Parameterized Complexity of MaxSat Above Average
Crowston, Robert; Jones, Mark; Raman, Venkatesh; Saurabh, Saket
2011-01-01
In MaxSat, we are given a CNF formula $F$ with $n$ variables and $m$ clauses and asked to find a truth assignment satisfying the maximum number of clauses. Let $r_1,..., r_m$ be the number of literals in the clauses of $F$. Then $asat(F)=\\sum_{i=1}^m (1-2^{-r_i})$ is the expected number of clauses satisfied by a random truth assignment (the truth values to the variables are distributed uniformly and independently). It is well-known that, in polynomial time, one can find a truth assignment satisfying at least $asat(F)$ clauses. In the parameterized problem MaxSat-AA, we are to decide whether there is a truth assignment satisfying at least $asat(F)+k$ clauses, where $k$ is the parameter. We prove that MaxSat-AA is para-NP-complete and, thus, MaxSat-AA is not fixed-parameter tractable unless P$=$NP. This is in sharp contrast to MaxLin2-AA which was recently proved to be fixed-parameter tractable by Crowston et al. (arXiv:1104.1135v3). In fact, we consider a more refined version of MaxSat-AA, Max-$r(n)$-Sat-AA, w...
P. Shanmugasundaram
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a revised Intuitionistic Fuzzy Max-Min Average Composition Method is proposed to construct the decision method for the selection of the professional students based on their skills by the recruiters using the operations of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Matrices. In Shanmugasundaram et al. (2014, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Max-Min Average Composition Method was introduced and applied in Medical diagnosis problem. Sanchez’s approach (Sanchez (1979 for decision making is studied and the concept is modified for the application of Intuitionistic fuzzy soft set theory. Through a survey, the opportunities and selection of the students with the help of Intuitionistic fuzzy soft matrix operations along with Intuitionistic fuzzy max-min average composition method is discussed.
Visual Tracking Using Max-Average Pooling and Weight-Selection Strategy
Suguo Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Many modern visual tracking algorithms incorporate spatial pooling, max pooling, or average pooling, which is to achieve invariance to feature transformations and better robustness to occlusion, illumination change, and position variation. In this paper, max-average pooling method and Weight-selection strategy are proposed with a hybrid framework, which is combined with sparse representation and particle filter, to exploit the spatial information of an object and make good compromises to ensure the correctness of the results in this framework. Challenges can be well considered by the proposed algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm compared with the state-of-the-art methods on challenging sequences.
Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...
MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...
MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...
Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature
Ballatore, P.
Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.
R. Sinreich
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We present a novel parameterization method to convert multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS differential slant column densities (dSCDs into near-surface box-averaged volume mixing ratios. The approach is applicable inside the planetary boundary layer under conditions with significant aerosol load, and builds on the increased sensitivity of MAX-DOAS near the instrument altitude. It parameterizes radiative transfer model calculations and significantly reduces the computational effort, while retrieving ~ 1 degree of freedom. The biggest benefit of this method is that the retrieval of an aerosol profile, which usually is necessary for deriving a trace gas concentration from MAX-DOAS dSCDs, is not needed. The method is applied to NO2 MAX-DOAS dSCDs recorded during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 measurement campaign. The retrieved volume mixing ratios of two elevation angles (1° and 3° are compared to volume mixing ratios measured by two long-path (LP-DOAS instruments located at the same site. Measurements are found to agree well during times when vertical mixing is expected to be strong. However, inhomogeneities in the air mass above Mexico City can be detected by exploiting the different horizontal and vertical dimensions probed by the MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS instruments. In particular, a vertical gradient in NO2 close to the ground can be observed in the afternoon, and is attributed to reduced mixing coupled with near-surface emission inside street canyons. The existence of a vertical gradient in the lower 250 m during parts of the day shows the general challenge of sampling the boundary layer in a representative way, and emphasizes the need of vertically resolved measurements.
Monthly Near-Surface Air Temperature Averages
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global surface temperatures in 2010 tied 2005 as the warmest on record. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) was established in 1982 as part...
Average Temperatures in the Southwestern United States, 2000-2015 Versus Long-Term Average
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how the average air temperature from 2000 to 2015 has differed from the long-term average (1895–2015). To provide more detailed information,...
Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001 - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of four images showing seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) averages for the entire earth. Data for the years 1985-2001 are averaged to...
Cycle Average Peak Fuel Temperature Prediction Using CAPP/GAMMA+
Tak, Nam-il; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
In order to obtain a cycle average maximum fuel temperature without rigorous efforts, a neutronics/thermo-fluid coupled calculation is needed with depletion capability. Recently, a CAPP/GAMMA+ coupled code system has been developed and the initial core of PMR200 was analyzed using the CAPP/GAMMA+ code system. The GAMMA+ code is a system thermo-fluid analysis code and the CAPP code is a neutronics code. The General Atomics proposed that the design limit of the fuel temperature under normal operating conditions should be a cycle-averaged maximum value. Nonetheless, the existing works of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) only calculated the maximum fuel temperature at a fixed time point, e.g., the beginning of cycle (BOC) just because the calculation capability was not ready for a cycle average value. In this work, a cycle average maximum fuel temperature has been calculated using CAPP/GAMMA+ code system for the equilibrium core of PMR200. The CAPP/GAMMA+ coupled calculation was carried out for the equilibrium core of PMR 200 from BOC to EOC to obtain a cycle average peak fuel temperature. The peak fuel temperature was predicted to be 1372 .deg. C near MOC. However, the cycle average peak fuel temperature was calculated as 1181 .deg. C, which is below the design target of 1250 .deg. C.
Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Zonally Average 500 MB Temperature Anomalies
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 500-hPa temperature anomalies averaged over the latitude band 20oN ? 20oS. The anomalies are...
Modeling of Sokoto Daily Average Temperature: A Fractional ...
the daily average temperature (DAT) series of Sokoto metropolis for the period of 01/01/2003 to. 03/04/2007. ... in Melbourne, Australia, for the period 1981–1990 ..... Advances in Meteorology, 1-2. Period ... paper, Department of Economics.
Modeling and Forecasting Average Temperature for Weather Derivative Pricing
Zhiliang Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to present a feasible model for the daily average temperature on the area of Zhengzhou and apply it to weather derivatives pricing. We start by exploring the background of weather derivatives market and then use the 62 years of daily historical data to apply the mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process to describe the evolution of the temperature. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are used to price heating degree day (HDD call option for this city, and the slow convergence of the price of the HDD call can be found through taking 100,000 simulations. The methods of the research will provide a frame work for modeling temperature and pricing weather derivatives in other similar places in China.
Multifractal detrended moving average analysis of global temperature records
Mali, Provash
2015-01-01
Long-range correlation and multifractal nature of the global monthly mean temperature anomaly time series over the period 1850-2012 are studied in terms of the multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) method. We try to address the source(s) of multifractality in the time series by comparing the results derived from the actual series with those from a set of shuffled and surrogate series. It is seen that the newly developed MFDMA method predicts a multifractal structure of the temperature anomaly time series that is more or less similar to that observed by other multifractal methods. In our analysis the major contribution of multifractality in the temperature records is found to be stemmed from long-range temporal correlation among the measurements, however the contribution of fat-tail distribution function of the records is not negligible. The results of the MFDMA analysis, which are found to depend upon the location of the detrending window, tend towards the observations of the multifractal detrended fl...
Room-temperature carbide-derived carbon synthesis by electrochemical etching of MAX phases.
Lukatskaya, Maria R; Halim, Joseph; Dyatkin, Boris; Naguib, Michael; Buranova, Yulia S; Barsoum, Michel W; Gogotsi, Yury
2014-05-05
Porous carbons are widely used in energy storage and gas separation applications, but their synthesis always involves high temperatures. Herein we electrochemically selectively extract, at ambient temperature, the metal atoms from the ternary layered carbides, Ti3 AlC2 , Ti2 AlC and Ti3 SiC2 (MAX phases). The result is a predominantly amorphous carbide-derived carbon, with a narrow distribution of micropores. The latter is produced by placing the carbides in HF, HCl or NaCl solutions and applying anodic potentials. The pores that form when Ti3 AlC2 is etched in dilute HF are around 0.5 nm in diameter. This approach forgoes energy-intensive thermal treatments and presents a novel method for developing carbons with finely tuned pores for a variety of applications, such as supercapacitor, battery electrodes or CO2 capture.
MAX200x: In-situ X-ray Measurements at High Pressure and High Temperatures.
Lathe, C.; Mueller, H. J.; Wehber, M.; Lauterjung, J.; Schilling, F. R.
2009-05-01
Twenty years ago geoscientists from all over the world launched in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments under extreme pressure and temperature conditions at synchrotron beamlines. One of the first apparatus was installed at HASYLAB, MAX80, a single-stage multi-anvil system. MAX80 allows in-situ diffraction studies in conjunction with the simultaneous measurement of elastic properties up to 12 GPa and 1600 K. This very successful experiment, unique in Europe, is operated by Helmholtz Centre Potsdam and is used by more than twenty groups from different countries every year. Experiments for both, applied and basic research are conducted, ranging from life-sciences, chemistry, physics, over material sciences to geosciences. Today new materials and the use of high brilliant synchrotron sources allow constructing double-stage multi-anvil systems for X-ray diffraction to reach much higher pressures. The newly designed high-flux hard wiggler (HARWI-II) beamline is an ideal X-ray source for this kind of experiments. As only the uppermost few kilometres of the Earth (less than 0.1% of its radius) are accessible for direct observations (e.g. deep drilling), sophisticated techniques are required to observe and to understand the processes in the deep interior of our planet. In-situ studies are an excellent tool to investigate ongoing geodynamic processes within the laboratory. One of the fundamental regions to study geodynamic processes seems to be the so-called transition zone, the boundary between upper and lower Earth's mantle between 410 and 670 km depth. Mineral reactions, phase transitions, as wheel as fluid rock interaction in this area might have the potential to strongly influence and control the dynamic motions within our whole planet. Around 25 GPa and 2 000 K are required to simulate these processes in the laboratory. The new MAX200x will be an excellent tool for these ambitious experiments.
Max Phase Materials And Coatings For High Temperature Heat Transfer Applications
Martinez-Rodriguez, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fuentes, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-10-19
Molten salts have been used as heat transfer fluids in a variety of applications within proposed Gen IV nuclear designs and in advanced power system such as Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). However, operating at elevated temperatures can cause corrosion in many materials. This work developed coating technologies for MAX phase materials on Haynes-230 and characterized the corrosion of the coatings in the presence of commercial MgCl_{2}-KCl molten salt. Cold spraying of Ti_{2}AlC and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Ti_{2}AlC or Zr_{2}AlC were tested to determine the most effective form of coating MAX phases on structural substrates. Corrosion testing at 850°C for 100 hrs showed that 3.9 μm Ti2AlC by PVD was slightly protective while 117 μm Ti_{2}AlC by cold spray and 3.6 μm Zr_{2}AlC by PVD were completely protective. None of the tests showed decomposition of the coating (Ti or Zr) into the salt
2002 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...
2003 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...
1996 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...
2000 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...
Beyond average temperature: distribution of wintering birds at multiple scales
Villén Pérez, Sara
2013-01-01
Tesis doctoral inédita. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecología. Fecha de lectura: 03-12-2013 To disentangle the subtleties of the relationship between the thermal environment and the distribution of wintering birds, at multiple spatial scales. Specifically, to analyze the relative influence of temperature on species distributions, its interaction with various thermal and non-thermal factors, and the context-dependence of these relationships...
Analysis on Change Characteristics of the Average Temperature in Sichuan in 50 Years
无
2011-01-01
[Objective] The research aimed to analyze change characteristics of the average temperature in Sichuan in 50 years.[Method] By using average temperature data at 156 stations of Sichuan from 1961 to 2010,interannual and interdecadal evolution characteristics,regional and seasonal differences of the average temperature in Sichuan in 50 years were analyzed.[Result] Variations of the average temperatures in the whole province and each climatic region in 50 years all presented rise trends.Rise amplitude of the a...
Using of rank distributions in the study of perennial changes for monthly average temperatures
Nemirovskiy, V. B.; Stoyanov, A. K.; Tartakovsky, V. A.
2015-11-01
The possibility of comparing the climatic data of various years with using rank distributions is considered in this paper. As a climatic data, the annual variation of temperature on the spatial areas of meteorological observations with high variability in average temperatures is considered. The results of clustering of the monthly average temperatures values by means of a recurrent neural network were used as the basis of comparing. For a given space of weather observations the rank distribution of the clusters cardinality identified for each year of observation, is being constructed. The resulting rank distributions allow you to compare the spatial temperature distributions of various years. An experimental comparison for rank distributions of the annual variation of monthly average temperatures has confirmed the presence of scatter for various years, associated with different spatio-temporal distribution of temperature. An experimental comparison of rank distributions revealed a difference in the integral annual variation of monthly average temperatures of various years for the Northern Hemisphere.
Armin Raabe
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Acoustic travel time tomography is presented as a possibility for remote monitoring of near surface airtemperature and wind fields. This technique provides line-averaged effective sound speeds changing with temporally and spatially variable air temperature and wind vector. The effective sound speed is derived from the travel times of sound signals which propagate at defined paths between different acoustic sources and receivers. Starting with the travel time data a tomographic algorithm (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique, SIRT is used to calculate area-averaged air temperature and wind speed. The accuracy of the experimental method and the tomographic inversion algorithm is exemplarily demonstrated for one day without remarkable differences in the horizontal temperature field, determined by independent in situ measurements at different points within the measuring field. The differences between the conventionally determined air temperature (point measurement and the air temperature determined by tomography (area-averaged measurement representative for the area of the measuring field 200m x 260m were below 0.5 K for an average of 10 minutes. The differences obtained between the wind speed measured at a meteorological mast and calculated from acoustic measurements are not higher than 0.5 ms-1 for the same averaging time. The tomographically determined area-averaged distribution of air temperature (resolution 50 m x 50 m can be used to estimate the horizontal gradient of air temperature as a pre-condition to detect horizontal turbulent fluxes of sensible heat.
Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada.
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...
Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada.
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...
Variability of maximum and mean average temperature across Libya (1945-2009)
Ageena, I.; Macdonald, N.; Morse, A. P.
2014-08-01
Spatial and temporal variability in daily maximum and mean average daily temperature, monthly maximum and mean average monthly temperature for nine coastal stations during the period 1956-2009 (54 years), and annual maximum and mean average temperature for coastal and inland stations for the period 1945-2009 (65 years) across Libya are analysed. During the period 1945-2009, significant increases in maximum temperature (0.017 °C/year) and mean average temperature (0.021 °C/year) are identified at most stations. Significantly, warming in annual maximum temperature (0.038 °C/year) and mean average annual temperatures (0.049 °C/year) are observed at almost all study stations during the last 32 years (1978-2009). The results show that Libya has witnessed a significant warming since the middle of the twentieth century, which will have a considerable impact on societies and the ecology of the North Africa region, if increases continue at current rates.
Simulation of mosquitoes population dynamic based on rainfall and average daily temperature
Widayani, H.; Seprianus, Nuraini, N.; Arum, J.
2014-02-01
This paper proposed rainfall and average daily temperature approximation functions using least square method with trigonometry polynomial. Error value from this method is better than Fast Fourier Transform method. This approximation is used to accommodate climatic factors into deterministic model of mosquitoes population by constructing a carrying capacity function which contains rainfall and average daily temperature functions. We develop a mathematical model for mosquitoes population dynamic which formulated by Yang et al (2010) with dynamic parameter of a daily rainfall as well as temperature on that model. Two fixed points, trivial and non-trivial, are obtained when constant entomological parameters assumed. Basic offspring number, Q0 as mosquitoes reproduction parameter is constructed. Non-trivial fixed point is stable if and only if Q0 > 1. Numerical simulation shown the dynamics of mosquitoes population significantly affected by rainfall and average daily temperature function.
The Impact of Urbanization on the Annual Average Temperature of the Past 60 Years in Beijing
Yong Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Global warming, which is representatively caused by CO2-based greenhouse gases, has caused widespread concern in the global scientific community and gets the high attention of each government in the world. Human activities impact climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and land use changes. The current study on the impact of urbanization on the annual average temperature of the recent 60 years in Beijing was conducted using 1951–2012 temperature data. Anomaly analysis, quadratic polynomial trend method, and moving average method were employed to indicate the temporal variation of temperature. The results showed that average temperature increased both in urban and rural areas. The temperature of urban Beijing increased during the period from 1951 to 2012, especially from 1971 to 1994. The temperature of rural Beijing showed a faster increase than that of the urban area from 1989 to 1998. However, the rate of temperature increase slowed down in recent years. This type of change was temporally consistent with the process of land use change and urbanization in Beijing. Economic restructuring and improvement of urban planning may have been one of the reasons that the regional warming has been slowed down in the rural area.
Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from Chord-Averaged Emission Line Profile
Xu Wei
2011-03-01
The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a chosen-point Gaussian fitting technique.
Temperature-insensitive frequency tripling for generating high-average power UV lasers.
Zhong, Haizhe; Yuan, Peng; Wen, Shuangchun; Qian, Liejia
2014-02-24
Aimed for generating high-average power ultraviolet (UV) lasers via third-harmonic generation (THG) consisting of frequency doubling and tripling stages, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel frequency tripling scheme capable of supporting temperature-insensitive phase-matching (PM). Two cascaded tripling crystals, with opposite signs of the temperature derivation of phase-mismatch, are proposed and theoretically studied for improving the temperature-acceptance of PM. The proof-of-principle tripling experiment using two crystals of LBO and BBO shows that the temperature acceptance can be ~1.5 times larger than that of using a single tripling crystal. In addition, the phase shift caused by air dispersion, along with its influence on the temperature-insensitive PM, are also discussed. To illustrate the potential applications of proposed two-crystal tripling design in the high-average-power regime, full numerical simulations for the tripling process, are implemented based on the realistic crystals. The demonstrated two-crystal tripling scheme may provide a promising route to high-average-power THG in the UV region.
FEA ANALYSIS OF FRICTIONAL HEATING PROCESS (MAX. TEMPERATURE VS. ROTATIONAL SPEED)
Mr. Sachchidanand J Nimankar *, Prof. Sachin K. Dahake
2016-01-01
Friction stir welding process is a promising welding technology from its existence as it is easy to use, low energy costs, being ecology friendly process and with no requirement of any type of filler material. This study of FSW gives analysis of the maximum temperature generated during operation. This is done by making three dimensional non-linear model. This model helps in trend for the relationship between translational velocity of tool, rotation speed of the tool, and the maximum temperatu...
Gouin, Henri; Ruggeri, Tommaso
2008-07-01
We present a classical approach to a mixture of compressible fluids when each constituent has its own temperature. The introduction of an average temperature together with the entropy principle dictates the classical Fick law for diffusion and also novel constitutive equations associated with the difference of temperatures between the components. The constitutive equations fit with results recently obtained through a Maxwellian iteration procedure in extended thermodynamics theory of multitemperature mixtures. The differences of temperatures between the constituents imply the existence of a dynamical pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity. The nonequilibrium dynamical pressure can be measured and may be convenient in several physical situations, such as, for example, in cosmological circumstances where--as many authors assert--a dynamical pressure played a major role in the evolution of the early universe.
Quantum black hole wave packet: Average area entropy and temperature dependent width
Aharon Davidson
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the average mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's area entropy is formulated using the 〈mass2〉 average, leaving the 〈mass〉 average to set the Hawking temperature. The width function peaks at the Planck scale for an elementary (zero entropy, zero free energy micro black hole of finite rms size, and decreases Doppler-like towards the classical limit.
Hassan, Md Kamrul; Nahid, Nur Mohammad; Bahar, Ali Newaz; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maksudur Rahman; Abdullah-Al-Shafi, Md; Ahmed, Kawsar
2017-08-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP) for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016) [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K) unit.
Md. Kamrul Hassan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016 [1]. QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K unit.
Hua; YU; Juanjuan; ZHANG; Yanhong; SUN; Xinming; MA
2014-01-01
Using the modern information technology,this paper analyzes the 20 years of experimental observation data of wheat ear differentiation research team led by Professor Cui Jinmei.It reveals that in the appropriate sowing period,there is a quartic polynomial regression relationship between the sowing period and spike primordium period,namely between duration of vegetative growth stage and the average daily temperature.It is of great significance to determining the suitable sowing period of wheat.
Gustav Chládek
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A year-round (i.e. 365 days experiment was performed at the Mendel University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic (GPS 49°0’51.967”N and 16°36’14.614”E, the altitude 179 m with the aim to quantify the effect of the variation of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their changes during the day. Barn airspace temperatures were monitored daily in one-hour intervals and the recorded values were used for calculations of average diurnal temperatures. These were classified into 7 categories (i.e. below 0 °C; 0.1 to 5 °C; 5.1 to 10 °C; 10.1 to 15 °C; 15.1 to 20 °C; 20.1 to 25 °C and above 25 °C. Regarding this classification system, all differences between temperatures measured at identical hours but within various limits were statistically highly significant. The statistical analysis involved also the calculation of the third degree polynomial regression equations, which enabled to characterise the relationship between the temperature and the hour of measurement within the aforementioned categories of diurnal temperatures. Individual equations were markedly different and ranged from y = − 0.0019x3 + 0.0596x2 − 0.3797x − 1.2169 (for temperatures below 0 °C to y = − 0.0108x3 + 0.3297x2 − 1.9367x + 24.3931 (for temperatures above 25 °C. Correlation coefficients (r and coefficients of determination (R2 of these regression equations were generally very high and ranged from 0.872 to 0.976 and from 0.760 to 0.953, respectively. Regarding high values of both coefficients it can be concluded that the calculated equations enable a good and reliable prediction of the diurnal development of barn airspace temperatures.
J. F. Price
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC, the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robust metric of the ocean thermal field may be afforded by a vertical average of temperature, in one version from the surface to 100 m, a typical depth of vertical mixing by a mature hurricane. OHC and the depth-averaged temperature, dubbed T_{100}, are well correlated over the deep open ocean in the high range of OHC, OHC≥75 kJ cm^{−2}. They are poorly correlated in the low range of OHC, ≤50 kJ cm^{−2}, in part because OHC is degenerate when evaluated on cool ocean temperatures ≤26°C. OHC and T_{100} can be qualitatively different also over shallow continental shelves: OHC will generally indicate comparatively low values regardless of the ocean temperature, while T_{100} will take on high values over a shelf that is warm and upwelling neutral or negative, since there will be little cool water that could be mixed into the surface layer. Some limited evidence is that continental shelves may be regions of comparatively small sea surface cooling during a hurricane passage, but more research is clearly required on this important issue.
Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Tong; Fukumori, Ichiro
2007-01-01
The present study examines processes governing the interannual variation of MLT in the eastern equatorial Pacific.Processes controlling the interannual variation of mixed layer temperature (MLT) averaged over the Nino-3 domain (5 deg N-5 deg S, 150 deg-90 deg W) are studied using an ocean data assimilation product that covers the period of 1993-2003. The overall balance is such that surface heat flux opposes the MLT change but horizontal advection and subsurface processes assist the change. Advective tendencies are estimated here as the temperature fluxes through the domain's boundaries, with the boundary temperature referenced to the domain-averaged temperature to remove the dependence on temperature scale. This allows the authors to characterize external advective processes that warm or cool the water within the domain as a whole. The zonal advective tendency is caused primarily by large-scale advection of warm-pool water through the western boundary of the domain. The meridional advective tendency is contributed to mostly by Ekman current advecting large-scale temperature anomalies through the southern boundary of the domain. Unlike many previous studies, the subsurface processes that consist of vertical mixing and entrainment are explicitly evaluated. In particular, a rigorous method to estimate entrainment allows an exact budget closure. The vertical mixing across the mixed layer (ML) base has a contribution in phase with the MLT change. The entrainment tendency due to the temporal change in ML depth is negligible compared to other subsurface processes. The entrainment tendency by vertical advection across the ML base is dominated by large-scale changes in upwelling and the temperature of upwelling water. Tropical instability waves (TIWs) result in smaller-scale vertical advection that warms the domain during La Nina cooling events. However, such a warming tendency is overwhelmed by the cooling tendency associated with the large-scale upwelling by a factor of
Yang, Chuqiao; Yakovlev, Vadim V
2013-01-01
Microwave-assisted chemical reactions have become very popular in preparative chemistry due to many advantages such as accelerated reaction rate, higher chemical yield and lower energy use. In dedicated equipment, however, the microwave units operate as "black boxes" keeping the role of the thermal effects in microwave-assisted chemical processes somewhat obscure. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a simple mathematical model for computing microwave-induced temperature in a three-media cylindrical structure representing a core element of a typical microwave reactor with the reactant assumed to be stirred by convection flows. The model determines the average temperature of the reactant for the known absorbed microwave power and heating time. To illustrate its functionality, the model is used to compute time-temperature characteristics of water, ethanol, and methanol heated in the batch reactor MiniFlow 200SS. The curve calculated for water appears to be in an excellent agreement with an experiment. This confirms the hypothesis on temperature homogenization in liquid reactants in batch reactors due to convection and suggests that modeling can be helpful in clarifying and quantifying the details of microwave-assisted chemical processes.
Liu, L H
2003-01-01
A multi-wavelength inversion method is extended to reconstruct the time-averaged temperature distribution in non-axisymmetric turbulent unconfined sooting flame by the multi-wavelength measured data of low time-resolution outgoing emission and transmission radiation intensities. Gaussian, beta and uniform distribution probability density functions (PDF) are used to simulate the turbulent fluctuation of temperature, respectively. The reconstruction of time-averaged temperature consists of three steps. First, the time-averaged spectral absorption coefficient is retrieved from the time-averaged transmissivity data by an algebraic reconstruction technique. Then, the time-averaged blackbody spectral radiation intensity is estimated from the outgoing spectral emission radiation intensities. Finally, the time-averaged temperature is approximately reconstructed from the multi-wavelength time-averaged spectral emission radiation data by the least-squares method. Noisy input data have been used to test the performance ...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Average Storage Temperature (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color 21 Table 21 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (Ts) as a Function of Tank Paint Color Tank Color Average Storage Temperature (Ts) White TA a =...
Liu, L.H. E-mail: liulh_hit@263.net; Man, G.L
2003-05-01
A multi-wavelength inversion method is extended to reconstruct the time-averaged temperature distribution in non-axisymmetric turbulent unconfined sooting flame by the multi-wavelength measured data of low time-resolution outgoing emission and transmission radiation intensities. Gaussian, {beta} and uniform distribution probability density functions (PDF) are used to simulate the turbulent fluctuation of temperature, respectively. The reconstruction of time-averaged temperature consists of three steps. First, the time-averaged spectral absorption coefficient is retrieved from the time-averaged transmissivity data by an algebraic reconstruction technique. Then, the time-averaged blackbody spectral radiation intensity is estimated from the outgoing spectral emission radiation intensities. Finally, the time-averaged temperature is approximately reconstructed from the multi-wavelength time-averaged spectral emission radiation data by the least-squares method. Noisy input data have been used to test the performance of the proposed inversion method. The results show that the time-averaged temperature distribution can be estimated with good accuracy, even with noisy input data. The accuracy of the estimation decreases with the increase of turbulent fluctuation intensity of temperature and the effects of assumed PDF on the reconstruction of temperature are small.
I. Soltanzadeh
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA, an attempt was made to obtain calibrated probabilistic numerical forecasts of 2-m temperature over Iran. The ensemble employs three limited area models (WRF, MM5 and HRM, with WRF used with five different configurations. Initial and boundary conditions for MM5 and WRF are obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS and for HRM the initial and boundary conditions come from analysis of Global Model Europe (GME of the German Weather Service. The resulting ensemble of seven members was run for a period of 6 months (from December 2008 to May 2009 over Iran. The 48-h raw ensemble outputs were calibrated using BMA technique for 120 days using a 40 days training sample of forecasts and relative verification data.
The calibrated probabilistic forecasts were assessed using rank histogram and attribute diagrams. Results showed that application of BMA improved the reliability of the raw ensemble. Using the weighted ensemble mean forecast as a deterministic forecast it was found that the deterministic-style BMA forecasts performed usually better than the best member's deterministic forecast.
Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Chatterjee, Snigdhansu [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL
2010-01-01
Detection and attribution methodologies have been developed over the years to delineate anthropogenic from natural drivers of climate change and impacts. A majority of prior attribution studies, which have used climate model simulations and observations or reanalysis datasets, have found evidence for humaninduced climate change. This papers tests the hypothesis that Granger causality can be extracted from the bivariate series of globally averaged land surface temperature (GT) observations and observed CO2 in the atmosphere using a reverse cumulative Granger causality test. This proposed extension of the classic Granger causality test is better suited to handle the multisource nature of the data and provides further statistical rigor. The results from this modified test show evidence for Granger causality from a proxy of total radiative forcing (RC), which in this case is a transformation of atmospheric CO2, to GT. Prior literature failed to extract these results via the standard Granger causality test. A forecasting test shows that a holdout set of GT can be better predicted with the addition of lagged RC as a predictor, lending further credibility to the Granger test results. However, since second-order-differenced RC is neither normally distributed nor variance stationary, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of our results.
Brylew, Kamil, E-mail: brykam@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Drozdowski, Winicjusz; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Kamada, Kei [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Amaraki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)
2014-10-15
Low temperature thermoluminescence of GAGG:Ce and LuAG:Pr scintillator crystals has been studied by means of the T{sub max}–T{sub stop} method. It is shown that the glow curves of both materials are superpositions of discrete glow peaks and broad bands due to quasi-continuous Gaussian distributions of trapping levels. A model function has been built and trap parameters have been evaluated. - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence of GAGG:Ce and LuAG:Pr has been studied by the T{sub max}–T{sub stop} method. • Glow curves have been analyzed in order to derive trap parameters. • Inclusion of quasi-continuous trap distributions has resulted in high quality fits.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average monthly maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average monthly minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous...
Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R
2014-09-01
The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elevated CO2 reduced floret death in wheat under warmer average temperatures and terminal drought.
Eduardo eDias de Oliveira
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs free-tillering. The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3 C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3 C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables.
Angeli, C.; Cimiraglia, R.; Dallo, F.; Guareschi, R.; Tenti, L.
2013-01-01
The dependence on the temperature of the population of the ith state, Pi, in the Boltzmann distribution is analyzed by studying its derivative with respect to the temperature, T. A simple expression is found, involving Pi, the energy of the state, Ei, and the average energy, âŸ̈EâŸ©. This relation
Angeli, C.; Cimiraglia, R.; Dallo, F.; Guareschi, R.; Tenti, L.
2013-01-01
The dependence on the temperature of the population of the ith state, Pi, in the Boltzmann distribution is analyzed by studying its derivative with respect to the temperature, T. A simple expression is found, involving Pi, the energy of the state, Ei, and the average energy, âŸ̈EâŸ©. This relation i
Dinh Dang, N.; Ciemala, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.
2013-05-01
The line shapes of giant dipole resonance (GDR) in the decay of the compound nucleus 88Mo, which is formed after the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ti + 40Ca at various excitation energies E* from 58 to 308 MeV, are generated by averaging the GDR strength functions predicted within the phonon damping model (PDM) using the empirical probabilities for temperature and angular momentum. The average strength functions are compared with the PDM strength functions calculated at the mean temperature and mean angular momentum, which are obtained by averaging the values of temperature and angular momentum using the same temperature and angular momentum probability distributions, respectively. It is seen that these two ways of generating the GDR linear line shape yield very similar results. It is also shown that the GDR width approaches a saturation at angular momentum J≥ 50 ℏ at T=4 MeV and at J≥ 70 ℏ at any T.
Dang, N Dinh; Kmiecik, M; Maj, A
2013-01-01
The line shapes of giant dipole resonance (GDR) in the decay of the compound nucleus $^{88}$Mo, which is formed after the fusion-evaporation reaction $^{48}$Ti + $^{40}$Ca at various excitation energies $E^{*}$ from 58 to 308 MeV, are generated by averaging the GDR strength functions predicted within the phonon damping model (PDM) using the empirical probabilities for temperature and angular momentum. The average strength functions are compared with the PDM strength functions calculated at the mean temperature and mean angular momentum, which are obtained by averaging the values of temperature and angular momentum using the same temperature and angular-momentum probability distributions, respectively. It is seen that these two ways of generating the GDR linear line shape yield very similar results. It is also shown that the GDR width approaches a saturation at angular momentum $J\\geq$ 50$\\hbar$ at $T=$ 4 MeV and at $J\\geq$ 70$\\hbar$ at any $T$.
Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature.
Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker
2016-08-04
Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally fluctuating temperature regimes. Both mean and fluctuation of temperature contributed to thermal acclimation and affected the transcriptome. The transcriptomic response to mean temperatures comprised modification of a major part of the transcriptome, while the response to fluctuations affected a much smaller set of genes, which was highly independent of both the response to a change in mean temperature and to the classic heat shock response. Although the independent transcriptional effects caused by fluctuations were relatively small, they are likely to contribute to our understanding of thermal adaptation. We provide evidence that environmental sensing, particularly phototransduction, is a central mechanism underlying the regulation of thermal acclimation to fluctuating temperatures. Thus, genes and pathways involved in phototransduction are likely of importance in fluctuating climates.
Guerrero-Mendez, Carlos; Anaya, Tonatiuh Saucedo; Araiza-Esquivel, M.; Balderas-Navarro, Raúl E.; Aranda-Espinoza, Said; López-Martínez, Alfonso; Olvera-Olvera, Carlos
2016-12-01
We present an alternative optical method to estimate the temperature during the cooling process of a liquid using digital holographic interferometry (DHI). We make use of phase variations that are linked to variations in the refractive index and the temperature property of a liquid. In DHI, a hologram is first recorded using an object beam scattered from a rectangular container with a liquid at a certain reference temperature. A second hologram is then recorded when the temperature is decreased slightly. A phase difference between the two holograms indicates a temperature variation, and it is possible to obtain the temperature value at each small point of the sensed optical field. The relative phase map between the two object states is obtained simply and quickly through Fourier-transform method. Our experimental results reveal that the temperature values measured using this method and those obtained with a thermometer are consistent. We additionally show that it is possible to analyze the heat-loss process of a liquid sample in dynamic events using DHI.
Estimation of heat load in waste tanks using average vapor space temperatures
Crowe, R.D.; Kummerer, M.; Postma, A.K.
1993-12-01
This report describes a method for estimating the total heat load in a high-level waste tank with passive ventilation. This method relates the total heat load in the tank to the vapor space temperature and the depth of waste in the tank. Q{sub total} = C{sub f} (T{sub vapor space {minus}} T{sub air}) where: C{sub f} = Conversion factor = (R{sub o}k{sub soil}{sup *}area)/(z{sub tank} {minus} z{sub surface}); R{sub o} = Ratio of total heat load to heat out the top of the tank (function of waste height); Area = cross sectional area of the tank; k{sub soil} = thermal conductivity of soil; (z{sub tank} {minus} z{sub surface}) = effective depth of soil covering the top of tank; and (T{sub vapor space} {minus} T{sub air}) = mean temperature difference between vapor space and the ambient air at the surface. Three terms -- depth, area and ratio -- can be developed from geometrical considerations. The temperature difference is measured for each individual tank. The remaining term, the thermal conductivity, is estimated from the time-dependent component of the temperature signals coming from the periodic oscillations in the vapor space temperatures. Finally, using this equation, the total heat load for each of the ferrocyanide Watch List tanks is estimated. This provides a consistent way to rank ferrocyanide tanks according to heat load.
Temperature variations of average o-Ps lifetime in porous media
Goworek, T; Jasinska, B; Wawryszczuk, J
2000-01-01
Modification of the Tao-Eldrup model is proposed in order to extend its usefulness to the case of porous media. The modification consists in the transition from spherical to capillary geometry and in inclusion of pick-off annihilation from the excited states of a particle in the well. Approximated equations for pick-off constant in these states are given. The model was tested by observing the temperature dependences of o-Ps lifetime in various media. In the case of silica gels and Vycor glass with narrow pores, the model seems to work well, while for larger pores in Vycor unexpectedly long lifetimes appear in the range of lowest temperatures.
Brüggemann, R; Nesheva, D; Meier, S; Bineva, I
2011-02-01
Amorphous SiO(x) thin films with three different oxygen contents (x = 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of SiO in vacuum. Partial phase separation in the films has been induced by annealing at 773 or 973 K in argon for 60 and 120 min and thus Si-SiO(x) composite films have been prepared containing amorphous Si nanoparticles of various sizes (Photoluminescence from the films has been measured in the temperature range 20-296 K. The single Gauss band observed in the photoluminescence spectra of the samples with x = 1.3 and centered in the range 1.55-1.75 eV has been related to radiative recombination in Si nanoparticles. Two bands, a red-orange one (related to radiative recombination in Si nanoparticles) and a green band peaked at approximately 2.3 eV (related to radiative recombination via defects) have been resolved in the photoluminescence spectra of the films with x = 1.5 and 1.7. The band in the spectra of the x = 1.3 samples has shown a relative strong thermal quenching but it is significantly weaker than the photoluminescence quenching in bulk a-Si. Besides, the higher the initial oxygen content, the weaker is the photoluminescence thermal quenching. These observations have been related to carrier confinement which is stronger in smaller nanoparticles. The thermally induced photoluminescence decrease with increasing temperature in the samples with x = 1.3 obeys the relation that is characteristic for bulk a-Si:H while the photoluminescence decrease in x = 1.5 and 1.7 samples is of Arrhenius type. We suggest that in nanoparticles larger than 2 nm recombination via band tail states is the dominating photoluminescence mechanism while in smaller nanoparticles exciton-like recombination dominates.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-offsets map service provides maps depicting the NWS daily maximum surface air temperature forecasts from the National Digital...
Matsunaga, Tsuneo
1993-01-01
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a Japanese future imaging sensor which has five channels in thermal infrared (TIR) region. To extract spectral emissivity information from ASTER and/or TIMS data, various temperature-emissivity (T-E) separation methods have been developed to date. Most of them require assumptions on surface emissivity, in which emissivity measured in a laboratory is often used instead of in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity. But if these two emissivities are different, accuracies of separated emissivity and surface temperature are reduced. In this study, the difference between laboratory and in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity and its effect on T-E separation are discussed. TIMS data of an area containing both rocks and vegetation were also processed to retrieve emissivity spectra using two T-E separation methods.
E. Spinei
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The collision induced O2 complex, O2O2, is a very important trace gas in remote sensing measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Some ground based MAX-DOAS measurements of O2O2 slant column density require correction factors of 0.75 ± 0.1 to reproduce radiative transfer modeling (RTM results for a near pure Rayleigh atmosphere. One of the potential causes of this discrepancy is believed to be uncertainty in laboratory measured O2O2 absorption cross section temperature and pressure dependence, due to difficulties in replicating atmospheric conditions in the laboratory environment. This paper presents direct-sun (DS and airborne multi-axis (AMAX DOAS measurements of O2O2 absorption optical depths under actual Earth atmospheric conditions in two wavelength regions (335–390 nm and 435–490 nm. DS irradiance measurements were made by the research grade MFDOAS instrument from 2007–2014 at seven sites with significant pressure (778–1013 hPa and O2O2 profile weighted temperature (247–275 K differences. Aircraft MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted by the University of Colorado AMAX-DOAS instrument on 29 January 2012 over the Southern Hemisphere subtropical Pacific Ocean. Scattered solar radiance spectra were collected at altitudes between 9 and 13.2 km, with O2O2 profile weighted temperatures of 231–244 K, and near pure Rayleigh scattering conditions. Due to the well defined DS air mass factors and extensively characterized atmospheric conditions during the AMAX-DOAS measurements, O2O2"pseudo" absorption cross sections, σ, are derived from the observed optical depths and estimated O2O2column densities. Vertical O2O2 columns are calculated from the atmospheric sounding temperature, pressure and specific humidity profiles. Based on the atmospheric DS observations, there is no pressure dependence of the O2O2 σ, within the measurement errors (3%. The two data sets are combined to derive peak σ temperature dependence of 360 and 477 nm
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every...
