WorldWideScience

Sample records for maunder minimum candidate

  1. Planetary tides during the Maunder sunspot minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, C.M.; Eddy, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are here constructed for the AD1645 to 1715 period of sunspot absence, referred to as the 'Maunder Minimum'. These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the present era of a well established 11 year sunspot cycle. This places a new and difficult restraint on any tidal theory of sunspot formation. Problems arise in any direct gravitational theory due to the apparently insufficient forces and tidal heights involved. Proponents of the tidal hypothesis usually revert to trigger mechanisms, which are difficult to criticise or test by observation. Any tidal theory rests on the evidence of continued sunspot periodicity and the substantiation of a prolonged period of solar anomaly in the historical past. The 'Maunder Minimum' was the most drastic change in the behaviour of solar activity in the last 300 years; sunspots virtually disappeared for a 70 year period and the 11 year cycle was probably absent. During that time, however, the nine planets were all in their orbits, and planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials were indistinguishable from those of the present era, in which the 11 year cycle is well established. This provides good evidence against the tidal theory. The pattern of planetary tidal forces during the Maunder Minimum was reconstructed to investigate the possibility that the multiple planet forces somehow fortuitously cancelled at the time, that is that the positions of the slower moving planets in the 17th and early 18th centuries were such that conjunctions and tidal potentials were at the time reduced in number and force. There was no striking dissimilarity between the time of the Maunder Minimum and any period investigated. The failure of planetary conjunction patterns to reflect the drastic drop in sunspots during the Maunder Minimum casts doubt on the tidal theory of solar activity, but a more quantitative test

  2. A proposal of comparative Maunder minimum cosmogenic isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attolini, M.R.; Nanni, T.; Galli, M.; Povinec, P.

    1989-01-01

    There are at present contraddictory conclusions about solar activity and cosmogenic isotope production variation during Maunder Minimum. The interaction of solar wind with galactic cosmic rays, the dynamic behaviour of the Sun either as a system having an internal clock, and/or as a forced non linear system, are important aspects that can shed new light on solar physics, the Earth-Sun relationship and the climatic variation. An essential progress in the matter might be made by clarifying the cosmogenic isotope production during the mentioned interval. As it seems that during Maunder Minimum the Be10 production oscillates of about a factor of two, the authors have also to expect short scale enhanced variations in tree rings radiocarbon concentrations for the same interval. It is therefore highly desirable that for the same interval, that the authors would identify with 1640-1720 AD, detailed concentration measurements both of Be10 (in dated polar ice in addition to those of Beer et al.) and of tree ring radiocarbon, be made with cross-checking, in samples of different latitudes, longitudes and within short and large distance of the sea. The samples could be taken, as for example in samples from the central Mediterranean region, in the Baltic region and in other sites from central Europe and Asia

  3. Sunspots During the Maunder Minimum from Machina Coelestis by Hevelius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, V. M. S.; Álvarez, J. Villalba; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    We revisited the sunspot observations published by Johannes Hevelius in his book Machina Coelestis (1679) corresponding to the period of 1653 - 1675 (just in the middle of the Maunder Minimum). We show detailed translations of the original Latin texts describing the sunspot records and provide the general context of these sunspot observations. From this source, we present an estimate of the annual values of the group sunspot number based only on the records that explicitly inform us of the presence or absence of sunspots. Although we obtain very low values of the group sunspot number, in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity, these values are significantly higher in general than the values provided by Hoyt and Schatten ( Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998) for the same period.

  4. The Maunder minimum and the variable sun-earth connection

    CERN Document Server

    Wei Hock Soon, Willie

    2003-01-01

    This book takes an excursion through solar science, science history, and geoclimate with a husband and wife team who revealed some of our sun's most stubborn secrets. E Walter and Annie S D Maunder's work helped in understanding our sun's chemical, electromagnetic and plasma properties. They knew the sun's sunspot migration patterns and its variable, climate-affecting, inactive and active states in short and long time frames. An inactive solar period starting in the mid-seventeenth century lasted approximately seventy years, one that E Walter Maunder worked hard to make us understand: the Maun

  5. No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Jason Lee

    2017-01-01

    The solar analogs of M67 let us glimpse the probable behavior of the Sun on timescales surpassing the duration of human civilization. M67 can serve as a solar proxy because its stars share a similar age and composition with the Sun. Previous surveys of M67 observed that 15% of its Sun-like stars exhibited chromospheric activity levels below solar minimum, which suggest that these stars might be in activity-minimum states analogous to the Maunder Minimum. The activity diagnostic used, the HK index (relative intensities of the Ca ii H and K lines integrated over 1 Å bandpasses), was measured from low-resolution spectra ( R ≈ 5000), as is traditional and suitable for nearby, bright stars. However, for stars beyond the Local Bubble, the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints absorption lines in spectra at Ca ii H and K, which negatively bias activity measurements when these lines fall within the HK index bandpass. I model the ISM clouds in the M67 foreground with high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers and solar analogs. I demonstrate that ISM absorption varies across the cluster and must be accounted for on a star-by-star basis. I then apply the ISM model to a solar spectrum and broaden it to the lower spectral resolution employed by prior surveys. Comparing HK indices measured from ISM-free and ISM-contaminated spectra, I find that all stars observed below solar minimum can be explained by this ISM bias. I conclude that there is no compelling evidence for Maunder Minimum candidates in M67 at this time.

  6. No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Jason Lee, E-mail: jasoncurtis.astro@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The solar analogs of M67 let us glimpse the probable behavior of the Sun on timescales surpassing the duration of human civilization. M67 can serve as a solar proxy because its stars share a similar age and composition with the Sun. Previous surveys of M67 observed that 15% of its Sun-like stars exhibited chromospheric activity levels below solar minimum, which suggest that these stars might be in activity-minimum states analogous to the Maunder Minimum. The activity diagnostic used, the HK index (relative intensities of the Ca ii H and K lines integrated over 1 Å bandpasses), was measured from low-resolution spectra ( R ≈ 5000), as is traditional and suitable for nearby, bright stars. However, for stars beyond the Local Bubble, the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints absorption lines in spectra at Ca ii H and K, which negatively bias activity measurements when these lines fall within the HK index bandpass. I model the ISM clouds in the M67 foreground with high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers and solar analogs. I demonstrate that ISM absorption varies across the cluster and must be accounted for on a star-by-star basis. I then apply the ISM model to a solar spectrum and broaden it to the lower spectral resolution employed by prior surveys. Comparing HK indices measured from ISM-free and ISM-contaminated spectra, I find that all stars observed below solar minimum can be explained by this ISM bias. I conclude that there is no compelling evidence for Maunder Minimum candidates in M67 at this time.

  7. Latitude and Power Characteristics of Solar Activity at the End of the Maunder Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. G.; Miletsky, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Two important sources of information about sunspots in the Maunder minimum are the Spörer catalog (Spörer, 1889) and observations of the Paris observatory (Ribes and Nesme-Ribes, 1993), which cover in total the last quarter of the 17th and the first two decades of the 18th century. These data, in particular, contain information about sunspot latitudes. As we showed in (Ivanov et al., 2011; Ivanov and Miletsky, 2016), dispersions of sunspot latitude distributions are tightly related to sunspot indices, and we can estimate the level of solar activity in the past using a method which is not based on direct calculation of sunspots and weakly affected by loss of observational data. The latitude distributions of sunspots in the time of transition from the Maunder minimum to the regular regime of solar activity proved to be wide enough. It gives evidences in favor of, first, not very low cycle no.-3 (1712-1723) with the Wolf number in maximum W = 100 ± 50, and, second, nonzero activity in the maximum of cycle no.-4 (1700-1711) W = 60 ± 45. Therefore, the latitude distributions in the end of the Maunder minimum are in better agreement with the traditional Wolf numbers and new revisited indices of activity SN and GN (Clette et al., 2014; Svalgaard and Schatten, 2016) than with the GSN (Hoyt and Schatten, 1998); the latter provide much lower level of activity in this epoch.

  8. Differential rotation of the Sun and the Maunder minimum of solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikhsanov, R.N.; Vitinskij, Yu.I.

    1980-01-01

    Nature of differential rotation of the Sun is discussed. Investigation of long term changes in differential rotation separately for two phase of 11 year cycle of the Sun activity is carried out. Data on heliographic coordinates for every day of all groups of the Sun spots for the years preceding the epoch of the minimum of the 11 year cycle and the Sun groups for the years of maximum from ''Greenwich Photoheliographic Results'' for 1875-1954 are used as initial material. It is shown that differential rotation of the Sun changes in time from one 11 year cycle of the Sun activity to another. This change is connected with the power of 11 year cycle. During the maximum phase of 11 year cycle differentiality of the rotation increases in the cycles where the cycle maximum is higher. Before the minimum of 11 year cycle rotation differentiability is lower in the cycles for which activity maximum is higher in the next 11 year cycle. Equatorial rate of the Sun rotation increases with the decrease in the cycle power when the maximum Wolf number is less than 110. The mentioned regularities took place both during Maunder minimum and before its beginning [ru

  9. ({The) Solar System Large Planets influence on a new Maunder Miniμm}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yndestad, Harald; Solheim, Jan-Erik

    2016-04-01

    In 1890´s G. Spörer and E. W. Maunder (1890) reported that the solar activity stopped in a period of 70 years from 1645 to 1715. Later a reconstruction of the solar activity confirms the grand minima Maunder (1640-1720), Spörer (1390-1550), Wolf (1270-1340), and the minima Oort (1010-1070) and Dalton (1785-1810) since the year 1000 A.D. (Usoskin et al. 2007). These minimum periods have been associated with less irradiation from the Sun and cold climate periods on Earth. An identification of a three grand Maunder type periods and two Dalton type periods in a period thousand years, indicates that sooner or later there will be a colder climate on Earth from a new Maunder- or Dalton- type period. The cause of these minimum periods, are not well understood. An expected new Maunder-type period is based on the properties of solar variability. If the solar variability has a deterministic element, we can estimate better a new Maunder grand minimum. A random solar variability can only explain the past. This investigation is based on the simple idea that if the solar variability has a deterministic property, it must have a deterministic source, as a first cause. If this deterministic source is known, we can compute better estimates the next expected Maunder grand minimum period. The study is based on a TSI ACRIM data series from 1700, a TSI ACRIM data series from 1000 A.D., sunspot data series from 1611 and a Solar Barycenter orbit data series from 1000. The analysis method is based on a wavelet spectrum analysis, to identify stationary periods, coincidence periods and their phase relations. The result shows that the TSI variability and the sunspots variability have deterministic oscillations, controlled by the large planets Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, as the first cause. A deterministic model of TSI variability and sunspot variability confirms the known minimum and grand minimum periods since 1000. From this deterministic model we may expect a new Maunder type sunspot

  10. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The data on polar migration of solar magnetic fields were obtained on the basis of. Η alpha magnetic synoptic charts for 1880 1991 using Kodaikanal, Kislovodsk and Italian observations, and Atlas of Η alpha charts (Mclntosh 1979; Makarov &. Fatianov 1980; Makarov & Sivaraman 1989; Makarov 1994). The Wolf numbers ...

