that both internal and external pressures and conditions urge contemporary higher education institutions to carefully think through their institutional profiles positions in domestic and global higher education contexts. We subsequently analyse strategic positioning from the strategic management literature and offer four tools — mapping, multi-dimensional ranking, benchmarking and degree profiling — to assist higher education institutions in their profiling and positioning strategies.

  20. Institutional shareholder activism in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uche, C.; Adegbite, E.; Jones, M.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Abstract Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate institutional shareholder activism in Nigeria. It addresses the paucity of empirical research on institutional shareholder activism in sub-Saharan Africa. Design/Methodology-This study employs agency theory to understand the institutional shareholder approach to shareholde...

  1. Imitation Modeling and Institutional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Y. Barbashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of imitation modeling in the conduct of institutional research. The institutional approach is based on the observation of social behavior. To understand a social process means to determine the key rules that individuals use, undertaking social actions associated with this process or phenomenon. This does not mean that institutions determine behavioral reactions, although there are a number of social situations where the majority of individuals follow the dominant rules. If the main laws of development of the institutional patterns are known, one can describe most of the social processes accurately. The author believes that the main difficulty with the analysis of institutional processes is their recursive nature: from the standards of behavior one may find the proposed actions of social agents who follow, obey or violate institutions, but the possibility of reconstructive analysis is not obvious. The author demonstrates how the institutional approach is applied to the analysis of social behavior. The article describes the basic principles and methodology of imitation modeling. Imitation modeling reveals the importance of institutions in structuring social transactions. The article concludes that in the long term institutional processes are not determined by initial conditions.

  2. Leadership in Islamic Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education institution may not be separated by social system. It can be formal and informal education. A formal education institution such as school, Islamic school or Islamic boarding school is in social environment and bringing a basic value and law from its institution. Meanwhile, Islamic education institution is believed as tool to reach the aim of education. The aim of education is hard to reach if there is no leadership in it. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  3. Leadership in Islamic Education Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-01-01

    Education institution may not be separated by social system. It can be formal and informal education. A formal education institution such as school, Islamic school or Islamic boarding school is in social environment and bringing a basic value and law from its institution. Meanwhile, Islamic education institution is believed as tool to reach the aim of education. The aim of education is hard to reach if there is no leadership in it. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  4. North-South Institute Institutional Grant 2011-2012 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The North-South Institute (NSI) is an established independent thinktank in Canada whose work focuses on international development, poverty reduction and global inequalities. Building on a long history of collaboration between NSI and IDRC, this grant will provide the Institute with core support for 2011-2012. NSI activities ...

  5. Institutional And Non-Institutional Credit Supply Services To Fisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women in the study area prefer the informal, non institutional credit sources than the formal, institutional source as the poor fisher-folk require collateral for this which in most cases was not available. From the study, adequate finance with more relax conditions will go a long way in alleviating poverty and improving ...

  6. Fostering Institutional Creativity at Multiple Levels: Towards Facilitated Institutional Bricolage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Merrey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems occur when institutional arrangements for collective management of food and water systems fail to meet demands. Many of the problems characterising river basins and other collectively managed water resource systems can be ascribed largely to the failure of institutions to enable problems beyond the individual to be managed collectively. The nature of these demands, and the institutional responses to them, vary widely and are not amenable to simple definitions and prescriptions. We begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to analysing institutions and organisations, focused largely, but not exclusively, on river basins. We observe that attempts to reduce the institutional landscape of river basins to over-simplistic formulas introduces more problems than solutions, because the reality is that institutions evolve through complex creative processes that adopt and adapt diverse ingredients – rather like making a stew. Despite such intricacies, institutions are clearly non-random, so we continue a search for a means of describing them. We adopt the concept of bricolage, as proposed by Cleaver and others, and use it to show the value of promoting and facilitating an organic creative approach to building and strengthening river basin and other water management institutions.

  7. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  8. Institutional Support : African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Institute for Applied Economics (AIAE), Nigeria, is an independent policy research organization created in 2000. The Institute's mission is to promote evidence-based decision-making in the area of economic and social development. AIAE's strength is research and advocacy in the area of business environment, ...