Lei Jiang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.
Hu, Yue; Hong, Wei; Shi, Yunyu; Liu, Haiyan
2012-10-09
In molecular simulations, accelerated sampling can be achieved efficiently by raising the temperature of a small number of coordinates. For collective coordinates, the temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics method or TAMD has been previously proposed, in which the system is extended by introducing virtual variables that are coupled to these coordinates and simulated at higher temperatures (Maragliano, L.; Vanden-Eijnden, E. Chem. Phys. Lett.2005, 426, 168-175). In such accelerated simulations, steady state or equilibrium distributions may exist but deviate from the canonical Boltzmann one. We show that by assuming adiabatic decoupling between the subsystems simulated at different temperatures, correct canonical distributions and ensemble averages can be obtained through reweighting. The method makes use of the low-dimensional free energy surfaces that are estimated as Gaussian mixture probability densities through maximum likelihood and expectation maximization. Previously, we proposed the amplified collective motion method or ACM. The method employs the coarse-grained elastic network model or ANM to extract collective coordinates for accelerated sampling. Here, we combine the ideas of ACM and of TAMD to develop a general technique that can achieve canonical sampling through reweighting under the adiabatic approximation. To test the validity and accuracy of adiabatic reweighting, first we consider a single n-butane molecule in a canonical stochastic heat bath. Then, we use explicitly solvated alanine dipeptide and GB1 peptide as model systems to demonstrate the proposed approaches. With alanine dipeptide, it is shown that sampling can be accelerated by more than an order of magnitude with TAMD while correct distributions and canonical ensemble averages can be recovered, necessarily through adiabatic reweighting. For the GB1 peptide, the conformational distribution sampled by ACM-TAMD, after adiabatic reweighting, suggested that a normal simulation suffered
W. J. Souza
2015-06-01
Full Text Available AbstractWater-in-oil (W/O emulsions are complex mixtures generally found in crude oil production in reservoirs and processing equipment. Sedimentation studies of water-oil emulsions enable the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior concerning separation of this system composed of two immiscible liquids. Gravitational settling was evaluated in this article for a model emulsion system consisting of water and a Brazilian crude oil diluted in a clear mineral oil as organic phase. The effects of water content and temperature were considered in the study of sedimentation velocity of water-oil emulsions. Water contents between 10% and 50 % and temperatures of 25, 40 and 60 ºC were evaluated, and a Richardson-Zaki type correlation was obtained to calculate settling velocities as a function of the process variables investigated. Water contents and average droplet sizes were monitored at different levels in the settling equipment, thus enabling identification of the effect of these variables on the phenomena of sedimentation and coalescence of the emulsions studied. The results showed that the emulsion stability during sedimentation was governed by the emulsion water content, which yielded high settling velocities at low water contents, even when very small droplets were present. A quantitative analysis of the combined effects of drop size and droplet concentration supports the conclusion that a stronger effect is produced by the higher concentration of particles, compared with the relatively smaller effect of increasing the size of the droplets.
J. Xamán
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical study on conjugated heat transfer (natural convection, radiation and conduction in a squareroom (cavity with turbulent flow is presented, taking into account variation on the opaque wall emissivity. The room isformed by an isothermal vertical wall, two adiabatic horizontal walls and a semitransparent wall with and without acontrol solar radiation film. The governing equations for turbulent flow in 2D were solved using a finite volumeformulation and k- turbulent model. Results for an isothermal wall at 21°C and an external temperature of 35°C arepresented. The size of the room is 4.0 m length and height and the solar radiation falling directly on thesemitransparent wall was 750 W/m2 (AM2. The emissivity of the opaque walls was varied between 0.1 ≤ * ≤ 1.0.Results show that, based on the air average temperature and the effective heat flux inside the room, the solar controlfilm under study was advantageous for energy saving purposes, for emissivity values of * ≤ 0.46. A correlation onthis system for the heat transfer as a function of the emissivities was determined.
Alvarenga, A. V.; Teixeira, C. A.; Von Krüger, M. A.; Pereira, W. C. A.
2012-05-01
The average grey-levels calculated from B-Mode images were assessed for non-invasive temperature estimation in a porcine tissue sample containing two different tissue types, fat and muscle. The porcine sample was subjected to heating and cooling procedures with temperature varying from 35°C to 42°C. The sample was continuously imaged with an ultrasound scanner, and simultaneously the temperature was measured at each 5 seconds using Type-T thermocouples. The result shows that the average grey-level (AVGL)/temperature relations are different for the two studied regions, where the muscle tissue tends to present a bigger AVGL variation than the fat tissue considering the same temperature variation. Besides, the average grey-level/temperature functions estimated for each tissue region presented fitting errors inferior to ± 0.21°C, indicating that it might be possible to track temperature changes from both tissues using AVGL. This result is innovative since it suggests that using the same B-mode image and an average grey-level/temperature function to each region it is possible to estimate non-invasively temperature variations from different tissue regions in the same tissue sample. Future work includes the investigation of the spatial limits of these average grey-level/temperature functions.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual maximum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a set of monthly and yearly global day-night sea surface temperature averages, derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected...
Sanchez, Ron
2013-01-01
This chapter offers some reflections on Max Boisot and his extraordinary intellect drawn from our 15 years of exchanging and crafting ideas together. I first comment on the process of working with Max, and then suggest some of the remarkable qualities of thought that I believe distinguished Max......'s keen intellect as I came to experience it through our collaborations. I note in particular the breadth of perspectives that Max inevitably brought to any discussion, his ability to draw multiple theoretical perspectives together in composing novel representations of economic and organizational...... phenomena, and his ability to rigorously categorize and usefully interrelate the many theories and concepts with which he was conversant. These qualities are illustrated through some further comments on the process of writing our 2010 paper on economic organizing. I conclude by suggesting how...
Bourdet, Gilbert L; Yu, Haiwu
2007-08-10
We propose a simple analytical derivation making it possible to compute a one-dimensional temperature variation in an end-pumped solid-state laser. This derivation takes into account the pump intensity variation along the crystal, the doping concentration, and temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. We then compare this simulation with the one usually used, which does not take into account any of these dependences. The results show that, at room temperature, the two methods are in good agreement, but at a cryogenic temperature where the thermal conductivity varies fast with temperature, a large discrepancy is found, and the conventional computations underestimate both the average temperature and the longitudinal gradient.
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average summer temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average summer temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average summer temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average winter temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average winter temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average winter temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average summer temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic LCC's...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average winter temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. For the purposes of these maps,...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic LCC's...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic LCC's...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature in and projected change in temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The Alaska portion of the Arctic LCC's...
Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D
1980-10-01
Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)
Piotr GUSTOF
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Average combustion temperatures inside a turbo diesel engine for the same load and the same total doze of fuel for two rotational speeds: 2004 [rpm] and 4250 [rpm] are presented in this paper. The aim of this work is also the evaluation of the influence of the temporary course of the fuel injection characteristics on forming temperature in theengine cylinder space for these temperatures. The calculations were carried out by means of two zone combustion model.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To facilitate wider use of MAX, CMS contracted with Mathematica to convene a technical expert panel (TEP) and determine the feasibility of creating a sample file for...
Desain, P.; Honing, H.; Dannenberg, R.; Jacobs, D.; Lippe, C.; Settel, Z.; Pope, S.; Puckette, M.; Lewis, G.
1993-01-01
A critical review of Max resulted in responses from many researchers (including the original designers). They each focus on different aspects: the language design, the implementation and the consequences of the use of event based software for music composition.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...
Teixeira, C A; Alvarenga, A V; Cortela, G; von Krüger, M A; Pereira, W C A
2014-08-01
This paper assesses the potential of the average gray-level (AVGL) from ultrasonographic (B-mode) images to estimate temperature changes in time and space in a non-invasive way. Experiments were conducted involving a homogeneous bovine muscle sample, and temperature variations were induced by an automatic temperature regulated water bath, and by therapeutic ultrasound. B-mode images and temperatures were recorded simultaneously. After data collection, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the average gray-level variation computed. For the selected ROIs, the AVGL-Temperature relation were determined and studied. Based on uniformly distributed image partitions, two-dimensional temperature maps were developed for homogeneous regions. The color-coded temperature estimates were first obtained from an AVGL-Temperature relation extracted from a specific partition (where temperature was independently measured by a thermocouple), and then extended to the other partitions. This procedure aimed to analyze the AVGL sensitivity to changes not only in time but also in space. Linear and quadratic relations were obtained depending on the heating modality. We found that the AVGL-Temperature relation is reproducible over successive heating and cooling cycles. One important result was that the AVGL-Temperature relations extracted from one region might be used to estimate temperature in other regions (errors inferior to 0.5 °C) when therapeutic ultrasound was applied as a heating source. Based on this result, two-dimensional temperature maps were developed when the samples were heated in the water bath and also by therapeutic ultrasound. The maps were obtained based on a linear relation for the water bath heating, and based on a quadratic model for the therapeutic ultrasound heating. The maps for the water bath experiment reproduce an acceptable heating/cooling pattern, and for the therapeutic ultrasound heating experiment, the maps seem to reproduce temperature profiles
Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Dallo, Federico; Guareschi, Riccardo; Tenti, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
The dependence on the temperature of the population of the "i"th state, "P"[subscript "i"], in the Boltzmann distribution is analyzed by studying its derivative with respect to the temperature, "T." A simple expression is found, involving "P"[subscript "i"], the energy of the state,…
40 CFR 86.1864-10 - How to comply with the fleet average cold temperature NMHC standards.
2010-07-01
... is not an intermediate useful life standard for cold temperature NMHC standards. (c) Altitude. Altitude requirements for cold temperature NMHC standards are provided in § 86.1810-09(f). (d) Small volume... used to control emissions at high altitude conditions, and software used to control emissions or...
Arroba, M.
2008-07-01
Radiant average temperature in walls is as important as dry air temperature to achieve thermal comfort of users of a local. An excessive discrepancy between these levels, or an asymmetric distribution of the surface temperature of fences, may cause localized thermal discomfort, an effect impossible to compensate by rising dry air temperature. Thermal inertia and its concentration must be properly studied in order to handle this parameters, inside or outside the building, on both sides of the cladding or none depending on the weather, the bio climatic strategies used, heating and air conditioning systems and planned use of the building. (Author)
Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E. L.; Chicoine, R.; Pugsley, J.; Langlois, P.
2011-12-01
AuroraMAX is a public outreach and education initiative that brings auroral images to the public in real time. AuroraMAX utilizes an observing station located just outside Yellowknife, Canada. The station houses a digital All-Sky Imager (ASI) that collects full-colour images of the night sky every six seconds. These images are then transmitted via satellite internet to our web server, where they are made instantly available to the public. Over the last two years this program has rapidly become one of the most successful outreach programs in the history of Space Science in Canada, with hundreds of thousands of distinct visitors to the CSA AuroraMAX website, thousands of followers on social media, and hundreds of newspaper, magazine, radio, and television spots. Over the next few years, the project will expand to include a high-resolution SLR delivering real-time auroral images (also from Yellowknife), as well as a program where astronauts on the ISS will take pictures of the aurora with a handheld SLR. The objectives of AuroraMAX are public outreach and education. The ASI design, operation, and software were based on infrastructure that was developed for the highly successful ASI component of the NASA THEMIS mission as well as the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Canadian GeoSpace Monitoring (CGSM) program. So from an education and public outreach perspective, AuroraMAX is a single camera operating in the Canadian north. On the other hand, AuroraMAX is one of nearly 40 All-Sky Imagers that are operating across North America. The AuroraMAX camera produces data that is seamlessly integrated with the CGSM ASI data, and made widely available to the Space Science community through open-access web and FTP sites. One of our objectives in the next few years is to incorporate some of the data from the THEMIS and CGSM imagers into the AuroraMAX system, to maximize viewing opportunities and generate more real-time data for public outreach. This is an exemplar of a program that
WiMax taking wireless to the max
Pareek, Deepak
2006-01-01
With market value expected to reach 5 billion by 2007 and the endorsement of some of the biggest names in telecommunications, World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is poised to change the broadband wireless landscape. But how much of WiMAX's touted potential is merely hype? Now that several pre-WiMAX networks have been deployed, what are the operators saying about QoS and ROI? How and when will device manufacturers integrate WiMAX into their products? What is the business case for using WiMAX rather than any number of other established wireless alternatives?WiMAX: Taking Wireless
Barkhatov, Yu. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Bartsev, S. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.
2016-11-01
A sealed vegetation chamber was designed and constructed for physical simulation of climate conditions in the Subarctic zone during the spring-summer time. The small laboratory tundra-simulating ecosystem (TSE) was created for comparative evaluation of the rates of soil respiration and of the total balance of carbon fluxes in tundra ecosystems. The test experiment was performed to study the TSE response to a temperature rise in air and soil by 2°C in terms of the intensity of the CO2 flux. It was shown that this increase in temperature would cause a pronounced shift in the balance of CO2 production and utilization in the ecosystem from near-zero values to a stable generation of 24 μmol/h of CO2 per 1 kg of dry biomass.
T-MAPS, a PC-code for calculating average and local (``flash``) temperatures on sliding interfaces
Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ashby, M.F. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering
1993-08-01
When contacting solids slide, work is done against friction. Almost all the frictional work appears as heat, generated at or very close to the surface at which the two solids meet. The local increase in temperature influences both the friction and the rate of wear. In this paper, a user-friendly PC-code is described in which frictional heating is analyzed using a particularly simple framework. The code provides for a wide range of geometries for the two contacting solids, which may differ in their thermal and mechanical properties, and may not be in perfect contact with the heat sinks to which they are attached. The results of the code are presented as temperature maps which show the surface temperature of a sliding couple over a wide range of load and sliding velocity. The basic analysis underlying a previous version of the code was presented previously. We introduce here some significant changes, particularly with respect to the problem of asperity contact lifetime and show some excellent comparisons between various experimental results and predictions of the T-MAPS 4 software.
Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.
1994-01-01
Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.
Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin;
2014-01-01
, manganese and cobalt (NMC) based and the anode is graphite based. In order to measure the surface temperature, thermal infrared (IR) camera and contact thermocouples were used. A fairly uniform temperature distribution was observed over the cell surface in case of continuous charge and discharge up to 100A...
Max Jakobson : Kommunismisse tuleb suhtuda objektiivselt / Max Jakobson
Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013
2002-01-01
President Rüütel andis Soome tuntud diplomaadile ja Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Rahvusvahelise Komisjoni (IKURK) esimehele Max Jakobsonile Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärgi. Tseremooniajärgne intervjuu Max Jakobsoniga
Max Jakobson : Kommunismisse tuleb suhtuda objektiivselt / Max Jakobson
Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013
2002-01-01
President Rüütel andis Soome tuntud diplomaadile ja Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Rahvusvahelise Komisjoni (IKURK) esimehele Max Jakobsonile Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärgi. Tseremooniajärgne intervjuu Max Jakobsoniga
Average-Time Games on Timed Automata
Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh
2009-01-01
An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...
Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinov, K. A.
2016-11-01
Dry sliding of copper and powder composites of Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-graphite compositions against 1045 steel under electric current of contact density higher than 250 A/cm2 has been studied, which demonstrated the change in surface layer structure and formation of tribolayer consisting of iron, copper and FeO oxide. Signs of quasi-viscous flow of worn surface were observed. It was noted that the thin contact layer containing about 40 at % of oxygen and 40% of Fe was the main factor decreasing the adhesion interaction. It was affirmed that the introduction of graphite into the primary structure of the composite leads to rather low content of FeO oxide and to the increased tendency of surface layer to catastrophic deterioration under sliding with contact current density of about 300 A/cm2. The temperature of contact did not exceed 400°C.
Capelli, C; Antonutto, G; Kenfack, M Azabji; Cautero, M; Lador, F; Moia, C; Tam, E; Ferretti, G
2006-09-01
The aim of this study was to characterize the time course of maximal oxygen consumption VO2(max) changes during bedrests longer than 30 days, on the hypothesis that the decrease in VO2(max) tends to asymptote. On a total of 26 subjects who participated in one of three bedrest campaigns without countermeasures, lasting 14, 42 and 90 days, respectively, VO2(max) maximal cardiac output (Qmax) and maximal systemic O2 delivery (QaO2max) were measured. After all periods of HDT, VO2max, Qmax, and QaO2max were significantly lower than before. The VO2max decreased less than qmax after the two shortest bedrests, but its per cent decay was about 10% larger than that of Qmax after 90-day bedrest. The VO2max decrease after 90-day bedrest was larger than after 42- and 14-day bedrests, where it was similar. The Qmax and QaO2max declines after 90-day bedrest was equal to those after 14- and 42-day bedrest. The average daily rates of the VO2max, Qmax, and QaO2max decay during bedrest were less if the bedrest duration were longer, with the exception of that of VO2max in the longest bedrest. The asymptotic VO2max decay demonstrates the possibility that humans could keep working effectively even after an extremely long time in microgravity. Two components in the VO2max decrease were identified, which we postulate were related to cardiovascular deconditioning and to impairment of peripheral gas exchanges due to a possible muscle function deterioration.
Hadała B.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The numerical simulations of the temperature fields have been accomplished for slab casting made of a low carbon steel. The casting process of slab of 1500 mm in width and 225 mm in height has been modeled. Two types of boundary condition models of heat transfer have been employed in numerical simulations. The heat transfer coefficient in the first boundary condition model was calculated from the formula which takes into account the slab surface temperature and water flow rate in each secondary cooling zone. The second boundary condition model defines the heat transfer coefficient around each water spray nozzle. The temperature fields resulting from the average in zones water flow rate and from the nozzles arrangement have been compared. The thermal stresses and deformations resulted from such temperature field have given higher values of fracture criterion at slab corners.
Velikanov, S. D.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Zaretsky, N. A.; Zakhryapa, A. V.; Ikonnikov, V. B.; Kazantsev, S. Yu.; Kononov, I. G.; Maneshkin, A. A.; Mashkovskii, D. A.; Saltykov, E. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Chuvatkin, R. S.; Yutkin, I. M.
2017-05-01
The energy and spectral-temporal characteristics of a Fe : ZnSe laser operating in pulsed and repetitively pulsed regimes are studied at room temperature of the polycrystalline active element. The crystal was pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser. The energy of the Fe : ZnSe laser in a single-pulse regime was 1.67 J at the slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed and incident energy of ∼43% and ∼27%, respectively. In a repetitively pulsed regime with a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz and an efficiency with respect to the absorbed power of ∼40%, the average laser power was ∼20 W with an individual pulse energy of ∼1 J. The possibility of increasing the average power of the repetitively pulsed Fe : ZnSe laser at room temperature is discussed.
Lei, Ying; Liu, Yu; Sun, Bo; Sun, Changfeng
2016-10-01
In this study, spruce tree rings from the southern slope of mid-Qinling Mountains were adopted to investigate the characteristics of average minimum temperatures during the past 138 years. Analysis showed that the interannual variability in radial growth of trees was positively correlated with the interannual variability of average minimum temperatures from previous December to current September ( VTM DS) in the study area during 1955-2010 ad. Based on the correlation analysis, the VTM DS were reconstructed for 1876-2013 ad with an explained variance of 42.5 % for the calibration period. Among the 22 dramatic changing years, extreme changes occurred more times when it was cooling, while the warming was comparatively gentle. Both the 10-year filtering of VTM DS series and the frequency of occurrences for those dramatic changing years showed a relatively stationary variation after the early 1950s. Over the last five decades, the accumulated VTM DS series showed an obvious warming trend, and the increase of the minimum temperature had contributed to the regional warming. The comparison of VTM DS and the dryness/wetness indices generally reflected cold-wet and warm-dry climate conditions in the study area. Significant positive correlations between the reconstructed VTM DS and the gridded minimum temperature indicated a regional representative of the temperature reconstruction, and positive correlations between VTM DS and sea surface temperature (SST) of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific regions suggested a possible linkage between the VTM DS variations and the Asian summer monsoon. Synchronous fluctuations in three tree-ring study series and connections of VTM DS with Arctic oscillation (AO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activities suggested that the minimum temperature variations in the TTH area responded sensitively to large-scale climate fluctuations and were the results of atmosphere-ocean interactions.
Lei, Ying; Liu, Yu; Sun, Bo; Sun, Changfeng
2016-10-01
In this study, spruce tree rings from the southern slope of mid-Qinling Mountains were adopted to investigate the characteristics of average minimum temperatures during the past 138 years. Analysis showed that the interannual variability in radial growth of trees was positively correlated with the interannual variability of average minimum temperatures from previous December to current September (VTM DS) in the study area during 1955-2010 AD. Based on the correlation analysis, the VTM DS were reconstructed for 1876-2013 AD with an explained variance of 42.5 % for the calibration period. Among the 22 dramatic changing years, extreme changes occurred more times when it was cooling, while the warming was comparatively gentle. Both the 10-year filtering of VTM DS series and the frequency of occurrences for those dramatic changing years showed a relatively stationary variation after the early 1950s. Over the last five decades, the accumulated VTM DS series showed an obvious warming trend, and the increase of the minimum temperature had contributed to the regional warming. The comparison of VTM DS and the dryness/wetness indices generally reflected cold-wet and warm-dry climate conditions in the study area. Significant positive correlations between the reconstructed VTM DS and the gridded minimum temperature indicated a regional representative of the temperature reconstruction, and positive correlations between VTM DS and sea surface temperature (SST) of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific regions suggested a possible linkage between the VTM DS variations and the Asian summer monsoon. Synchronous fluctuations in three tree-ring study series and connections of VTM DS with Arctic oscillation (AO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activities suggested that the minimum temperature variations in the TTH area responded sensitively to large-scale climate fluctuations and were the results of atmosphere-ocean interactions.
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average annual temperature, projected air temperature, and projected change in air temperature for for the northern portion of Alaska. The...
Menzel, Karl Peter; Stadler, Peter F.; Gorodkin, Jan
2011-01-01
MOTIVATION: The task of reconstructing a genomic sequence from a particular species is gaining more and more importance in the light of the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies and their limitations. Applications include not only compensation for missing data in unsequenced...... genomic regions and the design of oligonucleotide primers for target genes in species with lacking sequence information but also the preparation of customized queries for homology searches. RESULTS: We introduce the maxAlike algorithm, which reconstructs a genomic sequence for a specific taxon based...
Sailaja Koti; K. Raja Reddy; V. R. Reddy; V. G. Kakani; Duli Zhao
2005-01-01
...), temperature at 30/22 °C (control) and 38/30 °C (+T) and UV-B radiation 0 (control) and 10 kJ m-2 d-1 (+UV-B) on flower and pollen morphology, pollen production, germination, and tube lengths of six soybean genotypes...
Hou, Yong; Fu, Yongsheng; Bredow, Richard; Kang, Dongdong; Redmer, Ronald; Yuan, Jianmin
2017-03-01
The average-atom model combined with the hyper-netted chain approximation is an efficient tool for electronic and ionic structure calculations for warm dense matter. Here we generalize this method in order to describe non-equilibrium states with different electron and ion temperature as produced in laser-matter interactions on ultra-short time scales. In particular, the electron-ion and ion-ion correlation effects are considered when calculating the electron structure. We derive an effective ion-ion pair-potential using the electron densities in the framework of temperature-depended density functional theory. Using this ion-ion potential we perform molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the ionic transport properties such as the ionic diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity through the ionic velocity autocorrelation functions.
Adam Markowski
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Injury to soybean seedlings caused by low temperature (5°C at the beginning of germination was greatly reduced when instead of chilling (10°C a higher temperature (20°C was applied at the end of germination and during emergence. A new interpretation of the physiological mechanism involved in this reversibility of chilling injury was proposed. Hydration in water vapour of soybean seeds with initial moisture content of from 5 to 10% to a level of 30%, dry weight basis, increased seedling survival under controlled conditions of germination and emergence at respectively 5°C and l0°C as well as under natural soil conditions in field experiments both after early and late planting dates. A modified method of seed hydration in water vapour (i.e. conditioning or hardening of seeds against cold was developed for practical application. In field experiments conditioning of seeds increased seedling survival and thus also yields per unit area of plot but had no significant effect on yield per plant. Seed conditioning may have practical significance in soybean growing and for breeding purposes when equalizing the number of plants per plot is important for comparing new varieties and breeding forms.
Murdock, Kelly L
2011-01-01
Updated version of the bestselling 3ds Max book on the market 3ds Max 2012 Bible is one of the most popular 3ds Max how-tos on the market. If you're a beginner just itching to create something right away, the Quick Start project in Part 1 is for you. If you're an experienced user checking out 3ds Max 2012's latest and greatest features, you'll love the fact that the 3ds Max 2012 Bible continues to be the most comprehensive reference on this highly complex application.Find out what's new, what's tried and true, and how creative you can get using the tips, tricks, and techniques in this must-hav
Performance Analysis of QoS in PMP Mode WiMax Networks
kamboj, Maninder Singh
2010-01-01
IEEE 802.16 standard supports two different topologies: point to multipoint (PMP) and Mesh. In this paper, a QoS mechanism for point to multipoint of IEEE 802.16 and BS scheduler for PMP Mode is proposed. This paper also describes quality of service over WiMAX networks. Average WiMAX delay, Average WiMAX load and Average WiMAX throughput at base station is analyzed and compared by applying different scheduler at Base station and at fixed nodes.
Max Martins, a hora indiferente Max Martins, the indifferent hour
Manoel Ricardo de Lima
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Este texto trata de uma ideia de oficina compartilhada em torno da poesia de Max Martins com alguns conceitos retirados do pensamento crítico-poético de Mário Faustino.Este texto describe una idea de taller compartido en la poesía de Max Martins utilizándose de algunos conceptos del pensamiento crítico-poético de Mário Faustino.This paper describes the idea of a shared workshop on the poetry of Max Martins with some concepts taken from Mário Faustino's critical-poetic thought.
Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds
Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2014-06-17
The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.
President Ilves kohtus Max Jakobsoniga
2008-01-01
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Soome tuntud diplomaat Max Jakobson arutasid 16. septembril 2008 Tallinnas toimunud kohtumisel julgeolekuolukorda Euroopas pärast Venemaa-Gruusia sõda, Euroopa Liidu suhteid Venemaaga ja NATO tulevikku
President Ilves kohtus Max Jakobsoniga
2008-01-01
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Soome tuntud diplomaat Max Jakobson arutasid 16. septembril 2008 Tallinnas toimunud kohtumisel julgeolekuolukorda Euroopas pärast Venemaa-Gruusia sõda, Euroopa Liidu suhteid Venemaaga ja NATO tulevikku
Bergant, Klemen; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Črepinšek, Zalika
2002-02-01
Phenological observations are a valuable source of information for investigating the relationship between climate variation and plant development. Potential climate change in the future will shift the occurrence of phenological phases. Information about future climate conditions is needed in order to estimate this shift. General circulation models (GCM) provide the best information about future climate change. They are able to simulate reliably the most important mean features on a large scale, but they fail on a regional scale because of their low spatial resolution. A common approach to bridging the scale gap is statistical downscaling, which was used to relate the beginning of flowering of Taraxacum officinale in Slovenia with the monthly mean near-surface air temperature for January, February and March in Central Europe. Statistical models were developed and tested with NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis predictor data and EARS predictand data for the period 1960-1999. Prior to developing statistical models, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was employed on the predictor data. Multiple linear regression was used to relate the beginning of flowering with expansion coefficients of the first three EOF for the Janauary, Febrauary and March air temperatures, and a strong correlation was found between them. Developed statistical models were employed on the results of two GCM (HadCM3 and ECHAM4/OPYC3) to estimate the potential shifts in the beginning of flowering for the periods 1990-2019 and 2020-2049 in comparison with the period 1960-1989. The HadCM3 model predicts, on average, 4 days earlier occurrence and ECHAM4/OPYC3 5 days earlier occurrence of flowering in the period 1990-2019. The analogous results for the period 2020-2049 are a 10- and 11-day earlier occurrence.
Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa; Salama, Amgad
2014-08-01
Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.
Sato, Yuta; Tomita, Kentaro; Tsukiyama, Syoichi; Eguchi, Toshiaki; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kouge, Kouichiro; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Wada, Yasunori; Kunishima, Masahito; Kodama, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru
2017-03-01
Spatial profiles of the electron density (n e), electron temperature (T e), and average ionic charge (Z) of laser-produced Sn plasmas for EUV lithography, whose conversion efficiency (CE) is sufficiently high for practical use, were measured using a collective Thomson scattering (TS) technique. For plasma production, Sn droplets of 26 µm diameter were used as a fuel. First, a picosecond-pulsed laser was used to expand a Sn target. Next, a CO2 laser was used to generate plasmas. By changing the injection timing of the picosecond and CO2 lasers, three different types of plasmas were generated. The CEs of the three types of plasmas differed, and ranged from 2.8 to 4.0%. Regarding the different plasma conditions, the spatial profiles of n e, T e, and Z clearly differed. However, under all plasma conditions, intense EUV was only observed at a sufficiently high T e (> 25 eV) and in an adequate n e range [1024–(2 × 1025) m‑3]. These plasma parameters lie in the efficient-EUV light source range, as predicted by simulations.
Andersen, Nils; Lauterbach, Stefan; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Danielopol, Dan L.; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Hüls, Matthias; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Dulski, Peter; Nantke, Carla; Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Brauer, Achim
2017-09-01
The so-called 8.2 ka event represents one of the most prominent cold climate anomalies during the Holocene warm period. Accordingly, several studies have addressed its trigger mechanisms, absolute dating and regional characteristics so far. However, knowledge about subsequent climate recovery is still limited although this might be essential for the understanding of rapid climatic changes. Here we present a new sub-decadally resolved and precisely dated oxygen isotope (δ18O) record for the interval between 7.7 and 8.7 ka BP (103 calendar years before AD 1950), derived from the calcareous valves of benthic ostracods preserved in the varved lake sediments of pre-Alpine Mondsee (Austria). Besides a clear reflection of the 8.2 ka event, showing a good agreement in timing, duration and magnitude with other regional stable isotope records, the high-resolution Mondsee lake sediment record provides evidence for a 75-year-long interval of higher-than-average δ18O values directly after the 8.2 ka event, possibly reflecting increased air temperatures in Central Europe. This observation is consistent with evidence from other proxy records in the North Atlantic realm, thus most probably reflecting a hemispheric-scale climate signal rather than a local phenomenon. As a possible trigger we suggest an enhanced resumption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting assumptions from climate model simulations.
Kadoura, Ahmad Salim
2014-08-01
Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system\\'s potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Payan, Sébastien; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Bureau, Jérôme
2016-04-01
The Arctic Ocean is a very important region of the globe in which the effect of climate change can be detected over short time periods. We have used the possibility provided by the three infrared sounders TANSO-FTS on the GOSAT platform, IASI-A, and IASI-B on the MetOp platforms to retrieve the sea surface temperature (Tsurf) and the column averaged mixing ratio of several trace gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3) for pairs of nearly coinciding footprints (IFOVs) at small time separations (typically for IASI 46 min and 54 min depending on which satellite has first observed the corresponding scene). A strict filtering based on the AVHRR cloud fraction and the radiance analysis within the GOSAT and IASI footprints lead to a large number of quasi-coinciding IFOVs for which a 1D-var inversion (Tsurf and XCO2 as the main parameters in the state vector, plus scaling factors for the profiles of H2O and O3) has been performed. As an example, we used during retrieval the atmospheric window between 940 and 980 cm-1 (CO2 laser band) for which the sensitivity to the surface is maximum. The statistics of the comparison between IASI-A and IASI-B retrievals is presented and compared to the corresponding Eumetsat L2 products. The months of July and August for the years 2010 and 2013 have been considered since in these Arctic summer conditions the ice pack coverage is reduced. The differences between these two consecutive years is discussed and a comparison with 2010 (for which only IASI-A was in orbit) is confirming that IASI can indeed be used for climate change studies.
Mohsen Gerami
2010-01-01
This paper describes an overview of WiMAX. The paper outlines fundamental architectural components for WiMAX and explains WiMAX Security Issues. Furthermore various 802.16 standards, IEEE 802.16 protocol architecture and WiMAX Market will be discussed.
Analysis list: Max [Chip-atlas[Archive
Full Text Available Max Blood,Muscle,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/mm9/target/Max.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Max.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Max.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Max.Blood....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Max.Muscle.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Max.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/k
Analysis list: Max [Chip-atlas[Archive
Full Text Available Max Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Max.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Max.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Max....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Max.Cell_line.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml ...
Climate change uncertainty for daily minimum and maximum temperatures: a model inter-comparison
Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P
2006-11-09
Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean daily minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) temperatures than daily averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal temperature ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of daily average temperatures.
Feroughi, Omid M.; Kronemayer, Helmut; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof
2015-09-01
Multi-line NO laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry enables accurate gas-phase temperature imaging in combustion systems through least-squares fitting of excitation spectra. The required excitation wavelength scan takes several minutes which systematic biases the results in case of temperature fluctuations. In this work, the effect of various types (linear, Gaussian and bimodal) and amplitudes of temperature fluctuations is quantified based on simulated NO-LIF excitation spectra. Temperature fluctuations of less than ±5 % result in a negligible error of less than ±1 % in temperature for all cases. Bimodal temperature distributions have the largest effect on the determined temperature. Symmetric temperature fluctuations around 900 K have a negligible effect. At lower mean temperatures, fluctuations cause a positive bias leading to over-predicted mean temperatures, while at higher temperatures the bias is negative. The results of the theoretical analysis were applied as a guide for interpreting experimental multi-line NO-LIF temperature measurements in a mildly turbulent pilot-plant scale flame reactor dedicated for nanoparticle synthesis.
Eistrup, Jens
2010-01-01
undervisningsartiklen introducerer en række af Max Webers centrale begreber om herredømme, bureaukrati, social handlen, rationalitet og profession. dernæst illustreres hvorledes Webers begreber kan tjene til at belyse spændingsfeltet mellem politik og profession i en socialfaglig kontekst....
Scaff, Lawrence A.
1981-01-01
This paper investigates the unique intellectual partnership of Max Weber and Robert Michels, with particular emphasis on Weber's influence on Michel's inquiry into the sociology of parties and organization. Concludes with an evaluation of the import of Weber's critique of Michels' work. (DB)
Crystal structure of the minimalist Max-E47 protein chimera.
Faraz Ahmadpour
Full Text Available Max-E47 is a protein chimera generated from the fusion of the DNA-binding basic region of Max and the dimerization region of E47, both members of the basic region/helix-loop-helix (bHLH superfamily of transcription factors. Like native Max, Max-E47 binds with high affinity and specificity to the E-box site, 5'-CACGTG, both in vivo and in vitro. We have determined the crystal structure of Max-E47 at 1.7 Å resolution, and found that it associates to form a well-structured dimer even in the absence of its cognate DNA. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirms that Max-E47 is dimeric even at low micromolar concentrations, indicating that the Max-E47 dimer is stable in the absence of DNA. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrates that both non-specific DNA and the E-box site induce similar levels of helical secondary structure in Max-E47. These results suggest that Max-E47 may bind to the E-box following the two-step mechanism proposed for other bHLH proteins. In this mechanism, a rapid step where protein binds to DNA without sequence specificity is followed by a slow step where specific protein:DNA interactions are fine-tuned, leading to sequence-specific recognition. Collectively, these results show that the designed Max-E47 protein chimera behaves both structurally and functionally like its native counterparts.
Crystal Structure of the Minimalist Max-E47 Protein Chimera
Ahmadpour, Faraz [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Ghirlando, Rodolfo [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); De Jong, Antonia T. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Gloyd, Melanie [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Shin, Jumi A. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Guarné, Alba [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)
2012-02-28
Max-E47 is a protein chimera generated from the fusion of the DNA-binding basic region of Max and the dimerization region of E47, both members of the basic region/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors. Like native Max, Max-E47 binds with high affinity and specificity to the E-box site, 5'-CACGTG, both in vivo and in vitro. We have determined the crystal structure of Max-E47 at 1.7 Å resolution, and found that it associates to form a well-structured dimer even in the absence of its cognate DNA. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirms that Max-E47 is dimeric even at low micromolar concentrations, indicating that the Max-E47 dimer is stable in the absence of DNA. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrates that both non-specific DNA and the E-box site induce similar levels of helical secondary structure in Max-E47. These results suggest that Max-E47 may bind to the E-box following the two-step mechanism proposed for other bHLH proteins. In this mechanism, a rapid step where protein binds to DNA without sequence specificity is followed by a slow step where specific protein:DNA interactions are fine-tuned, leading to sequence-specific recognition. Collectively, these results show that the designed Max-E47 protein chimera behaves both structurally and functionally like its native counterparts.
Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This raster, created in 2010, is output from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and represents simulated mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) in...
Mezzasalma, Stefano A; Car, Tihomir; Nekić, Nikolina; Jerčinović, Marko; Buljan, Maja
2017-07-12
We theoretically interpret the thermal behaviour of the average radius versus substrate temperature of regular quantum dot/nanocluster arrays formed by sputtering semiconductor/metal atoms with oxide molecules. The analysis relies on a continuum theory for amorphous films with given surface quantities, perturbed by a nanoparticle lattice. An account of the basic thermodynamic contributions is given in terms of force-flux phenomenological coefficients of each phase (Ge, Ni, Al2O3). Average radii turn out to be expressible by a characteristic length scale and a dimensionless parameter, which mainly depend upon temperature through diffusion lengths, film pressures and finite-size corrections to interfacial tensions. The numerical agreement is good in both Ge ([Formula: see text]) and Ni ([Formula: see text]) lattices grown at temperatures [Formula: see text]800 K, despite the lower temperature behaviour of quantum dots seeming to suggest further driving forces taking part in such processes.
2014-01-01
Berlin neurologist and neurohistologist Max Bielschowsky counts among the most innovative microanatomical researchers at the beginning of the twentieth century. Although being quite underrated in the history of neurology today, Bielschowsky contributed substantially to the understanding of neurohereditary pathologies, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinsonism, and Huntington’s chorea, as well as the assessment of structural changes in several movement disorders. Working with other leading res...
Max-margin based Bayesian classifier
Tao-cheng HU‡; Jin-hui YU
2016-01-01
There is a tradeoff between generalization capability and computational overhead in multi-class learning. We propose a generative probabilistic multi-class classifi er, considering both the generalization capability and the learning/prediction rate. We show that the classifi er has a max-margin property. Thus, prediction on future unseen data can nearly achieve the same performance as in the training stage. In addition, local variables are eliminated, which greatly simplifi es the optimization problem. By convex and probabilistic analysis, an eﬃcient online learning algorithm is developed. The algorithm aggregates rather than averages dualities, which is different from the classical situations. Empirical results indicate that our method has a good generalization capability and coverage rate.
Olivares-Quiroz, Luis; Garcia-Colin, Leopoldo S
2009-10-01
In this work, we derive an analytical expression for the relaxation time tau as a function of temperature T for myoglobin protein (Mb, PDB:1MBN) in the high temperature limit (T>T(g)=200K). The method is based on a modified version of the Adam-Gibbs theory (AG theory) for the glass transition in supercooled liquids and an implementation of differential geometry techniques. This modified version of the AG theory takes into account that the entropic component in protein's denaturation has two major sources: a configurational contribution DeltaS(c) due to the unfolding of the highly ordered native state N and a hydration contribution DeltaS(hyd) arising from the exposure of non-polar residues to direct contact with solvent polar molecules. Our results show that the configurational contribution DeltaS(c) is temperature-independent and one order of magnitude smaller than its hydration counterpart DeltaS(hyd) in the temperature range considered. The profile obtained for log tau(T) from T=200 K to T=300 K exhibits a non-Arrhenius behavior characteristic of alpha relaxation mechanisms in hydrated proteins and glassy systems. This result is in agreement with recent dielectric spectroscopy data obtained for hydrated myoglobin, where at least two fast relaxation processes in the high temperature limit have been observed. The connection between the relaxation process calculated here and the experimental results is outlined.
Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes
Genton, Marc G.
2014-01-06
Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.
Daily pattern of %VO2max and heart rates in normal and undernourished school children.
Spurr, G B; Reina, J C
1990-10-01
The pattern of usage of the VO2max, expressed as %VO2max during ordinary school days, with minute-by-minute heart rate recording, was studied in 106 boys and 83 girls, 6-16 yr of age divided into three age groups (6-8, 10-12, and 14-16 yr), living under economically deprived conditions in Colombia and classified as nutritionally normal or marginally malnourished. In a 12-h period, the 12 groups of children spent, on the average, 7-10 h at less than 30% VO2max, 1.5-4 h at 30-50% VO2max, and an accumulated time of 20-60 min above 50% VO2max. The latter occurred in short bursts rather than during sustained periods. There was a statistically significant but small decrease (approximately -3%) in the average 12 h %VO2max with age but no effects of sex or nutritional status. The overall average was about 25% VO2max in all groups. The data may suggest the existence of the regulation of physical activity to some level easily sustainable for long periods. Expressing the data as 30 min averages during 5 h of school and 5 h of free-time activity allows for the possibility of seeing group differences during shorter periods of time. This may prove useful in exercise training programs and studies of effort in the workplace.
Boudenot, Jean-Claude
2016-01-01
« Les atomes, dit Jean Perrin en 1913, ne sont pas ces éléments éternels et insécables dont l'irréductible simplicité donnait au possible une borne, et, dans leur inimaginable petitesse, nous commençons à pressentir un fourmillement prodigieux de mondes nouveaux ». C'est bien dans un monde totalement nouveau, le monde quantique, que nous a fait pénétrer la découverte des quanta par Max Planck. Son article de 1900 est le déclencheur de l'une des plus grandes révolutions scientifiques de tous les temps. Les trente années qui suivent sont les plus riches de la physique ; Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Dirac, Born, Pauli… reconstruisent la physique sur de nouvelles bases sur fond de conflit des générations. Le monde est par ailleurs secoué par la guerre, Max Planck est tourmenté et vit des épreuves personnelles dramatiques. C'est l'homme, aussi bien que l'oeuvre, que les auteurs ont tenté de dépeindre dans cet ouvrage. Ils ont également souhait�...
2013-01-01
Max Reinharz was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1923. In 1939 he was obliged to emigrate to the UK. At the beginning of the Second World War he was interned as an enemy alien and then deported to Australia at a time when the British feared an invasion by Germany. He returned to the UK in 1943 and joined the British Army. After he was demobbed in 1947, he studied physics in Vienna, where he took his doctorate in 1953. Max Reinharz (centre) with Gordon Munday (left) and Henri Laporte (right) in 1979. After working in Brussels, at the physics Institute of Genoa and the University of Pisa, he joined CERN in 1960 as a fellow and in 1964 became a senior physicist in the NP Division. His name is associated with many publications, such as those of the CERN neutrino experiment and the CERN-Geneva-Lund collaboration to verify T symmetry conservation in lambda decays. He then joined a small team in the Proton Synchrotron Division (MPS) responsible for assisting external physics groups to prepare and i...
Hilley, G. E.; Burgmann, R.; Dumitru, T. A.; Ebert, Y.; Fosdick, J. C.; Le, K.; Levine, N. M.; Wilson, A.; Gudmundsdottir, M. H.
2010-12-01
We present eleven Apatite Fission Track (AFT) and Apatite (U-Th)/He (A-He) analyses and eighteen catchment-averaged cosmogenic 10Be denudation rates from the Santa Cruz Mountains (SCM) that resolve the unroofing history of this range over the past several Myr. This range lies within a restraining bend in the San Andreas Fault (SAF), which appears to be fixed to the crust on the northeast side of the fault based on previous work. In this view, the topographic asymmetry of the SCM reflects the advection of material southwest of the right-lateral SAF through a zone of uplift centered on the restraining bend, while material northwest of the fault remains trapped this zone. Northeast of the fault bend in the Sierra Azul block of the SCM, AFT ages adjacent to the SAF appear completely reset during the Pliocene, and show partial resetting at the periphery of the block. This suggests that total exhumation exceeded 3-4 km within the heart of the block and was SCM are near mass flux steady state over the timescales captured by the CRN (~1.5-6.5 ka). Nonetheless, the extent of topography in areas far from the bend suggests that there may be some component of regional fault-normal contraction and/or that this steady state has not been fully attained because of geomorphic lags and isostatic adjustments.
Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.
2015-01-01
The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.
Ke, Hong-Liang; Jing, Lei; Hao, Jian; Gao, Qun; Wang, Yao; Wang, Xiao-xun; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Jun
2016-07-01
The method of non-contact measurement of the junction temperature (Tj) for phosphor-converted white LEDs based on W/B ratio, the ratio of the total radiant energy (W) to the radiant energy of blue emission (B), is verified firstly. It is shown that for two phosphors (Y3Al5O12:Ce and CaAlSiN3:Eu)-converted white LEDs, an significant uncertainty is introduced into the linearity between Tj and W/B ratio. Then a new approach is proposed which uses (B + Y + R)/B ratio, the ratio of the sum of radiant energies of blue emission (B), yellow emission (Y) and red emission (R) to the radiant energy of blue emission, to establish the correlation with Tj. Result shows that the proposed approach is of a satisfactory linearity between Tj and (B + Y + R)/B ratio, with R-square equal to 0.9906 and RMSE equal to 2.27 °C. It is also demonstrated that the proposed method is applicable to actual LED lighting system composed of large number of LEDs.
German science. Max Planck charts new path.
Koenig, R
2000-06-09
Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.
MAX: Multiplatform Applications for XAFS
Alain, Michalowicz; Jacques, Moscovici; Diane, Muller-Bouvet; Karine, Provost, E-mail: michalov@univ-paris12.f [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris Est (ICMPE) UMR CNRS and Universite Paris 12, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)
2009-11-15
MAX is a new EXAFS and XANES analysis package, replacing our old 'EXAFS pour le Mac' software suite. The major improvement is the ability to work with strictly the same code, compiled at once for Microsoft Windows, Apple MacOSX and LINUX systems, justifying the title 'Multiplatform Applications for XAFS'. It is organized as four modules: ABSORBIX (X-ray absorbance and fluorescence self-absorption calculations), CHEROKEE (EXAFS and XANES data treatment), ROUNDMIDNIGHT (EXAFS modeling and fit) and CRYSTALFFREV (from crystal structures and molecular modeling to FEFF EXAFS and XANES theoretical calculations). Most features developed in 'EXAFS pour le Mac' are still available, but with much improvements in the user's interface, data treatment algorithms and new functionalities.
Mastering Autodesk 3ds Max 2013
Harper, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
Get professional training in 3ds Max from this Autodesk Official Training Guide Extremely popular with video game designers as well as architects, 3ds Max offers integrated 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and compositing tools designed to streamline production. If you already have a working knowledge of 3ds Max basics, this official guide will take your skills to the next level. Detailed tutorials cover all the latest features of 3ds Max. From modeling, texturing, animation, and architectural visualization to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides
谢毅文; 李娟; 陈伟荣; 罗世豪
2016-01-01
Based on the monthly average temperature data from 43 meteorological stations during 1 959 to 201 3,the spatiotemporal variation in the Pearl River basin was analyzed using the methods of linear re-gression,Mann-Kendall and wavelet analysis.The results show that:the average temperature showed an increasing trend in different time scales and the average temperature in most of the areas increased signifi-cantly (P <0.05).The annual average temperature series of the Pearl River basin had a mutation in 1 993 but the other time scales had mutations mainly in the early 1 990s.The primary period of the annual average temperature series was 3.6a and there were 2.4 ~3.4 years and 2.8 ~4.4 years change periods in 1 963 -1 970 and 1 983 -2008 respectively.The value range of the average temperature of the basin was 1 0.68 ~22.60℃ with the average value of 1 9.50℃,which showed an increasing trend totally form the western to eastern.The average temperature of most meteorological stations of different time scales showed an increasing trend,which increased significantly in the Pearl River Delta and the Dongjiang Riv-er basin due to the influence of urbanization.%根据1959－2013年珠江流域43个气象站点月平均气温数据，采用线性倾向估计、M－K 突变分析和小波分析等方法分析了珠江流域平均气温的时空变化特征。结果表明：珠江流域在统计时间段的平均气温均呈上升趋势，且绝大部分区域上升显著（P ＜0．05）；年平均气温序列于1993年存在显著突变，其余时间尺度突变主要发生在20世纪90年代初期；年平均气温序列主周期为3．6 a，1963－1970年期间存在2．4～3．4 a 的变化周期；1983－2008年期间存在2．8～4．4 a 的变化周期。流域内年平均气温范围为10．68～22．60℃，平均值为19．50℃，从西部到东部总体呈增加趋势；绝大多数气象站点在不同时间尺度内的平均气温均呈上升趋势，
A longitudinal assessment of change in VO2max and maximal heart rate in master athletes.
Hawkins, S A; Marcell, T J; Victoria Jaque, S; Wiswell, R A
2001-10-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the longitudinal change in VO2max and HRmax in male and female master endurance runners and to compare these changes based upon gender, age, and change in training volume. Eighty-six male (53.9 +/- 1.1 yr) and 49 female (49.1 +/- 1.2 yr) master endurance runners were tested an average of 8.5 yr apart. Subjects were grouped by age at first visit, change in VO2max, and change in training volume. Measurements included body composition by hydrostatic weighing, maximal exercise testing on a treadmill, and training history by questionnaire. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and multiple regression. VO2max and HRmax declined significantly regardless of gender or age group (P VO2max by age group ranged from -1% to -4.6% per year for men and -0.5% to 2.4% per year for women. Men with the greatest loss in VO2max had the greatest loss in LBM (-2.8 +/- 0.7 kg), whereas women with the greatest loss in VO2max demonstrated the greatest change in training volume (-24.1 +/- 3.0 km.wk-1). Additionally, women with the greatest loss in VO2max (-9.6 +/- 2.6 mL.kg-1.min-1) did not replace estrogen after menopause independent of age. HRmax change did not differ by VO2max change or training volume change in either gender. In conclusion, these data suggest that VO2max declines in male and female master athletes at a rate similar to or greater than that expected in sedentary older adults. Additionally, these data suggest that maintenance of LBM and VO2max were associated in men, whereas in women, estrogen replacement and maintenance of training volume were associated with maintained VO2max.
MaxReport: An Enhanced Proteomic Result Reporting Tool for MaxQuant.
Tao Zhou
Full Text Available MaxQuant is a proteomic software widely used for large-scale tandem mass spectrometry data. We have designed and developed an enhanced result reporting tool for MaxQuant, named as MaxReport. This tool can optimize the results of MaxQuant and provide additional functions for result interpretation. MaxReport can generate report tables for protein N-terminal modifications. It also supports isobaric labelling based relative quantification at the protein, peptide or site level. To obtain an overview of the results, MaxReport performs general descriptive statistical analyses for both identification and quantification results. The output results of MaxReport are well organized and therefore helpful for proteomic users to better understand and share their data. The script of MaxReport, which is freely available at http://websdoor.net/bioinfo/maxreport/, is developed using Python code and is compatible across multiple systems including Windows and Linux.
MaxEnt versus MaxLike: empirical comparisons with ant species distributions
Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Ellison, Aaron M.
2013-01-01
MaxEnt is one of the most widely used tools in ecology, biogeography, and evolution for modeling and mapping species distributions using presence-only occurrence records and associated environmental covariates. Despite its popularity, the exponential model implemented by MaxEnt does not directly estimate occurrence probability, the natural quantity of interest when modeling species distributions. Instead, MaxEnt generates an index of relative habitat suitability. MaxLike, a newly introduced m...
New Inference Rules for Max-SAT
Li, C M; Planes, J; 10.1613/jair.2215
2011-01-01
Exact Max-SAT solvers, compared with SAT solvers, apply little inference at each node of the proof tree. Commonly used SAT inference rules like unit propagation produce a simplified formula that preserves satisfiability but, unfortunately, solving the Max-SAT problem for the simplified formula is not equivalent to solving it for the original formula. In this paper, we define a number of original inference rules that, besides being applied efficiently, transform Max-SAT instances into equivalent Max-SAT instances which are easier to solve. The soundness of the rules, that can be seen as refinements of unit resolution adapted to Max-SAT, are proved in a novel and simple way via an integer programming transformation. With the aim of finding out how powerful the inference rules are in practice, we have developed a new Max-SAT solver, called MaxSatz, which incorporates those rules, and performed an experimental investigation. The results provide empirical evidence that MaxSatz is very competitive, at least, on ran...
Max Jakobson õiendab arveid ajalooga / Imbi Paju
Paju, Imbi, 1959-
2003-01-01
Soome politoloogi ja diplomaadi Max Jakobsoni raamatust "Tilinpäätos" ("Arve sulgemine"), milles ta käsitleb Eesti ja Soome suhteid 20. sajandil. Vt samas: Lennart Meri meelitas Jakobsoni sõjakuritegusid uurima; lühiintervjuu Max Jakobsoniga
Veteranpoliitik Max Jakobson õpetab ajalugu / Sirje Kiin
Kiin, Sirje, 1949-
1998-01-01
Soome sõltumatu välispoliitika konsultant ja ajakirjanik Max Jakobson. Ülevaade Max Jakobsoni intervjuust soomerootsi majandusajakirjale "Forum för ekonomi och teknik" 1998. aasta aprillinumbris Venemaa Baltimaade-vastasest propagandast ning EL-i ja NATO laienemisest
Mr. Ajay Roy
2013-06-01
Full Text Available IEEE 802.16(Broadband Wireless MAN is fastgrowing wireless broadband networks of the world. WiMAX isone of the key technology cof IEEE 802.16 standard .In thispaper we provide an overview of WiMAX.
Veteranpoliitik Max Jakobson õpetab ajalugu / Sirje Kiin
Kiin, Sirje, 1949-
1998-01-01
Soome sõltumatu välispoliitika konsultant ja ajakirjanik Max Jakobson. Ülevaade Max Jakobsoni intervjuust soomerootsi majandusajakirjale "Forum för ekonomi och teknik" 1998. aasta aprillinumbris Venemaa Baltimaade-vastasest propagandast ning EL-i ja NATO laienemisest
Max Jakobson õiendab arveid ajalooga / Imbi Paju
Paju, Imbi, 1959-
2003-01-01
Soome politoloogi ja diplomaadi Max Jakobsoni raamatust "Tilinpäätos" ("Arve sulgemine"), milles ta käsitleb Eesti ja Soome suhteid 20. sajandil. Vt samas: Lennart Meri meelitas Jakobsoni sõjakuritegusid uurima; lühiintervjuu Max Jakobsoniga
FLECH PowerMax Service Requirement Specification
and the Distribution System Operator (DSO) services defined in [1]. The PowerMax service has been further discussed in [2], and this technical report seeks to clarify the implementation details first discussed in that paper. The aim of the PowerMax service it to relieve congestion issue s in the distribution system...
VARIOUS HANDOVER PROCESSES IN WI-MAX
Deepak Nandal
2012-09-01
Full Text Available WiMAX is a broadband wireless access (BWA scheme based on IEEE 802.16. This is an emerging technology that aims at providing last mile access internet and data services. Since 2001, WiMAX has evolved from 802.16 to 802.16d standard for fixed wireless access and to new IEEE 802.16e (Mobile WiMAX standard with mobility support. Mobile WiMAX introduces the most significant featurethat is support for handovers which can be considered as a basic requirement for mobile communication system. Since this standard support all type of data and applications like mobile Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP, multimedia video stream (IPTV etc. or multimedia gaming and other real time, non real time services, so the handover schemes must be fast and efficient should avoid any packet loss. This paper gives an overview of handover procedure andtypes of handover supported by mobile WiMAX.
Raffensperger, John
2015-02-01
The most common cancer of the kidney in infants and children is named for Max Wilms, a German surgeon. How did this eponym come about? There were excellent reviews of this lesion before Wilms, a second year surgical assistant, published "Die Mischgeschwulste Der Niere" or The Mixed Tumors of the Kidney in 1899. At thirty two years of age, he demonstrated a masterful knowledge of pathology and embryology. Wilms' career was cut short when he became septic after operating on a prisoner of war during WWI. The survival rate for children with Wilms tumor was dismal until William Ladd, at the Boston Children's hospital introduced rational surgical treatment. By mid century, Robert Gross achieved a 47% survival rate with surgery combined with postoperative radiation. Sydney Farber treated Wilms tumors with Actinomycin-d and opened the door to cancer chemotherapy. With protocols developed by the National Wilms Tumor Study Group, the survival rate of children with Wilms tumors reached 90% by the end of the twentieth century.
Estimated VO2max and its corresponding velocity predict performance of amateur runners
Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of runners, with a proportional increase in their involvement in amateur street competition. Identification of the determinants of performance in this population appears necessary for optimization of time devoted to training. The objective of this study was to ascertain the association between estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, critical velocity (CV and VO2max velocity (VVO2max and athletic performance in the 3.6 km (uphill and 10 and 21.1 km (flatland events. Twelve amateur runners (nine male, mean age 36 ± 5 years underwent five tests: 1 and 5 km race on level ground, 3.6 km race with slope (≈8%, and indirect VO2max measurement. CV was determined from the linear relationship between distance and run time on the first two tests. The subjects then took part in two official 10 km and 21.1 km (half marathon races. VVO2max was calculated from the VO2max through a metabolic equation. VO2max showed the best association with running performance in the 10 and 21.1 km events. For the uphill race, VVO2max showed a better association. Overall, the variable with the highest average association was VO2max (0.91±0.07, followed by VVO2max (0.90±0.04 and VC (0.87±0.06. This study showed strong associations between physiological variables established by low-cost, user-friendly indirect methods and running performance in the 10 and 21.1 km (flatland and 3.6 km (uphill running events.
Study on the Average Temperature of Forage Growth Period Interpolation Method%天然牧草生育期平均气温插值方法研究
于士凯; 姚艳敏; 王德营; 唐鹏钦; 陈仲新; 王道龙
2012-01-01
天然牧草生育期平均气温是牧草生长、生态环境保护等模型的重要参数.为了找出适宜天然牧草生育期平均气温的差值方法,以内蒙古自治区为研究区域,根据气温的垂直变化规律,将不同经纬度和海拔高度上的气象站点牧草生育期平均气温数据根据海拔高程投影到虚拟0海平面上,利用反距离插值(IDW)、样条函数(Spline)插值、克里金(Kriging)插值3种插值方法进行研究区域牧草生育期平均气温的空间分布推算,再运用DEM数据进行校正,比较分析最适宜的牧草生育期平均气温空间插值方法.3种插值方法平均误差为:IDW插值(-1.34％)＞Spline插值(1.11％)＞Kriging插值(0.36％)；RMSE值:Kriging插值＜IDW插值＜Spline插值,其值分别为0.36＜0.69＜0.74.MAE值:Kriging插值＜Spline插值＜IDW插值,其值分别为0.14＜0.33＜0.35.研究结果表明,克里金(Kriging)插值为牧草生育期平均气温最优插值方法.%The average temperature of forage growth period was an important parameter for the model of grass crop growth and eco-environmental protection. In order to find out the optimum method for the average temperature interpolation of grass growth period, this paper took the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as the study areas. Firstly, according to the temperature vertical changing regularities, the average temperature data in pasture growth period of all climate sites were projected in different longitude and latitude to the virtual 0 sea level based on the latitude. Spline, IDW, Kriging interpolation methods were used to carry on the data interpolation. And then DEM data was used to conduct the temperature correction. The average errors of three interpolation methods were: IDW interpolation (-1.34%) > Spline Interpolation (1.11%) > the Kriging Interpolation (0.36%). The RMSE value: Kriging interpolation < IDW interpolation < Spline interpolation and the values were 0.36 < 0.69 < 0.74. The MAE value
Murdock, Kelly L
2012-01-01
Updated version of the bestselling 3ds Max book on the market Autodesk 3ds Max is top animation software used by developers, visual effects artists, and graphic designers in film, television, and the game industry. One place designers turn for crucial information on how to use 3ds Max is this in-depth book. Whether you're a beginner just itching to create something right away or an experienced user checking out the latest and greatest features, you'll find it here. See what's new, what's tried and true, and just how creative you can get using the tips, tricks, and techniques in this essential
WiMax network planning and optimization
Zhang, Yan
2009-01-01
This book offers a comprehensive explanation on how to dimension, plan, and optimize WiMAX networks. The first part of the text introduces WiMAX networks architecture, physical layer, standard, protocols, security mechanisms, and highly related radio access technologies. It covers system framework, topology, capacity, mobility management, handoff management, congestion control, medium access control (MAC), scheduling, Quality of Service (QoS), and WiMAX mesh networks and security. Enabling easy understanding of key concepts and technologies, the second part presents practical examples and illu
石春蕊; 熊潇; 潘亚娟; 董继元; 骆志成; 郗群; 王亚婷
2016-01-01
Objective To evaluate effects of daily average temperature on the occurrence of urticaria in Lanzhou city,and to analyze differences in the effects between different populations.Methods Time-series data on daily outpatient visits for urticaria between January 1,2007 and December 31,2013 were collected from the First Hospital of Lanzhou University and Lanzhou University Second Hospital.Daily meteorological data during this peroid were obtained from the Gansu Meteorological Bureau.Distributed lag non-linear models were used to analyze the association between daily average temperature and occurrence of urticaria,and the analysis was stratified by age and gender.Results The association between daily average temperature and daily number of outpatient visits for urticaria was nonlinear.Low temperature had significant lag effects on the daily number of outpatient visits for urticaria,with the maximum relative risk (RR) value (1.014 [95％ CI 1.000-1.023]) observed at 6 ℃ on lag day 18.Stratification analysis demonstrated that the effects of high temperature on the number of outpatient visits for urticaria were apparent on the day of exposure in age groups of 0-18 and 19-64 years,but decreased on the day of exposure in the age group ≥ 65 years.The effects of low temperature,which showed similar trends along with the increment of lag days in all groups,were relatively delayed and occurred 2 to 4 days after exposure.Conclusions Air temperature affects the occurrence of urticaria in Lanzhou city.Low temperature has evident lag effects on the occurrence of urticaria,while high temperature does not have.%目的 探讨兰州市日均气温对荨麻疹发病的影响,以及不同人群中的差异.方法 收集兰州大学第一、二医院皮肤科2007年1月1日至2013年12月31日,荨麻疹就诊人数的时间序列资料和相应的气象资料,运用分布滞后非线性模型分析气温与荨麻疹发病的关系,并按性别和年龄进行分层分析.结果 日均
Inverse relationship between VO2max and economy/efficiency in world-class cyclists.
Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesus; Pérez, Margarita; Santalla, Alfredo; Chicharro, José L
2002-12-01
To determine the relationship that exists between VO2max and cycling economy/efficiency during intense, submaximal exercise in world-class road professional cyclists. METHODS Each of 11 male cyclists (26+/-1 yr (mean +/- SEM); VO2max: 72.0 +/- 1.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed: 1) a ramp test for O2max determination and 2) a constant-load test of 20-min duration at the power output eliciting 80% of subjects' VO2max during the previous ramp test (mean power output of 385 +/- 7 W). Cycling economy (CE) and gross mechanical efficiency (GE) were calculated during the constant-load tests. CE and GE averaged 85.2 +/- 2.3 W x L(-1) x min(-1) and 24.5 +/- 0.7%, respectively. An inverse, significant correlation was found between 1) VO2max (mL x kg(-0.32) x min(-1)) and both CE (r = -0.71; P = 0.01) and GE (-0.72; P = 0.01), and 2) VO2max (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and both CE (r = -0.65; P = 0.03) and GE (-0.64; P = 0.03). A high CE/GE seems to compensate for a relatively low VO2max in professional cyclists.
Siegel, Irving H.
The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)
Validation of a new method for estimating VO2max based on VO2 reserve.
Swain, David P; Parrott, James A; Bennett, Anna R; Branch, J David; Dowling, Elizabeth A
2004-08-01
The American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) preferred method for estimating maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) has been shown to overestimate VO2max, possibly due to the short length of the cycle ergometry stages. This study validates a new method that uses a final 6-min stage and that estimates VO2max from the relationship between heart rate reserve (HRR) and VO2 reserve. A cycle ergometry protocol was designed to elicit 65-75% HRR in the fifth and sixth minutes of the final stage. Maximal workload was estimated by dividing the workload of the final stage by %HRR. VO2max was then estimated using the ACSM metabolic equation for cycling. After the 6-min stage was completed, an incremental test to maximal effort was used to measure actual VO2max. Forty-nine subjects completed a pilot study using one protocol to reach the 6-min stage, and 50 additional subjects completed a modified protocol. The pilot study obtained a valid estimate of VO2max (r = 0.91, SEE = 3.4 mL x min(-1) x kg-1) with no over- or underestimation (mean estimated VO2max = 35.3 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), mean measured VO2max = 36.1 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1)), but the average %HRR achieved in the 6-min stage was 78%, with several subjects attaining heart rates considered too high for submaximal fitness testing. The second study also obtained a valid estimate of VO2max (r = 0.89, SEE = 4.0 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1)) with no over- or underestimation (mean estimated VO2max = 36.7 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), mean measured VO2max = 36.9 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), and the average %HRR achieved in the 6-min stage was 64%. A new method for estimating VO2max from submaximal cycling based on VO2 reserve has been found to be valid and more accurate than previous methods.
Max Reinhardt Haus Berliini / Triin Ojari
Ojari, Triin, 1974-
1998-01-01
Arhitekt Peter Eisenmani projekteeritud multifunktsionaalne maja on planeeritud II maailmasõjas hävinud Max Reinhardti teatrihoone kohale. Ühte hoonetahukasse kui uude maamärki on 'volditud' kokku aktiivse linnaelu kõik aspektid.
Max Reinhardt Haus Berliini / Triin Ojari
Ojari, Triin, 1974-
1998-01-01
Arhitekt Peter Eisenmani projekteeritud multifunktsionaalne maja on planeeritud II maailmasõjas hävinud Max Reinhardti teatrihoone kohale. Ühte hoonetahukasse kui uude maamärki on 'volditud' kokku aktiivse linnaelu kõik aspektid.
[VO2 max, a true exercise test].
Saunier, Carole
2013-01-01
VO2 max is nowadays an essential examination performed in the monitoring of heart failure. The nurse has a role to play during the test and in supporting the patient, although this test remains highly technical and complex.
WiMAX technology and network evolution
Etemad, Kamran
2010-01-01
WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, represents a paradigm shift in telecommunications technology. It offers the promise of cheaper, smaller, and simpler technology compared to existing broadband options such as DSL, cable, fiber, and 3G wireless.
Approximation by max-product type operators
Bede, Barnabás; Gal, Sorin G
2016-01-01
This monograph presents a broad treatment of developments in an area of constructive approximation involving the so-called "max-product" type operators. The exposition highlights the max-product operators as those which allow one to obtain, in many cases, more valuable estimates than those obtained by classical approaches. The text considers a wide variety of operators which are studied for a number of interesting problems such as quantitative estimates, convergence, saturation results, localization, to name several. Additionally, the book discusses the perfect analogies between the probabilistic approaches of the classical Bernstein type operators and of the classical convolution operators (non-periodic and periodic cases), and the possibilistic approaches of the max-product variants of these operators. These approaches allow for two natural interpretations of the max-product Bernstein type operators and convolution type operators: firstly, as possibilistic expectations of some fuzzy variables, and secondly,...
Gramkow, Claus
1999-01-01
In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...
Testing the νmax scaling relation
Coelho H. R.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Two key global seismic quantities are relevant to estimate the fundamental properties of a star: the frequency of maximum power (νmax and the large frequency separation (Δν. The focus of this work is to test the νmax scaling relation in order to ascertain it’s level of accuracy. Here we report our results using artificial data and real Kepler data, based on a grid-modelling approach.
On the Recursive Sequence +=max{,}/−
Ibrahim Yalcinkaya
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the periodic nature of the solution of the max-type difference equation +1=max{,}/2−1, =0,1,2,…, where the initial conditions are −1=1 and 0=2 for ∈(0,∞, and that 1 and 2 are positive rational numbers. The results in this paper solve the Open Problem proposed by Grove and Ladas (2005.
Holik, Federico; Plastino, A.
2011-01-01
Convex operational models (COMs) are considered as great extrapolations to larger settings of any statistical theory. In this article, we generalize the maximum entropy principle (MaxEnt) of Jaynes' to any COM. After expressing MaxEnt in a geometrical and lattice theoretical setting, we are able to cast it for any COM. This scope-amplification opens the door to a new systematization of the principle and sheds light into its geometrical structure. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Effects of erythrocyte infusion on VO2max at high altitude
Young, Jette Feveile; Sawka, M N; Muza, S R
1996-01-01
group received only saline. The VO2max of erythrocyte-infused [54 +/- 1 (SE) ml.kg-1.min-1] and control subjects (52 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) did not differ at SL before infusion. The decrement in VO2max on HA1 did not differ between groups, averaging 26% overall, despite higher (P arterial...... hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and arterial O2 content in the erythrocyte-infused subjects. By HA9, there were no longer any differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, or arterial O2 content between groups. No change in VO2max occurred between HA1 and HA9 for either group. Thus, despite...... increasing arterial O2-carrying capacity, autologous erythrocyte infusion did not ameliorate the decrement in VO2max at 4,300-m altitude....
MAX-EWMA CHART FOR AUTOCORRELATED PROCESSES (MEWMAP CHART
K. Thaga
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA control chart that is capable of detecting changes in both process mean and standard deviation for autocorrelated data (referred to as the Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Chart for Autocorrelated Process, or MEWMAP chart. This chart is based on fitting a time series model to the data, and then calculating the residuals. The observations are represented as a first-order autoregressive process plus a random error term. The Average Run Lengths (ARLs for fixed decision intervals and reference values (h, k are calculated. The proposed chart is compared with the Max-CUSUM chart for autocorrelated data proposed by Thaga (2003. Comparisons are based on the out-of-control ARLs. The MEWMAP chart detects moderate to large shifts in the mean and/or standard deviation at both low and high levels of autocorrelations more quickly than the Max-CUSUM chart for autocorrelated processes.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing stel voor dat 'n eksponensiaal geweegde bewegende gemiddelde kontrolekaart gebruik word om verandering van prosesgemiddelde en – standaardafwyking van outogekorreleerde data te bepaal. Die kontrolekaart word gedryf deur passing van 'n tydreeks as datamodel met bepaling van residuwaardes. Met hierdie gegewens as vertrekpunt word gemiddelde looplengtes vir vaste besluitintervalle en verwysingwaardes (h, k bereken. Die kontrolekaart bepaal matige en groot verskuiwings van waardes vir hoë en lae outokorrelasiewaardes heel snel.
Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Emergency Hospital Admissions in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark
Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana; Ketzel, Matthias
2011-01-01
One of the key climate change factors, temperature, has potentially grave implications for human health. We report the first attempt to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max)) and respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD), and cerebrovascular (CBD....... For an IQR (8°C) increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max), a 7% (95% CI: 1%, 13%) increase in the RD admission rate was observed in the warm period whereas an inverse association was found with CVD (-8%, 95% CI: -13%, -4%), and none with CBD. There was no association between the 5-day cumulative...
Magnetic MAX phases from theory and experiments; a review
Ingason, A. S.; Dahlqvist, M.; Rosen, J.
2016-11-01
This review presents MAX phases (M is a transition metal, A an A-group element, X is C or N), known for their unique combination of ceramic/metallic properties, as a recently uncovered family of novel magnetic nanolaminates. The first created magnetic MAX phases were predicted through evaluation of phase stability using density functional theory, and subsequently synthesized as heteroepitaxial thin films. All magnetic MAX phases reported to date, in bulk or thin film form, are based on Cr and/or Mn, and they include (Cr,Mn)2AlC, (Cr,Mn)2GeC, (Cr,Mn)2GaC, (Mo,Mn)2GaC, (V,Mn)3GaC2, Cr2AlC, Cr2GeC and Mn2GaC. A variety of magnetic properties have been found, such as ferromagnetic response well above room temperature and structural changes linked to magnetic anisotropy. In this paper, theoretical as well as experimental work performed on these materials to date is critically reviewed, in terms of methods used, results acquired, and conclusions drawn. Open questions concerning magnetic characteristics are discussed, and an outlook focused on new materials, superstructures, property tailoring and further synthesis and characterization is presented.
Magnetic MAX phases from theory and experiments; a review.
Ingason, A S; Dahlqvist, M; Rosen, J
2016-11-02
This review presents MAX phases (M is a transition metal, A an A-group element, X is C or N), known for their unique combination of ceramic/metallic properties, as a recently uncovered family of novel magnetic nanolaminates. The first created magnetic MAX phases were predicted through evaluation of phase stability using density functional theory, and subsequently synthesized as heteroepitaxial thin films. All magnetic MAX phases reported to date, in bulk or thin film form, are based on Cr and/or Mn, and they include (Cr,Mn)2AlC, (Cr,Mn)2GeC, (Cr,Mn)2GaC, (Mo,Mn)2GaC, (V,Mn)3GaC2, Cr2AlC, Cr2GeC and Mn2GaC. A variety of magnetic properties have been found, such as ferromagnetic response well above room temperature and structural changes linked to magnetic anisotropy. In this paper, theoretical as well as experimental work performed on these materials to date is critically reviewed, in terms of methods used, results acquired, and conclusions drawn. Open questions concerning magnetic characteristics are discussed, and an outlook focused on new materials, superstructures, property tailoring and further synthesis and characterization is presented.
Young, Vershawn Ashanti
2004-01-01
"Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…
Gramkow, Claus
2001-01-01
In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Analytic continuation average spectrum method for transport in quantum liquids
Kletenik-Edelman, Orly [School of Chemistry, Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rabani, Eran, E-mail: rabani@tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Reichman, David R. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2010-05-12
Recently, we have applied the analytic continuation averaged spectrum method (ASM) to calculate collective density fluctuations in quantum liquid . Unlike the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method, the ASM approach is capable of revealing resolved modes in the dynamic structure factor in agreement with experiments. In this work we further develop the ASM to study single-particle dynamics in quantum liquids with dynamical susceptibilities that are characterized by a smooth spectrum. Surprisingly, we find that for the power spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function there are pronounced differences in comparison with the MaxEnt approach, even for this simple case of smooth unimodal dynamic response. We show that for liquid para-hydrogen the ASM is closer to the centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) result while for normal liquid helium it agrees better with the quantum mode coupling theory (QMCT) and with the MaxEnt approach.
Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg
2016-06-01
The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.
Covariant approximation averaging
Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2014-01-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
V/V(max) test applied to SMM gamma-ray bursts
Matz, S. M.; Higdon, J. C.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.
1992-01-01
We have applied the V/V(max) test to candidate gamma-ray bursts detected by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard the SMM satellite to examine quantitatively the uniformity of the burst source population. For a sample of 132 candidate bursts identified in the GRS data by an automated search using a single uniform trigger criterion we find average V/V(max) = 0.40 +/- 0.025. This value is significantly different from 0.5, the average for a uniform distribution in space of the parent population of burst sources; however, the shape of the observed distribution of V/V(max) is unusual and our result conflicts with previous measurements. For these reasons we can currently draw no firm conclusion about the distribution of burst sources.
A VNS Metaheuristic with Stochastic Steps for Max 3-Cut and Max 3-Section
Ai-fan Ling
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A heuristic algorithm based on VNS is proposed to solve the Max 3-cut and Max 3-section problems. By establishing a neighborhood structure of the Max 3-cut problem, we propose a local search algorithm and a variable neighborhood global search algorithm with two stochastic search steps to obtain the global solution. We give some numerical results and comparisons with the well-known 0.836-approximate algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed heuristic algorithm can obtain efficiently the high-quality solutions and has the better numerical performance than the 0.836-approximate algorithm for the NP-Hard Max 3-cut and Max 3-section problems.
WiMAX network performance monitoring & optimization
Zhang, Qi; Dam, H
2008-01-01
frequency reuse, capacity planning, proper network dimensioning, multi-class data services and so on. Furthermore, as a small operator we also want to reduce the demand for sophisticated technicians and man labour hours. To meet these critical demands, we design a generic integrated network performance......In this paper we present our WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) network performance monitoring and optimization solution. As a new and small WiMAX network operator, there are many demanding issues that we have to deal with, such as limited available frequency resource, tight...... this integrated network performance monitoring and optimization system in our WiMAX networks. This integrated monitoring and optimization system has such good flexibility and scalability that individual function component can be used by other operators with special needs and more advanced function components can...
Oxidation of Alumina-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Environments
Smialek, James; Garg, Anita; Harder, Bryan; Nesbitt, James; Gabb, Timothy; Gray, SImon
2017-01-01
Protective coatings for high temperature turbine components are based on YSZ thermal barriers and oxidation resistant, alumina-forming NiAl or NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC MAX phases are thus of special interest because of good oxidation resistance and CTE that can match Al2O3 and YSZ. Their alumina scales grow according to cubic kinetics due to grain growth in the scale, with initial heating dominated by fast TiO2 growth. Protective cubic kinetics are also found in high pressure burner rig tests of MAXthal 211 Ti2AlC, but with reduced rates due to volatile TiO(OH)2 formation in water vapor. YSZ-coatings on bulk Ti2AlC exhibit remarkable durability up to 1300C in furnace tests and at least a 25x life advantage compared to superalloys. At another extreme, Cr2AlC is resistant to low temperature Na2SO4 hot corrosion and exhibits thermal cycling stability bonded to a superalloy disk material. Accordingly, sputtered Cr2AlC coatings on disk specimens prevented hot corrosion detriments on LCF. Breakaway oxidation (Ti2AlC), scale spallation (Cr2AlC), interdiffusion, and processing as coatings still present serious challenges. However the basic properties of MAX phases provide some unusual opportunities for use in high temperature turbines.
VO2 max in an Indian population: a study to understand the role of factors determining VO2 max.
Nitin, Y M; Sucharita, S; Madhura, M; Thomas, T; Sandhya, T A
2013-01-01
VO2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen a person can consume and the value does not change despite an increase in workload. There is lack of data evaluating the impact of factors, which could affect VO2 max measurement, particularly in Indian population. The objectives of the present study were (i) to estimate VO2 max in a young healthy Indian population and to compare it with available prediction equations for Indian population (ii) to correlate time to achieve VO2 max with the relative VO2 max (iii) to assess the factors affecting the time to achieve VO2 max measurement (body composition and physical activity level). Twenty healthy adult males (18-30 years) underwent detailed anthropometry, physical activity level and modified Bruce protocol for VO2 max assessment. Breath by breath VO2, VCO2, oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood pressure were measured continuously and following exercise protocol. There was an internal validity between the estimated VO2 max and the maximum heart rate (MHR) (r = 0.51, P VO2 max P VO2 max. Out of the 3 prediction equations computed to estimate VO2 max, 2 equations significantly overestimated VO2 max. In Conclusion, physical activity level emerged to be a strong predictor of time to VO2 max. Time to achieve VO2 max is an important factor to be considered when determining VO2 max. There was an overestimation in the VO2 max values derived from predicted equations.
Autodesk 3ds Max 2013 essentials
Derakhshani, Dariush
2012-01-01
A four-color, task-based Autodesk Official Training Guide covering the core features of 3ds Max Beginning users of this popular 3D animation and effects software will find everything they need for a thorough understanding of the software's key features and functions in this colorful guide. The authors break down the complexities of learning 3D software and get you going right away with interesting, job-related projects. You'll learn the basics of modeling, texturing, animating, lighting, visualization, and visual effects with 3ds Max, exploring the methods and why they are used as they are.