  11. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  12. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  13. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Sporer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Camenisch, C.; Keller, K. M.; Salvisberg, M.; Amann, B.; Bauch, M.; Blumer, S.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Bronnimann, S.; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, B. M. S.; Fernandez-Donado, L.; Fleitmann, D.; Gläser, R.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Grosjean, M.; Hoffmann, R.; Huhtamaa, H.; Joos, F.; Kiss, A.; Kotyza, O.; Lehner, F.; Luterbacher, J.; Maughan, T. S.; Neukom, R.; Novy, T.; Pribyl, K.; Raible, C. C.; Riemann, D.; Schuh, M.; Slavin, P.; Werner, J. P.; Wetter, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2016), s. 2107-2126 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : varved lake-sediments * maunder minimum * past millennium * system model * last millennium * ice-age * temperature-variations * environmental history * volcanic-eruptions * carbon-cycle Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 3.543, year: 2016

  14. Recovery from Maunder-like Grand Minima in a Babcock–Leighton Solar Dynamo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark

    2018-06-01

    The Sun occasionally goes through Maunder-like extended grand minima when its magnetic activity drops considerably from the normal activity level for several decades. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain the origin of these minima. However, how the Sun managed to recover from such inactive phases every time is even more enigmatic. The Babcock–Leighton type dynamos, which are successful in explaining many features of the solar cycle remarkably well, are not expected to operate during grand minima due to the lack of a sufficient number of sunspots. In this Letter, we explore the question of how the Sun could recover from grand minima through the Babcock–Leighton dynamo. In our three-dimensional dynamo model, grand minima are produced spontaneously as a result of random variations in the tilt angle of emerging active regions. We find that the Babcock–Leighton process can still operate during grand minima with only a minimal number of sunspots, and that the model can emerge from such phases without the need for an additional generation mechanism for the poloidal field. The essential ingredient in our model is a downward magnetic pumping, which inhibits the diffusion of the magnetic flux across the solar surface.

  15. The Unusual Minimum of Cycle 23: Observations and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Nandy, D.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The current minimum of cycle 23 is unusual in its long duration, the very low level to which Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has fallen, and the small flux of the open polar fields. The deep minimum of TSI seems to be related to an unprecedented dearth of polar faculae, and hence to the small amount of open flux. Based upon surface flux transport models it has been suggested that the causes of these phenomena may be an unusually vigorous meridional flow, or even a deviation from Joy's law resulting in smaller Joy angles than usual for emerging flux in cycle 23. There is also the possibility of a connection with the recently inferred emergence in polar regions of bipoles that systematically defy Hale's law. Much speculation has been going on as to the consequences of this exceptional minimum: are we entering another global minimum, is this the end of the 80 year period of exceptionally high solar activity, or is this just a statistical hiccup? Dynamo simulations are underway that may help answer this question. As an aside it must be mentioned that the current minimum of TSI puts an upper limit in the TSI input for global climate simulations during the Maunder minimum, and that a possible decrease in future solar activity will result in a very small but not insignificant reduction in the pace of global warming.

  16. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  17. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  18. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  19. Citizen Candidates Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Eguia, Jon X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we make two contributions to the growing literature on "citizen-candidate" models of representative democracy. First, we add uncertainty about the total vote count. We show that in a society with a large electorate, where the outcome of the election is uncertain and where winning candidates receive a large reward from holding office, there will be a two-candidate equilibrium and no equilibria with a single candidate. Second, we introduce a new concept of equilibrium, which we te...

  20. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  1. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  2. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  3. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  4. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  5. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  6. Optimized candidal biofilm microtiter assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Bastiaan P.; Cohen, Jesse B.; Feser, Gail E. McElhaney; Cihlar, Ronald L.

    Microtiter based candidal biofilm formation is commonly being used. Here we describe the analysis of factors influencing the development of candidal biofilms such as the coating with serum, growth medium and pH. The data reported here show that optimal candidal biofilm formation is obtained when

  7. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  8. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  9. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  10. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  11. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  12. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  13. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  14. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  15. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  16. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  17. Approximating the minimum cycle mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Chatterjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.

  18. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  19. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  20. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  1. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  2. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  3. Minimum income protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its

  4. Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsheva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...

  5. The solar and interplanetary causes of the recent minimum in geomagnetic activity (MGA23: a combination of midlatitude small coronal holes, low IMF BZ variances, low solar wind speeds and low solar magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Minima in geomagnetic activity (MGA at Earth at the ends of SC23 and SC22 have been identified. The two MGAs (called MGA23 and MGA22, respectively were present in 2009 and 1997, delayed from the sunspot number minima in 2008 and 1996 by ~1/2–1 years. Part of the solar and interplanetary causes of the MGAs were exceptionally low solar (and thus low interplanetary magnetic fields. Another important factor in MGA23 was the disappearance of equatorial and low latitude coronal holes and the appearance of midlatitude coronal holes. The location of the holes relative to the ecliptic plane led to low solar wind speeds and low IMF (Bz variances (σBz2 and normalized variances (σBz2/B02 at Earth, with concomitant reduced solar wind-magnetospheric energy coupling. One result was the lowest ap indices in the history of ap recording. The results presented here are used to comment on the possible solar and interplanetary causes of the low geomagnetic activity that occurred during the Maunder Minimum.

  6. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  7. Teacher Candidate Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Lynn; And Others

    Summaries are presented of three papers presented at a summer workshop on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education conducted by the Association of Teacher Educators. The general topic covered by these presentations was teacher candidate selection and evaluation. Papers focused upon the following questions: (1) What entry level criteria should be…

  8. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  9. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  10. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  11. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name: MAURINFirst Name:Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives.One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted...

  12. Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)

  13. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  14. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...

  15. Candidate genes in panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...

  16. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  17. Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero

  18. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...

  19. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  20. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  1. Finding Minimum-Power Broadcast Trees for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, Payman; Gray, Andrew; Das, Arindam; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Marks, Robert, II

    2004-01-01

    Some algorithms have been devised for use in a method of constructing tree graphs that represent connections among the nodes of a wireless communication network. These algorithms provide for determining the viability of any given candidate connection tree and for generating an initial set of viable trees that can be used in any of a variety of search algorithms (e.g., a genetic algorithm) to find a tree that enables the network to broadcast from a source node to all other nodes while consuming the minimum amount of total power. The method yields solutions better than those of a prior algorithm known as the broadcast incremental power algorithm, albeit at a slightly greater computational cost.

  2. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10 9 GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  3. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-15

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10{sup 9} GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  4. Robustification and Optimization in Repetitive Control For Minimum Phase and Non-Minimum Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha

    Repetitive control (RC) is a control method that specifically aims to converge to zero tracking error of a control systems that execute a periodic command or have periodic disturbances of known period. It uses the error of one period back to adjust the command in the present period. In theory, RC can completely eliminate periodic disturbance effects. RC has applications in many fields such as high-precision manufacturing in robotics, computer disk drives, and active vibration isolation in spacecraft. The first topic treated in this dissertation develops several simple RC design methods that are somewhat analogous to PID controller design in classical control. From the early days of digital control, emulation methods were developed based on a Forward Rule, a Backward Rule, Tustin's Formula, a modification using prewarping, and a pole-zero mapping method. These allowed one to convert a candidate controller design to discrete time in a simple way. We investigate to what extent they can be used to simplify RC design. A particular design is developed from modification of the pole-zero mapping rules, which is simple and sheds light on the robustness of repetitive control designs. RC convergence requires less than 90 degree model phase error at all frequencies up to Nyquist. A zero-phase cutoff filter is normally used to robustify to high frequency model error when this limit is exceeded. The result is stabilization at the expense of failure to cancel errors above the cutoff. The second topic investigates a series of methods to use data to make real time updates of the frequency response model, allowing one to increase or eliminate the frequency cutoff. These include the use of a moving window employing a recursive discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and use of a real time projection algorithm from adaptive control for each frequency. The results can be used directly to make repetitive control corrections that cancel each error frequency, or they can be used to update a

  5. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  6. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei

    2015-01-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)

  7. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  8. Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...

  9. Road networks as collections of minimum cost paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Jan Dirk; Montoya-Zegarra, Javier Alexander; Schindler, Konrad

    2015-10-01

    We present a probabilistic representation of network structures in images. Our target application is the extraction of urban roads from aerial images. Roads appear as thin, elongated, partially curved structures forming a loopy graph, and this complex layout requires a prior that goes beyond standard smoothness and co-occurrence assumptions. In the proposed model the network is represented as a union of 1D paths connecting distant (super-)pixels. A large set of putative candidate paths is constructed in such a way that they include the true network as much as possible, by searching for minimum cost paths in the foreground (road) likelihood. Selecting the optimal subset of candidate paths is posed as MAP inference in a higher-order conditional random field. Each path forms a higher-order clique with a type of clique potential, which attracts the member nodes of cliques with high cumulative road evidence to the foreground label. That formulation induces a robust PN -Potts model, for which a global MAP solution can be found efficiently with graph cuts. Experiments with two road data sets show that the proposed model significantly improves per-pixel accuracies as well as the overall topological network quality with respect to several baselines.

  10. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in...

  11. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  12. How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G

    2013-05-01

    The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.

  13. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  14. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  15. Determining minimum lubrication film for machine parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1978-01-01

    Formula predicts minimum film thickness required for fully-flooded ball bearings, gears, and cams. Formula is result of study to determine complete theoretical solution of isothermal elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of fully-flooded elliptical contacts.

  16. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  17. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  18. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  19. [Obesity studies in candidate genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, María del Carmen; Martí, Amelia; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2004-04-17

    There are more than 430 chromosomic regions with gene variants involved in body weight regulation and obesity development. Polymorphisms in genes related to energy expenditure--uncoupling proteins (UCPs), related to adipogenesis and insulin resistance--hormone-sensitive lipase (HLS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), beta adrenergic receptors (ADRB2,3), and alfa tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), and related to food intake--ghrelin (GHRL)--appear to be associated with obesity phenotypes. Obesity risk depends on two factors: a) genetic variants in candidate genes, and b) biographical exposure to environmental risk factors. It is necessary to perform new studies, with appropriate control groups and designs, in order to reach relevant conclusions with regard to gene/environmental (diet, lifestyle) interactions.

  20. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.

  1. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  2. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  3. HD 91669B: A NEW BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE FROM THE MCDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Ramirez, Ivan; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Reffert, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a brown dwarf candidate orbiting the metal-rich K dwarf HD 91669, based on radial-velocity data from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search. HD 91669b is a substellar object in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.45) at a separation of 1.2 AU. The minimum mass of 30.6M Jup places this object firmly within the brown dwarf desert for inclinations i ∼> 23 0 . This is the second rare close-in brown dwarf candidate discovered by the McDonald planet search program.

  4. Minimum qualifications for nuclear criticality safety professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Training Committee has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety and Technology Project to review and, if necessary, develop standards for the training of personnel involved in nuclear criticality safety (NCS). The committee is exploring the need for developing a standard or other mechanism for establishing minimum qualifications for NCS professionals. The development of standards and regulatory guides for nuclear power plant personnel may serve as a guide in developing the minimum qualifications for NCS professionals

  5. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  6. Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .

  7. MINIMUM AREAS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    MINIMUM AREA SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN SQUARE FOOTAGE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES ARE PRESENTED, INCLUDING FACILITIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE, GENERAL USE, AND SERVICE USE. LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, KITCHEN, STORAGE, AND MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS SHOULD BE SIZED FOR THE PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF THE BUILDING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROJECTION UNDER THE…

  8. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  9. 7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1...

  10. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  11. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

  12. Minimum maintenance solar pump | Assefa | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A minimum maintenance solar pump (MMSP), Fig 1, has been simulated for Addis Ababa, taking solar meteorological data of global radiation, diffuse radiation and ambient air temperature as input to a computer program that has been developed. To increase the performance of the solar pump, by trapping the long-wave ...

  13. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  14. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  15. Minimum impact house prototype for sustainable building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, E.; Klenner, K.; Lantelme, M.; Mohn, A.; Sauter, S.; Thöne, J.; Zellmann, E.; Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Minihouse is a prototupe for a sustainable townhouse. On a site of only 29 sqm it offers 154 sqm of urban life. The project 'Minimum Impact House' adresses two important questions: How do we provide living space in the cities without distroying the landscape? How to improve sustainably the

  16. 49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dollar value to any non-financial factors that are considered by using performance-based specifications..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance...

  17. Computing nonsimple polygons of minimum perimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, S.P.; Haas, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Kostitsyna, I.; Krupke, D.; Maurer, F.; Mitchell, J.S.B.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, C.; Troegel, J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the Minimum Perimeter Polygon Problem (MP3): for a given set V of points in the plane, find a polygon P with holes that has vertex set V , such that the total boundary length is smallest possible. The MP3 can be considered a natural geometric generalization of the Traveling Salesman

  18. Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrons are heated at the minimum B location(s) created by the multipole field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (1) providing mirror, (2) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (3) creating modified bumpy torus

  19. Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.

  20. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...

  1. Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...

  2. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  3. Asymptotics for the minimum covariance determinant estimator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, R.W.; Davies, P.L.; Jhun, M.

    1993-01-01

    Consistency is shown for the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimators of multivariate location and scale and asymptotic normality is shown for the former. The proofs are made possible by showing a separating ellipsoid property for the MCD subset of observations. An analogous property is shown

  4. Three-day clotrimazole treatment in candidal vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, G; Napier, I R; Henderson, J N; Roberts, J E

    1977-01-01

    The accepted modern practice is to treat each sexually transmitted disease with the shortest possible course of treatment consistent with success. In candidal vulvovaginitis, six days is the minimum period that has so far been found to be successful, but we report here a further reduction to three days. Patients were given two clotrimazole pessaries nightly for three consecutive nights; the overall success rate was 89-4% one month after treatment. This compares favourably with the 93% cure rate reported with the six-day course of clotrimazole. With both the long and short courses, patients having their first attack of genital candidosis responded better than those with a history of previous infection. Short courses of clotrimazole treatment are particularly valuable in dealing with uncooperative women who stop treatment at the earliest possible moment. Clinical and laboratory diagnostic pitfalls and their possible influence upon the therapeutic outcome are also discussed. PMID:870143

  5. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... debates include at least two candidates; and (2) The staging organization(s) does not structure the... PROHIBITIONS § 110.13 Candidate debates. (a) Staging organizations. (1) Nonprofit organizations described in 26..., subparts D and E. (b) Debate structure. The structure of debates staged in accordance with this section and...

  6. A possible candidate for cold dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This additional scalar can be a viable candidate of cold dark matter (CDM) since the stability of is achieved by the application of Z 2 symmetry on . Considering as a possible candidate of CDM, Boltzmann's equation is solved to find the freeze-out temperature and relic density of for Higgs mass 120 GeV in the scalar ...

  7. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... financial information in decision-making. The Board meets in Washington, DC, for two days every other month... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting... candidates. Any applicant who provided the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board...

  8. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  9. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures. (8) Expenditures made using a credit card for which the candidate is jointly or solely liable will count against the limits of this section to the extent that the full amount due, including any...

  10. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  11. Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.

  12. Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  13. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  14. Protocol for the verification of minimum criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggiano, M.; Spiccia, P.; Gaetano Arnetta, P.

    2014-01-01

    This Protocol has been prepared with reference to the provisions of article 8 of the Legislative Decree of May 26, 2000 No. 187. Quality controls of radiological equipment fit within the larger 'quality assurance Program' and are intended to ensure the correct operation of the same and the maintenance of that State. The pursuit of this objective guarantees that the radiological equipment subjected to those controls also meets the minimum criteria of acceptability set out in annex V of the aforementioned legislative decree establishing the conditions necessary to allow the functions to which each radiological equipment was designed, built and for which it is used. The Protocol is established for the purpose of quality control of radiological equipment of Cone Beam Computer Tomography type and reference document, in the sense that compliance with stated tolerances also ensures the subsistence minimum acceptability requirements, where applicable.

  15. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  16. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  17. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  19. ''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs

  20. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  1. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  2. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  3. Micro-homogeneity evaluation of a bovine kidney candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Liliana; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A., E-mail: lcastroesnal@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The minimum sample intake for which a reference material remains homogeneous is one of the parameters that must be estimated in the homogeneity assessment study of reference materials. In this work, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to evaluate this quantity in a bovine kidney candidate reference material. The mass fractions of 9 inorganic constituents were determined in subsamples between 1 and 2 mg in order to estimate the relative homogeneity factor (HE) and the minimum sample mass to achieve 5% and 10% precision on a 95% confidence level. Results obtained for H{sub E} in all the analyzed elements were satisfactory. The estimated minimum sample intake was between 2 mg and 40 mg, depending on the element. (author)

  4. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... designated to establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are selected from the general financial community, the accounting and... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting...

  5. Updated candidate list for engineered barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes candidate materials to be evaluated over the next several years during advanced design phases for the waste package to be used for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes at the Yucca Mountain facility

  6. Characterization of nanoparticles as candidate reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Robertis, E. de; Landi, S.M.; Gouvea, C.P.; Archanjo, B.S.; Almeida, C.A.; Araujo, J.R. de; Kuznetsov, O.; Achete, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of three different nanoparticles (silica, silver and multi-walled carbon nanotubes) as candidate reference material. We focus our analysis on the size distribution of those particles as measured by different microscopy techniques. (author)

  7. Indico CONFERENCE: Candidate participant's registration/application

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to apply as a candidate participant (if the event requires approval from the event manager) or to register (if participation to the event doesn't require approval from an event manager) to the conference using the registration form for the event. You are also going to learn how to approve a candidate participant's application as an event manager.

  8. Do People 'Like' Candidates on Facebook?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    The online popularity of a few exceptional candidates has led many to suggest that social media have given politicians powerful ways of communicating directly with voters. In this paper, we examine whether this is happening on a significant scale and show, based on analysis of 224 candidates....... We therefore suggest that the political implications of social media are generally better understood in terms of facilitating indirect communication and institutional change than in terms of direct communication....

  9. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  10. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Mahayni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.

  11. Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2007-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  12. Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian

    2006-01-01

    subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....

  13. A New Way to Confirm Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    What was the big deal behind the Kepler news conference yesterday? Its not just that the number of confirmed planets found by Kepler has more than doubled (though thats certainly exciting news!). Whats especially interesting is the way in which these new planets were confirmed.Number of planet discoveries by year since 1995, including previous non-Kepler discoveries (blue), previous Kepler discoveries (light blue) and the newly validated Kepler planets (orange). [NASA Ames/W. Stenzel; Princeton University/T. Morton]No Need for Follow-UpBefore Kepler, the way we confirmed planet candidates was with follow-up observations. The candidate could be validated either by directly imaging (which is rare) or obtaining a large number radial-velocity measurements of the wobble of the planets host star due to the planets orbit. But once Kepler started producing planet candidates, these approaches to validation became less feasible. A lot of Kepler candidates are small and orbit faint stars, making follow-up observations difficult or impossible.This problem is what inspired the development of whats known as probabilistic validation, an analysis technique that involves assessing the likelihood that the candidates signal is caused by various false-positive scenarios. Using this technique allows astronomers to estimate the likelihood of a candidate signal being a true planet detection; if that likelihood is high enough, the planet candidate can be confirmed without the need for follow-up observations.A breakdown of the catalog of Kepler Objects of Interest. Just over half had previously been identified as false positives or confirmed as candidates. 1284 are newly validated, and another 455 have FPP of1090%. [Morton et al. 2016]Probabilistic validation has been used in the past to confirm individual planet candidates in Kepler data, but now Timothy Morton (Princeton University) and collaborators have taken this to a new level: they developed the first code thats designed to do fully

  14. Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernini, Davide; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    The distribution of brake forces between front and rear axles of a vehicle is typically specified such that the same level of brake force coefficient is imposed at both front and rear wheels. This condition is known as 'ideal' distribution and it is required to deliver the maximum vehicle deceleration and minimum braking distance. For subcritical braking conditions, the deceleration demand may be delivered by different distributions between front and rear braking forces. In this research we show how to obtain the optimal distribution which minimises the pitch angle of a vehicle and hence enhances driver subjective feel during braking. A vehicle model including suspension geometry features is adopted. The problem of the minimum pitch brake distribution for a varying deceleration level demand is solved by means of a model predictive control (MPC) technique. To address the problem of the undesirable pitch rebound caused by a full-stop of the vehicle, a second controller is designed and implemented independently from the braking distribution in use. An extended Kalman filter is designed for state estimation and implemented in a high fidelity environment together with the MPC strategy. The proposed solution is compared with the reference 'ideal' distribution as well as another previous feed-forward solution.

  15. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  16. Scalar tetraquark candidates on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of scalar tetraquark candidates from lattice QCD. It is motivated by a previous study originating in the twisted mass collaboration. The initial tetraquark candidate of choice is the a 0 (980), an isovector in the nonet of light scalars (J P =0 + ). This channel is still poorly understood. It displays an inverted mass hierarchy to what is expected from the conventional quark model and the a 0 (980) and f 0 (980) feature a surprising mass degeneracy. For this reasons the a 0 (980) is a long assumed tetraquark candidate in the literature. We follow a methodological approach by studying the sensitivity of the scalar spectrum with fully dynamical quarks to a large basis of two-quark and four-quark creation operators. Ultimately, the candidate has to be identified in the direct vicinity of two two-particles states, which is understandably inevitable for a tetraquark candidate. To succeed in this difficult task two-meson creation operators are essential to employ in this channel. By localized four-quark operators we intend to probe the Hamiltonian on eigenstates with a closely bound four-quark structure.

  17. Scalar tetraquark candidates on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the investigation of scalar tetraquark candidates from lattice QCD. It is motivated by a previous study originating in the twisted mass collaboration. The initial tetraquark candidate of choice is the a{sub 0}(980), an isovector in the nonet of light scalars (J{sup P}=0{sup +}). This channel is still poorly understood. It displays an inverted mass hierarchy to what is expected from the conventional quark model and the a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980) feature a surprising mass degeneracy. For this reasons the a{sub 0}(980) is a long assumed tetraquark candidate in the literature. We follow a methodological approach by studying the sensitivity of the scalar spectrum with fully dynamical quarks to a large basis of two-quark and four-quark creation operators. Ultimately, the candidate has to be identified in the direct vicinity of two two-particles states, which is understandably inevitable for a tetraquark candidate. To succeed in this difficult task two-meson creation operators are essential to employ in this channel. By localized four-quark operators we intend to probe the Hamiltonian on eigenstates with a closely bound four-quark structure.