  9. The Emergence of a Proto-institution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva

    2004-01-01

    of inter-organizational networks, and actors embedded in multiple fields. The making of the proto-institution is intentional, yet the institutional building blocks and the apparent interests of actors are institutionally embedded. The results from this micro-dynamic analysis suggest revisions to current...... conceptualizations of institutional change processes. Keywords: Institutional change, proto-institution, cognition, institutional entrepreneurship, innovation, collaborative networks....

  10. INSTITUTION vs. ORGANIZATION. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sveda ANGEL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Both organizations and institutions are social structures. On the basis of the institutions arethe formal rules and at the basis of the organizations are the interactions between peoples withcommon aims. The evolution of the institutions is explained by the institutionalism with its twoorientations: the new institutionalism and the old institutionalism. The last one was preoccupied bythe transformation of the economy and by the evolution of the technology and the newinstitutionalism explains the existence of the institutions from the individual’s point of view.Organizations were and are studied in present days from different point of views: organizationalstructure and culture, organizational change and development. The organization was classifiedaccording to several factors: aim, size, legal form, or their operational domain. Thecharacterization of the organization through metaphors such as machines, culture, brain, ororganism proves their complexity and diversity. Regarding to the relations between institution andorganization, the relationship could be characterised as interdependence because the organizationscan determine instituional changes, by offering a framework for the application of the rules.

  11. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  12. Does Institutional Theory Need Redirecting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Höllerer, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Greenwood, Hinings and Whetten (2014) present two major criticisms of current institutional scholarship, and see need for a broad redirection: institutional organization theory, they argue, has lost sight of the claim to study organizations and, with its overwhelming focus on isomorphism and simi...

  13. Property rights institutions and investment

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Jahangir

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the channels through which alternative property rights institutions affect investment. These institutions are defined by a society's enforced laws, regulations, governance mechanisms and norms concerning the use of resources. A transaction cost framework is used to analyze the incentive impact of various types of property rights, liability rules, and rules regarding con...

  14. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  15. Social Capital, Institutions and Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a

  16. Institutional Interpretation of Participatory TA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    . The aim of the article is thus to relate the challenges of establishing and continuing pTA as a societal practice to the question of societal institutions and their logics. Towards this aim, the paper draws on a number of different theoretical directions within New Institutionalism and attempts to build...

  17. Experimentation and Bricolage on Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Aggeri, Franck

    This paper examines how innovative institutional arrangements are generated during processes of institutional bricolage. The aim of the paper is to highlight how an arrangement is selected among the others when many alternatives exist or are imaginable. To address this question, we present a qual...

  18. GENDER VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence is multifactorial. Social and cultural, family, personal, and institutional aspects, among others, influence educational institutions, in all academic levels. Because this type of violence is increasingly common and has serious consequences, there is a need to prevent and deal with the different types of violence practiced in schools, such as bullying, mobbing, gender violence, and others. Gender violence in institutions is not produced in this scope, in the strict sense, but rather has its origin in social and cultural aspects, rooted in the patriarchal and androcentric culture. Much has been written on the different forms in which violence affects mostly women in the educational system. This essay, without being thorough, attempts to answer three basic questions on gender violence in educational institutions: Why is there gender violence in educational institutions? How is gender violence manifested in schools? And finally, what actions have been taken to mitigate aggressions against women?

  19. Experimental Spaces and Institutional Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    and procedures that connect the prototype to the organizational field, hence increasing the likelihood of institutional innovation. We develop a process model of institutional institutionalization that, through temporal interactions between distancing work and anchoring work, enables the generation......This paper examines processes involved in designing experimental spaces for institutional innovation. Through a qualitative, process-oriented analysis of an experimental space related to the institutional innovation of carbon markets in Europe, we show how key actors in the European electricity...... sector deliberately designed an experimental space and engaged a range of stakeholders in experimenting incognito with a carbon market model. A mirror image of their prototype later appeared as European policy. Our findings show that the key actors engaged in two forms of institutional work, distancing...

  20. El pensar-sentir en la formación de la ciudadanía contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Streck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, a research product, is to contribute to understand current challenges to citizenship education and to develop new instruments that might help to face those challenges. The study presents and discusses two areas of study developed at the Max- Planck Institute for Human Development, in Berlin, and their contribution to the construction of citizenship. The first one deals with ecological rationality and the use of heuristics for decision making in an uncertain world. The other one studies the history of emotions, addressing topics such as honor, solidarity and empathy from a historical and cultural perspective.