Autodesk 3ds Max 2012 Essentials
Derakhshani, Randi L
2011-01-01
Get a jump-start on Autodesk 3ds Max 2012 essentials-with the Essentials! The new Essentials books from Sybex are beautiful, task-based, full-color Autodesk Official Training Guides that help you get up to speed on Autodesk topics quickly and easily. Autodesk 3ds Max 2012 Essentials thoroughly covers the fundamentals of this popular 3D animation effects, and visualization software, teaching you what you need to become quickly productive. By following the book's clear explanations, practical tutorials, and step-by-step exercises, you'll cover all the bases. Topics include modeling, animation,
Murdock, Kelly L
2013-01-01
A complete reference covering the newest version of 3ds Max software Autodesk 3ds Max is the popular 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and compositing software preferred by game developers and graphic designers in film and television. This comprehensive reference not only introduces beginners to this pricey and complex software, but also serves as a reference for experienced users. Packed with expert advice from popular author Kelly Murdock, it begins with a Quick Start tutorial to get you up and running, then continues with more than 150 step-by-step tutorials, advanced coverage, and plenty
Yamada, E.; Sudo, H.; Aoyama, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
2000-03-10
Fuji Electric has developed the open refrigerating display case 'MAX Series' for supermarkets which has further pursued 'articles easy to see, select, and take out' on the concept of 'friendliness' as well as friendliness to customers and installation workers. Its main advantages are (1) The dimensions were determined based on human engineering and improved the display effect of articles. This enables the exhibits to strongly appeal to customers. (2) The air curtain optimized through simulation realizes uniform temperature in the case, reduction in energy consumption, and high freshness control. (author)
Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism
Roger Chao
2012-03-01
Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.
Teaching Financial Literacy with Max and Ruby
Brown, Natalya; Ferguson, Kristen
2017-01-01
Teaching financial literacy is important at all stages of life, but is often neglected with elementary students. In this article, the authors describe a strategy for teaching financial literacy using the books about Max and Ruby by Rosemary Wells. These books can help introduce the five key concepts of financial literacy: scarcity, exchange,…
Teaching Financial Literacy with Max and Ruby
Brown, Natalya; Ferguson, Kristen
2017-01-01
Teaching financial literacy is important at all stages of life, but is often neglected with elementary students. In this article, the authors describe a strategy for teaching financial literacy using the books about Max and Ruby by Rosemary Wells. These books can help introduce the five key concepts of financial literacy: scarcity, exchange,…
MaxEnt and dynamical information
Hernando, A; Plastino, A R
2012-01-01
The MaxEnt solutions are shown to display a variety of behaviors (beyond the traditional and customary exponential one) if adequate dynamical information is inserted into the concomitant entropic-variational principle. In particular, we show both theoretically and numerically that power laws and power laws with exponential cut-offs emerge as equilibrium densities in proportional and other dynamics.
CAS, Max Planck Society to Enhance Cooperation
无
2004-01-01
@@ According to a briefing issued by the CAS Bureau of In ternational Cooperation on May 8, 2004, CAS and the Max Planck Society (MPS) in Germany are considering to establish a multidisciplinary institute in Shanghai to conduct research into computational biology. The move is applauded as a fresh step in promoting Sino-German S&T cooperation.
Max Ernst’s perverse feuilletons
Annateresa Fabris
2010-07-01
Full Text Available In his three collage novels Max Ernst uses nineteenth-century illustrations, most from catalogues, scientific magazines and serial publications. The ambiguous and elliptical narratives created by the artist manifest a critical vision of nineteenth-century society steeped in surrealist and psychoanalytic categories.
The Statue of Liberty Peter Max Style!
Cunningham, Kathy
2012-01-01
The author's school is only 30 minutes from New York City, so every year when second-graders study towns and cities, the students do a project based on New York City landmarks. This year was the Statue of Liberty. The author introduced Peter Max's famous Pop art to her students, and explained that, as the art world kept changing, artists decided…
Commissioning of a 6.4 T superconducting wavelength shifter at MAX-lab
Wallen, E
2002-01-01
The 6.4 T wavelength shifter at MAX-lab is a three pole superconducting planar wiggler with a warm bore, i.e. the vacuum tube passing through the wavelength shifter is at ambient temperature. The wavelength shifter, including surrounding systems such as power supply and He liquifier, has been assembled, tested, and commissioned at MAX-lab. The wavelength shifter has been installed into the 1.5 GeV MAX II electron storage ring. A field of 6.4 T in the central pole has been obtained and a consumption of 4.3 l/h of liquid helium has been measured under nominal working conditions. The influence on the stored electron beam in the MAX II ring has been measured and the measurements have shown that the wavelength shifter will not degrade the performance of MAX II. The wavelength shifter is however not in use at present and it has been taken out of the MAX II storage ring.
袁博; 许学斌; 陈仓社
2016-01-01
Numerical simulation of heat transfer performance for the tubesheet and its adjacent fluid area in dual tubesheet heat exchanger was carried out in this article by using software Fluent. With heat transfer model established, the heat transfer mechanism was studied. The heat transfer equation was then provided and the method for calculating average metal temperature of tubesheet was proposed. It was shown that the simulation result was coincident with theoretical solution. Thus the correctness of heat transfer equation has been verified by simulation result.%利用FLUENT软件对双管板换热器管板及其邻近流体区域的传热特性进行了数值模拟研究，通过建立传热模型，对其传热机理进行了研究，给出了描述其传热过程的传热方程，提出了管板平均金属温度的计算方法。结果表明：管板平均金属温度的模拟结果与理论解相符，模拟结果验证了传热方程的正确性。
许天舒; 史小平
2001-01-01
采用系统开环脉冲响应序列，创造了一种非参数建模方法，解决了复杂非线性系统的建模难题，并应用内模控制原理创造了一种反应堆冷却剂平均温度恒定控制的非参数模型.该模型设计简单、跟踪调节性能好、鲁棒性强、能消除不可测干扰.仿真实验证明了本设计方法的正确性和有效性，实现了系统的高精度控制.%This paper applies the internal model control method to the refrigerant average temperature control problem of a nuclear reactor, using the open-loop impulse response series of the system as its non-parameter model. The control method presented in this paper is rather simple and has good tracking performance and robustness. The simulation experiment testifies the correctness and effectiveness of the method. The high accuracy control of the system is achieved
Variability of average SUV from several hottest voxels is lower than that of SUVmax and SUVpeak
Laffon, E. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Lamare, F.; Clermont, H. de [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Burger, I.A. [University Hospital of Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Marthan, R. [Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)
2014-08-15
To assess variability of the average standard uptake value (SUV) computed by varying the number of hottest voxels within an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG)-positive lesion. This SUV metric was compared with the maximal SUV (SUV{sub max}: the hottest voxel) and peak SUV (SUV{sub peak}: SUV{sub max} and its 26 neighbouring voxels). Twelve lung cancer patients (20 lesions) were analysed using PET dynamic acquisition involving ten successive 2.5-min frames. In each frame and lesion, average SUV obtained from the N = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 hottest voxels (SUV{sub max-N}){sub ,} SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} were assessed. The relative standard deviations (SDrs) from ten frames were calculated for each SUV metric and lesion, yielding the mean relative SD from 20 lesions for each SUV metric (SDr{sub N}, SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}), and hence relative measurement error and repeatability (MEr-R). For each N, SDr{sub N} was significantly lower than SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}. SDr{sub N} correlated strongly with N: 6.471 x N{sup -0.103} (r = 0.994; P < 0.01). MEr-R of SUV{sub max-30} was 8.94-12.63 % (95 % CL), versus 13.86-19.59 % and 13.41-18.95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} respectively. Variability of SUV{sub max-N} is significantly lower than for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}. Further prospective studies should be performed to determine the optimal total hottest volume, as voxel volume may depend on the PET system. (orig.)
Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.
Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira
2015-12-01
Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal
The reliability of aerobic capacity (VO2max) testing in adolescent girls.
Pivarnik, J M; Dwyer, M C; Lauderdale, M A
1996-09-01
Despite the fact that our subjects were naive regarding the test procedures, it appears that aerobic fitness testing using an incremental treadmill protocol is extremely reliable in adolescent girls. In addition, day-to-day variability of VO2max in our subjects averaged less than 5%, which is similar to results obtained with adults (Katch, Sady, & Freedson, 1982). Finally, it was most encouraging to find that a single VO2max test trial resulted in high reliability coefficients. This finding should provide a great deal of confidence to investigators who are performing aerobic fitness tests on large numbers of subjects where multiple testing is neither practical nor cost-effective.
MaxEnt versus MaxLike: empirical comparisons with ant species distributions
Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ellison, Aaron M
2013-01-01
MaxEnt is one of the most widely used tools in ecology, biogeography, and evolution for modeling and mapping species distributions using presence-only occurrence records and associated environmental covariates...
MAX mutations cause hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
Burnichon, N.; Cascon, A.; Schiavi, F.; Morales, N.P.; Comino-Mendez, I.; Abermil, N.; Inglada-Perez, L.; Cubas, A.A. de; Amar, L.; Barontini, M.; Quiros, S.B. de; Bertherat, J.; Bignon, Y.J.; Blok, M.J.; Bobisse, S.; Borrego, S.; Castellano, M.; Chanson, P.; Chiara, M.D.; Corssmit, E.P.; Giacche, M.; Krijger, R.R. de; Ercolino, T.; Girerd, X.; Gomez-Garcia, E.B.; Gomez-Grana, A.; Guilhem, I.; Hes, F.J.; Honrado, E.; Korpershoek, E.; Lenders, J.W.; Leton, R.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Merlo, A.; Mori, L.; Murat, A.; Pierre, P.; Plouin, P.F.; Prodanov, T.; Quesada-Charneco, M.; Qin, N.; Rapizzi, E.; Raymond, V.; Reisch, N.; Roncador, G.; Ruiz-Ferrer, M.; Schillo, F.; Stegmann, A.P.; Suarez, C.; Taschin, E.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Tops, C.M.; Urioste, M.; Beuschlein, F.; Pacak, K.; Mannelli, M.; Dahia, P.L.; Opocher, G.; Eisenhofer, G.; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A.P.; Robledo, M.
2012-01-01
PURPOSE: Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are genetically heterogeneous neural crest-derived neoplasms. Recently we identified germline mutations in a new tumor suppressor susceptibility gene, MAX (MYC-associated factor X), which predisposes carriers to PCC. How MAX mutations
Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) General Information
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data is a set of person-level data files on Medicaid eligibility, service utilization, and payments. The MAX data are created to...
Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) General Information
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data is a set of person-level data files on Medicaid eligibility, service utilization, and payments. The MAX data are created to...
Chemical Reaction Optimization for Max Flow Problem
Reham Barham
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This study presents an algorithm for MaxFlow problem using "Chemical Reaction Optimization algorithm (CRO". CRO is a recently established meta-heuristics algorithm for optimization, inspired by the nature of chemical reactions. The main concern is to find the best maximum flow value at which the flow can be shipped from the source node to the sink node in a flow network without violating any capacity constraints in which the flow of each edge remains within the upper bound value of the capacity. The proposed MaxFlow-CRO algorithm is presented, analyzed asymptotically and experimental test is conducted. Asymptotic runtime is derived theoretically. The algorithm is implemented using JAVA programming language. Results show a good performance with a complexity of O(I E2, for I iterations and E edges. The number of iterations I in the algorithm, is an important factor that will affect the results obtained. As number of iterations is increased, best possible max-Flow value is obtained.
Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Fonseca, Alfredo José; Castro, Anita Weigand de; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José
2007-08-01
To determine the degree of reproducibility of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) among soccer players, using a modified Heck protocol. 2 evaluations with an interval of 15 days between them were performed on 11 male soccer players. All the players were at a high performance level; they were training for an average of 10 hours per week, totaling 5 times a week. When they were evaluated, they were in the middle of the competitive season, playing 1 match per week. The soccer players were evaluated on an ergometric treadmill with velocity increments of 1.2 km.h-1 every 2 minutes and a fixed inclination of 3% during the test. VO2max was measured directly using a breath-by-breath metabolic gas analyzer. The maximum running speed and VO2max attained in the 2 tests were, respectively: (15.6 +/- 1.1 vs. 15.7 +/- 1.2 km.h-1; [P = .78]) and (54.5 +/- 3.9 vs. 55.2 +/- 4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = .88]). There was high and significant correlation of VO2max between the 2 tests with a 15-day interval between them [r = 0.97; P testing was insufficient to significantly modify the soccer players' VO2max values.
MAX2 Affects Multiple Hormones to Promote Photornorphogenesis
Hui Shen; Ling Zhu; Qing-Yun Bu; Enamul Huq
2012-01-01
Ubiquitin-26S proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to play central roles in light and hormone-regulated plant growth and development.Previously,we have shown that MAX2,an F-box protein,positively regulates facets of photomorphogenic development in response to light.However,how MAX2 controls these responses is still unknown.Here,we show that MAX2 oppositely regulates GA and ABA biosynthesis to optimize seed germination in response to light.Dose-response curves showed that max2 seeds are hyposensitive to GA and hypersensitive to ABA in seed germination responses.RT-PCR assays demonstrated that the expression of GA biosynthetic genes is down-regulated,while the expression of GA catabolic genes is up-regulated in the max2 seeds compared to wild-type.Interestingly,expression of both ABA biosynthetic and catabolic genes is up-regulated in the max2 seeds compared to wild-type.Treatment with an auxin transport inhibitor,NPA,showed that increased auxin transport in max2 seedlings contributes to the long hypocotyl phenotype under light.Moreover,light-signaling phenotypes are restricted to max2,as the biosynthetic mutants in the strigolactone pathway,max1,max3,and max4,did not display any defects in seed germination and seedling de-etiolation compared to wild-type.Taken together,these data suggest that MAX2 modulates multiple hormone pathways to affect photomorphogenesis.
Pseudogap and cuprate superconductivity: MaxEnt-μSR studies
Boekema, C., E-mail: boekemac@aol.com [San Jose State University, San Jose, CA (United States); Schwartz, R.; Love, A. [San Jose State University, San Jose, CA (United States); Browne, M.C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, CA (United States)
2013-10-15
Highlights: • A magnetic origin of cuprate superconductivity is plausible. • Cuprate loop currents are observed, close to predictions. • Pseudogap effects are seen above and below T{sub c}. -- Abstract: The basic physics of cuprate superconductivity is still much deliberated after 27 years of research. In contrast to phononic or polaronic roots, Varma’s theory promotes a magnetic origin. To probe cuprate magnetism, we examine zero field (ZF) muon-spin-rotation (μSR) data of RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (RBCO; R = Gd, Eu) especially near T{sub c}. Possible weak effects are analyzed using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt, ME) to transform our μSR time series. Concerning predicted pseudogap loop currents, we have observed μSR signals in zero field for GdBCO above and now also below T{sub c}. These are near predicted fields of about 100 Oe. Using MaxEnt, we analyze transverse field (TF) μSR data of optimal doped EuBCO. Our focus is also on a temperature interval above T{sub c} to comprehend precursor effects. Our results point toward magnetic roots of cuprate superconductivity.
Jorge Cesar dos Anjos Antonini
2009-04-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo matemático de estimativa da temperatura média diária do ar no Estado de Goiás, que considera simultaneamente as variações espacial e temporal. O modelo foi desenvolvido por meio de uma combinação linear da altitude, latitude, longitude e da série trigonométrica de Fourier incompleta usando os três primeiros coeficientes harmônicos. Os parâmetros do modelo foram ajustados aos dados de 21 estações meteorológicas, por meio de regressão linear múltipla. O coeficiente de correlação resultante do ajuste do modelo foi de 0,91, e o índice de concordância de Willmott foi igual a 1. O modelo foi testado com os dados de três estações de altitudes diferentes: elevada (1.100 m, média (554 m e baixa (431 m. O desempenho foi considerado mediano para altitudes baixas e elevadas, e muito bom para altitudes médias.The objective of this work was to develop a mathematical model to predict the daily average of air temperature in Goiás, Brazil. The model was developed through a linear combination of altitude, latitude, longitude, and the incomplete trigonometric Fourier series using the first three harmonic coefficients. The parameters of the model were adjusted with data from 21 weather stations, using multiple linear regression. The resulting correlation coefficient of the model was 0.91, and the Willmott's index of agreement was close to 1. The model was tested with data from three additional weather stations at different altitudes: high (1,100 m, medium (554 m, and low (431 m. The performance of the model was reasonable for both high and low altitude stations, and very good for the medium altitude station.
Processing And Properties Of MAX Phases – Based Materials Using SHS Technique
Chlubny L.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Authors present results of works on the interesting new group of advanced ceramics called MAX phases – Ti-based ternary carbides and nitrides. They have an original layered structure involved highly anisotropic properties laying between ceramics and metals, with high elastic modulus, low hardness, very high fracture toughness and high electrical and heat conductivity. Using Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS in the combustion regime it is possible to prepare MAX phases-rich powders that can be used as the precursors for preparation of dense MAX polycrystals by presureless sintering or hot-pressing. Different novel Ti-based phases with layered structures, namely: Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC have been synthesized in a combustion regime. The possibility of controlling of combustion phenomena for obtaining near single-phase products is discussed in details as well as some of properties of the materials tested as structure and functional ceramics.
C (max) and t (max) verification using Fibonacci sequence and absorption rate.
Grabowski, Tomasz; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J; Borucka, Beata; Ziółkowski, Hubert
2013-06-01
The aim of this study was to verify the values of maximal observed concentration (C max,obs) and the time, at which maximum concentration is observed (t max,obs) using the analysis of the absorption rate constant (k ab). It focused on the changes in concentration over time (C-T) for drugs, for which several peaks of concentration occur. In addition, the attempt was made to use Fibonacci sequence to facilitate the visual analysis of the dynamics in changes of concentration on C-T graphs. The analyses were conducted with the use of three hypothetical data groups (groups I, II and III), which had distinct C-T profiles, and with the in vivo data form healthy subjects (n = 10) taking part in a bioequivalence study, who was given a single oral dose of topiramate (100 mg). The comparison of hypothetical and real in vivo data demonstrated that for the C-T curves, in which there are several peaks of concentration C max,obs and t max,obs values can easily be miscalculated when the increase in concentration is not properly related to the appropriate absorption phase (63.2, 87.50, 96.88 %). It was also demonstrated that the data transformation with the use of Fibonacci sequence exposes slight differences in the observed concentration values in a semi-logarithmic scale. The results of this study show that in case of C-T curves with several peaks of concentration, the verification of C max and t max data obtained taking into account different absorption phases enables more precise evaluation of these parameters.
Alfonso Piza
2009-08-01
Full Text Available El presente trabajo recose en sintesis el fruto de mi experiencia como profesor dela asignatura sobre MAX WEBER a lo largo de cuatro años.Quizás rinda mayor provecho pera quien desee lograr una visión amplia de los problemas que plantea un sociólogo de la magnitud de Weber, no así para aquellos que quieran abordar problemáticas específicas implícitas en su obra.
Stroebe, Wolfgang; Zimbardo, Philip G
2014-01-01
Jacob Max Rabbie, an internationally renowned social psychologist and a founding member of the European Association of Social Psychology (EASP), died on June 29, 2013. Jaap was born in Haarlem, the Netherlands, on October 4, 1927. Jaap studied social psychology at the University of Amsterdam and became the face of Dutch social psychology. His later research focused on aggression between individuals and groups, his early work attempted to isolate the minimal conditions that suffice to generate discriminatory ingroup-outgroup attitudes. Jaap was a dedicated and passionate scientist, oriented to getting things right even when this meant going against the current stream.
Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C
2011-08-07
To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.
Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.
2011-08-01
To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.
Uncertainties in the estimation of max
Girish C Joshi; Mukat Lal Sharma
2008-11-01
In the present paper, the parameters affecting the uncertainties on the estimation of max have been investigated by exploring different methodologies being used in the analysis of seismicity catalogue and estimation of seismicity parameters. A critical issue to be addressed before any scientific analysis is to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the data. The empirical relationships between different magnitude scales have been used for conversions for homogenization of seismicity catalogues to be used for further seismic hazard assessment studies. An endeavour has been made to quantify the uncertainties due to magnitude conversions and the seismic hazard parameters are then estimated using different methods to consider the epistemic uncertainty in the process. The study area chosen is around Delhi. The value and the magnitude of completeness for the four seismogenic sources considered around Delhi varied more than 40% using the three catalogues compiled based on different magnitude conversion relationships. The effect of the uncertainties has been then shown on the estimation of max and the probabilities of occurrence of different magnitudes. It has been emphasized to consider the uncertainties and their quantification to carry out seismic hazard assessment and in turn the seismic microzonation.
Max Cut and the Smallest Eigenvalue
Trevisan, Luca
2008-01-01
We describe a new approximation algorithm for Max Cut. Our algorithm runs in nearly quadratic time and achieves an approximation ratio of .50769. On instances in which an optimal solution cuts a $1-\\epsilon$ fraction of edges, our algorithm finds a solution that cuts a $1-4\\epsilon^{1/3}-o(1)$ fraction of edges. Our main result is a variant of spectral partitioning, which can be implemented in nearly linear time, that, given a graph in which the Max Cut optimum is a $1-\\epsilon$ fraction of edges, finds a set S of vertices and a bipartition L, R=S-L, of S such that at least a $1-4\\sqrt \\epsilon$ fraction of the edges incident on S have one endpoint in L and one endpoint in R. (This can be seen as an analog of Cheeger's inequality for the smallest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a graph.) Iterating this procedure yields the approximation results stated above. The algorithm of Goemans and Williamson, together with the SDP solver of Arora and Kale, give an approximation ratio of $.878$ in nearly linear tim...
Max Jakobson : Kommunismisse tuleb suhtuda objektiivselt / Max Jakobson ; interv. Kai Tänavsuu
Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013
2002-01-01
Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Rahvusvahelise Komisjoni esimees Max Jakobson oma suhtumisest talle Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärgi andmisse, tema juhitava komisjoni tööst, eestlaste püüdlusest ühineda NATOga, kommunismi ja natsismi hukkamõistust
Max Jakobson : Kommunismisse tuleb suhtuda objektiivselt / Max Jakobson ; interv. Kai Tänavsuu
Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013
2002-01-01
Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Rahvusvahelise Komisjoni esimees Max Jakobson oma suhtumisest talle Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärgi andmisse, tema juhitava komisjoni tööst, eestlaste püüdlusest ühineda NATOga, kommunismi ja natsismi hukkamõistust
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...
Average Convexity in Communication Situations
Slikker, M.
1998-01-01
In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin
Temperature-based estimation of global solar radiation using soft computing methodologies
Mohammadi, Kasra; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Danesh, Amir Seyed; Abdullah, Mohd Shahidan; Zamani, Mazdak
2016-07-01
Precise knowledge of solar radiation is indeed essential in different technological and scientific applications of solar energy. Temperature-based estimation of global solar radiation would be appealing owing to broad availability of measured air temperatures. In this study, the potentials of soft computing techniques are evaluated to estimate daily horizontal global solar radiation (DHGSR) from measured maximum, minimum, and average air temperatures ( T max, T min, and T avg) in an Iranian city. For this purpose, a comparative evaluation between three methodologies of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), radial basis function support vector regression (SVR-rbf), and polynomial basis function support vector regression (SVR-poly) is performed. Five combinations of T max, T min, and T avg are served as inputs to develop ANFIS, SVR-rbf, and SVR-poly models. The attained results show that all ANFIS, SVR-rbf, and SVR-poly models provide favorable accuracy. Based upon all techniques, the higher accuracies are achieved by models (5) using T max- T min and T max as inputs. According to the statistical results, SVR-rbf outperforms SVR-poly and ANFIS. For SVR-rbf (5), the mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient are 1.1931 MJ/m2, 2.0716 MJ/m2, and 0.9380, respectively. The survey results approve that SVR-rbf can be used efficiently to estimate DHGSR from air temperatures.
Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion
Jian Hou
2014-01-01
fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.
WiMAX Security Issues in E-learning Systems
Felician Alecu
2010-06-01
Full Text Available WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is a point-to-multipoint wireless network based on IEEE 802.16 standard. The WiMAX signal is broadcasted from a base station to the wide-geographically spread receivers. WiMAX enabled mobile devices become very popular due to the fact the network connections can be easily maintained on move. Regarding the network security, WiMAX provides strong user authentication, access control, data privacy and data integrity using sophisticated encryption technology. WiMAX technology is the only solution for isolated locations where e-learning distributed platforms need to be used. This paper focuses on security issues for e-learning solutions, especially when WiMAX technology is used.
Janine Wichmann
Full Text Available One of the key climate change factors, temperature, has potentially grave implications for human health. We report the first attempt to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp(max and respiratory (RD, cardiovascular (CVD, and cerebrovascular (CBD emergency hospital admissions in Copenhagen, controlling for air pollution. The study period covered 1 January 2002-31 December 2006, stratified in warm and cold periods. A case-crossover design was applied. Susceptibility (effect modification by age, sex, and socio-economic status was investigated. For an IQR (8°C increase in the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max, a 7% (95% CI: 1%, 13% increase in the RD admission rate was observed in the warm period whereas an inverse association was found with CVD (-8%, 95% CI: -13%, -4%, and none with CBD. There was no association between the 5-day cumulative average of Tapp(max during the cold period and any of the cause-specific admissions, except in some susceptible groups: a negative association for RD in the oldest age group and a positive association for CVD in men and the second highest SES group. In conclusion, an increase in Tapp(max is associated with a slight increase in RD and decrease in CVD admissions during the warmer months.
Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes
Xu, Ganggang
2016-09-21
We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
New features of the MAX IV thermionic pre-injector
Andersson, J.; Olsson, D.; Curbis, F.; Malmgren, L.; Werin, S.
2017-05-01
The MAX IV facility in Lund, Sweden consists of two storage rings for production of synchrotron radiation. The smaller 1.5 GeV ring is presently under construction, while the larger 3 GeV ring is being commissioned. Both rings will be operating with top-up injections from a full-energy injector. During injection, the electron beam is first delivered to the main injector from a thermionic pre-injector which consists of a thermionic RF gun, a chopper system, and an energy filter. In order to reduce losses of high-energy electrons along the injector and in the rings, the electron beam provided by the thermionic pre-injector should have the correct time structure and energy distribution. In this paper, the design of the MAX IV thermionic pre-injector with all its sub components is presented. The electron beam delivered by the pre-injector and its dependence on parameters such as optics, cathode temperature, and RF power are studied. Measurements are here compared with simulation results obtained by particle tracking and electromagnetic codes. The chopper system is described in detail, and different driving schemes that optimize the injection efficiency for the two storage rings are investigated. During operation, it was discovered that the structure of the beam delivered by the gun is affected by mode beating between the accelerating and a low-order mode. This mode beating is also studied in detail. Finally, initial measurements of the electron beam delivered to the 3 GeV ring during commissioning are presented.
Multivariate max-stable spatial processes
Genton, Marc G.
2015-02-11
Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.
Un manuscrito del taller de Max Aub
Javier Lluch Prats
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Max Aub's legacy has recently helped to find some of the author's autograph testimonies than enlighten his printed work. The manuscript of the historical novel Campo del Moro (1963 is here described and the contributions of a modern manuscript to a critical-genetic edition are also appreciated. The composition elements of Campo del Moro are particularly analyzed the title, the quotations, the working plan and the notes about the characters. All this results in a better knowledge of the novel, gíving us the possibility of describing the process of its writing so as to facilitate the narration of its editorial vicissitiudes. i.e. genesis, preparation, edition and, publication.
Max Weber entre liberalismo y republicanismo
Villacañas Berlanga, José Luis
2005-12-01
Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze the differences between social democracy and political democracy as modern processes, as these were understood by Max Weber. The archetype of modernity resides, from this point of view, in a convergence of both processes, as occurred in countries like the USA and Great Britain. Weber's diagnosis is that, whereas social democracy can be organized around liberal arguments, political democracy cannot advance without republican concepts like those of virtue, rigour, responsability and representation. For Weber, these values could only become present in Germany thanks to an adequate and democratic reception of Nietzsche, and in some way this reception could make sense of the former's work.
Este artículo pretende analizar las diferencias entre democracia social y democracia política como procesos modernos, tal y como fueron comprendidos por Max Weber. Lo arquetípico de la modernidad reside, desde este punto de vista, en una convergencia de ambos procesos, tal y como se dio en países como USA y Gran Bretaña. El diagnóstico de Weber es que, mientras la democracia social puede organizarse sobre argumentos liberales, la democracia política no puede avanzar sin conceptos republicanos como el de virtud, rigor, responsabilidad y representación. Para Weber, estos valores sólo podrían hacerse presentes en Alemania a partir de una recepción adecuada y democrática de Nietzsche y en cierto modo esta recepción daría sentido a su obra.
Jian Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In situ neutron powder diffraction patterns and dielectric spectra of 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 ceramic were investigated under different electrical fields and temperatures. An electric-field-induced phase transition from metrically cubic to metrically tetragonal, associated with strong domain wall motion, occurs. Such induced phase and domain wall motion are unchanged until the high-temperature phase transition occurs from metrically tetragonal to metrically cubic. All these changes are irrelevant to the observed depolarization temperature (75°C. The depolarization behaviour is thus suggested to be associated with the local structure caused by the octahedral tilt twinning disorder.
Uchiyama, A. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamamoto, M. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. (Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1994-02-25
In order to improve the gas turbine blade film cooling technology, this paper elucidates flow field and temperature field of secondary air blown out into a span direction; derives the temperature distribution on the wall face; and describes cooling air behavior in film cooling. The wall face temperature distribution measured with a temperature measuring system using liquid crystal has shown relatively good correspondence with the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the wall face as measured by a two-wire probe. Film cooling by blowing air into the span direction has shown good attachment of the secondary air onto the wall face in the secondary air blowing direction. However, in the opposite direction to the air blowing direction, air has attached to the wall face only poorly because of vortex movements of the primary air due to being dragged in. The secondary air has departed from the wall face as the blow-out ratio has been increased, resulting in drop in the cooling efficiency. A 'Z' direction position that the temperature of the secondary air shows a maximum value differs from a 'Z' direction position having a peak in the wall face cooling efficiency, the difference having become more noticeable with increasing blow-out ratio. A region with lower cooling efficiency due to rolling-in of the primary air exists near the blow-out hole, where rolling-in of the primary air is recognized prominently as the blow-out ratio has been increased. 8 refs., 6 figs.
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.
Impact of Mobility On QoS of Mobile WiMax Network With CBR Application
Bala, Kranti
2011-01-01
The issue of mobility is important in wireless network because internet connectivity can only be effective if it's available during the movement of node. To enhance mobility, wireless access systems are designed such as IEEE 802.16e to operate on the move without any disruption of services. In this paper we are analyzing the impact of mobility on the QoS parameters (Throughput, Average Jitter and Average end to end Delay) of a mobile WiMAX network (IEEE 802.16e) with CBR application.
Remmers, Julia; Beirle, Steffen; Doerner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas
2013-04-01
Multi-Axis (MAX-) DOAS instruments observe scattered sunlight under various mostly slant elevation angles. From such observations information on tropospheric profiles of trace gases and aerosols can be retrieved. MAX-DOAS observations can be used to quantify emissions and to study chemical processes in the atmosphere. Measuring (horizontally and vertically) averaged concentrations the technique can be used as a link between in-situ and satellite measurements. Thus satellite observations of tropospheric trace gases can be validated. IMAX (Parametrized Inversion for MAX-DOAS measurements) is a parametrized method to retrieve vertical profiles of trace gases (such as H2O, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO) and aerosols. No online calculations are necessary, since look-up tables (LUT) calculated with a Monte Carlo based radiative Transport Model are used. In this manner it is user-friendly, easy to distribute and applicable to every measurement location. The here shown measurements took place in the Maldives in March, 2012, during the CARDEX campaign. Simultaneous sun photometry-, Lidar- and UAV-measurements provide the possibility to validate the new algorithm. We present time series of profiles of trace gas concentrations and aerosol extinction We discuss the effects of clouds on the retrieved results.
Quantized average consensus with delay
Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio
2012-01-01
Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co
陈冬花; 邹陈; 王苏颖; 李虎; 张新时
2011-01-01
On the basis of the monthly mean temperature data of 19 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2008 in the Yili River Valley, the correlation between mean annual temperature and elevation was analyzed to get access to the temperature lapse rate of 0. 564 ℃/100 m. The main purpose of this study was to apply a spatial interpolation method based on DEM and compare with the traditional ones of inverse distance weight (IDW) and Kriging methods. According to the cross-validation results, it was concluded that the accuracy of interpolation method based on DEM was superior to the other two methods. Combined with DEM data, the mean annual temperature distribution map with 90 m resolution was established and it expressed the main trend of temperature changing with terrain and reflected the spatial variability of temperature.%为了研究伊犁河谷地区气温空间变异性,提出基于DEM修正的空间插值方法,以1961-2008年伊犁河谷地区及周边19个气象站点月平均气温数据为基础,分析多年平均气温与海拔的相关关系,并与反距离权重法(IDW)、克里格插值法(Kriging)等传统方法计算结果进行对比.结果表明:该研究区的气温直减率为0.564℃·100 m-1;根据交叉验证比较结果发现,基于DEM修正模型的精度明显优于其他两种方法,IDW模型在对年均最低温度的模拟效果比Kriging模型略好.结合DEM数据,该研究成了伊犁河谷地区90m空间分辨率的格网温度场,其插值结果客观地表达了气温随地形变化的趋势,反映了气温的空间变异性.
Friedrich, M. M.; Stremme, W.; Rivera, C. I.; Arellano, E. J.; Grutter, M.
2014-12-01
The new MAX-DOAS network in Mexico City provides results of O4, HCHO and NO2 slant column densities (SCD). Here, we present a new numerical code developed to retrieve gas profiles of NO2 and HCHO using radiative transfer simulations. We present first results of such profiles from the MAX-DOAS station located at UNAM campus. The code works in two steps: First, the O4 slant column density information is used to retrieve an aerosol profile. As an a-priori aerosol profile, we use averaged ceilometer data measured at UNAM and scaled to the total optical depth provided by the Aeronet data base. In the second step, the retrieved aerosol profile information is used together with the trace gas (HCHO or NO2) SCDs to retrieve the trace gas profiles. The inversion is based on a gauss-newton iteration scheme and uses constrained least square fitting with either optimal estimation or Tihkonov regularization. For the latter, the regulation matrix is currently constructed from the discrete first derivative operator. The forward model uses the radiative transfer code VLIDORT. The inputs to VLIDORT are calculated using temperature and pressure information from daily radiosounde measurements and aerosol single scattering optical depths and asymmetry factors from the Aeronet data base for Mexico City. For the gas absorption cross sections we use the same values as were used for the SCD calculation from the recorded spectra using QDOAS. Besides demonstrating the functionality of the algorithm showing profile retrievals of simulated SCDs with added random noise, we present HCHO and NO2 profiles retrieved from SCDs calculated from the MAX-DOAS measurements at UNAM campus at selected days.
Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-04-04
The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.
Dharmaveer Singh; R D Glupta; Sanjay K Jain
2015-02-01
The annual and seasonal trend analysis of different surface temperature parameters (average, maximum, minimum and diurnal temperature range) has been done for historical (1971–2005) and future periods (2011–2099) in the middle catchment of Sutlej river basin, India. The future time series of temperature data has been generated through statistical downscaling from large scale predictors of CGCM3 and HadCM3 models under A2 scenario. Modified Mann–Kendall test and Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) chart have been used for detecting trend and sequential shift in time series of temperature parameters. The results of annual trend analysis for period of 1971–2005 show increasing as well as decreasing trends in average (Mean), maximum (Max), minimum (Min) temperature and increasing trends in Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) at different stations. But the annual trend analysis of downscaled data has revealed statistically significant (95% confidence level) rising trends in Mean, Max, Min and falling trend in DTR for the period 2011–2099. The decreasing trend in DTR is due to higher rate of increase in Min compared to Max.
Max Weber's Critique of the Bureaucratisation of Education
Madan, Amman
2014-01-01
In this commentary, the author discusses the critique by Max Weber and his views on bureaucratisation of education. The modern school, said Max Weber (1864-1920) over a hundred years ago, has as its educational ideal the bureaucrat and no longer the cultivated elite of older times. The shift to modernity and to its characteristic institution, the…
Reachability analysis for timed automata using max-plus algebra
Lu, Qi; Madsen, Michael; Milata, Martin
2012-01-01
We show that max-plus polyhedra are usable as a data structure in reachability analysis of timed automata. Drawing inspiration from the extensive work that has been done on difference bound matrices, as well as previous work on max-plus polyhedra in other areas, we develop the algorithms needed t...
MAX mutations cause hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
N. Burnichon (Nelly); A. Cascoń (Alberto); F. Schiavi (Francesca); N. Morales (NicolePaes); I. Comino-Méndez (Iñaki); N. Abermil (Nasséra); L. Inglada-Pérez (Lucía); A.A. de Cubas (Aguirre); L. Amar (Laurence); M. Barontini (Marta); S.B. de Quiroś (Sandra Bernaldo); J. Bertherat (Jerome); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); M.J. Blok (Marinus); S. Bobisse (Sara); S. Borrego (Salud); M. Castellano (Maurizio); P. Chanson (Philippe); A. de Chiara; E.P. Corssmit (Eleonora); M. Giacchè (Mara); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); T. Ercolino (Tonino); X. Girerd (Xavier); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); Á. Gómez-Graña (Álvaro); I. Guilhem (Isabelle); F.J. Hes (Frederik); E. Honrado (Emiliano); E. Korpershoek (Esther); J.W. Lenders (Jacques); R. Letón (Rocío); A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); A. Merlo (Anna); L. Mori (Luigi); A. Murat (Arnaud); P. Pierre (Peggy); P.F. Plouin (Pierre-Franco̧is); T. Prodanov (Tamara); M. Quesada-Charneco (Miguel); N. Qin (Nan); E. Rapizzi (Elena); E. Raymond (Eric); N. Reisch (Nicole); G. Roncador (Giovanna); M. Ruiz-Ferrer (Macarena); F. Schillo (Frank); A.P.A. Stegmann (Sander); C. Suarez (Carlos); E. Taschin (Elisa); H.J.L.M. Timmers; C. Tops (Carli); M. Urioste (Miguel); F. Beuschlein (Felix); K. Pacak (Karel); M. Mannelli (Massimo); P.L. Dahia (Patricia); G. Opocher (Giuseppe); G. Eisenhofer (Graeme); A.P. Gimenez-Roqueplo; M. Robledo (Mercedes)
2012-01-01
textabstractPurpose: Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are genetically heterogeneous neural crest-derived neoplasms. Recently we identified germline mutations in a new tumor suppressor susceptibility gene, MAX (MYC-associated factor X), which predisposes carriers to PCC. How MAX
Max Jakobsoni saatuseaastad, soomlased ja meie / Imbi Paju
Paju, Imbi, 1959-
2008-01-01
Soome politoloogist ja diplomaadist Max Jakobsonist ja tema uuest raamatust "Saatuseaastad. Soome tõusis, andis Venemaale järele ja pääses". Artiklis on juttu ka Max Jakobsoni suhetest Eesti presidentide Lennart Meri ja Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega
Max Jakobsoni saatuseaastad, soomlased ja meie / Imbi Paju
Paju, Imbi, 1959-
2008-01-01
Soome politoloogist ja diplomaadist Max Jakobsonist ja tema uuest raamatust "Saatuseaastad. Soome tõusis, andis Venemaale järele ja pääses". Artiklis on juttu ka Max Jakobsoni suhetest Eesti presidentide Lennart Meri ja Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega
Leg strength and the VO2 max of older men.