  18. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... Raising minimum wages has traditionally been considered a way to protect poor ... However, the effect of raising minimum wages remains an empirical question ... ​More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  20. Does increasing the minimum wage reduce poverty in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Do minimum wage policies reduce poverty in developing countries? It depends. Raising the minimum wage could increase or decrease poverty, depending on labor market characteristics. Minimum wages target formal sector workers—a minority of workers in most developing countries—many of whom do not live in poor households. Whether raising minimum wages reduces poverty depends not only on whether formal sector workers lose jobs as a result, but also on whether low-wage workers live in poor househol...

  1. On a Minimum Problem in Smectic Elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsanti, Michele; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Smectic elastomers are layered materials exhibiting a solid-like elastic response along the layer normal and a rubbery one in the plane. Balance equations for smectic elastomers are derived from the general theory of continua with constrained microstructure. In this work we investigate a very simple minimum problem based on multi-well potentials where the microstructure is taken into account. The set of polymeric strains minimizing the elastic energy contains a one-parameter family of simple strain associated with a micro-variation of the degree of freedom. We develop the energy functional through two terms, the first one nematic and the second one considering the tilting phenomenon; after, by developing in the rubber elasticity framework, we minimize over the tilt rotation angle and extract the engineering stress

  2. Minimum DNBR Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The minimum DNBR (MDNBR) for prevention of the boiling crisis and the fuel clad melting is very important factor that should be consistently monitored in safety aspects. Artificial intelligence methods have been extensively and successfully applied to nonlinear function approximation such as the problem in question for predicting DNBR values. In this paper, support vector regression (SVR) model and fuzzy neural network (FNN) model are developed to predict the MDNBR using a number of measured signals from the reactor coolant system. Also, two models are trained using a training data set and verified against test data set, which does not include training data. The proposed MDNBR estimation algorithms were verified by using nuclear and thermal data acquired from many numerical simulations of the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (YGN-3)

  3. Image Segmentation Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.

  4. Developing Potential Candidates of Preclinical Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Founds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for developing molecules of interest in preclinical preeclampsia from candidate genes that were discovered on gene expression microarray analysis has been challenged by limited access to additional first trimester trophoblast and decidual tissues. The question of whether these candidates encode secreted proteins that may be detected in maternal circulation early in pregnancy has been investigated using various proteomic methods. Pilot studies utilizing mass spectrometry based proteomic assays, along with enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs, and Western immunoblotting in first trimester samples are reported. The novel targeted mass spectrometry methods led to robust multiple reaction monitoring assays. Despite detection of several candidates in early gestation, challenges persist. Future antibody-based studies may lead to a novel multiplex protein panel for screening or detection to prevent or mitigate preeclampsia.

  5. Statistical physics when the minimum temperature is not absolute zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the nonzero minimum temperature is considered based on the third law of thermodynamics and existence of the minimal momentum. From the assumption of nonzero positive minimum temperature in nature, we deform the definitions of some thermodynamical quantities and investigate nonzero minimum temperature correction to the well-known thermodynamical problems.

  6. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  7. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...

  8. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage, Investment and Economic Growth in Ghana. ... In addition, the ratio of public investment to tax revenue must increase as minimum wage increases since such complementary changes are more likely to lead to economic growth. Keywords: minimum wage ...

  9. Minimum Covers of Fixed Cardinality in Weighted Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lee J.

    Reported is the result of research on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques for information processing. A method is discussed for obtaining minimum covers of specified cardinality from a given weighted graph. By the indicated method, it is shown that the family of minimum covers of varying cardinality is related to the minimum spanning tree of…

  10. Minimum Price Guarantees In a Consumer Search Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is the first to examine the effect of minimum price guarantees in a sequential search model. Minimum price guarantees are not advertised and only known to consumers when they come to the shop. We show that in such an environment, minimum price guarantees increase the value of

  11. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  12. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  13. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  14. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  15. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  16. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  17. 24 CFR 891.145 - Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Program Requirements § 891.145 Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment). As a Minimum Capital... Investment shall be one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the HUD-approved capital advance, not to exceed $25,000. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner deposit (Minimum Capital...

  18. 12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...

  19. 9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. 147.51 Section 147.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum...

  20. Issue-Advocacy versus Candidate Advertising: Effects on Candidate Preferences and Democratic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Holbert, R. Lance; Szabo, Erin Alison; Kaminski, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of soft-money-sponsored issue-advocacy advertising in U.S. House and Senate campaigns, comparing its effects against candidate-sponsored positive advertising and contrast advertising on viewers' candidate preferences and on their attitude that reflect democratic values. Reveals no main effects for advertising approach on…

  1. Records of auroral candidates and sunspots in Rikkokushi, chronicles of ancient Japan from early 7th century to 887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki; Namiki, Katsuko; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of the surveys on sunspots and auroral candidates in Rikkokushi, Japanese official histories from the early 7th century to 887, to review the solar and auroral activities. In total, we found one sunspot record and 13 auroral candidates in Rikkokushi. We then examine the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates, compare the auroral candidates with the lunar phase to estimate their reliability, and compare the records of the sunspots and auroral candidates with the contemporary total solar irradiance reconstructed from radioisotope data. We also identify the locations of the observational sites to review possible equatorward expansion of the auroral oval. These discussions suggest a major gap in auroral candidates from the late 7th to early 9th centuries, which includes the candidate of the grand minimum reconstructed from the radioisotope data, a similar tendency as the distributions of sunspot records in contemporary China, and a relatively high magnetic latitude of observational sites with a higher potential for observing aurorae more frequently than at present.

  2. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  3. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  4. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  5. 47 CFR 73.1942 - Candidate rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1942 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of stations... periods. Any station practices offered to commercial advertisers that enhance the value of advertising...

  6. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, M.L.; Sommeijer, J.-P.; Levelt, C.N.; Heimel, J.A.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Pennartz, C.M.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  7. Fuzzy Treatment of Candidate Outliers in Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo E. D'Errico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robustness against the possible occurrence of outlying observations is critical to the performance of a measurement process. Open questions relevant to statistical testing for candidate outliers are reviewed. A novel fuzzy logic approach is developed and exemplified in a metrology context. A simulation procedure is presented and discussed by comparing fuzzy versus probabilistic models.

  8. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  9. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  10. Towards Treating Chemistry Teacher Candidates as Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis

    2008-01-01

    This research inquiry investigates the factors influencing chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in the second and final year of an After-Degree Bachelor of Education at a university in central Canada. A variety of data sources are used to identify the risk and protective factors impeding and contributing to the…

  11. Promoting Team Leadership Skills in Doctoral Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Whetton, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Doctoral programs can serve as an optimal opportunity for candidates to engage in tasks and activities to transform them and their schools. The paradigm shifts in such preparation involve moving from sitting and getting to making and taking. Most importantly, it requires building leadership skills and styles necessary to bring about desired change…

  12. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  13. Waiting narratives of lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Maria T; Stevens, Patricia E; Lanuza, Dorothy M

    2013-01-01

    Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.

  14. Waiting Narratives of Lung Transplant Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Yelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman’s concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients’ stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.

  15. Minimum relative entropy, Bayes and Kapur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    2011-04-01

    The focus of this paper is to illustrate important philosophies on inversion and the similarly and differences between Bayesian and minimum relative entropy (MRE) methods. The development of each approach is illustrated through the general-discrete linear inverse. MRE differs from both Bayes and classical statistical methods in that knowledge of moments are used as ‘data’ rather than sample values. MRE like Bayes, presumes knowledge of a prior probability distribution and produces the posterior pdf itself. MRE attempts to produce this pdf based on the information provided by new moments. It will use moments of the prior distribution only if new data on these moments is not available. It is important to note that MRE makes a strong statement that the imposed constraints are exact and complete. In this way, MRE is maximally uncommitted with respect to unknown information. In general, since input data are known only to within a certain accuracy, it is important that any inversion method should allow for errors in the measured data. The MRE approach can accommodate such uncertainty and in new work described here, previous results are modified to include a Gaussian prior. A variety of MRE solutions are reproduced under a number of assumed moments and these include second-order central moments. Various solutions of Jacobs & van der Geest were repeated and clarified. Menke's weighted minimum length solution was shown to have a basis in information theory, and the classic least-squares estimate is shown as a solution to MRE under the conditions of more data than unknowns and where we utilize the observed data and their associated noise. An example inverse problem involving a gravity survey over a layered and faulted zone is shown. In all cases the inverse results match quite closely the actual density profile, at least in the upper portions of the profile. The similar results to Bayes presented in are a reflection of the fact that the MRE posterior pdf, and its mean

  16. Minimum curvilinearity to enhance topological prediction of protein interactions by network embedding

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo

    2013-06-21

    Motivation: Most functions within the cell emerge thanks to protein-protein interactions (PPIs), yet experimental determination of PPIs is both expensive and time-consuming. PPI networks present significant levels of noise and incompleteness. Predicting interactions using only PPI-network topology (topological prediction) is difficult but essential when prior biological knowledge is absent or unreliable.Methods: Network embedding emphasizes the relations between network proteins embedded in a low-dimensional space, in which protein pairs that are closer to each other represent good candidate interactions. To achieve network denoising, which boosts prediction performance, we first applied minimum curvilinear embedding (MCE), and then adopted shortest path (SP) in the reduced space to assign likelihood scores to candidate interactions. Furthermore, we introduce (i) a new valid variation of MCE, named non-centred MCE (ncMCE); (ii) two automatic strategies for selecting the appropriate embedding dimension; and (iii) two new randomized procedures for evaluating predictions.Results: We compared our method against several unsupervised and supervisedly tuned embedding approaches and node neighbourhood techniques. Despite its computational simplicity, ncMCE-SP was the overall leader, outperforming the current methods in topological link prediction.Conclusion: Minimum curvilinearity is a valuable non-linear framework that we successfully applied to the embedding of protein networks for the unsupervised prediction of novel PPIs. The rationale for our approach is that biological and evolutionary information is imprinted in the non-linear patterns hidden behind the protein network topology, and can be exploited for predicting new protein links. The predicted PPIs represent good candidates for testing in high-throughput experiments or for exploitation in systems biology tools such as those used for network-based inference and prediction of disease-related functional modules. The

  17. Minimum Bias Measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00022031; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged particle measurements at hadron colliders probe the low-energy nonperturbative region of QCD. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged-particles produced in pp collisions at 13 TeV have been measured by the CMS experiment. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam current, recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements present the first detailed studies in inclusive phase spaces with a minimum transverse momentum of 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The distribution of electromagnetic and hadronic energy in the very forward phase-space has been measured with the CASTOR calorimeters located at a pseudorapidity of -5.2 to -6.6 in the very forward region of CMS. The energy distributions are very powerful benchmarks to study the performance of MPI in hadronic interactions models at 13 TeV collision energy. All measurements are compared with predictions of ...

  18. Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.

  19. Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.