Lovell, D; Cuneo, R; Delphinus, E; Gass, G
2011-04-01
The purpose of the study was to determine if leg strength limits VO2 max and the ability to reach a plateau during VO2 max test in older men during cycle ergometry. Men aged 70-80 years were randomly selected into a strength training (ST, n=12) 3 times weekly for 16 weeks, followed by 4 weeks detraining or a non-training control group (C, n=12). Leg strength and VO2 max were assessed every 4 weeks for 20 weeks; body composition and cardiac function were assessed before and after 16 weeks training and after 4 weeks detraining. Leg strength, upper leg muscle mass (ULMM), arterial-venous O2 difference (a-v O2 difference) and VO2 max increased in the ST group (95±0.6%, 7±0.7%. 6.2±0.5% and 8±0.8%, respectively; PVO2 max and a-v O2 difference returned to pre-training levels. There was no change in the ability of the participants to reach a plateau during VO2 max testing over the 20-week study. These findings indicate that leg strength may not limit either VO2 max or the ability to plateau during VO2 max tests in older men during cycle ergometry. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
MAX mutations cause hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma
N. Burnichon (Nelly); A. Cascoń (Alberto); F. Schiavi (Francesca); N. Morales (NicolePaes); I. Comino-Méndez (Iñaki); N. Abermil (Nasséra); L. Inglada-Pérez (Lucía); A.A. de Cubas (Aguirre); L. Amar (Laurence); M. Barontini (Marta); S.B. de Quiroś (Sandra Bernaldo); J. Bertherat (Jerome); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); M.J. Blok (Marinus); S. Bobisse (Sara); S. Borrego (Salud); M. Castellano (Maurizio); P. Chanson (Philippe); A. de Chiara; E.P. Corssmit (Eleonora); M. Giacchè (Mara); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); T. Ercolino (Tonino); X. Girerd (Xavier); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); Á. Gómez-Graña (Álvaro); I. Guilhem (Isabelle); F.J. Hes (Frederik); E. Honrado (Emiliano); E. Korpershoek (Esther); J.W. Lenders (Jacques); R. Letón (Rocío); A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); A. Merlo (Anna); L. Mori (Luigi); A. Murat (Arnaud); P. Pierre (Peggy); P.F. Plouin (Pierre-Franco̧is); T. Prodanov (Tamara); M. Quesada-Charneco (Miguel); N. Qin (Nan); E. Rapizzi (Elena); E. Raymond (Eric); N. Reisch (Nicole); G. Roncador (Giovanna); M. Ruiz-Ferrer (Macarena); F. Schillo (Frank); A.P.A. Stegmann (Sander); C. Suarez (Carlos); E. Taschin (Elisa); H.J.L.M. Timmers; C. Tops (Carli); M. Urioste (Miguel); F. Beuschlein (Felix); K. Pacak (Karel); M. Mannelli (Massimo); P.L. Dahia (Patricia); G. Opocher (Giuseppe); G. Eisenhofer (Graeme); A.P. Gimenez-Roqueplo; M. Robledo (Mercedes)
2012-01-01
textabstractPurpose: Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are genetically heterogeneous neural crest-derived neoplasms. Recently we identified germline mutations in a new tumor suppressor susceptibility gene, MAX (MYC-associated factor X), which predisposes carriers to PCC. How MAX mutat
Approximation Methods in Stochastic Max-Plus Systems
Safaei Farahani, S.
2012-01-01
Stochastic max-plus systems belong to a special class of discrete-event systems. This class consists of systems with synchronization but no choice and the models of such systems are defined using the operators maximization and addition. Stochastic max-plus systems can be further extended
Elizalde-Galindo, J.T. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez, Av. Del Charro 460 norte, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua 32310 (Mexico); Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Rivera Gomez, F.J.; Matutes-Aquino, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31120 (Mexico); Botez, C.E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)], E-mail: cbotez@utep.edu
2008-07-15
Nanostructured YCo{sub 5} (70%wt)+Y{sub 2}Co{sub 17} (30%wt) composite powders were prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent annealing at 1073 K for 1.5 min. The average grain size
PAPR mitigation algorithms for OFDM WiMAX link
Rashwan, Gasem; Kenshil, Salih; Matin, Mohammad
2013-09-01
OFDM has been adopted in many high systems due to its high data rates and to its robust performance in fading channel. OFDM distributes the data among number of carriers which are called subcarriers. The subcarriers must be orthogonal to prevent the carrier from interfering to each other. Features such overcoming ISI (inter-symbol interference) and the complexity of Designing both receiver and transmitter made it ideal technique for both wired and wireless communication as long as optical communications. However, OFDM suffers from a defect called Peak Average power ratio (PAPR). APARP is crucial drawback that limits the way that OFDM functions and reducing or mitigating this factor in wireless and optical environment will help overcome and enhance the OFDM date rate. PAPR is the main cause of inter-carrier interference and high out-of-band power, and consequently Bit error rate BER. We investigate some of the techniques that mitigate the effect of PAPR. These techniques are merged together to provide a better PAPR reduction with the existing techniques. In this paper, we are proposing a new reduction algorithm to minimize the effect of the PAPR. The results and simulation are done in Optisystem V-11 and Matlab environment. These approaches will be applied on WiMAX application and the performances between the different techniques are examined.
Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales
Basse-O'Connor, Andreas
2008-01-01
In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...
张莉莉; 陶忠良; 张京红
2012-01-01
The mean monthly air temperature of 18 meteorological stations from 1979 to 2008 was analyzed. A variety of interpolation methods were used to study the mean air temperature spatial distribution based on DEM. Different interpolation methods such as the combination of stepwise regression and inverse distance weighing interpolation method, the combination of stepwise regression and ordinary kriging interpolation method, the combination of stepwise regression and spline interpolation method, the combination of stepwise regression and trend interpolation method were analyzed by the prediction accuracy verified by 5 validated stations, and gird maps of mean air temperature spatial distribution were carried out a comparative analysis. The result demonstrated that the combination of stepwise regression and inverse distance weighting interpolation method had the highest prediction accuracy, and was better than others.%选取海南岛18个气象站点1979～2008年30 a的逐月气温资料,结合数字高程数据(DEM),采用回归反距离权重插值法、回归克里格插值法、回归样条插值法和回归趋势面插值法等多种混合插值方法对研究区平均气温的空间分布进行了插值研究,通过5个检验站点的插值误差来分析4种不同混合插值方法,并对平均气温空间分布栅格图进行了比较分析.结果表明:回归反距离权重插值法误差最小,效果最好.
Max Weber: ville et capitalisme moderne
Hinnerk Bruhns
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Max Weber’s essay on The City, published after his death, has often been interpreted as a contribution to urban sociology or as a plea for ‘communal liberty’. The present article comes back to the reception of the text, examines it on the background of the research on urban problems at the time of Weber and insists on the strong relation of The City with the detailed analysis of the oriental city in The Economic Ethics of World Religions. Analysing these different contexts and Weber’s argumentation which is focalized on the Stadtwirtschaftspolitik as Verbandshandeln (urban economic policy as activity of a corporate group enables to clarify the nature and the purpose of Weber’s unfinished essay. It extends the questioning of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, investigating into the rationalization of economic life conducts and institutions in a certain type of medieval towns whose structural conditions had favoured the emergence of the rational capitalism of enterprise and of the modern state.
The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities without averaging
Chatterjee, Sourav
2009-01-01
The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities are one of the most mysterious features of spin glasses. We prove the GG identities in a large class of models that includes the Edwards-Anderson model, the random field Ising model, and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the presence of a random external field. Previously, the GG identities were rigorously proved only `on average' over a range of temperatures or under small perturbations.
Shao, Y. F.; Song, F.; Jiang, C. P.; Xu, X. H.; Wei, J. C.; Zhou, Z. L.
2016-02-01
We study the difference in the maximum stress on a cylinder surface σmax using the measured surface heat transfer coefficient hm instead of its average value ha during quenching. In the quenching temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800°C, the maximum surface stress σmmax calculated by hm is always smaller than σamax calculated by ha, except in the case of 800°C; while the time to reach σmax calculated by hm (fmmax) is always earlier than that by ha (famax). It is inconsistent with the traditional view that σmax increases with increasing Biot number and the time to reach σmax decreases with increasing Biot number. Other temperature-dependent properties also have a small effect on the trend of their mutual ratios with quenching temperatures. Such a difference between the two maximum surface stresses is caused by the dramatic variation of hm with temperature, which needs to be considered in engineering analysis.
Serang, Oliver
2015-08-01
Observations depending on sums of random variables are common throughout many fields; however, no efficient solution is currently known for performing max-product inference on these sums of general discrete distributions (max-product inference can be used to obtain maximum a posteriori estimates). The limiting step to max-product inference is the max-convolution problem (sometimes presented in log-transformed form and denoted as "infimal convolution," "min-convolution," or "convolution on the tropical semiring"), for which no O(k log(k)) method is currently known. Presented here is an O(k log(k)) numerical method for estimating the max-convolution of two nonnegative vectors (e.g., two probability mass functions), where k is the length of the larger vector. This numerical max-convolution method is then demonstrated by performing fast max-product inference on a convolution tree, a data structure for performing fast inference given information on the sum of n discrete random variables in O(nk log(nk)log(n)) steps (where each random variable has an arbitrary prior distribution on k contiguous possible states). The numerical max-convolution method can be applied to specialized classes of hidden Markov models to reduce the runtime of computing the Viterbi path from nk(2) to nk log(k), and has potential application to the all-pairs shortest paths problem.
Unifying View on Min-Max Fairness, Max-Min Fairness, and Utility Optimization in Cellular Networks
Stanczak Slawomir
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We are concerned with the control of quality of service (QoS in wireless cellular networks utilizing linear receivers. We investigate the issues of fairness and total performance, which are measured by a utility function in the form of a weighted sum of link QoS. We disprove the common conjecture on incompatibility of min-max fairness and utility optimality by characterizing network classes in which both goals can be accomplished concurrently. We characterize power and weight allocations achieving min-max fairness and utility optimality and show that they correspond to saddle points of the utility function. Next, we address the problem of the difference between min-max fairness and max-min fairness. We show that in general there is a (fairness gap between the performance achieved under min-max fairness and under max-min fairness. We characterize the network class for which both performance values coincide. Finally, we characterize the corresponding network subclass, in which both min-max fairness and max-min fairness are achievable by the same power allocation.
Use of MinMaxEnt distributions defined on basis of MaxEnt method in wind power study
Shamilov, Aladdin; Kantar, Yeliz Mert; Usta, Ilhan [Department of Statistics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)
2008-04-15
Knowledge of the wind speed distribution is an important information needed in evaluation of wind power potential. Several statistical distributions have been used to study wind data. The Weibull distribution is the most popular due to its ability to fit most accurately the variety of wind speed data measured at different geographical locations throughout the world. Recently, maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distributions based on the maximum entropy method have been widely used to determine wind speed distribution. Li and Li used the MaxEnt distribution for the first time in the wind energy field and proposed a theoretical approach to determine the distribution of wind speed data analytically. Ramirez and Carta discussed the use of wind probability distributions derived from the maximum entropy principle in the analysis of wind energy. In this study, MinMaxEnt distributions defined on the basis of the MaxEnt method are introduced and applied to find wind distribution and wind power density. A comparison of the MinMaxEnt and Weibull distributions on wind speed data taken from different sources and measured in various regions is conducted. The wind power densities of the considered regions obtained from the Weibull and MinMaxEnt distributions are also compared. The results indicate that the MinMaxEnt distributions obtained show better results than the known Weibull distribution for wind speed distributions and wind power density. Therefore, MinMaxEnt distributions can be used to estimate wind distributions and wind power potential. (author)
The Effect of Habitual Smoking on VO2max
Wier, Larry T.; Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker S.; Randles, Anthony M.; Arenare, Brian; Jackson, Andrew S.
2008-01-01
VO2max is associated with many factors, including age, gender, physical activity, and body composition. It is popularly believed that habitual smoking lowers aerobic fitness. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of habitual smoking on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, activity and BMI. METHODS: 2374 men and 375 women employed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER>=1.1), activity by the 11 point (0-10) NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), BMI and smoking pack-yrs (packs day*y of smoking). Age was recorded in years and gender was coded as M=1, W=0. Pack.y was made a categorical variable consisting of four levels as follows: Never Smoked (0), Light (1-10), Regular (11-20), Heavy (>20). Group differences were verified by ANOVA. A General Linear Models (GLM) was used to develop two models to examine the relationship of smoking behavior on VO2max. GLM #1(without smoking) determined the combined effects of age, gender, PASS and BMI on VO2max. GLM #2 (with smoking) determined the added effects of smoking (pack.y groupings) on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, PASS and BMI. Constant errors (CE) were calculated to compare the accuracy of the two models for estimating the VO2max of the smoking subgroups. RESULTS: ANOVA affirmed the mean VO2max of each pack.y grouping decreased significantly (psmoking exposure increased. GLM #1 showed that age, gender, PASS and BMI were independently related with VO2max (R2 = 0.642, SEE = 4.90, pSmoked, the effects on VO2max from Light and Regular smoking habits were -0.83 and -0.85 ml.kg- 1.min-1 respectively (peffect of Heavy smoking on VO2max was -2.56 ml.kg- 1.min-1 (psmoking group in GLM #2 was smaller than the CE s of the smoking group counterparts in GLM #1. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for the effects of gender, age, PASS and BMI the effect of habitual smoking on reducing VO2max is minimal, about 0.85 ml/kg/min, until the habit exceeds 20 pack.y at which point an
Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Lima, Ricardo; Chistle, Jeffrey; Ashley, Euan; Arena, Ross
2017-04-01
Existing normal standards for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) are problematic because they tend to be population specific, lack normal distribution and portability, and are poorly represented by women. The objective of the current study was to apply the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) Registry to improve upon previous regression formulas for normal standards for VO2 max using treadmill testing. Maximal treadmill tests were performed in 7783 healthy men and women (20-79years; maximal RER >1.0) from the FRIEND registry and a separate validation cohort of 1287 subjects. A regression equation for VO2 max was derived from the FRIEND registry and compared to the validation cohort and two commonly used equations (Wasserman and European). Age, gender, and body weight were the only significant predictors of VO2 max (multiple R=0.79, R(2)=0.62, p<0.001). The equation for predicting VO2 max was: [Formula: see text] Marked differences were observed in percentage predicted VO2 max achieved between commonly used reference equations, particularly among women, overweight and obese subjects. In the validation sample, the FRIEND equation closely paralleled measured VO2 max, with the validation group yielding a percent predicted VO2 max of 100.4% based on the FRIEND equation. An equation for age-predicted VO2 max derived from the FRIEND registry provided a lower average error between measured and predicted VO2 max than traditional equations, and thus may provide a more suitable normal standard relative to traditional equations.
Estimation of Aerobic Capacity (VO2-max and Physical Work Capacity in Laborers
Sedeghe Hosseinabadi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Measurement of Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2-max is important in physiologically fitting the laborers to the job. This study was conducted to estimate the aerobic capacity and physical work capacity (PWC of workers of galvanize department of Semnan rolling pipe Company and also determine the relative frequency of workers whom their jobs were proportional to their physical work capacity . Methods: 50 male workers of Semnan rolling pipe company were selected randomly to participate in this cross-sectional study. Tuxworth & shahnavaz methods were applied to measure instances VO2-MAX. Independent-Sample t-test and correlation technique were used to analysis the data by SPSS software. Results: Average maximum aerobic capacity of workers was 2.88± .033 liters per minute and the average of physical work capacity was 4.76 ± 0.54 kilocalories per minute. There was a significant relationship between body mass index and aerobic capacity. The result showed that 36 percent of subjects expend more energy than their physical work capacity to perform their duties during the work time. Conclusion: According to the ILO classification, the average physical work capacity of the workers fall into a category of light energy;accordingly, on average, these workers had physical ability to performe less or lighter duties. More than one-third of these workers need to undergo job modification or to change their present job to a job with less energy consumption.
Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.
Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal
2010-01-26
Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.
Assessment of anaerobic power to verify VO2max attainment.
Astorino, Todd A; White, Ailish C
2010-07-01
Across various populations, verification testing is used to confirm VO(2)max attainment and has repeatedly shown similar VO(2)max values to those obtained from incremental exercise. Yet, many individuals show meaningful differences in VO(2)max between protocols, and an explanation for this is unknown. The aim of the study was to elucidate this phenomenon in 30 men and women of similar age, fitness, and physical activity using assessment of anaerobic power. On day 1, they completed the Wingate test, and returned at least 48 h later to complete incremental cycle ergometry followed by a verification protocol. During exercise, ventilation, pulmonary gas exchange data, and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. Mean VO(2)max was similar (P > 0.05) between protocols (42.05 +/- 5.88 ml kg(-1) per min versus 42.03 +/- 5.75 ml kg(-1) per min, respectively), although seven subjects (23%) revealed a VO(2)max that was not 'verified' by the supramaximal protocol. Indices of power output and gas exchange data were similar (P > 0.05) between subjects who revealed a 'true' VO(2)max compared to those who did not, although peak and mean power was consistently higher in persons whose VO(2)max was not 'verified.' A previously established HRmax criterion for verification testing was not met in 17% of subjects. Additional study is merited to identify alternate determinants of VO(2)max, such as muscle activation via assessment of motor unit recruitment, and to investigate utility of verification testing to confirm VO(2)max attainment in elite athletes and the elderly.
A Continuation Algorithm for Max-Cut Problem
Feng Min XU; Cheng Xian XU; Xing Si LI
2007-01-01
A continuation algorithm for the solution of max-cut problems is proposed in this paper.Unlike the available semi-definite relaxation, a max-cut problem is converted into a continuous nonlinear programming by employing NCP functions, and the resulting nonlinear programming problem is then solved by using the augmented Lagrange penalty function method. The convergence property of the proposed algorithm is studied. Numerical experiments and comparisons with the Geomeans and Williamson randomized algorithm made on some max-cut test problems show that the algorithm generates satisfactory solutions for all the test problems with much less computation costs.
Introducing iccMAX: new frontiers in color management
Derhak, Max; Green, Phil; Lianza, Tom
2015-01-01
ICC has announced a preliminary specification for iccMAX, a next-generation colour management system that expands the existing ICC profile format and architecture to overcome the limitation of the fixed colorimetric Profile Connection Space and support a much wider range of functionality. New features introduced in iccMAX include spectral processing, material identification and visualization, BRDF, new data types, an improved gamut boundary descriptor and support for arbitrary and programmable transforms. The iccMAX preliminary specification is accompanied by a reference implementation, and will undergo a period of public review before being finalized.
Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants
Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.
1971-01-01
Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)
Ergodic averages via dominating processes
Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie
2006-01-01
We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...
Easy Pha-max:New Business Model to Enter World Herbal Market
无
2007-01-01
@@ About Easy Pha-max Easy Pha-max Marketing Sdn is the subsidiary of INS Bioscience,which is the marketion and distribution arm of Easy Pha-max brand of health supplement in the local and international markets.
Mahmood, Rashid; Babel, Mukand S.
2013-07-01
The study evaluates statistical downscaling model (SDSM) developed by annual and monthly sub-models for downscaling maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation, and assesses future changes in climate in the Jhelum River basin, Pakistan and India. Additionally, bias correction is applied on downscaled climate variables. The mean explained variances of 66, 76, and 11 % for max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation, respectively, are obtained during calibration of SDSM with NCEP predictors, which are selected through a quantitative procedure. During validation, average R 2 values by the annual sub-model (SDSM-A)—followed by bias correction using NCEP, H3A2, and H3B2—lie between 98.4 and 99.1 % for both max and min temperature, and 77 to 85 % for precipitation. As for the monthly sub-model (SDSM-M), followed by bias correction, average R 2 values lie between 98.5 and 99.5 % for both max and min temperature and 75 to 83 % for precipitation. These results indicate a good applicability of SDSM-A and SDSM-M for downscaling max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation under H3A2 and H3B2 scenarios for future periods of the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s in this basin. Both sub-models show a mean annual increase in max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation. Under H3A2, and according to both sub-models, changes in max temperature, min temperature, and precipitation are projected as 0.91-3.15 °C, 0.93-2.63 °C, and 6-12 %, and under H3B2, the values of change are 0.69-1.92 °C, 0.56-1.63 °C, and 8-14 % in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. These results show that the climate of the basin will be warmer and wetter relative to the baseline period. SDSM-A, most of the time, projects higher changes in climate than SDSM-M. It can also be concluded that although SDSM-A performed well in predicting mean annual values, it cannot be used with regard to monthly and seasonal variations, especially in the case of precipitation unless correction is applied.
Heidergott, Bernd; van der Woude, Jacob
2014-01-01
Trains pull into a railroad station and must wait for each other before leaving again in order to let passengers change trains. How do mathematicians then calculate a railroad timetable that accurately reflects their comings and goings? One approach is to use max-plus algebra, a framework used to model Discrete Event Systems, which are well suited to describe the ordering and timing of events. This is the first textbook on max-plus algebra, providing a concise and self-contained introduction to the topic. Applications of max-plus algebra abound in the world around us. Traffic systems, compu
Availability and Usability of BHO Encounter Data in MAX 2009
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...
Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data for Comprehensive Managed Care As growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees receive comprehensive health benefits...
Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...
Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ) farmers in ... Resource-use efficiency revealed that quantity of seed, farm size, herbicide and ... making loans accessible to farmers and reasonable market price of soybean ...
Maks Kaur : "Uverenno idti dalshe!" / Max Kaur ; interv. Viktor Volohhov
Kaur, Max, 1969-
2006-01-01
Noor ja poliitikas aktiivselt tegev olnud Max Kaur jätkab Majandus- ja juhtimisinstituudi prorektorina. Senisest poliitilisest tegevusest, vene kultuuri arengust ja probleemidest Eestis, poliitikas osalejate keskmise vanuse langusest, isiklikest plaanidest
Maks Kaur : "Uverenno idti dalshe!" / Max Kaur ; interv. Viktor Volohhov
Kaur, Max, 1969-
2006-01-01
Noor ja poliitikas aktiivselt tegev olnud Max Kaur jätkab Majandus- ja juhtimisinstituudi prorektorina. Senisest poliitilisest tegevusest, vene kultuuri arengust ja probleemidest Eestis, poliitikas osalejate keskmise vanuse langusest, isiklikest plaanidest
Turg Tallinnas = A market for Tallinn / Max Rink
Rink, Max
2007-01-01
Hollandi arhitektuurikoolide lõputööde preemia Archiprix võitis 2007. a. Max Rink Delfti Tehnikaülikoolist Tallinna Balti jaama turu asemele kavandatud mitmefunktsioonilise turuhoone projektiga "Maja-turg". Juhendaja Klaske Havik
Turg Tallinnas = A market for Tallinn / Max Rink
Rink, Max
2007-01-01
Hollandi arhitektuurikoolide lõputööde preemia Archiprix võitis 2007. a. Max Rink Delfti Tehnikaülikoolist Tallinna Balti jaama turu asemele kavandatud mitmefunktsioonilise turuhoone projektiga "Maja-turg". Juhendaja Klaske Havik
MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment
Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: The presence of gaps in an alignment of nucleotide or protein sequences is often an inconvenience for bioinformatical studies. In phylogenetic and other analyses, for instance, gapped columns are often discarded entirely from the alignment. RESULTS: MaxAlign is a program that optimizes...... the alignment prior to such analyses. Specifically, it maximizes the number of nucleotide (or amino acid) symbols that are present in gap-free columns - the alignment area - by selecting the optimal subset of sequences to exclude from the alignment. MaxAlign can be used prior to phylogenetic and bioinformatical...... analyses as well as in other situations where this form of alignment improvement is useful. In this work we test MaxAlign's performance in these tasks and compare the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates including and excluding gapped columns from the analysis, with and without processing with MaxAlign...
Projekti Min-E-Max kohtumine Saksamaal / Katrin Arge
Arge, Katrin
2005-01-01
Oktoobri keskel toimus Lõuna-Saksamaa väikelinnas Oberderdingenis Hispaania, Portugali, Ungari, Leedu, Eesti ja Saksamaa õpetajate kohtumine seoses Euroopa Liidu poolt rahastatava Comenius1 projektiga Min-E-Max (minimum energy input maximum output)
A Performance Study of Wireless Broadband Access (WiMAX
Maan A. S. Al-Adwany
2011-12-01
Full Text Available WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access is one of the wireless broadband access technologies which supplies broadband services to clients, but it surpasses other technologies by its coverage area, where one base station can cover a small city. In this paper, WiMAX technology is studied by exploring its basic concepts, applications, and advantages / disadvantages. Also a MATLAB simulator is used to verify the operation of the WiMAX system under various channel impairments and for variety of modulation schemes. From the simulation results, we found that WiMAX system works well in both AWGN and multipath fading channels, but under certain constraints that are addressed in this paper.
Projekti Min-E-Max kohtumine Saksamaal / Katrin Arge
Arge, Katrin
2005-01-01
Oktoobri keskel toimus Lõuna-Saksamaa väikelinnas Oberderdingenis Hispaania, Portugali, Ungari, Leedu, Eesti ja Saksamaa õpetajate kohtumine seoses Euroopa Liidu poolt rahastatava Comenius1 projektiga Min-E-Max (minimum energy input maximum output)
VO2max Measured with a Self-selected Work Rate Protocol on an Automated Treadmill.
Scheadler, Cory M; Devor, Steven T
2015-10-01
The use of graded maximal exercise tests for measuring maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is common practice in both cardiopulmonary rehabilitation settings and in sports medicine research. Recent alterations of common testing protocols to allow for self-selected work rates (SPV) have elicited V˙O2max values similar to or higher than more traditional style protocols (TP). Research is lacking in the delivery of the SPV protocol using a treadmill modality. The purpose of the study was to examine the validity of an SPV using an automated treadmill for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness. Thirteen experienced endurance runners completed three maximal exercise tests on a treadmill. Oxygen consumption was measured using a computerized system and averaged more than 30-s time periods. SPV was completed using an automated treadmill that consisted of a sonar range finder, microcontroller, and customized computer software. Subject deviations from the middle of the treadmill belt resulted in rapid, graded increases or decreases in speed. TP was completed on the same treadmill without the use of the automated software. A verification phase protocol (VP) was used to verify if VO2 was maximal. Peak work rate achieved during SPV was significantly greater than that achieved during TP by 1.2 METs; P VO2max than TP despite higher work rates.
Analysis of MIMO Systems used in planning a 4G-WiMAX Network in Ghana
E. T. Tchao
2013-08-01
Full Text Available with the increasing demand for mobile data services, Broadband Wireless Access (BWA is emerging as one of the fastest growing areas within mobile communications. Innovative wireless communication systems, such as WiMAX, are expected to offer highly reliable broadband radio access in order to meet the increasing demands of emerging high speed data and multimedia services. In Ghana, deployment of WiMAX technology has recently begun. Planning these high capacity networks in the presence of multiple interferences in order to achieve the aim of enabling users enjoy cheap and reliable internet services is a critical design issue. This paper has used a deterministic approach for simulating the Bit-Error-Rate (BER of initial MIMO antenna configurations which were considered in deploying a high capacity 4G-WiMAX network in Ghana. The radiation pattern of the antenna used in the deploying the network has been simulated with Genex-Unet and NEC and results presented. An adaptive 4x4 MIMO antenna configuration with optimally suppressed sidelobes has been suggested for future network deployment since the adaptive 2x2 MIMO antenna configuration, which was used in the initial network deployment provides poor estimates for average BER performance as compared to 4x4 antenna configuration which seem less affected in the presence of multiple interferers.
Troublesome aspects of the Renyi-MaxEnt treatment
Plastino, A.; Rocca, M. C.; Pennini, F.
2016-07-01
We study in great detail the possible existence of a Renyi-associated thermodynamics, with negative results. In particular, we uncover a hidden relation in Renyi's variational problem (MaxEnt). This relation connects the two associated Lagrange multipliers (canonical ensemble) with the mean energy and the Renyi parameter α . As a consequence of such relation, we obtain anomalous Renyi-MaxEnt thermodynamic results.
Accuracy of VO2(max) prediction equations in older adults.
Peterson, Matthew J; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miram C
2003-01-01
We explored the accuracy and bias of prediction equations (ACSM and Foster) in older, deconditioned men and women. We also examined the predictors of VO2(max) to further understand which variables affect respiratory fitness in the elderly. One hundred seventy-one community dwelling, men (72.6 +/- 4.8 yr) and women (71.0 +/- 5.1 yr) screened in a clinical trial were retrospectively examined. VO2(max) was measured using a standardized protocol with gas exchange measured. Measured VO2 (max) values were compared with prediction equations via mean difference analyses, and bias was explored using Bland-Altman analyses. Regression analysis determined significant predictors of measured VO2 (max). Alpha was PVO2 (max), 21.7 +/- 4.8 and 17.3 +/- 4.0, respectively. ACSM overestimated VO2 (max) in men and women, 26.3 +/- 8.2 and 20.9 +/- 7.3, respectively. By using Bland-Altman plots, ACSM showed significant overestimation bias in more fit women (r = 0.29), whereas Foster showed no estimation bias in either gender. Significant predictors of VO2 (max) were gender, BMI, age, treadmill grade, and speed, with an equation R(2) of 0.70. A measure of current activity levels did not make it into the final model ( P= 0.0505) but is worthy of future consideration using more sensitive measures than ours. ACSM is not appropriate for use when treadmill testing older adults. We believe the Foster equation's VO2 (max) prediction accuracy is acceptable, showing no bias along a continuum of aerobic capacity.
A Hybrid Continuous Max-Sum Algorithm for Decentralised Coordination
Voice, Thomas; Stranders, Ruben; Rogers, Alex; Jennings, Nick
2010-01-01
Recent advances in decentralised coordination of multiple agents have led to the proposal of the max-sum algorithm for solving distributed constraint optimisation problems (DCOPs). The max-sum algorithm is fully decentralised, converges to optimality for problems with acyclic constraint graphs and otherwise performs well in empirical studies. However, it requires agents to have discrete state spaces, which are of practical size to conduct repeated searches over. In contrast, there are decentr...
甄祯
2001-01-01
@@ Max Mara刚一创立时,是引进了法国时装的风格.因为Max Mara懂得,意大利与法国人在性格和生活方式上的区别,法国人的特点是带有演绎色彩的浪漫.他们更愿意表现个人特质,让多种个性的色彩组成群体的绚丽.
[Effect of 4 weeks of training on the limit time at VO2 max].
Heubert, Richard; Bocquet, Valéry; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Billat, Véronique
2003-10-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks training in running on the time spent at VO2max (tlim VO2max). Eight athletes carried out, before and after an aerobic training, an incremental and five exhaustive tests at 90, 95, 100, 115% vVO2max and at the critical power at VO2max (CV'; slope of the linear relation between the tlim VO2max and the distance limit at VO2max). This training did not significantly improve VO2max (p = 0.17) or tlim VO2max (p = 0.72). However, the "tlim VO2max-intensity" curve was shifted toward the right, meaning that the athlete had to run at a higher intensity after training to obtain the same tlim VO2max. Tlim VO2max at CV' before training was significantly higher than tlim VO2max at 90, 95, 100, and 115% vVO2max (p max; p = 0.9). In conclusion, in spite of the shift of the "tlim VO2max-intensity" curve, tlim VO2max was not significantly increased by this training. Furthermore, CV' allowed subjects to spend the longest time of exercise at VO2max during a continuous exercise with constant speed, but CV', expressed in % vVO2max, did not improve with this training.
A Limited Submuscular Direct-to-Implant Technique Utilizing AlloMax
Michal Brichacek, MD
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Background:. This study evaluates a novel limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax where only the upper few centimeters of the implant is covered by the pectoralis, whereas the majority of the implant including the middle and lower poles are covered by acellular dermal matrix. Methods:. The pectoralis muscle is released off its inferior and inferior-medial origins and allowed to retract superiorly. Two sheets of AlloMax (6 × 16 cm are sutured together and secured to the inframammary fold, serratus fascia, and the superiorly retracted pectoralis. Thirty-seven breasts in 19 consecutive patients with follow-up at 6 months were reviewed. Results:. Nineteen consecutive patients with 37 reconstructed breasts were studied. Average age was 50 years, average BMI was 24.3. Ptosis ranged from grade 0–III, and average cup size was B (range, A–DDD. Early minor complications included 1 seroma, 3 minor postoperative hematomas managed conservatively, and 3 minor wound healing problems. Three breasts experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis and were managed with local excision. There were no cases of postoperative infection, red breast, grade III/IV capsular contractures, or implant loss. A single patient complained of animation postoperatively. One patient desired fat grafting for rippling. Conclusions:. The limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax appears to be safe with a low complication rate at 6 months. This technique minimizes the action of the pectoralis on the implant, reducing animation deformities but still providing muscle coverage of the upper limit of the implant. Visible rippling is reduced, and a vascularized bed remains for fat grafting of the upper pole if required.
High average power supercontinuum sources
J C Travers
2010-11-01
The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.
Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging
Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio
2010-01-01
Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...
Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2015-01-01
This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...
Ghebouli, M. A.; Ghebouli, B.; Bouhemadou, A.; Fatmi, M.
2011-03-01
Structural, elastic, electronic and thermal properties of the MAX phase Nb 2SiC are studied by means of a pseudo-potential plane-wave method based on the density functional theory. The optimized zero pressure geometrical parameters are in good agreement with the available theoretical data. The effect of high pressure, up to 40 GPa, on the lattice constants shows that the contractions along the c-axis were higher than those along the a-axis. The elastic constants C and elastic wave velocities are calculated for monocrystal Nb 2SiC. Numerical estimations of the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature for ideal polycrystalline Nb 2SiC aggregates are performed in the framework of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The band structure shows that Nb 2SiC is an electrical conductor. The analysis of the atomic site projected densities and the charge density distribution shows that the bonding is of covalent-ionic nature with the presence of metallic character. The density of states at Fermi level is dictated by the niobium d states; Si element has a little effect. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of Nb 2SiC are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the lattice vibrations are taken into account. The variations of the primitive cell volume, volume expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, heat capacity and Debye temperature with pressure and temperature in the ranges of 0-40 GPa and 0-2000 K are obtained successfully.
Novel Approaches to Enhance Mobile WiMAX Security
Taeshik Shon
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Standards released IEEE 802.16-2004 which is a standardized technology for supporting broadband and wireless communication with fixed and nomadic access. After the IEEE 802.16-2004 standard, a new advanced and revised standard was released as the IEEE 802.16e-2005 amendment which is foundation of Mobile WiMAX network supporting handover and roaming capabilities. In the area of security aspects, compared to IEEE 802.16-2004, IEEE 802.16e, called Mobile WiMAX, adopts improved security architecture—PKMv2 which includes EAP authentication, AES-based authenticated encryption, and CMAC or HMAC message protection. However, there is no guarantee that PKMv2-based Mobile WiMAX network will not have security flaws. In this paper, we investigate the current Mobile WiMAX security architecture focusing mainly on pointing out new security vulnerabilities such as a disclosure of security context in network entry, a lack of secure communication in network domain, and a necessity of efficient handover supporting mutual authentication. Based on the investigation results, we propose a novel Mobile WiMAX security architecture, called RObust and Secure MobilE WiMAX (ROSMEX, to prevent the new security vulnerabilities.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global land surface temperature databank contains monthly timescale mean, max, and min temperature for approximately 40,000 stations globally. It was developed...
Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013
2003-01-01
Balti riikide NATOga liitumise mõjust julgeolekule Läänemere regioonis, Euroopa Liidu kaitsepoliitikast ning Venemaa ja islamiterrorismi ohust julgeolekule. Vt. samas: Toomas Hiio ülevaade Max Jakobsoni elust ja tegevusest
Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013
2003-01-01
Balti riikide NATOga liitumise mõjust julgeolekule Läänemere regioonis, Euroopa Liidu kaitsepoliitikast ning Venemaa ja islamiterrorismi ohust julgeolekule. Vt. samas: Toomas Hiio ülevaade Max Jakobsoni elust ja tegevusest
Wang, L.; Kerr, L. A.; Bridger, E.
2016-02-01
Changes in species distributions have been widely associated with climate change. Understanding how ocean temperatures influence species distributions is critical for elucidating the role of climate in ecosystem change as well as for forecasting how species may be distributed in the future. As such, species distribution modeling (SDM) is increasingly useful in marine ecosystems research, as it can enable estimation of the likelihood of encountering marine fish in space or time as a function of a set of environmental and ecosystem conditions. Many traditional SDM approaches are applied to species data collected through standardized methods that include both presence and absence records, but are incapable of using presence-only data, such as those collected from fisheries or through citizen science programs. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) models provide promising tools as they can predict species distributions from incomplete information (presence-only data). We developed a MaxEnt framework to relate the occurrence records of several marine fish species (e.g. Atlantic herring, Atlantic mackerel, and butterfish) to environmental conditions. Environmental variables derived from remote sensing, such as monthly average sea surface temperature (SST), are matched with fish species data, and model results indicate the relative occurrence rate of the species as a function of the environmental variables. The results can be used to provide hindcasts of where species might have been in the past in relation to historical environmental conditions, nowcasts in relation to current conditions, and forecasts of future species distributions. In this presentation, we will assess the relative influence of several environmental factors on marine fish species distributions, and evaluate the effects of data coverage on these presence-only models. We will also discuss how the information from species distribution forecasts can support climate adaptation planning in marine fisheries.
The average free volume model for liquids
Yu, Yang
2014-01-01
In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.
Mirror averaging with sparsity priors
Dalalyan, Arnak
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.
王雷宏; 杨俊仙; 黄成林
2013-01-01
areas with distribution value 0.6-1,from west to east,the southern and southeastern of the Himalayas,Hengduan Mountains,Qinling Mountains,and Wu Mountains,the mountainous regions of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River,Wuyi Mountains,Korean Peninsula,the Japan islands.From north to south,the most northern boundary was in the south of the Taihang Mountains,and the southern boundary was in the southwest of the Wuyi Mountains.④ It was showed that the average temperature in the dry season was the greatest contribution to the distribution gain of M.hupehensis by Jackknife Test,and it was distributed naturally over those areas with average temperature of-10℃-15℃ in the dry season.
Intensity contrast of the average supergranule
Langfellner, J; Gizon, L
2016-01-01
While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...
Biology of VO2 max: looking under the physiology lamp.
Lundby, C; Montero, D; Joyner, M
2017-06-01
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max. Therefore, (ii) variations in VO2 max improvements with exercise training are also likely related to variations in these physiological determinants. (iii) All previously untrained individuals will respond to endurance exercise training in terms of improvements in VO2 max provided the stimulus exceeds a certain volume and/or intensity. Thus, genetic analysis and/or reductionist studies performed to understand or predict such variations might focus specifically on DNA variants or other molecular phenomena of relevance to these physiological pathways. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Submaximal treadmill test predicts VO2max in overweight children.
Nemeth, Blaise A; Carrel, Aaron L; Eickhoff, Jens; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Allen, David B
2009-05-01
To demonstrate the ability of a submaximal test to predict VO(2max) in overweight children. A total of 130 children, 11 to 14 years old, with body mass index >85 percentile for age and sex performed a submaximal walking test. VO(2max) was measured by using open circuit spirometry during a graded exercise test to volitional fatigue. An equation to predict VO(2max) was modeled by using the variables of sex, weight (kg), height (cm), heart rate (HR) after 4 minutes during the submaximal test (4minHR), HR difference (4minHR - resting HR), and submaximal treadmill speed (miles per hour [mph]) in 75% of the subjects. Validation was performed by using the remaining 25% of subjects. A total of 113 subjects achieved a maximal effort and was used in the statistical analysis. Development and validation groups were similar in all aspects. On validation, the mean square error was 241.06 with the predicted VO(2max) within 10% of the observed value in 67% of subjects. VO(2max) was accurately predicted in this cohort of overweight children by using a submaximal, treadmill-based testing protocol.
Validity of 3 protocols for verifying VO2 max.