  20. Designing from minimum to optimum functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannova, Olga; Bell, Larry

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses a multifaceted strategy to link NASA Minimal Functionality Habitable Element (MFHE) requirements to a compatible growth plan; leading forward to evolutionary, deployable habitats including outpost development stages. The discussion begins by reviewing fundamental geometric features inherent in small scale, vertical and horizontal, pressurized module configuration options to characterize applicability to meet stringent MFHE constraints. A proposed scenario to incorporate a vertical core MFHE concept into an expanded architecture to provide continuity of structural form and a logical path from "minimum" to "optimum" design of a habitable module. The paper describes how habitation and logistics accommodations could be pre-integrated into a common Hab/Log Module that serves both habitation and logistics functions. This is offered as a means to reduce unnecessary redundant development costs and to avoid EVA-intensive on-site adaptation and retrofitting requirements for augmented crew capacity. An evolutionary version of the hard shell Hab/Log design would have an expandable middle section to afford larger living and working accommodations. In conclusion, the paper illustrates that a number of cargo missions referenced for NASA's 4.0.0 Lunar Campaign Scenario could be eliminated altogether to expedite progress and reduce budgets. The plan concludes with a vertical growth geometry that provides versatile and efficient site development opportunities using a combination of hard Hab/Log modules and a hybrid expandable "CLAM" (Crew Lunar Accommodations Module) element.

  1. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

    2017-12-01

    We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  2. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration reduction by fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A I; Smith, C; Dyar, O; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1993-05-01

    Isoflurane is commonly combined with fentanyl during anesthesia. Because of hysteresis between plasma and effect site, bolus administration of fentanyl does not accurately describe the interaction between these drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC reduction of isoflurane by fentanyl when both drugs had reached steady biophase concentrations. Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive either no fentanyl or fentanyl at several predetermined plasma concentrations. Fentanyl was administered using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Patients were also randomly allocated to receive a predetermined steady state end-tidal concentration of isoflurane. Blood samples for fentanyl concentration were taken at 10 min after initiation of the infusion and before and immediately after skin incision. A minimum of 20 min was allowed between the start of the fentanyl infusion and skin incision. The reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated using a maximum likelihood solution to a logistic regression model. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 63% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 19% reduction in MAC. A 50% decrease in MAC was produced by a fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng/ml. Defining the MAC reduction of isoflurane by all the opioids allows their more rational administration with inhalational anesthetics and provides a comparison of their relative anesthetic potencies.

  3. THE LICK-CARNEGIE SURVEY: FOUR NEW EXOPLANET CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschiari, Stefano; Laughlin, Gregory; Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Butler, R. Paul; Haghighipour, Nader; Jalowiczor, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present new precise HIRES radial velocity (RV) data sets of five nearby stars obtained at Keck Observatory. HD 31253, HD 218566, HD 177830, HD 99492, and HD 74156 are host stars of spectral classes F through K and show RV variations consistent with new or additional planetary companions in Keplerian motion. The orbital parameters of the candidate planets in the five planetary systems span minimum masses of M sin i = 27.43 M + to 8.28 M J , periods of 17.05-4696.95 days and eccentricities ranging from circular to extremely eccentric (e ∼ 0.63). The fifth star, HD 74156, was known to have both a 52 day and a 2500 day planet, and was claimed to also harbor a third planet at 336 days, in apparent support of the 'Packed Planetary System' hypothesis. Our greatly expanded data set for HD 74156 provides strong confirmation of both the 52 day and 2500 day planets, but strongly contradicts the existence of a 336 day planet, and offers no significant evidence for any other planets in the system.

  4. Follow-Up Photometry of Kelt Transiting Planet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Denise C.; Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, Eric G.; Martin, Trevor; Spencer, Alex; Kelt Follow-Up Network (FUN) Team

    2017-10-01

    We have three telescopes at BYU that we use to follow-up possible transiting planet canidates for the KELT team. These telescopes were used to collect data on Kelt-16b and Kelt-9b, which is the hottest known exoplanet. More recently we used the newest of these telescopes, a robotic 8-inch telescope on the roof of our building, to confirm the most recent Kelt planet that will be published soon. This research has been ideal for the teaching and training of undergraduate students in the art of photometric observing and data reduction. In this presentation I will highlight how we are using our membership in the Kelt team to further the educational objective of our undergraduate astronomy program, while contributing meaningful science to the ever growing field of exoplanet discovery. I will also highlight a few of the more interesting Kelt planets and the minimum telescope requirements for detecting these planets. I will then discuss the sensitivities required to follow-up future TESS candidates, which may be of interest to others interested in joining the TESS follow-up teams.

  5. Electoral Competition when Candidates are Better Informed than Voters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    candidates are both completely office-motivated but differ in state-dependent quality. Voters have some information about the state but candidates are better informed. If voters' information is unknown to the candidates when they take positions and sufficiently accurate then candidates will, in refined...

  6. Modified theoretical minimum emittance lattice for an electron storage ring with extreme-low emittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing efforts to reduce the beam emittance of an electron storage ring composed of theoretical minimum emittance (TME lattice, down to a level of several tens of picometers, nonlinear dynamics grows to be a great challenge to the performance of the storage ring because of the strong sextupoles needed to compensate for its large global natural chomaticities coupled with its small average dispersion function. To help in dealing with the challenge of nonlinear optimization, we propose a novel variation of theoretical minimum emittance (TME lattice, named as “modified-TME” lattice, with minimal emittance about 3 times of the exact theoretical minimum, while with more compact layout, lower phase advance per cell, smaller natural chromaticities, and more relaxed optical functions than that in a TME cell, by using horizontally defocusing quadrupole closer to the dipole or simply combined-function dipole with horizontally defocusing gradient. We present approximate scaling formulas to describe the relationships of the design parameters in a modified-TME cell. The applications of modified-TME lattice in the PEP-X storage ring design are illustrated and the proposed lattice appears a good candidate for synchrotron radiation light source with extremely low emittance.

  7. Minimum radwaste system to support commercial operation-what equipment can be deferred

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.W.; Tafazzoli, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Because of cash flow problems being experienced by utilities as nuclear power stations approach completion, areas of the plant for which the completion of the construction effort could be deferred past commercial operation should be reviewed. The radwaste treatment systems are prime candidates for such a deferral because of the availability, either temporary or permanent, of alternative treatment methods for the waste streams expected to be produced. In order to identify the radwaste equipment, components and associated hardware in the radwaste building which could be deferred past commercial operation, a study was performed by Impell Corporation to evaluate the existing radwaste treatment system and determine the minimum system necessary to support commercial operation of a typical BWR. The study identified the minimum-installed radwaste treatment system which, in combination with portable temporary equipment, would accommodate the waste types and quantities likely to be produced in the first few years of operation. In addition, the minimum-installed system had to be licensable and excessive radiation exposures should not be incurred during the construction of the deferred portions of the system after commercial operation. From this study, it was concluded that a significant quantity of radwaste processing equipment and the associated piping, valves and instrumentation could be deferred. The estimated savings, in construction manhours (excluding field distributables) alone, was over 102,000 M-H

  8. A Phosphate Minimum in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmier, A.; Giraud, M.; Sudre, J.; Jonca, J.; Leon, V.; Moron, O.; Dewitte, B.; Lavik, G.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.; Stramma, L.; Garcon, V.

    2016-02-01

    The Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru is known to be associated with the advection of Equatorial SubSurface Waters (ESSW), rich in nutrients and poor in oxygen, through the Peru-Chile UnderCurrent (PCUC), but this circulation remains to be refined within the OMZ. During the Pelágico cruise in November-December 2010, measurements of phosphate revealed the presence of a phosphate minimum (Pmin) in various hydrographic stations, which could not be explained so far and could be associated with a specific water mass. This Pmin, localized at a relatively constant layer ( 20minimum with a mean vertical phosphate decrease of 0.6 µM but highly variable between 0.1 and 2.2 µM. In average, these Pmin are associated with a predominant mixing of SubTropical Under- and Surface Waters (STUW and STSW: 20 and 40%, respectively) within ESSW ( 25%), complemented evenly by overlying (ESW, TSW: 8%) and underlying waters (AAIW, SPDW: 7%). The hypotheses and mechanisms leading to the Pmin formation in the OMZ are further explored and discussed, considering the physical regional contribution associated with various circulation pathways ventilating the OMZ and the local biogeochemical contribution including the potential diazotrophic activity.

  9. Candidate marketing takes the guessing game out of choosing employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Judith; Havel, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    Candidate marketing builds a foundation for relationships between employers and potential employees. Additionally, candidate marketing differentiates organizations in the marketplace. Organizations using candidate marketing to communicate the employer brand can expect a higher quality of candidates, and new employees are better prepared for the work environment and culture. Today, organizations can use a variety of integrated tools and techniques to communicate and build relationships with candidates. Candidate marketing demonstrates an organization's willingness towards transparency, and ability to invite open conversations between candidates and members of the organizations.

  10. RCoronae Borealis at the 2003 light minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.

    2006-08-01

    A set of five high-resolution optical spectra of R CrB obtained in 2003 March is discussed. At the time of the first spectrum (March 8), the star was at V = 12.6, a decline of more than six magnitudes. By March 31, the date of the last observation, the star at V = 9.3 was on the recovery to maximum light (V = 6). The 2003 spectra are compared with the extensive collection of spectra from the 1995-1996 minimum presented previously. Spectroscopic features common to the two minima include the familiar ones also seen in spectra of other R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) in decline: sharp emission lines of neutral and singly ionized atoms, broad emission lines including HeI, [NII] 6583 Å, Na D and CaII H & K lines, and blueshifted absorption lines of Na D, and KI resonance lines. Prominent differences between the 2003 and 1995-1996 spectra are seen. The broad Na D and Ca H & K lines in 2003 and 1995-1996 are centred approximately on the mean stellar velocity. The 2003 profiles are fit by a single Gaussian, but in 1995-1996 two Gaussians separated by about 200 km s-1 were required. However, the HeI broad emission lines are fit by a single Gaussian at all times; the emitting He and Na-Ca atoms are probably not colocated. The C2 Phillips 2-0 lines were detected as sharp absorption lines and the C2 Swan band lines as sharp emission lines in 2003, but in 1995-1996 the Swan band emission lines were broad and the Phillips lines were undetected. The 2003 spectra show CI sharp emission lines at minimum light with a velocity changing in 5 d by about 20 km s-1 when the velocity of `metal' sharp lines is unchanged; the CI emission may arise from shock-heated gas. Reexamination of spectra obtained at maximum light in 1995 shows extended blue wings to strong lines with the extension dependent on a line's lower excitation potential; this is the signature of a stellar wind, also revealed by published observations of the HeI 10830 Å line at maximum light. Changes in the cores of the

  11. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  12. Discriminating dark matter candidates using direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, G.; Nezri, E.; Pukhov, A.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the predictions for both the spin-dependent and spin-independent direct detection rates in a variety of new particle physics models with dark matter candidates. We show that a determination of both spin-independent and spin-dependent amplitudes on protons and neutrons can in principle discriminate different candidates of dark matter up to a few ambiguities. We emphasize the importance of making measurements with different spin-dependent sensitive detector materials and the need for significant improvement of the detector sensitivities. Scenarios where exchange of new colored particles contributes significantly to the elastic scattering cross sections are often the most difficult to identify, the LHC should give an indication whether such scenarios are relevant for direct detection.

  13. Warm Debris Disk Candidates from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Liu, Wilson; Leisawitz, David

    2011-01-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns. We report on a preliminary investigation of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars with 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages warm debris disk candidates are detected among FGK stars and 150 A stars within 120 pc. We are in the process of obtaining spectra to determine spectral types and activity level of these stars and are using HST, Herschel and Keck to characterize the dust, multiplicity, and substellar companions of these systems. In this contribution, we will discuss source selection methods and individual examples from among the WISE debris disk candidates.

  14. Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao

    2002-01-01

    This report is a brief review of the efforts to explain the nature of non-baryonic dark matter and of the studies devoted to the search for relic particles. Among the different dark matter candidates, special attention is devoted to relic neutralinos, by giving an overview of the recent calculations of its relic abundance and detection rates in a wide variety of supersymmetric schemes

  15. Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Fornengo, Nicolao

    2002-01-01

    This report is a brief review of the efforts to explain the nature of non-baryonic dark matter and of the studies devoted to the search for relic particles. Among the different dark matter candidates, special attention is devoted to relic neutralinos, by giving an overview of the recent calculations of its relic abundance and detection rates in a wide variety of supersymmetric schemes.

  16. Educational intervention for liver transplantation candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Karina Dal Sasso; Silva Junior,Orlando de Castro e; Ziviani,Luciana da Costa; Rossin,Fabiana Murad; Zago,Márcia Maria Fontão; Galvão,Cristina Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. RESULTS: The result...

  17. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  18. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Thornicroft, Graham; Brohan, Elaine; Kassam, Aliya; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The ...

  19. Various Approaches for Targeting Quasar Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    With the establishment and development of space-based and ground-based observational facilities, the improvement of scientific output of high-cost facilities is still a hot issue for astronomers. The discovery of new and rare quasars attracts much attention. Different methods to select quasar candidates are in bloom. Among them, some are based on color cuts, some are from multiwavelength data, some rely on variability of quasars, some are based on data mining, and some depend on ensemble methods.

  20. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  1. Creep-rupture behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-rupture behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.

    1984-01-01

    The creep rupture behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. Rupture life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h rupture life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.

  2. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  3. Pulmonary rehabilitation in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Melinda; Mathur, Sunita; Chowdhury, Noori A; Helm, Denise; Singer, Lianne G

    2013-06-01

    While awaiting lung transplantation, candidates may participate in pulmonary rehabilitation to improve their fitness for surgery. However, pulmonary rehabilitation outcomes have not been systematically evaluated in lung transplant candidates. This investigation was a retrospective cohort study of 345 pre-transplant pulmonary rehabilitation participants who received a lung transplant between January 2004 and June 2009 and had available pre-transplant exercise data. Data extracted included: 6-minute walk tests at standard intervals; exercise training details; health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures; and early post-transplant outcomes. Paired t-tests were used to examine changes in the 6MW distance (6MWD), exercise training volume and HRQL during the pre-transplant period. We evaluated the association between pre-transplant 6MWD and transplant hospitalization outcomes. The final 6MWD prior to transplantation was only 15 m less than the listing 6MWD (n = 200; p = 0.002). Exercise training volumes increased slightly from the start of the pulmonary rehabilitation program until transplant: treadmill, increase 0.69 ml/kg/min (n = 238; p volumes are well preserved among lung transplant candidates participating in pulmonary rehabilitation, even in the setting of severe, progressive lung disease. Participants with greater exercise capacity prior to transplantation have more favorable early post-transplant outcomes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  5. Molecular candidates of MTV in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Nico; Mirzaei, Mehrnoosh; van de Water, Willem

    2011-11-01

    In molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV), the molecules of a gas are used as flow tracers. These tracers can be produced at will by illumination with a laser which promotes molecules to a long- lived excited state, fuses N2 and N2 to NO, or makes molecules phosphoresce. A while later these tagged molecules can be visualized by laser-induced fluorescence, or by just watching them while they phosphoresce. Candidates for MTV in turbulence research must be arranged in structures narrower than the Kolmogorov scale, which remain narrow as time progresses, and must live longer than the Kolmogorov time. These requirements invalidate many candidates, candidates once deemed successful. They do so in various surprising manners that involve a combination of fluid flow and molecular dynamics. Rather than velocimetry in turbulence, MTV techniques offer a unique view on basic dispersion processes at the smallest scales of turbulence. In this way we have measured the spreading of clouds whose size is a few times the Kolmogorov length and the Batchelor dispersion of objects whose size is inside the inertial range.

  6. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report

  7. The Distribution of the Sample Minimum-Variance Frontier

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Kan; Daniel R. Smith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a finite sample analysis of the sample minimum-variance frontier under the assumption that the returns are independent and multivariate normally distributed. We show that the sample minimum-variance frontier is a highly biased estimator of the population frontier, and we propose an improved estimator of the population frontier. In addition, we provide the exact distribution of the out-of-sample mean and variance of sample minimum-variance portfolios. This allows us t...

  8. Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Charlene Kalenkoski; Donald Lacombe

    2011-01-01

    The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., including rotation resistant). For rope lengths less than 3,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet...

  10. Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, Arindrajit

    2017-01-01

    Using the March Current Population Survey data from 1984 to 2013, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of how minimum wage policies influence the distribution of family incomes. I find robust evidence that higher minimum wages shift down the cumulative distribution of family incomes at the bottom, reducing the share of non-elderly individuals with incomes below 50, 75, 100, and 125 percent of the federal poverty threshold. The long run (3 or more years) minimum wage elasticity of the non-elde...

  11. Minimum Distance Estimation on Time Series Analysis With Little Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tekin, Hakan

    2001-01-01

    .... Minimum distance estimation has been demonstrated better standard approaches, including maximum likelihood estimators and least squares, in estimating statistical distribution parameters with very small data sets...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  14. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2015-11-19

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  15. Training and minimum wages: first evidence from the introduction of the minimum wage in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bellmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyze the short-run impact of the introduction of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany on further training at the workplace level. Applying difference-in-difference methods to data from the IAB Establishment Panel, we do not find a reduction in the training incidence but a slight reduction in the intensity of training at treated establishments. Effect heterogeneities reveal that the negative impact is mostly driven by employer-financed training. On the worker level, we observe a reduction of training for medium- and high-skilled employees but no significant effects on the training of low-skilled employees.

  16. Minimum weight protection - Gradient method; Protection de poids minimum - Methode du gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon, R.

    1958-12-15

    After having recalled that, when considering a mobile installation, total weight has a crucial importance, and that, in the case of a nuclear reactor, a non neglectable part of weight is that of protection, this note presents an iterative method which results, for a given protection, to a configuration with a minimum weight. After a description of the problem, the author presents the theoretical formulation of the gradient method as it is applied to the concerned case. This application is then discussed, as well as its validity in terms of convergence and uniqueness. Its actual application is then reported, and possibilities of practical applications are evoked.

  17. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  18. Candidíase em pacientes aidéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.O.P. Campos

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e cinco aidéticos entre 19 e 55 anos admitidos e tratados de candidíase no Hospital Emílio Ribas, SP, com ELISA positivo para HIV e confirmado pelo Western Blot. Tuberculose em 9 sendo 2 com pericardite; neurotoxoplasmose em 6; neurocriptococose em 5; herpes labial em 4; pneumocistose em 3 e sarcoma de Kaposi em 2, achavam-se associadas. A concentração inibitória mínima 50% (MIC 50% para os azoles foi: ketoconazol= 2,2 µg/ml; itraconazol- 21,0 µg/ml; fluconazol = 19,0 µg/ml. O MIC 50% para ospolienos: nistatina- 50,0 µg/ml; anfotericina B= 0,12 µg/ml e para 5 fluorcitosina= 1,6 µg/ml nas 35 amostras de Candida isoladas. Testes não paramétricos de Siegel revelaram significante identificação (80% das Candida albicans na candidíase, e que a dose de AMB não modificou o número de óbitos, precoce e tardio, ocorridos nesses aidéticos. O uso prévio dos azoles e da nistatina explicaria, talvez, o elevado MIC 50% observado nas amostras de Candida isoladas.A total of 35 in patients admitted at Emilio Ribas Hospital - São Paulo, Brazil, with digestive candidiasis and AIDS clinical diagnostic were evaluated 10 month later, being 29 male and 6 female; white outnumbering black with age ranged from 30 to 50 years old. Agar Sabouraud culture and tube germinative tests identified 28 (80% Candida albicans out 35 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50% was against azoles (ketoconazole= 2.2 µg/ml; itraconazole = 21.0 µg/ml and fluconazole- 19.0 µg/ml; polyenes (ny statine - 50.0 µg/ml and amphotericin B= 0.12 µg/ml and 5 fluorcytosine= 1.6µg/ml. Siegeltests showed significant Candida albicans proportions in strains isolated from 35 AIDS patients. There was no significant relation between AMB dosis and early or late death. Conclusions: candidiasis in AIDS patients showed high MIC 50% to azoles and nystatine and significant Candida albicans proportion in all strains isolated from AIDS patients. Previous amphotericin B

  19. Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... Participants examined recent results from an IDRC-funded enterprise survey, ... of a minimum wage, and how they have coped with the new situation.” ... Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...

  20. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  1. The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...

  2. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...

  4. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...

  6. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  7. 14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and...

  8. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that CMS considers appropriate to reduce, control or eliminate start-up administrative costs. (b) After... section. (c) Calculation of the minimum net worth amount—(1) Cash requirement. (i) At the time of application, the organization must maintain at least $750,000 of the minimum net worth amount in cash or cash...

  9. 7 CFR 1610.5 - Minimum Bank loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Bank loan. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.5 Minimum Bank loan. A Bank loan will not be made unless the applicant qualifies for a Bank...

  10. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... subject to its child labor provisions, with certain exceptions not applicable here. (b) 18-year minimum... occupation found and declared by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of...

  11. 76 FR 15368 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... security devices and procedures to discourage robberies, burglaries, and larcenies, and to assist in the...

  12. 76 FR 30243 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures.... Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures. OMB Number: 1550-0062. Form Number: N/A... respect to the installation, maintenance, and operation of security devices and procedures to discourage...

  13. 12 CFR 567.2 - Minimum regulatory capital requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...

  14. Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum flow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and flows. This problem can be solved using two minimum flow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and flows.

  16. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station...

  17. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  18. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...

  19. Minimum Competencies in Undergraduate Motor Development. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The minimum competency guidelines in Motor Development described herein at the undergraduate level may be gained in one or more motor development course(s) or through other courses provided in an undergraduate curriculum. The minimum guidelines include: (1) Formulation of a developmental perspective; (2) Knowledge of changes in motor behavior…

  20. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...

  1. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  2. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  3. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees

  4. 30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...

  6. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...

  7. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...

  8. Minimum Moduli in Von Neumann Algebras | Gopalraj | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we answer a question raised in [12] in the affirmative, namely that the essential minimum modulus of an element in a von. Neumann algebra, relative to any norm closed two-sided ideal, is equal to the minimum modulus of the element perturbed by an element from the ideal. As a corollary of this result, we ...

  9. 12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements. In addition to meeting the deposit liquidity requirements contained in § 965.3 of this chapter, each Bank...