Kirkeberg, J M; Dalleck, L C; Kamphoff, C S; Pettitt, R W
2011-04-01
The verification bout has emerged as a technique for confirming 'true' VO2 max; however, validity during a single visit is unknown. We evaluated 3 different GXT durations with severe intensity verification bouts. On 3 separate days, in counterbalanced order, 12 recreational-trained men completed short (9±1 min), middle (11±1 min), and long (13±2 min) duration GXTs followed by exhaustive, sine wave verification bouts during the same visit. Intensities for verification were set at speeds equivalent to 2-stages minus end-GXT speed. No differences (pVO2 max (mL/kg/min) were observed between short (49.1), middle (48.2), and long (48.8) protocols. In addition, no differences in verification bout duration occurred between protocols (3±1 min). Validity of VO2 max was strongest for the middle duration protocol (ICC α=0.97; typical error=1 mL/kg/min; CV=2%). A small, but significantly higher HR (max) (∼1-2 bpm) was observed for the long protocol. Maximum respiratory exchange ratios were inconsistent (ICC α ranged 0.58-0.68). Our findings indicate GXT-verification bout testing during a single visit is a valid means of measuring 'true' VO2 max. The 10 min target for GXT duration was the optimum. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Efficient radio transmission with adaptive and distributed beamforming for intelligent WiMAX
Lian, X.; Nikookar, H.; Ligthart, L.P.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we introduce Adaptive Beamforming (AB) and Distributed Beamforming (DB) as two efficient techniques for IntelligentWiMAX (I-WiMAX). I-WiMAX is a new maritime communication system, consisting of Smart Radio (SR) principles and mobile WiMAX based on the IEEE 802.16e standard. Adopting A
Risk-sensitive reinforcement learning algorithms with generalized average criterion
YIN Chang-ming; WANG Han-xing; ZHAO Fei
2007-01-01
A new algorithm is proposed, which immolates the optimality of control policies potentially to obtain the robusticity of solutions. The robusticity of solutions maybe becomes a very important property for a learning system when there exists non-matching between theory models and practical physical system, or the practical system is not static,or the availability of a control action changes along with the variety of time. The main contribution is that a set of approximation algorithms and their convergence results are given. A generalized average operator instead of the general optimal operator max (or min) is applied to study a class of important learning algorithms, dynamic programming algorithms, and discuss their convergences from theoretic point of view. The purpose for this research is to improve the robusticity of reinforcement learning algorithms theoretically.
ORDERED WEIGHTED AVERAGING AGGREGATION METHOD FOR PORTFOLIO SELECTION
LIU Shancun; QIU Wanhua
2004-01-01
Portfolio management is a typical decision making problem under incomplete,sometimes unknown, informationThis paper considers the portfolio selection problemsunder a general setting of uncertain states without probabilityThe investor's preferenceis based on his optimum degree about the nature, and his attitude can be described by anOrdered Weighted Averaging Aggregation functionWe construct the OWA portfolio selec-tion model, which is a nonlinear programming problemThe problem can be equivalentlytransformed into a mixed integer linear programmingA numerical example is given andthe solutions imply that the investor's strategies depend not only on his optimum degreebut also on his preference weight vectorThe general game-theoretical portfolio selectionmethod, max-min method and competitive ratio method are all the special settings of thismodel.
Dharmaveer Singh; Sanjay K Jain; R D Gupta
2015-06-01
Ensembles of two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CGCM3 and HadCM3, are used to project future maximum temperature (Max), minimum temperature (Min) and precipitation in a part of Sutlej River Basin, northwestern Himalayan region, India. Large scale atmospheric variables of CGCM3 and HadCM3 under different emission scenarios and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis datasets are downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Variability and changes in Max, Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model are presented for future periods: 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. The study reveals rise in annual average Max, Min and precipitation under scenarios A1B and A2 for CGCM3 model as well as under A2 and B2 scenarios for HadCM3 model in 2020s, 2050s and 2080s. Increase in mean monthly Min is also observed for all months of the year under all scenarios of both the models. This is followed by decrease in Max during June, July August and September. However, the model projects rise in precipitation in months of July, August and September under A1B and A2 scenarios of CGCM3 model and A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model for future periods.
Assessment of soybean (Glycine max vigour by the seed leachate conductivity assay
J. S. Knypl
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Conductivity of seed leachates is inversely correlated with germination and growth of soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., at low temperatures. It is concluded that the seed leachate conductivity assay can be employed to assess soybean seed vigour. Cold tolerance of soybean can markedly be enhanced by increasing the hydration level of the seeds to at least 20% by means of exposure of the seeds to HRH (water saturated atmosphere for 4 days. It is suggested that increased vigour following HRH exposure is due to re-establishment of the cell membrane integrity in the course of exposure.
Band-Structure Trend in Hole-Doped Cuprates and Correlation with {Tc}{sub MAX}
Pavarini, E.; Dasgupta, I.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O. K.
2001-07-23
By calculation and analysis of the bare conduction bands in a large number of hole-doped high-temperature superconductors, we have identified the range of the intralayer hopping as the essential, material-dependent parameter. It is controlled by the energy of the axial orbital, a hybrid between Cu4s , apical-oxygen 2p{sub z} , and farther orbitals. Materials with higher {Tc}{sub max} have larger hopping ranges and axial orbitals more localized in the CuO{sub 2} layers.
Lönsamhet med CSR hosMAX Hamburgare
Nisell, Samuel; Kaya, Roni
2012-01-01
När företag engagerar sig i CSR-frågor främjar det miljö och samhälle. Denna rapport utreder hur CSR-arbetet också kan gynna företaget ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv. Rapporten behandlar hamburgerkedjan Max Hamburgares hållbarhetssatsning och besvarar frågorna: • Är Max Hamburgares CSR-arbete ekonomiskt lönsamt för dem själva? • Är någon/några av Max Hamburgares CSR-åtgärder förlust- respektive vinstaffärer? För att besvara frågorna har en omfattande studie kring ämnet och företaget genomförts ...
Does MAX open up a new avenue for meiotic research?
Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Okuda, Akihiko
2017-02-01
Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively. We present a hypothetical model of a MAX-centered molecular network that regulates meiotic entry in mammals and propose that inducible Max knockout ESCs provide an excellent platform for exploring the molecular mechanisms of meiosis initiation, while excluding other aspects of gametogenesis.
A 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system.
Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung
2014-02-10
A 10-Gbps optical worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and spatial light modulator (SLM) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. With the assistance of equalizer and low noise amplifier (LNA) at the receiving site, good bit error rate (BER) performance, clear constellation map, and clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. An optical WiMAX transport system, transmitting 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 10 Gbps is successfully demonstrated. Such a 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system would be attractive for providing services including Internet and telecommunication services. Our proposed system is suitable for the free-space lightwave transport system in visible light communication (VLC) application.
Weighted Max-Min Resource Allocation for Frequency Selective Channels
Zehavi, Ephi; Levanda, Ronny; Han, Zhu
2010-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the computation of weighted max-min rate allocation using joint TDM/FDM strategies under a PSD mask constraint. We show that the weighted max-min solution allocates the rates according to a predetermined rate ratio defined by the weights, a fact that is very valuable for telecommunication service providers. Furthermore, we show that the problem can be efficiently solved using linear programming. We also discuss the resource allocation problem in the mixed services scenario where certain users have a required rate, while the others have flexible rate requirements. The solution is relevant to many communication systems that are limited by a power spectral density mask constraint such as WiMax, Wi-Fi and UWB.
Detecting Communities by Revised Max-flow Method in Networks
LIU Chuan-Jian; ZHU Zhi-Qiang; WU Jian-Liang
2013-01-01
A ubiquitous phenomenon in networks is the presence of communities within which the network connections are dense and between which they are sparser.This paper proposes a max-flow algorithm in bipartite networks to detect communities in general networks.Firstly,we construct a bipartite network in accordance with a general network and derive a revised max-flow problem in order to uncover the community structure.Then we present a local heuristic algorithm to find the optimal solution of the revised max-flow problem.This method is applied to a variety of real-world and artificial complex networks,and the partition results confirm its effectiveness and accuracy.
Multimedia application performance on a WiMAX network
Halepovic, Emir; Ghaderi, Majid; Williamson, Carey
2009-01-01
In this paper, we use experimental measurements to study the performance of multimedia applications over a commercial IEEE 802.16 WiMAX network. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and video streaming applications are tested. We observe that the WiMAX-based network solidly supports VoIP. The voice quality degradation compared to high-speed Ethernet is only moderate, despite higher packet loss and network delays. Despite different characteristics of the uplink and the downlink, call quality is comparable for both directions. On-demand video streaming performs well using UDP. Smooth playback of high-quality video/audio clips at aggregate rates exceeding 700 Kbps is achieved about 63% of the time, with low-quality playback periods observed only 7% of the time. Our results show that WiMAX networks can adequately support currently popular multimedia Internet applications.
Performance Evaluation of Different Scheduling Algorithms in WiMAX
Al-Howaide, Ala'a Z; Khamayseh, Yaser M; 10.5121/ijcsea.2011.1509
2011-01-01
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) networks were expected to be the main Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) technology that provided several services such as data, voice, and video services including different classes of Quality of Services (QoS), which in turn were defined by IEEE 802.16 standard. Scheduling in WiMAX became one of the most challenging issues, since it was responsible for distributing available resources of the network among all users; this leaded to the demand of constructing and designing high efficient scheduling algorithms in order to improve the network utilization, to increase the network throughput, and to minimize the end-to-end delay. In this study, we presenedt a simulation study to measure the performance of several scheduling algorithms in WiMAX, which were Strict Priority algorithm, Round-Robin (RR), Weighted Round Robin (WRR), Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ), Self-Clocked Fair (SCF), and Diff-Serv Algorithm.
Max Aub, crítico e historiador literario
Francisco Caudet
2002-11-01
Full Text Available On the basis of similarities and dissimilarities in the consideration of authors dealt with in Discurso de la novela española contemporánea, Francisco Caudet points out Max Aub's poetics of realism stated in both his critical studies and fiction. This essay shows that Aub's contribution to the study of Mexican and Spanish literature is outstanding, not only because of his socio-historical approach, but also because of a specific perspective. This does not mean writing a "history" of literature but rather connecting creative processes. Committed during his youth to the avant-garde, Max Aub shifts after the Civil War to a type of new realistic writing. The author highlights Max Aub's activity as a critic discussing and commenting his sources. Aub's critical essays cannot be detached from his personal ideas about literary theory and practice.
The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions
Harré, Michael S., E-mail: michael.harre@sydney.edu.au [Complex Systems Research Group, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)
2014-12-05
One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20{sup th} century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field of application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rényi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals.
The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions
Harré, Michael S.
2014-12-01
One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20th century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field of application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rényi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals.
Blechschmidt, Anne-Marlene
2016-04-01
Tropospheric NO2 is hazardous to human health and can lead to tropospheric ozone formation, eutrophication of ecosystems and acid rain production. It is therefore very important to accurately observe and simulate tropospheric NO2 on a regional and global scale. In the present study, MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from three European measurement stations are applied for validation of a regional model ensemble. In general, there is a good agreement between simulated and retrieved NO2 column values for individual MAX-DOAS measurements, indicating that the model ensemble does well represent the emission and tropospheric chemistry of NOx. However, the model ensemble tends to overestimate low and underestimate high tropospheric NO2 column values, respectively. Pollution transport towards the stations is on average well represented by the models. However, large differences can be found for individual pollution plumes. Seasonal cycles are overestimated by the model ensemble, which could point to problems in simulating photochemistry. While weekly cycles are reproduced well by the models, model performance is rather poor for diurnal cycles. In particular, simulated morning rush hour peaks are not confirmed by MAX-DOAS retrievals, which may result from inappropriate hourly scaling of NOx emissions, possibly combined with errors in chemistry. Our results demonstrate that a large number of validation points are available from MAX-DOAS data, which should therefore be used more extensively in future regional air quality modelling studies.
Polynomial complexity algorithm for Max-Cut problem
Katkov, Mikhail
2010-01-01
The standard NP-complete max-cut problem is reformulated as a binary quadratic program xQx s.t x^2=1. This problem is further reformulated as global minimum of quartic polynomial (xQ'x - z)^2 + \\sum_i (x_i^2-1)^2+ \\alpha z^2, for some \\alpha. The global minimum is found by polynomial complexity semi-definite program. Numerical examples and code is provided. The resulting algorithm solves arbitrary max-cut problem in polynomial time, therefore P=NP.
Min-Max decoding for non binary LDPC codes
Savin, Valentin
2008-01-01
Iterative decoding of non-binary LDPC codes is currently performed using either the Sum-Product or the Min-Sum algorithms or slightly different versions of them. In this paper, several low-complexity quasi-optimal iterative algorithms are proposed for decoding non-binary codes. The Min-Max algorithm is one of them and it has the benefit of two possible LLR domain implementations: a standard implementation, whose complexity scales as the square of the Galois field's cardinality and a reduced complexity implementation called selective implementation, which makes the Min-Max decoding very attractive for practical purposes.
Un’interpretazione della teoria della religione secondo Max Weber
Bourdieu, Pierre
2013-01-01
Per un paradosso del tutto conforme alla teoria weberiana della relazione fra le intenzioni degli agenti e il senso storico delle loro azioni, il contributo più importante apportato da Max Weber alla sociologia della religione si colloca forse su tutt’altro piano rispetto a quello scelto per lo scontro di tutta una vita con Marx. Se, nel suo sforzo ostinato per definire l’efficacia storica delle credenze religiose contro le espressioni più riduttive della teoria marxista, Max Weber è talvolta...
Lorenzen, Christian; Williams, Morgan D; Turk, Paul S; Meehan, Daniel L; Kolsky, Daniel J Cicioni
2009-09-01
Running velocity reached at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2(max)) can be a useful measure to prescribe training intensity for aerobic conditioning. Obtaining it in the laboratory is often not practical, and average velocities from time trials are an attractive alternative. To date, the efficacies of such practices for team sport players are unknown. This study aimed to assess the relationship between vVO2(max) obtained in the laboratory against two time-trial estimates (1500 m and 3200 m). During the early preseason, elite Australian Rules football players (n = 23, 22.7 +/- 3.4 y, 187.7 +/- 8.2 cm, 75.5 +/- 9.2 kg) participated in a laboratory test on a motorized treadmill and two outdoor time trials. Based on average velocity the 1500-m time-trial performance (5.01 +/- 0.23 m x s(-1)) overestimated (0.36 m x s(-1), d = 1.75), whereas the 3200-m time trial (4.47 +/- 0.23 m x s(-1)) underestimated (0.17 m x s(-1), d = 0.83) the laboratory vVO2(max) (4.64 +/- 0.18 m x s(-1)). Despite these differences, both 1500-m and 3200-m time-trial performances correlated with the laboratory measure (r = -0.791; r = -0.793 respectively). Both subsequent linear regressions were of good fit and predicted the laboratory measure within +/- 0.12 m x s(-1). Estimates of vVO2(max) should not be used interchangeably, nor should they replace the laboratory measure. When laboratory testing is not accessible for team sports players, prescription of training intensity may be more accurately estimated from linear regression based on either 1500-m or 3200-m time-trial performance than from the corresponding average velocity.
Billat, V L; Slawinksi, J; Bocquet, V; Chassaing, P; Demarle, A; Koralsztein, J P
2001-04-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three very short interval training sessions (15-15 s of hard and easier runs) run at an average velocity equal to the critical velocity to elicit VO2 max for more than 10 minutes. We hypothesized that the interval with the smallest amplitude (defined as the ratio between the difference in velocity between the hard and the easy run divided by the average velocity and multiplied by 100) would be the most efficient to elicit VO2 max for the longer time. The subjects were middle-aged runners (52 +/- 5 yr, VO2 max of 52.1 +/- 6 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), vVO2 max of 15.9 +/- 1.8 km x h(-1), critical velocity of 85.6 +/- 1.2% vVO2 max) who were used to long slow distance-training rather than interval training. They performed three interval-training (IT) sessions on a synthetic track (400 m) whilst breathing through the COSMED K4b2 portable metabolic analyser. These three IT sessions were: A) 90-80% vVO2 max (for hard bouts and active recovery periods, respectively), the amplitude= (90-80/85) 100=11%, B) 100-70% vVO2 max amplitude=35%, and C) 60 x 110% vVO2 max amplitude = 59%. Interval training A and B allowed the athlete to spend twice the time at VO2 max (14 min vs. 7 min) compared to interval training C. Moreover, at the end of interval training A and B the runners had a lower blood lactate than after the procedure C (9 vs. 11 mmol x l(-1)). In conclusion, short interval-training of 15s-15s at 90-80 and 100-70% of vVO2 max proved to be the most efficient in stimulating the oxygen consumption to its highest level in healthy middle-aged long-distance runners used to doing only long slow distance-training.
Max Kaur vassib oma diplomitega / Ralf-Martin Soe
Soe, Ralf-Martin
2008-01-01
Eraülikooli prorektor Max Kaur kinnitas kohalikel valimistel allkirjaga, et on lõpetanud Moskva Riikliku Ülikooli, kuid pärast Äripäeva järelpärimist tunnistas selle info ekslikuks. Vt. samas: Vene ülikooli diplom 1200 dollariga; Ka Reimann valetas hariduse kohta
Max Weber and the Iron Cage of Technology
Maley, Terry
2004-01-01
Max Weber is seen by mainstream social scientists as a sociologist, social theorist, and theorist of bureaucracy. In this reassessment of Weber's social science and its methodology, it is suggested that Weber can also be seen as a compelling early 20th-century critic of science and technology. The theme of technology, and Webers ambivalence about…
Isolation and identification of glycinol from Glycine max [L.] Merri
Qi, Y.; Moco, S.I.A.; Boeren, S.; Vos, de C.H.; Bovy, A.G.
2005-01-01
As one of the main phytoalexins and phytoestrogens, glyceollin is an important prenylflavonoid in Glycine max [L.] Merri. (soybean). Many kinds of elicitors can be used to induce its accumulation. Its biosynthesis pathway is commonly used to study the characteristics of prenyltransferase, which cata
On the Transience of Linear Max-Plus Dynamical Systems
Charron-Bost, Bernadette; Nowak, Thomas
2011-01-01
We study the transients of linear max-plus dynamical systems. For that, we consider for each irreducible max-plus matrix A, the weighted graph G(A) such that A is the adjacency matrix of G(A). Based on a novel graph-theoretic counterpart to the number-theoretic Brauer's theorem, we propose two new methods for the construction of arbitrarily long paths in G(A) with maximal weight. That leads to two new upper bounds on the transient of a linear max-plus system which both improve on the bounds previously given by Even and Rajsbaum (STOC 1990, Theory of Computing Systems 1997), by Bouillard and Gaujal (Research Report 2000), and by Soto y Koelemeijer (PhD Thesis 2003), and are, in general, incomparable with Hartmann and Arguelles' bound (Mathematics of Operations Research 1999). With our approach, we also show how to improve the latter bound by a factor of two. A significant benefit of our bounds is that each of them turns out to be linear in the size of the system in various classes of linear max-plus system whe...
Analysis of WiMAX Physical Layer Using Spatial Multiplexing
Sanghoi, Pavani
2012-01-01
Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has emerged as a promising solution for providing last mile internet access technology to provide high speed internet access to the users in the residential as well as in the small and medium sized enterprise sectors. IEEE 802.16e is one of the most promising and attractive candidate among the emerging technologies for broadband wireless access. The emergence of WiMAX protocol has attracted various interests from almost all the fields of wireless communications. MIMO systems which are created according to the IEEE 802.16-2005 standard (WiMAX) under different fading channels can be implemented to get the benefits of both the MIMO and WiMAX technologies. In this paper analysis of higher level of modulations (i.e. M-PSK and M-QAM for different values of M) with different code rates and on WiMAX-MIMO system is presented for Rayleigh channel by focusing on spatial multiplexing MIMO technique. Signal-to Noise Ratio (SNR) vs Bit Error Rate (BER) analysis has been done.
Nurgapoliitik kavandab kasiinode alatut riigistamist / Max Kaur ; interv. Sulev Vedler
Kaur, Max, 1969-
2007-01-01
Edgar Savisaare endine nõunik Max Kaur esitleb röövkapitalismi ideed, et Eesti riik ei pikenda kasiinode tegevuslubasid ja võtab seejärel nende tegevuse odavalt üle. Kaart: Tallinna mängupõrgud 2007. Lisa
Multimedia programming using Max/MSP and TouchDesigner
Lechner, Patrik
2014-01-01
If you want to learn how to use Max 6 and/or TouchDesigner, or work in audio-visual real-time processing, this is the book for you. It is intended for intermediate users of both programs and can be helpful for artists, designers, musicians, VJs, and researchers. A basic understanding of audio principles is advantageous.
Radio Resource Management in WiMAX Networks
Jorguseski, L.; Prasad, R.
2010-01-01
This chapter presents the general Radio Resource Management (RRM) problem in wireless access networks and gives performance evaluations for different downlink resource (sub-carrier) allocation algorithms in WiMAX TDD systems based on OFDMA wireless access. This is particularly important in downlink
An optimal dynamic interval stabbing-max data structure?
Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Yi, Ke
2005-01-01
In this paper we consider the dynamic stabbing-max problem, that is, the problem of dynamically maintaining a set S of n axis-parallel hyper-rectangles in Rd, where each rectangle s ∈ S has a weight w(s) ∈ R, so that the rectangle with the maximum weight containing a query point can be determined...
Chain rules for smooth min-and max-entropies
Vitanov, Alexande; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Tomamichel, Marco;
2013-01-01
The chain rule for the Shannon and von Neumann en- tropy, which relates the total entropy of a system to the entropies of its parts, is of central importance to information theory. Here, we consider the chain rule for the more general smooth min- and max-entropies, used in one-shot in formation t...
Matching of Male and Female Subjects Using VO2 Max.
Cureton, Kirk J.
1981-01-01
The increasing use of various VO2 max expressions as test measures is a problem because the magnitude of sex difference varies considerably with each expression. A valid match of male and female test subjects would consider physical activity history and the amount of endurance exercise done in the previous year. (Author/FG)
Nurgapoliitik kavandab kasiinode alatut riigistamist / Max Kaur ; interv. Sulev Vedler
Kaur, Max, 1969-
2007-01-01
Edgar Savisaare endine nõunik Max Kaur esitleb röövkapitalismi ideed, et Eesti riik ei pikenda kasiinode tegevuslubasid ja võtab seejärel nende tegevuse odavalt üle. Kaart: Tallinna mängupõrgud 2007. Lisa
Breaking the Genetic Code in a Letter by Max Delbruck.
Fox, Marty
1996-01-01
Describes a classroom exercise that uses a letter from Max Delbruck to George Beadle to stimulate interest in the mechanics of a nonoverlapping comma-free code. Enables students to participate in the rich history of molecular biology and illustrates to them that scientists and science can be fun. (JRH)
Recovering the Philosophical Anthropology of Max Scheler for Leadership Studies
Harter, Nathan
2006-01-01
During the first half of the twentieth century, a handful of German speaking scholars examined leadership through the lens of what came to be known as philosophical anthropology, a field of study inaugurated by Max Scheler. Not only do their contributions belong in the history of leadership studies, but the findings of philosophical anthropology…
Regular conditional distributions of max infinitely divisible processes
Dombry, Clément
2011-01-01
This paper is devoted to the prediction problem in extreme value theory. Our main result is an explicit expression of the regular conditional distribution of a max-stable (or max-infinitely divisible) process $\\{\\eta(t)\\}_{t\\in T}$ given observations $\\{\\eta(t_i)=y_i,\\ 1\\leq i\\leq k\\}$. Our starting point is the point process representation of max-infinitely divisible processes by Gin\\'e, Hahn and Vatan (1990). We carefully analyze the structure of the underlying point process, introduce the notions of extremal function, sub-extremal function and hitting scenario associated to the constraints and derive the associated distributions. This allows us to explicit the conditional distribution as a mixture over all hitting scenarios compatible with the conditioning constraints. This formula extends a recent related result by Wang and Stoev (2011) dealing with the case of spectrally discrete max-stable random fields. We believe this work offers new tools and perspective for prediction in extreme value theory togethe...
Holly（译）
2008-01-01
继在德国柏林文化中心和日本东京森美术馆的成功展出之后，Max Mara于10月19日至11月12日在中国美术馆举办公开展览，这场名为“COATS！Max Mara，55年意大利时尚”的展览回溯了Max Mara的历史，并包括诸多以雕版印染、平板印染和现代印染为特征的服饰，进而回顾自公元1500年至战后时期的服饰演进历程，观众可以透过自50年代至今的70多件服装，来体味Max Mara的辉煌历史及其独树一帜的意大利风情。
The effect of exposure on MaxRGB color constancy
Funt, Brian; Shi, Lilong
2010-02-01
The performance of the MaxRGB illumination-estimation method for color constancy and automatic white balancing has been reported in the literature as being mediocre at best; however, MaxRGB has usually been tested on images of only 8-bits per channel. The question arises as to whether the method itself is inadequate, or rather whether it has simply been tested on data of inadequate dynamic range. To address this question, a database of sets of exposure-bracketed images was created. The image sets include exposures ranging from very underexposed to slightly overexposed. The color of the scene illumination was determined by taking an extra image of the scene containing 4 Gretag Macbeth mini Colorcheckers placed at an angle to one another. MaxRGB was then run on the images of increasing exposure. The results clearly show that its performance drops dramatically when the 14-bit exposure range of the Nikon D700 camera is exceeded, thereby resulting in clipping of high values. For those images exposed such that no clipping occurs, the median error in MaxRGB's estimate of the color of the scene illumination is found to be relatively small.
Portrait Face-Off: Gilbert Stuart vs. Peter Max
Crumpecker, Cheryl
2012-01-01
When art classes are short and infrequent, it is always a challenge to meet required state and national standards. A unit comparing and contrasting Peter Max's Pop art portraits with the realistic style of Gilbert Stuart's presidential portraits provides an opportunity to address a huge number of these requirements. Focus can change with the age…
Identification and Cloning of Tillering-Related Genes OsMAX1 in Rice
WANG Xiu-mei
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Tillering is an important agronomic trait which has a direct impact on plant type and grain yield. Strigolactones are a class of important phytohormones regulating rice tillering. ATMAX1 is an important gene involved in strigolactone biosynthesis through encoding the protein P450 in Arabidopsis. Based on sequence BLASTp, we identified five homologous genes of ATMAX1 in rice, i.e., OsMAX1a, OsMAX1b, OsMAX1c, OsMAX1d and OsMAX1e. Among them, OsMAX1a and OsMAX1e showed stable and high expression in rice tissues. In addition, we observed that OsMAX1a and OsMAX1e can rescue the branched phenotype and the influences caused by MAX1 mutation in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression of OsMAX1a and OsMAX1e can respond to phosphate deficiency and different phytohormones, especially GR24, a strigolactone analogue. Therefore, it is concluded that OsMAX1a and OsMAX1e are involved in the biosynthesis of strigolactones and regulated rice tillering.
Identification and Cloning of Tillering-Related GenesOsMAX1 in Rice
WANG Xiu-mei; ZHENG Ai-ping; LI Ping; WANG Shi-quan; LIANG Yue-yang; LI Ling; GONG Chang-wei; WANG Hai-peng; HUANG Xiao-xi; LIShuang-cheng; DENG Qi-ming; ZHU Jun
2015-01-01
Tillering is an important agronomic trait which has a direct impact on plant type and grain yield. Strigolactones are a class of important phytohormones regulating rice tillering.ATMAX1 is an important gene involved in strigolactone biosynthesis through encoding the protein P450 inArabidopsis. Based on sequence BLASTp, we identified five homologous genes ofATMAX1in rice, i.e.,OsMAX1a,OsMAX1b, OsMAX1c,OsMAX1d andOsMAX1e. Among them,OsMAX1a andOsMAX1e showed stable and high expression in rice tissues. In addition, we observed thatOsMAX1a andOsMAX1e can rescue the branched phenotype and the influences caused byMAX1 mutation inArabidopsis. Moreover, the expression of OsMAX1a andOsMAX1e can respond to phosphate deficiency and different phytohormones, especially GR24, a strigolactone analogue. Therefore, it is concluded thatOsMAX1a andOsMAX1e are involved in the biosynthesis of strigolactones and regulated rice tillering.
一种求解MAX-k-SAT问题的新方法%Solving MAX-k-SAT problems by improved differential evolution algorithm
宋建民; 弓小影
2014-01-01
An improved binary differential evolution algorithm (denoted as IBDE) to solving the maximum satisfiability problem (MAX-k-SAT) was put forward,and the improved algorithm was verified by solving a series of random mass MAX-k-SAT instances in this paper.The computational results of IBDE through practicing series of random large-scale instances of MAX-k-SAT showed that IBDE was a new effective algorithm for MAX-k-SAT.%基于差分演化算法提出了一种求解最大可满足问题（MAX-k-SAT）的改进算法,记为IBDE,并通过对一系列随机大规模MAX-k-SAT实例的求解进行验证。实验结果表明：IBDE是一种求解MAX-k-SAT问题非常有效的新方法。
Fabrizio Caputo
2005-01-01
average of the corresponding %HRmax to 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% %VO2max were 67, 73, 80, 87, and 93%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ratio between %VO2max and %HRmax in the groups assessed during incremental exercise on the bicycle is not dependent on the status and specificity of aerobic exercise training.
Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps
Scholand, Michael
2012-04-01
contains less material (i.e., glass, fill gas and phosphor), and has a higher luminance, enabling fixtures to take advantage of the smaller lamp size to improve the optics and provide more efficient overall system illuminance. In addition to offering the market a high-quality efficacious light source, another strong value proposition of fluorescent lighting is its long operating life. In today's market, one manufacturer is offering fluorescent lamps that have a rated life of 79,000 hours - which represents 18 years of service at 12 hours per day, 365 days per year. These lamps, operated using a long-life ballast specified by the manufacturer, take advantage of improvements in cathode coatings, fill gas chemistry and pressure to extend service life by a factor of four over conventional fluorescent lamps. It should be noted that this service life is also longer (approximately twice as long) as today's high-quality LED products. The fluorescent market is currently focused on the T5 and T8 lamp diameters, and it is not expected that other diameters would be introduced. Although T8 is a more optimal diameter from an efficacy perspective, the premium efficiency and optimization effort has been focused on T5 lamps because they are 40% smaller than T8, and are designed to operate at a higher temperature using high-frequency electronic ballasts. The T5 lamp offers savings in terms of materials, packaging and shipping, as well as smaller fixtures with improved optical performance. Manufacturers are actively researching improvements in four critical areas that are expected to yield additional efficacy improvements of approximately 10 to 14 percent over the next five years, ultimately achieving approximately 130 lumens per watt by 2015. The active areas of research where these improvements are anticipated include: (1) Improved phosphors which continue to be developed and patented, enabling higher efficacies as well as better color rendering and lumen maintenance; (2
Eliza Rigoni de Pontes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the temperatures in the mass of bulk soybeans ( Glycine max in warehouses with isolated vents and vent-combined exhaustion. A completely randomized design was used, with two treatments and ten repetitions. Treatments consisted of warehouse with curved vents and warehouse with curved + static exhaust vents. Each repetition contained the average of all readings in three days in all cables of the warehouse part under study, totaling 10 repetitions per month. The variable analyzed was the temperature in the grain mass in the lower, middle and upper parts of the warehouse from January to May 2012. The environment temperature and humidity were also registered. Static hoods, along with curved vents on the roof of the warehouse showed a tendency to reduce the temperature of the soybean mass with decrease in environmental temperature and increase in relative environmental humidity.
SUN; Xiaomin; ZHU; Zhilin; XU; Jinping; YUAN; Guofu
2005-01-01
It is more and more popular to estimate the exchange of water vapor, heat and CO2fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere using the eddy covariance technique. To get believable fluxes, it is necessary to correct the observations based on the different surface conditions and to determine relevant techinical parameters. The raw 10 Hz eddy covariance data observed in the Yucheng and Changbai Mountains stations were recalculated by various averaging periods (from 1 to 720 min) respectively, and the recalculated results were compared with the results calculated by the averaging period of 30 mins. Meanwhile, the distinctions of fluxes calculated by different averaging periods were analyzed. The continuous 15 days observations over wheat fields in the Yucheng station were mainly analyzed. The results are shown that: (i) In the Yucheng station, compared with the observations by 30 min, when the averaging period changes from 10 to 60 min, the variations of the eddy-covariance estimates of fluxes were less than 2%; when the averaging period changes less than 10 min, the estimate of fluxes reduced obviously with the reduction of the averaging period (the max relative error was -12%); and when the averaging period exceeds 120 min, the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes will be increased and become unsteady (the max relative error is over 10%); (ii) the eddy covariance estimates of fluxes over wheat field in the Yucheng station suggusted that it is much better to take 10 min as an averaging period in studying diurnal change of fluxes, and take 30min for a long-term flux observation; and (iii) normalized ratio was put forward to determine the range of averaging period of eddy covariance measurements. By comparing the observations over farmlands and those over forests, it is indicated that the increase of eddy covariance estimates over tall forest was more than that over short vegetation when the averaging period increased.
Joong-Han Yoon
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A triple-band rectangular ring, open-ended monopole antenna with symmetric L strips for wireless local area network (WLAN/Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access (WiMAX applications is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two symmetric folded arms and L strips. Based on the concept, a prototype of the proposed triple antenna has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The numerical and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed antenna satisfied the −10 dB impedance bandwidth requirement while simultaneously covering the WLAN and WiMAX bands. Furthermore, this paper presented and discussed the 2D radiation patterns and 3D gains according to the results of the experiment. The proposed antenna’s peak gain varied between 2.17 and 4.93 dBi, and its average gain varied between −2.97 and −0.53 dBi.
Optimizing WiMAX: Mitigating Co-Channel Interference for Maximum Spectral Efficiency
ABDUL QADIR ANSARI
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The efficient use of radio spectrum is one of the most important issues in wireless networks because spectrum is generally limited and wireless environment is constrained to channel interference. To cope up and for increased usefulness of radio spectrum wireless networks use frequency reuse technique. The frequency reuse technique allows the use of same frequency band in different cells of same network considering inter-cell distance and resulting interference level. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access PHY profile is designed to use FRF (Frequency Reuse Factor of one. When FRF of one is used it results in an improved spectral efficacy but also results in CCI (Co-Channel interference at cell boundaries. The effect of interference is always required to be measured so that some averaging/ minimization techniques may be incorporated to keep the interference level up to some acceptable threshold in wireless environment. In this paper, we have analyzed, that how effectively CCI impact can be mitigated by using different subcarrier permutation types presented in IEEE 802.16 standard. A simulation based analysis is presented wherein impact of using same and different permutation base in adjacent cells in a WiMAX network on CCI, under varying load conditions is analyzed. We have further studied the effect of permutation base in environment where frequency reuse technique is used in conjunction with cell sectoring for better utilization of radio spectrum.
Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Zhu, Hongyu; Zhang, Runzhi
2015-08-01
Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and correlative niche models to quantify and map the global patterns of the potential for establishment of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), a major pest of apples, peaches, pears, and other pome and stone fruits, and a quarantine pest in countries where it currently does not occur. The mechanistic model CLIMEX was calibrated using species-specific physiological tolerance thresholds, whereas the correlative model MaxEnt used species occurrences and climatic spatial data. Projected potential distribution from both models conformed well to the current known distribution of codling moth. None of the models predicted suitable environmental conditions in countries located between 20°N and 20°S potentially because of shorter photoperiod, and lack of chilling requirement (<60 d at ≤10°C) in these areas for codling moth to break diapause. Models predicted suitable conditions in South Korea and Japan where codling moth currently does not occur but where its preferred host species (i.e., apple) is present. Average annual temperature and latitude were the main environmental variables associated with codling moth distribution at global level. The predictive models developed in this study present the global risk of establishment of codling moth, and can be used for monitoring potential introductions of codling moth in different countries and by policy makers and trade negotiators in making science-based decisions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia
Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.
2015-02-24
This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.
A Study on the Effects of Non-Normality on the Performances of Max-DEWMA Versus SS-DEWMA Charts
Michael Khoo Boon Chong
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The called the Sum of Squares Double Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (SS-DEWMA chart which is effective in detecting shifts in the mean and/or variance is compared with the Max-DEWMA (called the maximum double exponentially weighted moving average chart. The comparison is based on the assumption that the distribution of the quality characteristic of the process is normal or approximately normally distributed. In many real world situations, this assumption may be violated. This study compares the effects of various forms of non-normality on the Max-DEWMA and SS-DEWMA control charts. Approach: A Monte Carlo simulation using the Statistical Analysis Software (SAS is conducted to compare the performances of the two charts for the case of skewed distributions, such as the Weibull, lognormal and gamma distributions. Results: The overall results show that the Max-DEWMA chart has in-control Average Run Lengths (ARLs closer to the specified value, as compared to that of the SS-DEWMA chart, for all levels of skewnesses considered. Conclusion/Recommendation: Practitioners are advised to use the Max-DEWMA chart for a joint monitoring of the process mean and/or variance, when the underlying distribution is non-normal.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...
A magnetic origin of cuprate superconductivity? A MaxEnt-μSR view
Boekema, C.; Owens, F.; Love, A.; Li, Z.; Sakkaris, P.; Dawson, W. K.
2015-08-01
The fundamental physics of cuprate superconductivity is still much deliberated after three decades of research. In contrast to phononic or polaronic roots, some major theories promote a magnetic origin. In this perspective, we review cuprate magnetism, as probed by muon-spin-rotation (μSR) in RBa2Cu3O7-δ (RBCO), Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi2212) and Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10+x (Tl2223). Site-search RBCO studies show that muons localize and probe in locations away from the superconducting CuO2 planes. Maximum entropy (MaxEnt, ME) analysis of transverse field μSR data of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (GdBCO) indicates that the muon probes in an undisturbed insulating environment, allowing μSR to detect (weak) magnetic features in these cuprates. Concerning Varma’s predicted loop currents, MaxEnt has shown weak μSR signals for GdBCO in zero field above and below the critical temperature, Tc; these are near the predicted ˜ 100 Oe. Concerning Zhang’s predicted antiferromagnetism (AF) connected to the vortex cores, we have observed Lorentzian relaxation of cuprate vortex signals below half Tc, consistent with AF-broadening effects. For both Bi2212 and Tl2223, Lorentzians describe the μSR vortex signals much better below 0.4Tc than Gaussians, indicating that extra AF fields occur near and in the vortex cores. In sum, both our MaxEnt-μSR (ME-μSR) studies point toward magnetic roots of cuprate superconductivity.
[Psychiatry as cultural science: considerations following Max Weber].
Bormuth, M
2010-11-01
Psychiatry can be seen as a natural and cultural science. According to this the postulate of freedom is its strong value judgment. Since the times of enlightenment it has been described metaphorically by the myth of the expulsion from Paradise. Following Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey, Karl Jaspers has introduced this perspective into psychiatry. His strict dichotomy between explaining and understanding has later been critically revised by Werner Janzarik and Hans Heimann. Their concepts of structure dynamic, of pathography and of anthropology are closer to Max Weber who connected natural and cultural sciences in a much stronger way. Especially the pathographic example of Nietzsche allows to demonstrate the differences between Jaspers and the later psychopathologists of the Heidelberg and Tübingen schools.
On Max Born's "Vorlesungen ueber Atommechanik, Erster Band"
Giulini, Domenico
2011-01-01
A little more than half a year before Matrix Mechanics was born, Max Born finished his book "Vorlesungen ueber Atommechanik, Erster Band", which is a state-of-the-art presentation of Bohr-Sommerfeld quantisation. This book, which today seems almost forgotten, is remarkable for its epistemological as well as technical aspects. Here I wish to highlight one aspect in each of these two categories, the first being concerned with the r\\^ole of axiomatisation in the heuristics of physics, the second with the problem of quantisation proper before Heisenberg and Schr\\"odinger. This paper is a contribution to the project "History and Foundations of Quantum Physics" of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Sciences in Berlin and will appear in the book "Research and Pedagogy. The History of Quantum Physics through its Textbooks", edited by M.Badino and J.Navarro.
Steepest entropy ascent paths towards the Max-Ent distribution
Beretta, Gian Paolo
2013-01-01
With reference to two general probabilistic description frameworks, Information Theory and Classical Statistical Mechanics, we discuss the geometrical reasoning and mathematical formalism leading to the differential equation that defines in probability space the smooth path of Steepest Entropy Ascent (SEA) connecting an arbitrary initial probability distribution to the unique Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) distribution with the same mean values of a set of constraints. The SEA path is relative to a metric chosen to measure distances in square-root probability distribution space. Along the resulting SAE path, the metric turns out to be proportional to the concept of Onsager resistivity generalized to the far non-equilibrium domain. The length of the SEA path to MaxEnt provides a novel global measure of degree of disequilibrium (DoD) of the initial probability distribution, whereas a local measure of DoD is given by the norm of a novel generalized concept of non-equilibrium affinity.
Multiband Fractal Antenna : Application to Wi-Max
Miss. Awalekar Madhavi J.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper configuration of multiband fractal antenna for Wi-Max application is presented and analyzed. Three circle triangle iterations are configured and observed. The feeding method used for antenna is CPW (co-planar waveguidefeed. To provide the Wireless technologies like Wi-MAX and other advanced applications through the antennas by using Fractal technology to the microstrip antennas. By using the fractal technology on the microstrip antennas we can get several advantages like wide band operation, less power consumption, less return loss and many more. The antenna characteristics were simulated using full-wave electromagnetic simulator (IE3D. According to simulations, the proposed antenna can provide proper response at 2.4 GHz for third iteration. Return loss values according to simulated results obtained at 2.4GHz Simulated and practically are -15.8db,-11.5db respectively and VSWR values are practical 1.5 and 1.95 respectively.
Sending Safety Video over WiMAX in Vehicle Communications
Jun Steed Huang
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on the design of an OPNET simulation platform to test the performance of sending real-time safety video over VANET (Vehicular Adhoc NETwork using the WiMAX technology. To provide a more realistic environment for streaming real-time video, a video model was created based on the study of video traffic traces captured from a realistic vehicular camera, and different design considerations were taken into account. A practical controller over real-time streaming protocol is implemented to control data traffic congestion for future road safety development. Our driving video model was then integrated with the WiMAX OPNET model along with a mobility model based on real road maps. Using this simulation platform, different mobility cases have been studied and the performance evaluated in terms of end-to-end delay, jitter and visual experience.
Evaluating the Performance of IPTV over Fixed WiMAX
Hamodi, Jamil; Salah, Khaled; Thool, Ravindra
2013-12-01
IEEE specifies different modulation techniques for WiMAX; namely, BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM and 64 QAM. This paper studies the performance of Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) over Fixed WiMAX system considering different combinations of digital modulation. The performance is studied taking into account a number of key system parameters which include the variation in the video coding, path-loss, scheduling service classes different rated codes in FEC channel coding. The performance study was conducted using OPNET simulation. The performance is studied in terms of packet lost, packet jitter delay, end-to-end delay, and network throughput. Simulation results show that higher order modulation and coding schemes (namely, 16 QAM and 64 QAM) yield better performance than that of QPSK.
E{sub max}: VGB initiative for clean coal technologies
Hoeestgaard-Jensen, P. [Elsam A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Bauer, F. [Fossil Power Plants, VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany); Kjaer, S. [Tech-wise A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)
2003-07-01
For centuries coal was a major indigenous power source in Europe and it still has a major role in power generation. However, the current public image of coal is not positive, which leaves the power generators with an important task to improve this image. The VGB initiative 'E{sub max}' is supported by a large group of European generators and is an important example of how power generators now can co-operate on large development projects to improve coal-based power generation. There is still a large potential concerning development of coal-based power generation and the AD700 and E{sub max} initiatives are important initiatives which deserve support from all national authorities in the European Union and from the Commission. (orig.)
MaxOcc: a web portal for maximum occurrence analysis.
Bertini, Ivano; Ferella, Lucio; Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Ravera, Enrico; Rosato, Antonio; Svergun, Dmitri I
2012-08-01
The MaxOcc web portal is presented for the characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of two-domain proteins, through the calculation of the Maximum Occurrence that each protein conformation can have in agreement with experimental data. Whatever the real ensemble of conformations sampled by a protein, the weight of any conformation cannot exceed the calculated corresponding Maximum Occurrence value. The present portal allows users to compute these values using any combination of restraints like pseudocontact shifts, paramagnetism-based residual dipolar couplings, paramagnetic relaxation enhancements and small angle X-ray scattering profiles, given the 3D structure of the two domains as input. MaxOcc is embedded within the NMR grid services of the WeNMR project and is available via the WeNMR gateway at http://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocc . It can be used freely upon registration to the grid with a digital certificate.
Exponential Families and MaxEnt Calculations for Entropy Measures of Statistical Physics
Topsøe, Flemming
2007-01-01
Game theoretical treatment of MaxEnt-optimization for non-extensive entropy measures of statistical physics.......Game theoretical treatment of MaxEnt-optimization for non-extensive entropy measures of statistical physics....
Observer Design for (max,plus) Linear System
Hardouin, L.; Maia,C.A.; Cottenceau, B.; Lhommeau, M.
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the state estimation for max-plus linear systems. This estimation is carried out following the ideas of the observer method for classical linear systems. The system matrices are assumed to be known, and the observation of the input and of the output is used to compute the estimated state. The observer design is based on the residuation theory which is suitable to deal with linear mapping inversion in idempotent semiring.
Applying the INN model to the MaxClique problem
Grossman, T.
1993-09-01
Max-Clique is the problem of finding the largest clique in a given graph. It is not only NP-hard, but, as recent results suggest, even hard to approximate. Nevertheless it is still very important to develop and test practical algorithms that will find approximate solutions for the maximum clique problem on various graphs stemming from numerous applications. Indeed, many different types of algorithmic approaches are applied to that problem. Several neural networks and related algorithms were applied recently to combinatorial optimization problems in general and to the Max-Clique problem in particular. These neural nets are dynamical system which minimize a cost (or computational ``energy``) function that represents the optimization problem, the Max-Clique in our case. Therefore they all belong to the class of integer programming algorithms surveyed in the Pardalos and Xue review. The work presented here is a development and improvement of a neural network algorithm that was introduced recently. In the previous work, we have considered two Hopfield type neural networks, the INN and the HcN, and their application to the max-clique problem. In this paper, I concentrate on the INN network and present an improved version of the t-A algorithm that was introduced in. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: in section 2, I describe the INN model and how it implements a given graph. In section 3, it is characterized in terms of graph theory. In particular, the stable states of the network are mapped to the maximal cliques of its underling graph. In section 4, I present the t-Annealing algorithm and an improved version of it, the Adaptive t-Annealing. Several experiments done with these algorithms on benchmark graphs are reported in section 5, and the efficiency of the new algorithm is demonstrated. I conclude with a short discussion.
Max Aub revisitado: Lugares en (torno a La gallina ciega
Federico Gerhardt
2006-11-01
Full Text Available In La gallina ciega, Max Aub recollects and re-elaborates impressions (of his own and of others caused by his returning to Spain in 1969, after thirty years of exile in Mexico. This article analyses some of the manifestations of the dynamic relation between memory and literature, within La gallina ciega (in Aub's trips through the peninsular geography and also in the (rereadings of Aub's work, that show its position in the Spanish modern canon.
On the likelihood function of Gaussian max-stable processes
Genton, M. G.
2011-05-24
We derive a closed form expression for the likelihood function of a Gaussian max-stable process indexed by ℝd at p≤d+1 sites, d≥1. We demonstrate the gain in efficiency in the maximum composite likelihood estimators of the covariance matrix from p=2 to p=3 sites in ℝ2 by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.
A alquimia em "Uma semana de bondade" de Max Ernst
Bernadette Lyra
1994-12-01
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a minha tentativa de estabelecer liames intertextuais entre Uma Semana de Bondade ou Os Sete Elementos Capitais -livro de colagens de Max Ernst - e os procedimentos alquimícos parte de estudos sobre a intertextualidade, tal como esse processo se encaixa no espaço semiótico, tomado este último como " um mecanismo único (senão como um organismo"(LOTMAN, 1991, p. 5.
Phase Recovery, MaxCut and Complex Semidefinite Programming
Waldspurger, Irène; Mallat, Stéphane
2012-01-01
Phase retrieval seeks to recover a complex signal x from the amplitude |Ax| of linear measurements. We cast the phase retrieval problem as a non-convex quadratic program over a complex phase vector and formulate a tractable relaxation similar to the classical MaxCut semidefinite program. Numerical results show the performance of this approach over three different phase retrieval problems, in comparison with greedy phase retrieval algorithms and matrix completion approaches.
ON APPROXIMATION OF MAX n/2-UNCUT PROBLEM
XU Dachuan
2003-01-01
Using outward rotations, we obtain an approximation algorithm for MAX n/2-UNCUT problem, i.e., partitioning the vertices of a weighted graph into two blocks of equal cardinality such that the total weight of edges that do not cross the cut is maximized. In many interesting cases, the algorithm performs better than the algorithms of Ye and of Halperin and Zwick. The main tool used to obtain this result is semidefinite programming.
MAX-DOAS detection of glyoxal during ICARTT 2004
Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.; F. Filsinger; Frieß, U.; C. Kern; U. Platt; Sebastián, O.; Wagner, T.
2007-01-01
The direct detection of glyoxal (CHOCHO), the smallest α-dicarbonyl, in the open atmosphere by active differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) has recently been demonstrated (Volkamer et al., 2005a) and triggered the very recent successful detection of CHOCHO from space (Kurosu et al., 2005; Wittrock et al., 2006; Beirle et al., 2006). Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of CHOCHO by passive multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). CHOCH...
[Effect of temperature on kinetic of soil urease inhibited by Hg].
Yang, Chun-Lu; Sun, Tie-Heng; He, Wen-Xiang; Song, Xue-Ying
2007-02-01
Urease kinetics inhibited by Hg in two meadow burozem, fertilized by different ways and two phaeozem soils with different organic matter content was investigated at different temperatures. The results showed that the urease activity and kinetic parameter V(max) and V(max)/K(m) were higher in soils with high organic matter content than that in soils with low organic matter among the same soil type. It indicated that organic matter had great adsorption capacity to urease. Soil urease V(max) and V(max)/K(m) in phaeozem were generally higher than that in meadow organic matter had great adsorption capacity to urease. Soil urease V(max) and V(max)/K(m) in phaeozem were generally higher than that in meadow burozem, but urease activity and K(m) were not comparable among different soil types. K(m) depended on not only the organic matter content of soils, but also fertilization ways. As incubating temperature increased, urease activity, V(max) and V(max)/K(m) value enhanced under the optical catalysis temperature. Hg behaved as uncompetitive inhibitor to soil urease in this experiment. The negative effect that Hg inhibited urease activity, K(m), V(max) and V(max)/K(m) increased with temperature increasing, indicated that the protective capacity of soil on urease decreased with the temperature increasing.
Review of WiMAX Scheduling Algorithms and Their Classification
Yadav, A. L.; Vyavahare, P. D.; Bansod, P. P.
2014-07-01
Providing quality of service (QoS) in wireless communication networks has become an important consideration for supporting variety of applications. IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX is the most promising technology for broadband wireless access with best QoS features for tripe play (voice, video and data) service users. Unlike wired networks, QoS support is difficult in wireless networks due to variable and unpredictable nature of wireless channels. In transmission of voice and video main issue involves allocation of available resources among the users to meet QoS criteria such as delay, jitter and throughput requirements to maximize goodput, to minimize power consumption while keeping feasible algorithm flexibility and ensuring system scalability. WiMAX assures guaranteed QoS by including several mechanisms at the MAC layer such as admission control and scheduling. Packet scheduling is a process of resolving contention for bandwidth which determines allocation of bandwidth among users and their transmission order. Various approaches for classification of scheduling algorithms in WiMAX have appeared in literature as homogeneous, hybrid and opportunistic scheduling algorithms. The paper consolidates the parameters and performance metrics that need to be considered in developing a scheduler. The paper surveys recently proposed scheduling algorithms, their shortcomings, assumptions, suitability and improvement issues associated with these uplink scheduling algorithms.
Mini MAX-DOAS Measurements of Air Pollutants over China
Staadt, Steffen; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas
2016-08-01
This study continues the work of Clémer et al., (2010) and is aimed to improve trace gas retrievals with mini MAX-DOAS measurements in Nanjing. Based on that work, aerosol extinction vertical profiles are retrieved using the bePRO inversion algorithm developed by the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA- IASB). Afterwards, the tropospheric trace gas vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs) are retrieved by applying the optimal estimation method to the O4 MAX-DOAS measurements. The Profiles for N O2 , S O2 , glyoxal, formaldehyde and nitrous acid are obtained with different results and different settings for the DOAS measurement. The AODs show small positive correlation against the AERONET values. For NO2, the retrieval shows reasonable concentrations in winter as opposed to summer and has small positive correlations with GOME-2 data. The SO2 VCDs are not correlated with the GOME-2 data, due to high uncertainties from MAX-DOAS and satellite retrievals, while the vertical mixing ratios (VMR) show good agreement with in-situ data (SORPES) at Nanjing. Nitrous acid shows a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer, while glyoxal has its maximum in August and September.
Linearly polarized photon beam at MAX-lab
Ganenko, V., E-mail: ganenko@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Brudvik, J. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Burdeinyi, D. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Fissum, K. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hansen, K. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Isaksson, L. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Livingston, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lundin, M. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Morokhovskii, V. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nilsson, B.; Pugachov, D. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Schroder, B. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Vashchenko, G. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)
2014-11-01
A linearly polarized photon beam has been produced at MAX-lab using the coherent bremsstrahlung of electrons with an energy of 192.6 MeV in a 0.1 mm thick diamond crystal. The intensity and shape of the coherent maxima and their dependence on the crystal orientation are similar to the features observed at higher electron energies (∼ 1 GeV) and are well described by coherent bremsstrahlung theory. The linear polarization of the uncollimated beam at the coherent peak energy ≈50–60 MeV is about 20% and can be increased to 40–45% if collimation of half the characteristic angle is used. At present the degree of polarization is high enough to allow the study of polarization observables in photo-nuclear reactions at MAX-lab in the energy range from Giant Dipole Resonance up to ≈80 MeV. -- Highlights: •A linearly polarized tagged photon beam has been produced at the MAX-lab facility. •The coherent bremsstrahlung spectra were measured for various crystal orientations. •The measured spectra are well described by the coherent bremsstrahlung theory. •The photon beam polarization can reach 50% at the Giant Resonance region. •Polarized beam provides performing nuclear experiments in the energy range 10–90 MeV.
A Taxonomy of Exact Methods for Partial Max-SAT
Mohamed El Bachir Menai; Tasniem Nasser Al-Yahya
2013-01-01
Partial Maximum Boolean Satisfiability (Partial Max-SAT or PMSAT) is an optimization variant of Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problem,in which a variable assignment is required to satisfy all hard clauses and a maximum number of soft clauses in a Boolean formula.PMSAT is considered as an interesting encoding domain to many real-life problems for which a solution is acceptable even if some constraints are violated.Amongst the problems that can be formulated as such are planning and scheduling.New insights into the study of PMSAT problem have been gained since the introduction of the Max-SAT evaluations in 2006.Indeed,several PMSAT exact solvers have been developed based mainly on the DavisPutnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) procedure and Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms.In this paper,we investigate and analyze a number of exact methods for PMSAT.We propose a taxonomy of the main exact methods within a general framework that integrates their various techniques into a unified perspective.We show its effectiveness by using it to classify PMSAT exact solvers which participated in the 2007～2011 Max-SAT evaluations,emphasizing on the most promising research directions.
MiniMAX: miniature, mobile, agile, x-ray system
Watson, Scott A.; Cunningham, Gwynneth; Gonzales, Samuel
2012-06-01
We present a unique, lightweight, compact, low-cost, x-ray imager: MiniMAX (Miniature, Mobile, Agile, X-ray). This system, which exploits the best aspects of Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) technology, weighs less than 6lbs, fits into a 6" diameter x 16" long carbon-fiber tube, and is constructed almost entirely from offthe- shelf components. MiniMAX is suitable for use in weld inspection, archaeology, homeland security, and veterinary medicine. While quantum limited for MeV radiography, the quantum-efficiency is too low for routine medical use. Formats include: 4"x6", 8"x12", or 16"x24" and can be readily displayed on the camera back, using a pocket projector, or on a tablet computer. In contrast to a conventional, flying-spot scanner, MiniMAX records a photostimulated image from the entire phosphor at once using a bright, red LED flash filtered through an extremely efficient (OD>9) dichroic filter.
Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan
2010-10-01
• The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.
Max-Min Fairness in WMNs with Interference Cancelation Using Overheard Transmissions
Mateusz Żotkiewicz
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We show an impact of using interference cancelation mechanisms for signals that have been overheard in the past on performance of fair wireless mesh networks. In our research we show that even in those very restricted conditions and max-min cost function, the idea of interference cancelation can significantly increase the capacity of such networks. In order to approximate possible advantages of using interference cancelation in the considered conditions, we propose a novel MIP model that allows for calculating perfect scheduling and maximal throughput in a network. We compare the results with cases when the interference cancelation mechanisms are disabled. Our results show that using interference cancelation mechanisms for signals that have been overheard in the past increases a network throughput by 40% on average in approximately 20% of test cases.
Research and implementation of the Max-Log-MAP algorithm for Turbo codes%Turbo码Max-Log-MAP算法研究及其实现
夏慧宁; 吉磊
2013-01-01
The Log-map and Max-Log-MAP algorithm for Turbo codes are analyzed firstly, then the Max-Log-MAP algorithm for Turbo codes based on CCSDS Standard, is simulated and verified by Matlab. Finally the Max-Log-MAP is implemented on the xc4vlx100 FPGA of Xilinx.% 首先分析了Turbo码的Log-Map和Max-Log-MAP译码算法，然后对符合CCSDS标准的Turbo码的Max-Log-MAP译码算法在Matlab上进行仿真验证，最后在Xilinx FPGA平台xc4vlx100上硬件实现了Max-Log-MAP算法。
Shlakhter, Oleksandr
2008-01-01
One of the most widely used methods for solving average cost MDP problems is the value iteration method. This method, however, is often computationally impractical and restricted in size of solvable MDP problems. We propose acceleration operators that improve the performance of the value iteration for average reward MDP models. These operators are based on two important properties of Markovian operator: contraction mapping and monotonicity. It is well known that the classical relative value iteration methods for average cost criteria MDP do not involve the max-norm contraction or monotonicity property. To overcome this difficulty we propose to combine acceleration operators with variants of value iteration for stochastic shortest path problems associated average reward problems.
Weston, David [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Allen, Sara M [ORNL
2011-01-01
The heat shock response continues to be layered with additional complexity as interactions and crosstalk among heat shock proteins (HSPs), the reactive oxygen network and hormonal signalling are discovered. However, comparative analyses exploring variation in each of these processes among species remain relatively unexplored. In controlled environment experiments, photosynthetic response curves were conducted from 22 to 42 C and indicated that temperature optimum of light-saturated photosynthesis was greater for Glycine max relative to Arabidopsis thaliana or Populus trichocarpa. Transcript profiles were taken at defined states along the temperature response curves, and inferred pathway analysis revealed species-specific variation in the abiotic stress and the minor carbohydrate raffinose/galactinol pathways. A weighted gene co-expression network approach was used to group individual genes into network modules linking biochemical measures of the antioxidant system to leaf-level photosynthesis among P. trichocarpa, G. max and A. thaliana. Network-enabled results revealed an expansion in the G. max HSP17 protein family and divergence in the regulation of the antioxidant and heat shock modules relative to P. trichocarpa and A. thaliana. These results indicate that although the heat shock response is highly conserved, there is considerable species-specific variation in its regulation.
Modeling and control of switching max-plus-linear systems with random and deterministic switching
Van den Boom, T.J.J.; De Schutter, B.
2012-01-01
Switching max-plus-linear (SMPL) systems are discrete-event systems that can switch between different modes of operation. In each mode the system is described by a max-plus-linear state equation and a max-plus-linear output equation, with different system matrices for each mode. The switching may
Modeling and control of switching max-plus-linear systems with random and deterministic switching
Van den Boom, T.J.J.; De Schutter, B.
2012-01-01
Switching max-plus-linear (SMPL) systems are discrete-event systems that can switch between different modes of operation. In each mode the system is described by a max-plus-linear state equation and a max-plus-linear output equation, with different system matrices for each mode. The switching may de
Augmentative Device Helps Max Speak. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c75
PACER Center, 2014
2014-01-01
This Action Information Sheet follows a family's process of selecting and using augmentative and alternative communication to help their young son, Max, speak. Max is affected by global dyspraxia, which makes learning new motor skills--especially speech--quite difficult. For the first years of his life, Max could not say words. Before he and his…
Estimation of VO2 Max: A Comparative Analysis of Five Exercise Tests.
Zwiren, Linda D.; And Others
1991-01-01
Thirty-eight healthy females measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on the cycle ergometer and treadmill to compare five exercise tests (run, walk, step, and two tests using heart-rate response on the bicycle ergometer) in predicting VO2max. Results indicate that walk and run tests are satisfactory predictors of VO2max in 30- to 39-year-old…
File list: Oth.ALL.20.Max.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive
Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.Max.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Max All cell types SRX140382,SRX140371,SR...X142525,SRX142524,SRX312229 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.Max.AllCell.bed ...
File list: Oth.ALL.05.Max.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive
Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.Max.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Max All cell types SRX140382,SRX312229,SR...X140371,SRX142525,SRX142524 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.Max.AllCell.bed ...
Augmentative Device Helps Max Speak. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c75
PACER Center, 2014
2014-01-01
This Action Information Sheet follows a family's process of selecting and using augmentative and alternative communication to help their young son, Max, speak. Max is affected by global dyspraxia, which makes learning new motor skills--especially speech--quite difficult. For the first years of his life, Max could not say words. Before he and his…
Zhang, Ying; Li, Jun; Lin, Wei; Qiang, Sheng
2011-11-01
Erigeron philadelphicus, an alien weed originated from North America, has already invaded in Shanghai, Jiangsu, Anhui, and some other places in China, caused harm on local ecosystem and demonstrated huge potential invasiveness. By using MaxEnt model and geographic information system (GIS), this paper analyzed the environmental variables affecting the distribution of E. philadelphicus, and intuitively and quantitatively predicted its potential distribution regions in China. The prediction was verified by the ROC curve, and the results showed that E. philadelphicus had a wide potential distribution range, with the main suitable distribution area in Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi. At present, the actual invasive range of E. philadelphicus was far narrower than its potential maximum invasive range, and likely to be continued to spread. The ROC curve test indicated that the prediction with MaxEnt model had a higher precision, and was credible. Air temperature and precipitation could be the main environmental variables affecting the potential distribution of E. philadelphicus. More attentions should be addressed to the harmfulness of the weed. To eradicate the existing E. philadelphicus populations and to strictly monitor the invasion of E. philadelphicus to its most suitable distribution area could be the effective measures to prevent and control the further invasion of the alien weed.
Predicting of parameters of reliability two-cascade thermoelectrical cooling device in a mode Q0max
Khramova L. F.
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The parities for an estimation of parameters of reliability two-cascade ТED of a various design depending on their basic parameters in a mode Q0max are received. The results of accounts for differences of temperature ΔТ=60, 70, 80 K in view of thermal loading and temperature dependence of parameters, and also in a mode of the thermal pump (at ΔТ=0 are given. The estimation maximal coldproductivity two-cascade TED of a various design for various conditions of operation is carried out.
Fischer, Ernst Peter
2010-06-15
The live of the physicist Max Planck was as exciting, conflicting, and rich on catastrophes as the epoch, in which he lived. Ernst Peter Fischer draws in this fascinatingly told biography the eventful history of the Nobel-price bearer and illustrates simultaneously the unique attainment of Planck, the quantum theory of whom not only revolted the science but also changed fundamentally our picture of the world.
Jehle, Anna Kristina; Fürst, Ursula; Lipschis, Martin; Albert, Markus; Felix, Georg
2013-01-01
As part of their innate immune system plants carry a number of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that can detect a broad range of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). In a recently published article1 we described a novel, proteinaceous MAMP termed eMax (enigmatic MAMP of Xanthomonas) that derives from Xanthomonas and gets recognized by the receptor-like protein ReMAX (RECEPTOR OF eMax) of Arabidopsis thaliana. ReMAX has no ortholog in Nicotiana benthamiana and this species does n...
Level sets of multiple ergodic averages
Ai-Hua, Fan; Ma, Ji-Hua
2011-01-01
We propose to study multiple ergodic averages from multifractal analysis point of view. In some special cases in the symbolic dynamics, Hausdorff dimensions of the level sets of multiple ergodic average limit are determined by using Riesz products.
Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit
金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹
2006-01-01
Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.
Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices
del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann
2008-01-01
Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.
Maltais, Loïka; Montagne, Martin; Bédard, Mikaël; Tremblay, Cynthia; Soucek, Laura
2017-01-01
It is classically recognized that the physiological and oncogenic functions of Myc proteins depend on specific DNA binding enabled by the dimerization of its C-terminal basic-region-Helix-Loop-Helix-Leucine Zipper (b-HLH-LZ) domain with that of Max. However, a new paradigm is emerging, where the binding of the c-Myc/Max heterodimer to non-specific sequences in enhancers and promoters drives the transcription of genes involved in diverse oncogenic programs. Importantly, Max can form a stable homodimer even in the presence of c-Myc and bind DNA (specific and non-specific) with comparable affinity to the c-Myc/Max heterodimer. Intriguingly, alterations in the Max gene by germline and somatic mutations or changes in the gene product by alternative splicing (e.g. ΔMax) were recently associated with pheochromocytoma and glioblastoma, respectively. This has led to the proposition that Max is, by itself, a tumor suppressor. However, the actual mechanism through which it exerts such an activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that contrary to the WT motif, the b-HLH-LZ of ΔMax does not homodimerize in the absence of DNA. In addition, although ΔMax can still bind the E-box sequence as a homodimer, it cannot bind non-specific DNA in that form, while it can heterodimerize with c-Myc and bind E-box and non-specific DNA as a heterodimer with high affinity. Taken together, our results suggest that the WT Max homodimer is important for attenuating the binding of c-Myc to specific and non-specific DNA, whereas ΔMax is unable to do so. Conversely, the splicing of Max into ΔMax could provoke an increase in overall chromatin bound c-Myc. According to the new emerging paradigm, the splicing event and the stark reduction in homodimer stability and DNA binding should promote tumorigenesis impairing the tumor suppressor activity of the WT homodimer of Max. PMID:28350847
MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a rural site in Southern China
M. Shao
2013-02-01
Full Text Available We performed MAX-DOAS measurements during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD, China, for 4 weeks in July 2006 at a site located 60 km north of Guangzhou. The vertical distributions of NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO were independently retrieved by an automated iteration method. The NO2 mixing ratios measured by MAX-DOAS showed reasonable agreement with the simultaneous, ground based in-situ data. The tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs observed by OMI on board EOS-Aura satellite were higher than with those by MAX-DOAS. The 3-D chemical transport model CMAQ overestimated the NO2 VCDs as well as the surface concentrations by about 65%. From this observation, a reduction of NOx emission strength in CMAQ seems to be necessary in order to well reproduce the NO2 observations. The average mixing ratios of HCHO and CHOCHO were 7 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively, higher than in other rural or semirural environments. The high ratio of 0.062 between CHOCHO and HCHO corresponds to the high VOCs reactivity and high HOx turnover rate consistent with other observations during the campaign.
MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a rural site in Southern China
M. Shao
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We performed MAX-DOAS measurements during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD, China, for 4 weeks in July 2006 at a site located 60 km north of Guangzhou. The vertical distributions of NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO were independently retrieved by an automated iteration method. The MAX-DOAS measured NO2 mixing ratios showed reasonable agreement with the simultaneous, ground based in-situ data. While the tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs observed by OMI on board EOS-Aura satellite agreed with those by MAX-DOAS, the 3-D chemical transport model CMAQ overestimated the NO2 VCDs as well as the surface concentrations by about 40%. From this observation, a reduction of NOX emission strength in CMAQ seems to be necessary in order to well reproduce the NO2 observations. The average mixing ratios of HCHO and CHOCHO were 12 ppb and 1.6 ppb, respectively, substantially higher than in other rural or semirural environments. The high ratio of 0.135 between CHOCHO and HCHO corresponds to the high VOCs reactivity and high HOX turnover rate consistent with other observations during the campaign.
MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a rural site in Southern China
Li, X.; Brauers, T.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. P.; Shao, M.; Wagner, T.; Wahner, A.
2013-02-01
We performed MAX-DOAS measurements during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD), China, for 4 weeks in July 2006 at a site located 60 km north of Guangzhou. The vertical distributions of NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO were independently retrieved by an automated iteration method. The NO2 mixing ratios measured by MAX-DOAS showed reasonable agreement with the simultaneous, ground based in-situ data. The tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) observed by OMI on board EOS-Aura satellite were higher than with those by MAX-DOAS. The 3-D chemical transport model CMAQ overestimated the NO2 VCDs as well as the surface concentrations by about 65%. From this observation, a reduction of NOx emission strength in CMAQ seems to be necessary in order to well reproduce the NO2 observations. The average mixing ratios of HCHO and CHOCHO were 7 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively, higher than in other rural or semirural environments. The high ratio of 0.062 between CHOCHO and HCHO corresponds to the high VOCs reactivity and high HOx turnover rate consistent with other observations during the campaign.
Olson, J M; Marsh, R L
1993-03-01
The isometric and isotonic contractile properties of the cross-striated adductor muscle of the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) were measured in vitro at 10, 15 and 20 degrees C. The length at which twitch force was maximal as a function of the closed length in situ (L0/Lcl) averaged 1.38 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- S.E.M.) at 10 degrees C. This length is very close to the typical length at maximum gape during natural swimming at this temperature. Passive force was very low over the range of lengths measured here; at L0, passive force averaged approximately 0.08 N cm-2, or only 0.5% of the corresponding peak twitch force. The mean peak isometric twitch force (Ptw,max) at 10 degrees C was 21.43 +/- 0.68 N cm-2 (S.E.M.), and the ratio of peak twitch force to tetanic force (Ptw,max/P0) averaged 0.89 +/- 0.01. Temperature did not affect either twitch force (Ptw), once fatigue was taken into account, or Ptw,max/P0. In contrast, the time-related properties of twitch contractions (latent period, tL; time to peak tension, tPtw; and time from peak tension to half-relaxation, t50%R) were positively modified by temperature at all temperatures measured (Q10 > 1.8). All three properties were more temperature-sensitive over the range 10-15 degrees C than over the range 15-20 degrees C. The force-velocity relationships of the striated adductor muscle were fitted to the hyperbolic-linear (HYP-LIN) equation. The force-velocity curves of the striated adductor muscle of the scallop were strongly influenced by temperature. Maximal velocity at zero force (Vmax), and therefore maximal power output, increased significantly with temperature. The Q10 over the temperature range 10-15 degrees C (1.42) was significantly lower than that over the range 15-20 degrees C (2.41). The shape of the force-velocity relationship, assessed through comparisons of the power ratio (Wmax/VmaxP0), was not influenced by temperature.
Monitoring shipping emissions in the German Bight using MAX-DOAS measurements
Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.
2017-09-01
A 3-year time series of ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of NO2 and SO2 on the island Neuwerk has been analyzed for contributions from shipping emissions. The island is located in the German Bight, close to the main shipping lane (at a distance of 6-7 km) into the river Elbe towards the harbor of Hamburg. Measurements of individual ship plumes as well as of background pollution are possible from this location. A simple approach using the column amounts of the oxygen molecule dimer or collision complex, O4, for the determination of the horizontal light path length has been applied to retrieve path-averaged volume mixing ratios. An excellent agreement between mixing ratios determined from NO2 retrievals in the UV and visible parts of the spectrum has been found, showing the validity of the approach. Obtained mixing ratios of NO2 and SO2 are compared to co-located in situ measurements showing good correlation on average but also a systematic underestimation by the MAX-DOAS O4 scaling approach. Comparing data before and after the introduction of stricter fuel sulfur content limits (from 1 to 0.1 %) on 1 January 2015 in the North Sea Emission Control Area (ECA), a significant reduction in SO2 levels is observed. For situations with wind from the open North Sea, where ships are the only local source of air pollution, the average mixing ratio of SO2 decreased by a factor of 8, while for NO2 in the whole time series from 2013 to 2016, no significant change in emissions was observed. More than 2000 individual ship emission plumes have been identified in the data and analyzed for the emission ratio of SO2 to NO2, yielding an average ratio of 0.3 for the years 2013/2014 and decreasing significantly, presumably due to lower fuel sulfur content, in 2015/2016. By sorting measurements according to the prevailing wind direction and selecting two angular reference sectors representative for wind from the open North Sea and
Better Balance by Being Biased: A 0.8776-Approximation for Max Bisection
Austrin, Per; Georgiou, Konstantinos
2012-01-01
Recently Raghavendra and Tan (SODA 2012) gave a 0.85-approximation algorithm for the Max Bisection problem. We improve their algorithm to a 0.8776-approximation. As Max Bisection is hard to approximate within $\\alpha_{GW} + \\epsilon \\approx 0.8786$ under the Unique Games Conjecture (UGC), our algorithm is nearly optimal. We conjecture that Max Bisection is approximable within $\\alpha_{GW}-\\epsilon$, i.e., the bisection constraint (essentially) does not make Max Cut harder. We also obtain an optimal algorithm (assuming the UGC) for the analogous variant of Max 2-Sat. Our approximation ratio for this problem exactly matches the optimal approximation ratio for Max 2-Sat, i.e., $\\alpha_{LLZ} + \\epsilon \\approx 0.9401$, showing that the bisection constraint does not make Max 2-Sat harder. This improves on a 0.93-approximation for this problem due to Raghavendra and Tan.
The Hypoglycemic Properties of BAE Maca Max Preparation
Lim K. Choong
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering an urgency of a question of diabetes treatment and decrease the side effects of hypoglycemic therapies, there is a necessity to elaborate a new approaches to this problem. This study was directed on estimation of possibilities of a preparation of naturally modified BAE maca max product for improvement of semeiology of diabetes and reduce the glucose level in the blood. Approach: Experiment was carried out on not purebred rats, received from Rappolovo (Russia nursery, with use of alloksan preparation for creation of models of type 1 and type 2 forms of diabetes. During the basic experiment animals have been divided into three groups: First group was made with control animals; second group, represented type 2 form of diabetes and third group represented animals with type 1 form of diabetes. Animals received BAE Maca Max preparation, which consists of two major active ingredients which are Maca and Tribulus Terresteris plants, in the form of drink, dissolved in 200 mL potable water from standard drinking bowls (after development of hyperglycemia. Glucose level defined before consumption of preparation, for 3rd day, 7th day and 10th day of consumption. Results: Result of experiences established that: Glucose level in blood of healthy animals for 10 day of experiment was in 1,26 times below than initial level (remaining in the range of norm; in group of animals with type 2 form of diabetes glucose level has reduced in 1,2 times; in the second group of animals with type 1 form of diabetes glucose level reduced in a range from 9,8±0,8-8,3±0,8 mmol L?1. Conclusion: Results of experiments showed that BAE maca max preparation possesses ability to statistical significant reduce the level of glucose in both type 1 and 2 forms of diabetes.
K-nearest neighbor finding using MaxNearestDist.
Samet, Hanan
2008-02-01
Similarity searching often reduces to finding the k nearest neighbors to a query object. Finding the k nearest neighbors is achieved by applying either a depth- first or a best-first algorithm to the search hierarchy containing the data. These algorithms are generally applicable to any index based on hierarchical clustering. The idea is that the data is partitioned into clusters which are aggregated to form other clusters, with the total aggregation being represented as a tree. These algorithms have traditionally used a lower bound corresponding to the minimum distance at which a nearest neighbor can be found (termed MinDist) to prune the search process by avoiding the processing of some of the clusters as well as individual objects when they can be shown to be farther from the query object q than all of the current k nearest neighbors of q. An alternative pruning technique that uses an upper bound corresponding to the maximum possible distance at which a nearest neighbor is guaranteed to be found (termed MaxNearestDist) is described. The MaxNearestDist upper bound is adapted to enable its use for finding the k nearest neighbors instead of just the nearest neighbor (i.e., k=1) as in its previous uses. Both the depth-first and best-first k-nearest neighbor algorithms are modified to use MaxNearestDist, which is shown to enhance both algorithms by overcoming their shortcomings. In particular, for the depth-first algorithm, the number of clusters in the search hierarchy that must be examined is not increased thereby potentially lowering its execution time, while for the best-first algorithm, the number of clusters in the search hierarchy that must be retained in the priority queue used to control the ordering of processing of the clusters is also not increased, thereby potentially lowering its storage requirements.
The Asymptotics of Quantum Max-Flow Min-Cut
Hastings, Matthew B.
2017-04-01
The quantum max-flow min-cut conjecture relates the rank of a tensor network to the minimum cut in the case that all tensors in the network are identical in Calegari et al. (J Am Math Soc 23(1):107-188, 2010). This conjecture was shown to be false in Cui et al. (J Math Phys 57:062206, 2016) by an explicit counter-example. Here, we show that the conjecture is almost true, in that the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut converges to 1 as the dimension N of the degrees of freedom on the edges of the network tends to infinity. The proof is based on estimating moments of the singular values of the network. We introduce a generalization of "rainbow diagrams" to tensor networks to estimate the dominant diagrams. A direct comparison of second and fourth moments lower bounds the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut by a constant. To show the tighter bound that the ratio tends to 1, we consider higher moments. In addition, we show that the limiting moments as N → ∞ agree with that in a different ensemble where tensors in the network are chosen independently; this is used to show that the distributions of singular values in the two different ensembles weakly converge to the same limiting distribution. We present also a numerical study of one particular tensor network, which shows a surprising dependence of the rank deficit on N mod 4 and suggests further conjecture on the limiting behavior of the rank.
The Asymptotics of Quantum Max-Flow Min-Cut
Hastings, Matthew B.
2016-11-01
The quantum max-flow min-cut conjecture relates the rank of a tensor network to the minimum cut in the case that all tensors in the network are identical in Calegari et al. (J Am Math Soc 23(1):107-188, 2010). This conjecture was shown to be false in Cui et al. (J Math Phys 57:062206, 2016) by an explicit counter-example. Here, we show that the conjecture is almost true, in that the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut converges to 1 as the dimension N of the degrees of freedom on the edges of the network tends to infinity. The proof is based on estimating moments of the singular values of the network. We introduce a generalization of "rainbow diagrams" to tensor networks to estimate the dominant diagrams. A direct comparison of second and fourth moments lower bounds the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut by a constant. To show the tighter bound that the ratio tends to 1, we consider higher moments. In addition, we show that the limiting moments as N → ∞ agree with that in a different ensemble where tensors in the network are chosen independently; this is used to show that the distributions of singular values in the two different ensembles weakly converge to the same limiting distribution. We present also a numerical study of one particular tensor network, which shows a surprising dependence of the rank deficit on N mod 4 and suggests further conjecture on the limiting behavior of the rank.
Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.
Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-03-01
Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.
Simulated annealing approach to the max cut problem
Sen, Sandip
1993-03-01
In this paper we address the problem of partitioning the nodes of a random graph into two sets, so as to maximize the sum of the weights on the edges connecting nodes belonging to different sets. This problem has important real-life counterparts, but has been proven to be NP-complete. As such, a number of heuristic solution techniques have been proposed in literature to address this problem. We propose a stochastic optimization technique, simulated annealing, to find solutions for the max cut problem. Our experiments verify that good solutions to the problem can be found using this algorithm in a reasonable amount of time.