  10. Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary

  11. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  12. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  13. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  14. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In all three countries, these multiple minimum wages are negotiated among representatives of the central government, labour unions and the chambers of commerce. Minimum wage legislation applies to all private-sector employees, but in all three countries a large part of the work force is self-employed or works as unpaid ...

  15. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  16. Processability analysis of candidate waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.H. Jr.; Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Schuyler, R.L. III.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation, or processability analysis, was performed to assess the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste form candidates. The reference borosilicate glass process was rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete, glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramics (SYNROC-D and tailored ceramics), and coated ceramic particles. Cost estimates for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities are also reported

  17. Blend Analysis of HATNet Transit Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakos G.Á.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidate transiting planet systems discovered by wide-field groundbased surveys must go through an intensive follow-up procedure to distinguish the true transiting planets from the much more common false positives. Especially pernicious are configurations of three or more stars which produce radial velocity and light curves that are similar to those of single stars transited by a planet. In this contribution we describe the methods used by the HATNet team to reject these blends, giving a few illustrative examples.

  18. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Brohan, Elaine; Kassam, Aliya; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor

    2008-04-13

    This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i) direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii) social marketing at the population level.

  19. Geoscience Training for NASA Astronaut Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Evans, C. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Graff, T. G.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-01-01

    After being selected to the astronaut office, crewmembers go through an initial two year training flow, astronaut candidacy, where they learn the basic skills necessary for spaceflight. While the bulk of astronaut candidate training currently centers on the multiple subjects required for ISS operations (EVA skills, Russian language, ISS systems, etc.), training also includes geoscience training designed to train crewmembers in Earth observations, teach astronauts about other planetary systems, and provide field training designed to investigate field operations and boost team skills. This training goes back to Apollo training and has evolved to support ISS operations and future exploration missions.

  20. Minimum Variance Portfolios in the Brazilian Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rubesam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate minimum variance portfolios in the Brazilian equity market using different methods to estimate the covariance matrix, from the simple model of using the sample covariance to multivariate GARCH models. We compare the performance of the minimum variance portfolios to those of the following benchmarks: (i the IBOVESPA equity index, (ii an equally-weighted portfolio, (iii the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and (iv the maximum growth portfolio. Our results show that the minimum variance portfolio has higher returns with lower risk compared to the benchmarks. We also consider long-short 130/30 minimum variance portfolios and obtain similar results. The minimum variance portfolio invests in relatively few stocks with low βs measured with respect to the IBOVESPA index, being easily replicable by individual and institutional investors alike.

  1. Reducing tobacco use and access through strengthened minimum price laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Ian; Pearson, Anne; Laird-Metke, Elisa; Ribisl, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Higher prices reduce consumption and initiation of tobacco products. A minimum price law that establishes a high statutory minimum price and prohibits the industry's discounting tactics for tobacco products is a promising pricing strategy as an alternative to excise tax increases. Although some states have adopted minimum price laws on the basis of statutorily defined price "markups" over the invoice price, existing state laws have been largely ineffective at increasing the retail price. We analyzed 3 new variations of minimum price laws that hold great potential for raising tobacco prices and reducing consumption: (1) a flat rate minimum price law similar to a recent enactment in New York City, (2) an enhanced markup law, and (3) a law that incorporates both elements.

  2. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....

  3. Criteria for candidate species for aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, H H; Riordan, P F

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the animal taxa that are the most probable candidates for an intensive, commercial aquatic animal husbandry industry is considered. A characterization is presented of those biological criteria that lend the species the necessary physiological and genetic malleability to be adapted and molded into a domesticated race. The animal cultivated must be amenable to intensive management in high-density confinements such as those now being engineered for high-yield aquaculture. Attributes considered are discussed in the context of the various aquacultural ecosystems in which the specific biotype is expected to achieve satisfactory growth and survival. Correlative with bionomic criteria, economic requirements are posed and evaluated in an effort to define a socially and financially profitable agribusiness system. Investment requirements and operating costs are considered in terms of expected returns. However, since production alone is insufficient to sustain an enterprise - i.e., the product must be sold - production costs must be judged against market values. Therefore, ultimate use or consumer acceptance criteria are incorporated into the list of essential requirements for a candidate species for aquafarming.

  4. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  5. Advanced Vaccine Candidates for Lassa Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Lukashevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the most prominent human pathogen of the Arenaviridae. The virus is transmitted to humans by a rodent reservoir, Mastomys natalensis, and is capable of causing lethal Lassa Fever (LF. LASV has the highest human impact of any of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (with the exception of Dengue Fever with an estimated several hundred thousand infections annually, resulting in thousands of deaths in Western Africa. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of LF in non-endemic countries, and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Presently there is no licensed vaccine against LF or approved treatment. Recently, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed which can potentially target different groups at risk. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the LASV pathogenesis and immune mechanisms involved in protection. The current status of pre-clinical development of the advanced vaccine candidates that have been tested in non-human primates will be discussed. Major scientific, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges will also be considered.

  6. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  7. Political Candidate Campaign Advertising: A Selected Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides a selected review of political candidate campaign advertising studies from the political science, mass communication, advertising, and political communication literature. The paper examines the literature in terms of research pertaining to (1) candidate advertising content (commercials for male versus female candidates and for…

  8. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    variations between candidates originate. A retrospective analysis of IGRF-10 main field candidates for epoch 2005.0 and predictive secular variation candidates for 2005.0–2010.0 using the new IGRF-11 models as a reference is also reported. The high quality and consistency of main field models derived using...

  9. Views on Values Education: From Teacher Candidates to Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Canay Demirhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the views of experienced class teachers and class teacher candidates on values education. It conducted standard open-ended interviews with experienced class teachers and teacher candidates. The study group comprised 9 experienced class teachers from different socio-economic levels and 9 teacher candidates with…

  10. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  11. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  12. Changing Perceptions of Teacher Candidates in High-Needs Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Nancy K.

    2016-01-01

    Candidates enter teacher education programs with established beliefs about diversity and urban education. These belief systems impact decisions that teacher candidates make both now and in the future. Providing opportunities for candidates to spend quality time in an urban Professional Development School (PDS) setting with the support and guidance…

  13. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  14. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  15. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  16. Relationship between candidate communication ability and oral certification examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G

    2008-12-01

    Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.

  17. Worlds Beyond: Follow-up Observations and Confirmation of K2 Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rachel; Lowenthal, James; Lowenthal, James D.; Cooper, Olivia; Helou, Elana; Papineau, Emily; Peck, Annie; Stephens, Loren; Walker, Kerry

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of an 8-month follow-up transit photometry campaign focused on exoplanet candidates produced by the K2 mission. Observations were conducted at the McConnell Rooftop Observatory at Smith College in Northampton, MA, with a 16” telescope and CCD. Targets were observed through a 400-700 nm broadband filter at a 1 minute cadence. We attempted to observe the complete duration of the transit plus a minimum one-hour baseline before and after the transit event whenever possible. Our observations typically reach an RMS of 2 millimags for an 11th-magnitude star. Candidates were selected based on a number of factors, including a transit depth of around 10 millimags, a host star magnitude between 10-13, a duration that is observable over the span of a night, and a period shorter than 30 days. There are currently around 700 unconfirmed exoplanets from K2, and these criteria shortened that list to around 20 ideal candidates, many of which were flagged as possible false positives. Our results showcase the capability of small observatories to conduct precise follow-up observations of exoplanet transits.

  18. Physiological responses of astronaut candidates to simulated +Gx orbital emergency re-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Xue, Yueying; Wu, Ping; Gu, Zhiming; Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu

    2012-08-01

    We investigated astronaut candidates' physiological and pathological responses to +Gx exposure during simulated emergency return from a running orbit to advance astronaut +Gx tolerance training and medical support in manned spaceflight. There were 13 male astronaut candidates who were exposed to a simulated high +Gx acceleration profile in a spacecraft during an emergency return lasting for 230 s. The peak value was 8.5 G. Subjective feelings and symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory responses, and changes in urine component before, during, and after +Gx exposure were investigated. Under high +Gx exposure, 15.4% of subjects exhibited arrhythmia. Heart rate (HR) increased significantly and four different types of HR response curves were distinguished. The ratio of QT to RR interval on the electrocardiograms was significantly increased. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) declined with increasing G value and then returned gradually. SaO2 reached a minimum (87.7%) at 3 G during the decline phase of the +Gx curve. Respiratory rate increased significantly with increasing G value, while the amplitude and area of the respiratory waves were significantly reduced. The overshoot appeared immediately after +Gx exposure. A few subjects suffered from slight injuries, including positive urine protein (1/13), positive urinary occult blood (1/13), and a large area of petechiae on the back (1/13). Astronaut candidates have relatively good tolerance to the +Gx profile during a simulation of spacecraft emergent ballistic re-entry. However, a few subjects exhibited adverse physiological responses and slight reversible pathological injuries.

  19. What Do Teacher Candidates Think about the Teaching Education? The Example of Social Studies Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to reveal the opinions and observations of social studies teacher candidate about the courses they have taken during their 4-year university education. The focus group interview was used as the data collecting tool, and the content analyses were performed on the data obtained. The criterion sampling approach was used…

  20. Design of a minimum emittance nBA lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    1998-04-01

    An attempt to design a minimum emittance n-bend achromat (nBA) lattice has been made. One distinct feature is that dipoles with two different lengths were used. As a multiple bend achromat, five bend achromat lattices with six superperiod were designed. The obtained emittace is three times larger than the theoretical minimum. Tunes were chosen to avoid third order resonances. In order to correct first and second order chromaticities, eight family sextupoles were placed. The obtained emittance of five bend achromat lattices is almost equal to the minimum emittance of five bend achromat lattice consisting of dipoles with equal length.

  1. [Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C

    2008-02-01

    In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the

  2. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  3. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...

  4. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  5. Minimum Wages and Regional Disparity: An analysis on the evolution of price-adjusted minimum wages and their effects on firm profitability (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...

  6. The graph-theoretic minimum energy path problem for ionic conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Kishida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new computational method was developed to analyze the ionic conduction mechanism in crystals through graph theory. The graph was organized into nodes, which represent the crystal structures modeled by ionic site occupation, and edges, which represent structure transitions via ionic jumps. We proposed a minimum energy path problem, which is similar to the shortest path problem. An effective algorithm to solve the problem was established. Since our method does not use randomized algorithm and time parameters, the computational cost to analyze conduction paths and a migration energy is very low. The power of the method was verified by applying it to α-AgI and the ionic conduction mechanism in α-AgI was revealed. The analysis using single point calculations found the minimum energy path for long-distance ionic conduction, which consists of 12 steps of ionic jumps in a unit cell. From the results, the detailed theoretical migration energy was calculated as 0.11 eV by geometry optimization and nudged elastic band method. Our method can refine candidates for possible jumps in crystals and it can be adapted to other computational methods, such as the nudged elastic band method. We expect that our method will be a powerful tool for analyzing ionic conduction mechanisms, even for large complex crystals.