Las ideas biológicas de Max Scheler
Rodríguez Duplá, Leonardo (1963-)
2012-01-01
Max Scheler no llegó a publicar su anunciada fundamentación filosófica de la biología. Sin embargo, una lectura transversal de las obras de este autor permite reconstruir su concepción de la vida, radicalmente opuesta a la propugnada por la biología mecanicista. Este trabajo comienza considerando la recepción por parte de Scheler del vitalismo decimonónico, para luego examinar algunas de las tesis más características de la biología pura scheleriana: la irreductibili...
3ds Max design architectural visualization for intermediate users
Smith, Brian L
2012-01-01
Learn time-saving techniques and tested production-ready tips for maximum speed and efficiency in creating professional-level architectural visualizations in 3ds Max. Move from intermediate to an advanced level with specific and comprehensive instruction with this collaboration from nine different authors from around the world. Get their experience and skills in this full-color book, which not only teaches more advanced features, but also demonstrates the practical applications of those features to get readers ready for a real production environment. Fully updated for the most recent version o
John Disks, the Apollonian Metric, and Min-Max Properties
M Huang; S Ponnusamy; X Wang
2010-02-01
The main results of this paper are characterizations of John disks–the simply connected proper subdomains of the complex plane that satisfy a twisted double cone connectivity property. One of the characterizations of John disks is an analog of a result due to Gehring and Hag who found such a characterization for quasidisks. In both situations the geometric condition is an estimate for the domain’s hyperbolic metric in terms of its Apollonian metric. The other characterization is in terms of an arc min-max property.
Incremental Entropy Relation as an Alternative to MaxEnt
Montse Casas
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We show that, to generate the statistical operator appropriate for a given system, and as an alternative to JaynesÃ¢Â€Â™ MaxEnt approach, that refers to the entropy S, one can use instead the increments Ã‚Â±S in S. To such an effect, one uses the macroscopic thermodynamic relation that links Ã‚Â±S to changes in i the internal energy E and ii the remaining M relevant extensive quantities Ai, i = 1; : : : ;M; that characterize the context one is working with.
(1+1) EA on Generalized Dynamic OneMax
Kötzing, Timo; Lissovoi, Andrei; Witt, Carsten
2015-01-01
Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) perform well in settings involving uncertainty, including settings with stochastic or dynamic fitness functions. In this paper, we analyze the (1+1) EA on dynamically changing OneMax, as introduced by Droste (2003). We re-prove the known results on first hitting time....... We get tight bounds both for the case of bit strings, as well as for the case of more than two values per position. Surprisingly, in the latter setting, the expected quality of the search point maintained by the (1+1) EA does not depend on the number of values per dimension....
Caráter e antropologia em Max Horkheimer
Paulo Henrique Yamawake
2015-01-01
Na década de 1930, Max Horkheimer (1895-1973), como diretor do Institut für Sozialforschung de Frankfurt, organiza um programa coletivo interdisciplinar sobre fundamentos materialistas, no sentido empregado por Marx. Dentre as disciplinas, é notável o papel que Horkheimer dá à psicanálise para a investigação de fenômenos como a ideologia, as transformações sociais e seus bloqueios, bem como a ascensão do nazismo. Reunindo esforços da história, da teoria social e da psicanálise, Horkheimer ela...
O historiador Max Weber: indologia e historicismo na obra weberiana
Arilson Silva de Oliveira
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Max Weber apropriou-se das exigências metodológicas do historicismo alemão contra toda filosofia iluminista natural e toda filosofia idealista da história. Ele as depurou no intuito de evitar as conclusões do romantismo e os desvios psicologistas do neo-historicismo. Aqui, observamos como ele muniu-se de um método particular, resgatou a racionalidade e a utilizou como parâmetro para compreender historicamente a sociedade indiana frente ao historicismo desencantado de sua época.
Max Herz Pasha on Arab-Islamic Art in Egypt
Ormos, István
2016-01-01
Having spent ten years in subordinate posts at the Technical Bureau of the Waqf Ministry, Max Herz (1856–1919; fig. 1) became chief architect to the Egyptian Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe in 1890. He occupied this position, which had been created for him personally, until the end of 1914. As chief architect, he played a key role in the conservation of Arab-Islamic architectural monuments in Egypt, in Cairo primarily. The importance of the job was indicated by the fact th...
Numerical Invariants through Convex Relaxation and Max-Strategy Iteration
Gawlitza, Thomas Martin
2012-01-01
In this article we develop a max-strategy improvement algorithm for computing least fixpoints of operators on on the reals that are point-wise maxima of finitely many monotone and order-concave operators. Computing the uniquely determined least fixpoint of such operators is a problem that occurs frequently in the context of numerical program/systems verification/analysis. As an example for an application we discuss how our algorithm can be applied to compute numerical invariants of programs by abstract interpretation based on quadratic templates.
Grayscale Image Compression Based on Min Max Block Truncating Coding
Hilal Almarabeh
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an image compression techniques based on block truncating coding. In this work, a min max block truncating coding (MM_BTC is presented for grayscale image compression relies on applying dividing image into non-overlapping blocks. MM_BTC differ from other block truncating coding such as block truncating coding (BTC in the way of selecting the quantization level in order to remove redundancy. Objectives measures such as: Bit Rate (BR, Mean Square Error (MSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and Redundancy (R, were used to present a detailed evaluation of MM_BTC of image quality.
WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES
刘永平; 许贵桥
2003-01-01
This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.
Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems
朱位秋
1996-01-01
A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.
NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)
California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...
Jumrani, Kanchan; Bhatia, Virender Singh; Pandey, Govind Prakash
2017-03-01
High-temperature stress is a major environmental stress and there are limited studies elucidating its impact on soybean (Glycine max L. Merril.). The objectives of present study were to quantify the effect of high temperature on changes in leaf thickness, number of stomata on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and seed yield in soybean. Twelve soybean genotypes were grown at day/night temperatures of 30/22, 34/24, 38/26 and 42/28 °C with an average temperature of 26, 29, 32 and 35 °C, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. One set was also grown under ambient temperature conditions where crop season average maximum, minimum and mean temperatures were 28.0, 22.4 and 25.2 °C, respectively. Significant negative effect of temperature was observed on specific leaf weight (SLW) and leaf thickness. Rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency declined as the growing temperatures increased; whereas, intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate were increased. With the increase in temperature chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fm, qP and PhiPSII declined while there was increase in qN. Number of stomata on both abaxial and adaxial surface of leaf increased significantly with increase in temperatures. The rate of photosynthesis, PhiPSII, qP and SPAD values were positively associated with leaf thickness and SLW. This indicated that reduction in photosynthesis and associated parameters appears to be due to structural changes observed at higher temperatures. The average seed yield was maximum (13.2 g/pl) in plants grown under ambient temperature condition and declined by 8, 14, 51 and 65% as the temperature was increased to 30/22, 34/24, 38/26 and 42/28 °C, respectively.
$X_\\text{max}$ reconstruction from amplitude information with AERA
Gaté, Florian
2016-01-01
The standard method to estimate the mass of a cosmic ray is the measurement of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum ($X_\\text{max}$). This depth is strongly correlated with the mass of the primary because it depends on the interaction cross section of the primary with the constituents of the atmosphere. Measuring the electric field, emitted by the secondary particles of an extensive air shower (EAS), with the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) in the 30-80 MHz band allows the determination of the depth of shower maximum on the basis of the good understanding of the radio emission mechanisms. The duty cycle of radio detectors is close to 100\\%, making possible the statistical determination of the cosmic-ray mass composition through the study of a large number of cosmic rays above 10$^{17}$ eV. In this contribution, $X_\\text{max}$ reconstruction methods based on the study of the radio signal with AERA are detailed.
Cosmological Constraints From SDSS MaxBCG Cluster Abundances
Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U. /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David; /Caltech, JPL; Sheldon, Erin S.; /CCPP, New York; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP,
2007-03-26
We perform a maximum likelihood analysis of the cluster abundance measured in the SDSS using the maxBCG cluster finding algorithm. Our analysis is aimed at constraining the power spectrum normalization {sigma}{sub 8}, and assumes flat cosmologies with a scale invariant spectrum, massless neutrinos, and CMB and supernova priors {Omega}{sub m}h{sup 2} = 0.128 {+-} 0.01 and h = 0.72 {+-} 0.05 respectively. Following the method described in the companion paper Rozo et al. (2007), we derive {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.92 {+-} 0.10 (1{sigma}) after marginalizing over all major systematic uncertainties. We place strong lower limits on the normalization, {sigma}{sub 8} > 0.76 (95% CL) (> 0.68 at 99% CL). We also find that our analysis favors relatively low values for the slope of the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD), {alpha} = 0.83 {+-} 0.06. The uncertainties of these determinations will substantially improve upon completion of an ongoing campaign to estimate dynamical, weak lensing, and X-ray cluster masses in the SDSS maxBCG cluster sample.
Fitness self-perception and Vo2max in firefighters.
Peate, W F; Lundergan, Linda; Johnson, Jerry J
2002-06-01
Firefighters work at maximal levels of exertion. Fitness for such duty requires adequate aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [Vo2max]). Aerobic fitness can both improve a worker's ability to perform and offer resistance to cardiopulmonary conditions. Inactive firefighters have a 90% greater risk of myocardial infarction than those who are aerobically fit. Participants (101 firefighters) completed a questionnaire that asked them to rank their fitness level from 0 to 7; e.g., Level 0 was low fitness: "I avoid walking or exertion, e.g., always use elevator, drive whenever possible." The level of activity rating increased to Level 7: "I run over 10 miles per week or spend 3 hours per week in comparable physical activity." Each participant then completed two measures of Vo2max: a 5-minute step test and a submaximal treadmill test. There was no association between the firefighters' self-perception of their level of fitness and their aerobic capacity as measured by either step test or submaximal treadmill. Because of the critical job demands of firefighting and the negative consequences of inadequate fitness and aerobic capacity, periodic aerobic capacity testing with individualized exercise prescriptions and work--community support may be advisable for all active-duty firefighters.
CSR expansions of matrix powers in max algebra
Sergeev, Sergei
2009-01-01
We study the behavior of max-algebraic powers of a reducible nonnegative n by n matrix A. We show that for t>3n^2, the powers A^t can be expanded in max-algebraic powers of the form CS^tR, where C and R are extracted from columns and rows of certain Kleene stars and S is diadonally similar to a Boolean matrix. We study the properties of individual terms and show that all terms, for a given t>3n^2, can be found in O(n^4 log n) operations. We show that the powers have a well-defined ultimate behavior, where certain terms are totally or partially suppressed, thus leading to ultimate CS^tR terms and the corresponding ultimate expansion. We apply this expansion to the question whether {A^ty, t>0} is ultimately linear periodic for each starting vector y, showing that this question can be also answered in O(n^4 log n) time. We give examples illustrating our main results.
Tapered composite likelihood for spatial max-stable models
Sang, Huiyan
2014-05-01
Spatial extreme value analysis is useful to environmental studies, in which extreme value phenomena are of interest and meaningful spatial patterns can be discerned. Max-stable process models are able to describe such phenomena. This class of models is asymptotically justified to characterize the spatial dependence among extremes. However, likelihood inference is challenging for such models because their corresponding joint likelihood is unavailable and only bivariate or trivariate distributions are known. In this paper, we propose a tapered composite likelihood approach by utilizing lower dimensional marginal likelihoods for inference on parameters of various max-stable process models. We consider a weighting strategy based on a "taper range" to exclude distant pairs or triples. The "optimal taper range" is selected to maximize various measures of the Godambe information associated with the tapered composite likelihood function. This method substantially reduces the computational cost and improves the efficiency over equally weighted composite likelihood estimators. We illustrate its utility with simulation experiments and an analysis of rainfall data in Switzerland.
Max Uhle and the Museo de Historia Nacional-Lima
David L. Browman
1999-05-01
Full Text Available A recent article by Teodoro Hampe Martinez (1998 sheds new light on the origins of archaeology in Peru. Hampe has a continuing research interest in the origins of historical institutions in Peru. One of the institutions that he has spent some time documenting is the Museo de Historia Nacional, and especially its the archaeologist who served as its first director, Max Uhle. or more properly Friedrich Max Uhle (1856- 1944. Hampe Maninez's most recent work includes materials not only from the archives in Peru. but materials extracted from the unpublished diaries of Uhle kept in the archives of the lbero-Amerikanisches Institut/Preussischer Kulturbesitz in Berlin, which Hampe visited in June of 1990 and December of 1994. Uhle transferred the bulk of his personal papers, including 170 diaries, over 2,000 photographs, and much of his personal correspondence, to this institute in 1933, three years after its founding in 1930. Hampe has been collecting information from the unpublished sources relating to Uhle's work in Peru from 1896 through 1912, although the current paper focuses mainly upon the period of Uhle's tenure at the Museo de Historia Nacional, which is covered in Uhle's diaries #76 through #93 at the Berlin archives. Hampe Martinez's studies in this paper have materially added to the earlier works by Rowe (1954 and Linares Malaga (1964 on Uhle.
Products of irreducible random matrices in the (Max,+) Algebra
Mairesse, Jean
1997-01-01
We consider the recursive equation ``x(n+1)=A(n)x(n)'' where x(n+1) and x(n) are column vectors of size k and where A(n) is an irreducible random matrix of size k x k. The matrix-vector multiplication in the (max,+) algebra is defined by (A(n)x(n))_i= max_j [ A(n)_{ij} +x(n)_j ]. This type of equation can be used to represent the evolution of Stochastic Event Graphs which include cyclic Jackson Networks, some manufacturing models and models with general blocking (such as Kanban). Let us assume that the sequence (A(n))_n is i.i.d or more generally stationary and ergodic. The main result of the paper states that the system couples in finite time with a unique stationary regime if and only if there exists a set of matrices C such that P {A(0) in C} > 0, and the matrices in C have a unique periodic regime.
WiFi and WiMAX Secure Deployments
Panagiotis Trimintzios
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless Broadband offers incredibly fast, “always on” Internet similar to ADSL and sets the user free from the fixed access areas. In order to achieve these features standardisation was achieved for Wireless LAN (WLANs and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs with the advent of IEEE802.11 and IEEE802.16 family of standards, respectively. One serious concern in the rapidly developing wireless networking market has been the security of the deployments since the information is delivered freely in the air and therefore privacy and integrity of the transmitted information, along with the user-authentication procedures, become a very important issue. In this article, we present the security characteristics for the WiFi and the WiMAX networks. We thoroughly present the security mechanisms along with a threat analysis for both IEEE 802.11 and the 802.16 as well as their amendments. We summarise in a comparative manner the security characteristics and the possible residual threats for both standards. Finally focus on the necessary actions and configurations that are needed in order to deploy WiFi and WiMAX with increased levels of security and privacy.
Min-max redundancy resolution for a mobile manipulator
Reister, D.B.
1996-02-01
We have considered the problem of determining the values of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize an objective function when the position and orientation of the end of the manipulator are given. The objective function is the weighted sum of three components: distance, torque, and reach. Each of the three components is a max or min. We have converted the min-max optimization problem into a nonlinear programming problem and used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the optimum solutions. The necessary conditions require that one or more of each of the three sets (distance, torque, and reach) of nonnegative Lagrange multipliers must be positive. If one of the Lagrange multipliers is positive, the corresponding slack variable must be zero. When two or more of the Lagrange multipliers from a single set are positive, the slack variables place constraints on the joint variables. Specification of the Cartesian position and orientation of the end of the arm also places constraints on the joint variables. If the mobile manipulator has N degrees of freedom and the total number of constraints is M, the constraints define a manifold of dimensions N - M. When N = M, the dimension of the manifold is zero (it consists of isolated points). When N > M, a search of the manifold may yield a submanifold that maximizes the Lagrangian function. We discuss examples where the number of slack variable constraints (M) is two or more.
Los juegos narrativos de Max Aub en Juego de cartas
Valles Calatrava, José R.
2007-12-01
Full Text Available After reviewing the dates of writing and edition, the illustrations of the cards and the different thematic relationships among the 106 epistles that integrate Juego de Cartas (1964 by Max Aub, this article successively studies the playful and experimental dimensions of the novel and its opened plot, analyzing in a detailed way the narrative technical procedures used by Aub in its composition: dissociation of the author and apocryphal play, limitless retextualization of story (scattered text and opened montage, greatest interactivity and kaleidoscopic design.Tras examinar las fechas de escritura y publicación, las ilustraciones de los naipes y las vinculaciones temáticas de las 106 epístolas que integran la obra de Max Aub Juego de cartas (1964, este artículo estudia las dimensiones lúdica y experimental de la novela y su estructura abierta, analizando sucesivamente de modo detallado los procedimientos técnicos narrativos empleados por Aub en su composición: disociación autoral y presencia del apócrifo, retextualización ilimitada de la historia narrativa (texto diseminado y montaje abierto, máxima interactividad, diseño caleidoscópico.
[Max Hirsch founder of rheumatology in Germany: banished and murdered].
Keitel, W
2014-08-01
The Jewish physician and scientist Dr. Max Hirsch (1875-1941) made a substantial contribution to consolidation of the foundations of his professional discipline, balneology, and in particular developed the social aspects. He recognized the economic significance of diseases of the musculoskeletal system very early on and gathered important ideas from abroad. Together with the department head in the Prussian Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, the Privy Councillor Prof. Dr. Eduard Dietrich and later alone, he was editor of various balneological journals. He worked as general secretary of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie (German Society of Rheumatology) from the beginning of its existence (1927) and created the publication series Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rheumabekämpfung (Publications of the German Society against Rheumatism) and Rheuma-Jahrbuch (Annual review of rheumatology) in 1929, 1930 and 1931 and organized seven rheumatology congresses up to 1933. After the accession to power of the National Socialists, Max Hirsch and Eduard Dietrich were deposed from office. Hirsch emigrated to Latvia via Switzerland and the Soviet Union with his wife and one son where they were murdered in the course of the Jewish pogrom. The second son escaped with his family to Sweden.
MaxOcc: a web portal for maximum occurrence analysis
Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: ivanobertini@cerm.unifi.it; Ferella, Lucio; Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it; Parigi, Giacomo [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), University of Florence (Italy); Petoukhov, Maxim V. [EMBL, Hamburg Outstation (Germany); Ravera, Enrico; Rosato, Antonio [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), University of Florence (Italy); Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL, Hamburg Outstation (Germany)
2012-08-15
The MaxOcc web portal is presented for the characterization of the conformational heterogeneity of two-domain proteins, through the calculation of the Maximum Occurrence that each protein conformation can have in agreement with experimental data. Whatever the real ensemble of conformations sampled by a protein, the weight of any conformation cannot exceed the calculated corresponding Maximum Occurrence value. The present portal allows users to compute these values using any combination of restraints like pseudocontact shifts, paramagnetism-based residual dipolar couplings, paramagnetic relaxation enhancements and small angle X-ray scattering profiles, given the 3D structure of the two domains as input. MaxOcc is embedded within the NMR grid services of the WeNMR project and is available via the WeNMR gateway at http://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocchttp://py-enmr.cerm.unifi.it/access/index/maxocc. It can be used freely upon registration to the grid with a digital certificate.
General models in min-max planar location
Gromicho, J.; Frenk, J.B.G.; Zhang, S.
1994-12-31
In this talk a class of min-max continuous location problems will be discussed. After giving a complete characterization of the stationary points we propose a simple central and deep cut ellipsoid algorithm to solve these problems for the quasiconvex case. Moreover, an elementary convergence proof of this algorithm is sketched. The next part of the exposition addresses the problem of deciding whether the present iteration point in the case of a planar single facility min-max location problem with distances measured by either a Lpp-norm or a polyhedral gauge is optimal or not. It turns out that this problem is equivalent to the decision problem whether 0 belongs to the convex hull of either a finite number of points in the plane or a finite number of different Lpq-circles {improper_subset} R{sup 2} with 1/q + 1/p = 1. Although both membership problems are theoretically solvable in polynomial time the last problem is more difficult to solve in practice than the first one. Moreover, the second problem is only solvable in the weak sense, i.e. up to a predetermined accuracy. Unfortunately these polynomial-time algorithms are not practical. Although this is a negative result we present an efficient and extremely simple linear-time algorithm to solve the first problem. Moreover, this paper also describes an implementable procedure to reduce the second decision problem to the first with any desired precision. Finally computational results are reported.
Una Lectura de Humboldt. Max Weber y la universidad alemana
Piedras Monroy, Pedro Andrés
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Max Weber’s specialists and biographers have not considered it very interesting to reflect about this author’s critique of the German university. In my opinion, many of the holes and difficulties in meaning we still find in his works and life come from this broad and decisive lack of knowledge. In my essay, I try to start filling this gap, studying the way Weber answers to and updates the educational challenges of the founder of the modern German University: Wilhelm von Humboldt.Especialistas y biógrafos de Max Weber no han considerado demasiado interesante reflexionar sobre la crítica que este autor hace de la universidad alemana. En mi opinión, muchos de los huecos y de las dificultades que seguimos encontrando a la hora de comprender a este autor proceden de este vacío enorme y decisivo. En mi ensayo, trato de comenzar a llenar este hueco a través del estudio del modo en el que Weber responde a los desafíos educativos del fundador de la moderna universidad alemana, Wilhelm von Humboldt, y los actualiza.
Effective Bandwidth Allocation for WiMAX Mesh Network
Hung-Chin Jang
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reduce the media access delay in a WiMAX mesh network. We observe that as the number of subscriber stations (SS in a neighborhood increases, the processes of transmission opportunity (TO competition and 3- way handshake are easy to fail. This may degrade transmission efficiency and increase packet transmission delay. Besides, the minislot allocation defined in the WiMAX mesh mode may cause many lower priority services reserve earlier minislots than that of higher priority services like rtPS. This may cause great negative impact on delay-sensitive traffic. In this paper, we design a QoS classifier to enqueue packets according to different QoS service classes, present a dynamic holdoff exponent mechanism to reduce control subframe delay, and propose a Neighborhood-Based Minislot Allocation (NBMA mechanism to reduce data subframe delay. Simulations show that the proposed methodology outperforms that of IEEE 802.16 and Baye's DynExp in delay, jitter and throughput.
Cosmological Constraints from the SDSS maxBCG Cluster Catalog
Rozo, Eduardo; /CCAPP; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Evrard, August E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U.; Hansen, Sarah M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Hao, Jia; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David E.; /Northwestern U.; Koester, Benjamin P.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Sheldon, Erin S.; /Brookhaven; Weinberg, David H.; /CCAPP /Ohio State U.
2009-08-03
We use the abundance and weak lensing mass measurements of the SDSS maxBCG cluster catalog to simultaneously constrain cosmology and the richness-mass relation of the clusters. Assuming a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we find {sigma}{sub 8}({Omega}{sub m}/0.25){sup 0.41} = 0.832 {+-} 0.033 after marginalization over all systematics. In common with previous studies, our error budget is dominated by systematic uncertainties, the primary two being the absolute mass scale of the weak lensing masses of the maxBCG clusters, and uncertainty in the scatter of the richness-mass relation. Our constraints are fully consistent with the WMAP five-year data, and in a joint analysis we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.807 {+-} 0.020 and {Omega}{sub m} = 0.265 {+-} 0.016, an improvement of nearly a factor of two relative to WMAP5 alone. Our results are also in excellent agreement with and comparable in precision to the latest cosmological constraints from X-ray cluster abundances. The remarkable consistency among these results demonstrates that cluster abundance constraints are not only tight but also robust, and highlight the power of optically-selected cluster samples to produce precision constraints on cosmological parameters.
MAX-DOAS detection of glyoxal during ICARTT 2004
R. Sinreich
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The direct detection of glyoxal (CHOCHO, the smallest α-dicarbonyl, in the open atmosphere by active differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS has recently been demonstrated (Volkamer et al., 2005a and triggered the very recent successful detection of CHOCHO from space (Kurosu et al., 2005; Wittrock et al., 2006; Beirle et al., 2006. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of CHOCHO by passive multi axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS. CHOCHO and NO2 slant column measurements were conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, USA, and on board the research vessel Ron Brown in the Gulf of Maine as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT 2004 campaign. For a day with nearly clear sky conditions, radiative transfer modeling was employed to derive diurnal CHOCHO mixing ratios in the planetary boundary layer (PBL for both sites. CHOCHO mixing ratios at MIT varied from 40 to 140 ppt, with peak values observed around noon. Mixing ratios over the Gulf of Maine were found to be up to 2.5 times larger than at MIT. The CHOCHO-to-NO2 ratio at MIT was <0.03, and enhancements of this ratio by up to two orders of magnitude were found over the Gulf of Maine. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects involved with MAX-DOAS measurements of CHOCHO.
Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow
Richard W. Johnson
2012-09-01
A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical
Davis, Zoe; Baray, Sabour; Khanbabkhani, Aida; Fujs, William; Csukat, Csilla; McLaren, Robert
2017-04-01
Mobile-MAX-DOAS is an innovative technique used to estimate pollutant emission rates and validate satellite measurements and air quality models. It is essential to identify and examine factors that can significantly impact the accuracy of this developing technique. Mobile-MAX-DOAS measurements were conducted in Toronto, Canada with a mini-MAX-DOAS instrument mounted (pointing backwards) on top of a car during August and September, 2016. Scattered sunlight spectra were collected every 45 seconds in the continuously repeated sequence of elevation angles of 30o, 30o, 30o, 30o, 40o, 30o, 90o. Tropospheric VCDs were determined using the geometric approximation from DSCDs fitted using a near-noon, low NO2 VCD FRS spectrum. The study goal was to examine the validity of the assumption that VCDs remain relatively constant at each measured location on a driving route encircling an urban area of interest with typical time periods of 1.5-3 hours to estimate emissions and whether driving direction significantly impacts results. NO2 VCD temporal variability was therefore determined by repeating driving routes in both directions in quick succession on multiple days. Strong temporal variability in NO2 VCDs of up to a factor of two were observed for some routes for the same vehicle locations under constant prevailing wind conditions within indicates sufficient horizontal inhomogeneity for the instrument to view significantly different NO2 regimes while at the same vehicle geographical location due to the different azimuth direction. NO2line fluxes were determined during weekday afternoon rush-hours by driving repeatedly in both directions under tangential prevailing winds conditions on a road that is 8km downwind of Toronto and 4km downwind of a major highway. During one afternoon the average NO2 VCD was 6(±2)x1016 molec. cm-2with a standard deviation of 3x1015 molec. cm-2. This average value is consistent with NO2 VCDs retrieved using optimal estimation methods from stationary
T. Vlemmix
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Muliple Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS instruments can measure from the ground the absorption by nitrogen dioxide (NO_{2} of scattered sunlight seen in multiple viewing directions. This paper studies the potential of this technique to derive the vertical distribution of NO_{2} in the troposphere. Such profile information is essential in validation studies in which MAX-DOAS retrievals play a role.
The retrieval algorithm used is based on a pre-calculated look-up table and assumes homogeneous mixing of aerosols and NO_{2} in layers extending from the surface to a variable height. Two retrieval models are compared: one including and one excluding an elevated NO_{2} layer at a fixed altitude in the free troposphere. An ensemble technique is applied to derive retrieved model uncertainties.
Sensitivity studies demonstrate that MAX-DOAS based retrievals can make a distinction between an NO_{2} layer that extends from the surface to a certain height (having a constant mixing ratio, or a mixing ratio that decreases with altitude and an elevated NO_{2} layer. The height of the elevated NO_{2} layer can only be retrieved accurately when the aerosol extinction profile is known and the measurement noise is low. The uncertainty in this elevated NO_{2} layer height provides the main source of uncertainty in the retrieval of the free tropospheric contribution to the tropospheric NO_{2} column.
A comparison was performed with independent data, based on observations done at the CINDI campaign, held in the Netherlands in 2009. Comparison with lidar partial tropospheric NO_{2} columns showed a correlation of 0.78, and an average difference of 0.1× 10^{15} molec cm^{−2}. The diurnal evolution of the NO_{2} volume mixing ratio measured by in-situ monitors at the surface and averaged over five days with
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces
无
2000-01-01
The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.
Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models
de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.
1998-01-01
Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared
Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case
Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.
2007-01-01
We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situ
Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case
Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.
We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW
Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium
Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.
1951-01-01
By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
New results on averaging theory and applications
Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume
2016-08-01
The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.
Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave
Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi
2017-08-01
A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.
Max-Min Optimality of Service Rate Control in Closed Queueing Networks
Xia, Li
2013-04-01
In this technical note, we discuss the optimality properties of service rate control in closed Jackson networks. We prove that when the cost function is linear to a particular service rate, the system performance is monotonic w.r.t. (with respect to) that service rate and the optimal value of that service rate can be either maximum or minimum (we call it Max-Min optimality); When the second-order derivative of the cost function w.r.t. a particular service rate is always positive (negative), which makes the cost function strictly convex (concave), the optimal value of such service rate for the performance maximization (minimization) problem can be either maximum or minimum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most general result for the optimality of service rates in closed Jackson networks and all the previous works only involve the first conclusion. Moreover, our result is also valid for both the state-dependent and load-dependent service rates, under both the time-average and customer-average performance criteria.
As raízes jurídicas de Max Weber The juridical roots of Max Weber
Gerhard Dilcher
2012-01-01
Full Text Available O artigo investiga a formação, a carreira e os trabalhos de Max Weber como jurista, assim como delineia as linhas gerais do impacto e das influências de sua formação jurídica na sua obra em geral. Especial atenção merece sua tese de doutorado sobre as sociedades comerciais na Idade Média, que é apresentada em sua problematização geral e em suas principais ideias. Com isso, procura-se indicar como os problemas tratados por Weber em sua tese de doutorado - sua principal obra jurídica - antecipam temas e problemas que serão desenvolvidos na obra posterior de modo ampliado e aprofundado.The article investigates the formation, career and works of Max Weber as a jurist, and outlines the impact and influences of his legal training on his work in general. Special attention is given to his doctoral thesis on trading societies of the Middle Ages, presenting his overall problematization and his main ideas. The objective is to show how the problems explored by Weber in his doctoral thesis - his main juridical work - anticipate themes and problems developed more widely and deeply in his later work.
SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX UREASE: STEADY STATE KINETICS, STABILITY AND THERMAL INACTIVATION STUDIES
Sandeep Kumar
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max urease was characterized with respect to kinetic parameters, stability studies and thermal inactivation. The stability temperature and stability pH of the purified urease was found to be 4 °C and 7.6, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature were 7.0 oC and 65 oC, respectively. The energy of activation (Ea was 15.40 kJ/mol. Further, the Km and Vmax were determined by Lineweaver Burk plot and the values were 2.70 ± 0.10 mM and 2.85 x102 µmol NH3/min/mg protein,respectively. Thermal inactivation studies at 65 oC, revealed the mono-phasic kinetics, which indicated the loss in activity in single phase. However, at higher temperatures (70 oC, 75 oC and 77 oC, the kinetic pattern was mainly bi-phasic. At 80 oC, there was complete loss in activity thereby showing the denaturation of enzyme. Thermal inactivation studies strongly support the oligomeric nature of urease.
Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements
Mirocha, Jordan
2015-01-01
Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation
Regina Sesilia Noy
2014-08-01
Full Text Available VO2 max is very important in everyday life, so as to facilitate any physicalactivity, specially for athletes in order to achieve maximum performance. In aneffort to increase VO2 max training should be carried out regularly, measured andplanned. This study aims to determine the increase in VO2 max through circuittraining run and run continuously. The sample is taekwondoin son Manggarai-NTTwith an average age of 15 years. This study is an experimental study with the studydesign used was Randomized Pre and Post Test Group desigen. With a totalsample of 7 people in each group. Samples were randomly selected. Treatmentgroup 1 (KP1 given training run circuit 2 x 10 minute and Treatment Group 2(KP2 are given continuous training run 2 x 10 minute. Training carried out for 6weeks with a frequency of four times a week starting at 17:00 to 18:00 pm locatedat Frans Sales Lega Airport Manggarai-NTT. The analysis showed an increase inVO2 max was significantly (p <0.05 against both groups fled. In both groups thecircuit run by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper an increase in VO2 max with p<0.05, as well as a continuous run either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooperwith an increase in VO2 max value of p <0.05. The results of this analysis meansthat either the training or circuit training run run continuously to improve VO2max. Based on a comparison of test data by an independent test after training inboth groups either by Pulse Oxymeter and Norma Cooper in get p values > 0.05, orthere is no significant difference. Based on these results it can be concluded thatthe run circuit training and continuous training run together can increase VO2 maxand there was no significant difference. The results of this study are expected toincrease the knowledge of coaches, teachers and taekwondoin to perform trainingon a regular basis and are also expected to do similar research that examines VO2max with different training.
MAX inactivation is an early event in GIST development that regulates p16 and cell proliferation
Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Wang, Yuexiang; Liang, Cher-wei; Bahri, Nacef; Quattrone, Anna; Doyle, Leona; Mariño-Enríquez, Adrian; Lauria, Alexandra; Zhu, Meijun; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Grunewald, Susanne; Hechtman, Jaclyn F.; Dufresne, Armelle; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Beadling, Carol; Sicinska, Ewa T.; van de Rijn, Matt; Demetri, George D.; Ladanyi, Marc; Corless, Christopher L.; Heinrich, Michael C.; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Bauer, Sebastian; Fletcher, Jonathan A.
2017-01-01
KIT, PDGFRA, NF1 and SDH mutations are alternate initiating events, fostering hyperplasia in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), and additional genetic alterations are required for progression to malignancy. The most frequent secondary alteration, demonstrated in ∼70% of GISTs, is chromosome 14q deletion. Here we report hemizygous or homozygous inactivating mutations of the chromosome 14q MAX gene in 16 of 76 GISTs (21%). We find MAX mutations in 17% and 50% of sporadic and NF1-syndromic GISTs, respectively, and we find loss of MAX protein expression in 48% and 90% of sporadic and NF1-syndromic GISTs, respectively, and in three of eight micro-GISTs, which are early GISTs. MAX genomic inactivation is associated with p16 silencing in the absence of p16 coding sequence deletion and MAX induction restores p16 expression and inhibits GIST proliferation. Hence, MAX inactivation is a common event in GIST progression, fostering cell cycle activity in early GISTs. PMID:28270683
Serial Min-max Decoding Algorithm Based on Variable Weighting for Nonbinary LDPC Codes
Zhongxun Wang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an analysis on the min-max decoding algorithm for nonbinary LDPC(low-density parity-check codes and propose serial min-max decoding algorithm. Combining with the weighted processing of the variable node message, we propose serial min-max decoding algorithm based on variable weighting for nonbinary LDPC codes in the end. The simulation indicates that when the bit error rate is 10^-3,compared with serial min-max decoding algorithm ,traditional min-max decoding algorithm and traditional minsum algorithm ,serial min-max decoding algorithm based on variable weighting can offer additional coding gain 0.2dB、0.8dB and 1.4dB respectively in additional white Gaussian noise channel and under binary phase shift keying modulation.
Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics
Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried
2016-01-01
We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.
Average-passage flow model development
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.
FREQUENTIST MODEL AVERAGING ESTIMATION: A REVIEW
Haiying WANG; Xinyu ZHANG; Guohua ZOU
2009-01-01
In applications, the traditional estimation procedure generally begins with model selection.Once a specific model is selected, subsequent estimation is conducted under the selected model without consideration of the uncertainty from the selection process. This often leads to the underreporting of variability and too optimistic confidence sets. Model averaging estimation is an alternative to this procedure, which incorporates model uncertainty into the estimation process. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in model averaging from the frequentist perspective, and some important progresses have been made. In this paper, the theory and methods on frequentist model averaging estimation are surveyed. Some future research topics are also discussed.
Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds
Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.
2002-01-01
Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752
Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging
Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L
2010-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.
The Average Lower Connectivity of Graphs
Ersin Aslan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For a vertex v of a graph G, the lower connectivity, denoted by sv(G, is the smallest number of vertices that contains v and those vertices whose deletion from G produces a disconnected or a trivial graph. The average lower connectivity denoted by κav(G is the value (∑v∈VGsvG/VG. It is shown that this parameter can be used to measure the vulnerability of networks. This paper contains results on bounds for the average lower connectivity and obtains the average lower connectivity of some graphs.
Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P
2008-10-31
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.
Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy
Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
2005-01-01
of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...
Monitoring changes in VO2max via the Polar FT40 in female collegiate soccer players.
Esco, Michael R; Snarr, Ronald L; Williford, Hank N
2014-01-01
This study was conducted to determine if the Polar FT40 could accurately track changes in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in a group of female soccer players. Predicted VO2max (pVO2max) via the Polar FT40 and observed VO2max (aVO2max) from a maximal exercise test on a treadmill were determined for members of a collegiate soccer team (n = 20) before and following an 8-week endurance training protocol. Predicted (VO2max and aVO2max measures were compared at baseline and within 1 week post-training. Change values (i.e., the difference between pre to post) for each variable were also determined and compared. There was a significant difference in aVO2max (pre = 43.6 ± 2.4 ml · kg · min(-1), post = 46.2 ± 2.4 ml · kg · min(-1), P < 0.001) and pVO2max (pre = 47.3 ± 5.3 ml · kg · min(-1), post = 49.7 ± 6.2 ml · kg · min(-1), P = 0.009) following training. However, predicted values were significantly greater at each time point compared to observed values (P < 0.001 at pre and P = 0.008 at post). Furthermore, there was a weak correlation between the change in aVO2max and the change in pVO2max (r = 0.18, P = 0.45). The Polar FT40 does not appear to be a valid method for predicting changes in individual VO2max following 8 weeks of endurance training in female collegiate soccer players.
Inhomogeneity of NO2 over Yokosuka, an urban site in Japan observed by MAX-DOAS
Takashima, H.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.
2010-12-01
Since April 2007, continuous NO2 profile observations have been performed using ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) at Yokosuka (35.32°N, 139.65°E), an urban site in Japan. MAX-DOAS is a passive remote sensing technique using scatted visible and ultraviolet solar radiation at several elevation angles. It has been suggested that MAX-DOAS can allow us to retrieve vertical information on not only NO2 but also aerosol, H2 O, HCHO, and CHOCHO. In this study, we compare mean NO2 concentrations for 0-1 km layer derived from MAX-DOAS and surface values taken by in-situ measurements near the source region. Comparisons showed generally good agreement on seasonal, intraseasonal and diurnal time scales. However, MAX-DOAS NO2 was less than that of in-situ (surface) values particularly at higher surface values. Since the MAX-DOAS telescope used in this study was set in the azimuth direction of sea, it is expected that MAX-DOAS shows low values when the measured air masses contain information over ocean. To confirm this, MAX-DOAS NO2 was generally low when air was advected from sea. Also, for air masses measured by MAX-DOAS, the horizontal distance (depth) was estimated from the box air mass factor. We find that the concentration was generally higher when the horizontal distance was shorter, as expected. On the other hand, particularly low NO2 concentration was sometimes observed only in MAX-DOAS NO2 . For these cases, the air mass was likely vertically well mixed and the horizontal distance was long. Attention should be paid to consider such inhomogeneity to compare the MAX-DOAS measurement with in-situ surface measurement as well as to validate satellite-derived NO2 column amounts by MAX-DOAS over urban areas.
Lin, Xiangzhi; Xie, Shouqi; Su, Yongquan; Cui, Yibo
2008-02-01
Effects of water temperature (17, 21, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption, growth, feed conversion, and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated. The combined effect of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) on maximum food consumption ( C max, g/day) was described as: ln C max=-7.411+0.828 ln W+0.317 T-0.004 7 T 2, and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9°C. The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth ( G) was described as: ln G=-4.461-0.208ln W+0.394 T-0.006 3 T 2. The optimum growth temperature was 31.4°C, whereas overall growth rates were high at 25, 30 and 35 °C. Feed conversion efficiencies ( FCE, %), increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature, averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish. The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding. Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body weight, and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content ( DM, %) was described as: ln DM=3.232+0.01 4 ln W-0.004 4 T+0.001 2 Tln W.