  7. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R W; Malca-García, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Chait, G; Díaz, D; Pourmand, K; Jonat, B; Somogy, S; Guardado, G; Aguirre, C; Chan, R; Meyer, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A; Effio-Carbajal, J; Frías-Fernandez, F; Benito, M

    2010-10-28

    The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as "inflammation". The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli and 38 extracts against Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256 mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MXene: a potential candidate for yarn supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Seyedin, Shayan; Gu, Zhoujie; Yang, Wenrong; Wang, Xungai; Razal, Joselito M

    2017-12-07

    The increasing developments in wearable electronics demand compatible power sources such as yarn supercapacitors (YSCs) that can effectively perform in a limited footprint. MXene nanosheets, which have been recently shown in the literature to possess ultra-high volumetric capacitance, were used in this study for the fabrication of YSCs in order to identify their potential merit and performance in YSCs. With the aid of a conductive binder (PEDOT-PSS), YSCs with high mass loading of MXene are demonstrated. These MXene-based YSCs exhibit excellent device performance and stability even under bending and twisting. This study demonstrates that MXene is a promising candidate for YSCs and its further development can lead to flexible power sources with sufficient performance for powering miniaturized and/or wearable electronics.

  9. Ailing voters advance attractive congressional candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Palumbo, Rocco

    2015-01-06

    Among many benefits of facial attractiveness, there is evidence that more attractive politicians are more likely to be elected. Recent research found this effect to be most pronounced in congressional districts with high disease threat-a result attributed to an adaptive disease avoidance mechanism, whereby the association of low attractiveness with poor health is particularly worrisome to voters who feel vulnerable to disease. We provided a more direct test of this explanation by examining the effects of individuals' own health and age. Supporting a disease avoidance mechanism, less healthy participants showed a stronger preference for more attractive contenders in U.S. Senate races than their healthier peers, and this effect was stronger for older participants, who were generally less healthy than younger participants. Stronger effects of health for older participants partly reflected the absence of positive bias toward attractive candidates among the healthiest, suggesting that healthy older adults may be unconcerned about disease threat or sufficiently wise to ignore attractiveness.

  10. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 3rd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : Hauviller First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  11. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : HAUVILLER First Name : Claude Dear colleague of CERN and ESO, For the first time, I am standing and requesting your support to become a member of the Governing Board of our Pension Fund. CERN staff member since 1974, I have already carried elective mandates: I have been Delegate to the Staff Council and Member of the Senior Staff Consultative Committee (the Nine). For the majority of us, our Pension Fund is our only social provident scheme and source of retirement income; I believe I can usefully contribute to its successful management and help ensure its balance. Our Fund reaches its majority: soon, there will be more beneficiaries tha...

  12. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 4th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  13. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 4

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : MYERS First Name : Stephen I have been at CERN since 1972, and was elected member of the Governing Board for the first time in 1998. The Governing Board then nominated me to the Investments Committee where I have been a member since the beginning of 1999. Since then I have actively participated in redefining and transforming the investment portfolio in order to improve the overall return and where possible reduce the risk. The portfolio has recently been greatly improved and now allows much simpler more transparent monitoring of our investment. I have also actively participated and hopefully made useful contributions in discussions conc...

  14. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong-He, Du; Zhao-Yu, Ren; Ji-Ming, Zheng; Ping, Guo

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments, frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)

  15. Candidate materials to prevent brittle fracture - (186)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanzy, Y.; Roland, V.

    2004-01-01

    For heavy transport or dual purpose casks, selecting the appropriate materials for the body is a key decision. To get a Type B(U) approval, it is necessary to demonstrate that the mechanical strength of the material is good enough at temperature as low as -40 C so as to prevent the cask from any risk of brittle fracture in regulatory accident conditions. Different methods are available to provide such a demonstration and can lead to different choices. It should be noted also that the material compositions given by national or international standards display relatively wide tolerances and therefore are not necessarily sufficient to guarantee a required toughness. It is therefore necessary to specify to the fabricator the minimum value for toughness, and to verify it. This paper gives an overview of the different methods and materials that are used in several countries. Although the safety is strongly linked to the choice of the material, it is shown that many other parameters are important, such as the design, the fabrication process (multi layer, cast or forged body), the welding material and process, the ability to detect flaws, and the measured and/or calculated stress level, including stress concentration, in particular when bolts are used. The paper will show that relying exclusively on high toughness at low temperature does not necessarily deliver the maximum safety as compared with other choices. It follows that differences in approaches to licensing by different competent authorities may bias the choice of material depending on the country of application, even though B(U) licenses are meant to guarantee unilaterally a uniform minimum level of safety

  16. Mining biological databases for candidate disease genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Terry A.; Scheetz, Todd; Webster, Gregg L.; Casavant, Thomas L.

    2001-07-01

    The publicly-funded effort to sequence the complete nucleotide sequence of the human genome, the Human Genome Project (HGP), has currently produced more than 93% of the 3 billion nucleotides of the human genome into a preliminary `draft' format. In addition, several valuable sources of information have been developed as direct and indirect results of the HGP. These include the sequencing of model organisms (rat, mouse, fly, and others), gene discovery projects (ESTs and full-length), and new technologies such as expression analysis and resources (micro-arrays or gene chips). These resources are invaluable for the researchers identifying the functional genes of the genome that transcribe and translate into the transcriptome and proteome, both of which potentially contain orders of magnitude more complexity than the genome itself. Preliminary analyses of this data identified approximately 30,000 - 40,000 human `genes.' However, the bulk of the effort still remains -- to identify the functional and structural elements contained within the transcriptome and proteome, and to associate function in the transcriptome and proteome to genes. A fortuitous consequence of the HGP is the existence of hundreds of databases containing biological information that may contain relevant data pertaining to the identification of disease-causing genes. The task of mining these databases for information on candidate genes is a commercial application of enormous potential. We are developing a system to acquire and mine data from specific databases to aid our efforts to identify disease genes. A high speed cluster of Linux of workstations is used to analyze sequence and perform distributed sequence alignments as part of our data mining and processing. This system has been used to mine GeneMap99 sequences within specific genomic intervals to identify potential candidate disease genes associated with Bardet-Biedle Syndrome (BBS).

  17. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the same time, wage and income inequalities have grown significantly and wages have fallen. ... wages are set, and the wages' effects on employment and inequality. ... Impact of minimum wage on gender wage gaps in urban China.

  18. EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIVE THE WAGE MINIMUM IN MARKET OF LABOR CEARENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.

  19. Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

  20. Appearance of minimum on the curve of cerium melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslavskij, Yu.Ya.; Grigor'ev, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown by means of simple and obvious thermodynamical considerations that the reduced stability line continues up to the solid phase boundary. The existence of this line causes the appearance of minimum on the fcc cerium melting curve

  1. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-15

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for 〈u v w〉 axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at (http://www.sandia.gov/pcnsc/departments/iba/ibatable.html).

  2. Solving Minimum Cost Multi-Commodity Network Flow Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... network-based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile ... Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP) and some ..... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic. Incident ... Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Surveying &.

  3. Allocation of optimal distributed generation using GA for minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    quality of supply and reliability in tern extending equipment maintenance intervals and ... The performance of the method is tested on 33-bus test system and ... minimum real power losses of the system by calculating DG size at different buses.

  4. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks...

  5. Decoding Reed-Solomon Codes beyond half the minimum distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We describe an efficient implementation of M.Sudan"s algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes beyond half the minimum distance. Furthermore we calculate an upper bound of the probabilty of getting more than one codeword as output...

  6. USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur İŞÇİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.

  7. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990 as...

  8. The debate on the economic effects of minimum wage legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Miguel Ruesga-Benito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimum wage establishment has its origin in the first third of the last century. Since its creation has been a focus of continuing controversy and an unfinished debate on economics field. This work reviews the effects of the minimum wage on employment and other macroeconomic variables, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. The method is based on the revision of the literature and the main economic indicators. The central contribution of this paper is providing a general reflection on theoretical and empirical analysis about the debate on minimum wage and its effects. The results showed that some labor policies are taking account the effects of austerity strategies, shifting the attention towards the implementation of minimum wages or their updating, in order to reduce the growing inequalities in the distribution of income, and even poverty levels.

  9. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... industries such as animal feed (NAICS code 311119), cosmetics (NAICS code 325620), and soap and detergents... reporting of production to EPA. To meet the criteria for the minimum risk exemption, a pesticide must...

  10. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  11. Great expectations: Reservation wages and the minimum wage reform

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorets, Alexandra; Filatov, Alexey; Shupe, Cortnie

    2018-01-01

    We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to show that introducing a high-impact statutory minimum wage causes an increase in reservation wages of approximately 4 percent at the low end of the distribution. The shifts in reservation wages and observed wages due to the minimum wage reform are comparable in their magnitude. Additional results show that German citizens adjust their reservation wages more than immigrants. Moreover, suggestive evidence points to a compensation mechanism in which immi...

  12. Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work

    OpenAIRE

    Rubery, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...

  13. A method for minimum risk portfolio optimization under hybrid uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Yu E.; Yazenin, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a minimum risk portfolio model under hybrid uncertainty when the profitability of financial assets is described by fuzzy random variables. According to Feng, the variance of a portfolio is defined as a crisp value. To aggregate fuzzy information the weakest (drastic) t-norm is used. We construct an equivalent stochastic problem of the minimum risk portfolio model and specify the stochastic penalty method for solving it.

  14. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...

  15. Energy and environmental norms on Minimum Vital Flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maran, S.

    2008-01-01

    By the end of the year will come into force the recommendations on Minimum Vital flow and operators of hydroelectric power plants will be required to make available part of water of their derivations in order to protect river ecosystems. In this article the major energy and environmental consequences of these rules, we report some quantitative evaluations and are discusses the proposals for overcoming the weaknesses of the approach in the estimation of Minimum Vital Flux [it

  16. Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lian-en

    1984-01-01

    Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water: An attempt is made to obtain shallow-water optimal ship forms for total resistance by means of "tent" function representation under the constraints that the main dimensions of the ship and the water-line area were kept constant. The objective function in the quadratic programming is the sum of wave-making resistance calculated by Sretenski's formula and viscou...

  17. MINIMUM BRACING STIFFNESS FOR MULTI-COLUMN SYSTEMS: THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    ARISTIZÁBAL-OCHOA, J. DARÍO

    2011-01-01

    A method that determines the minimum bracing stiffness required by a multi-column elastic system to achieve non-sway buckling conditions is proposed. Equations that evaluate the required minimum stiffness of the lateral and torsional bracings and the corresponding “braced" critical buckling load for each column of the story level are derived using the modified stability functions. The following effects are included: 1) the types of end connections (rigid, semirigid, and simple); 2) the bluepr...

  18. Colacium Minimum (Euglenophyta, A New Epiphytic Species For Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołowski Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colacium minimum Fott & Komárek, known so far from a few localities in Central Europe (Czech Republic, is reported here for the first time from Asia (Thailand. This epiphytic species was found growing on eight taxa of loricated euglenoids. The process of surface colonization of Trachelomonas Ehrenb. and Strombomonas Deflandre taxa by C. minimum in natural populations is briefly discussed and originally documented using LM and SEM.

  19. A theory of compliance with minimum wage legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the government implementing non stochastic monitoring. Moreover, we show that the incentive not to comply is an increasing function of the level of the minimum wag...

  20. Towards a mathematical foundation of minimum-variance theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Zhang Kewei [SMS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Wei Gang [Mathematical Department, Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2002-08-30

    The minimum-variance theory which accounts for arm and eye movements with noise signal inputs was proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4). Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the theory and analytical solutions of the theory are obtained. Furthermore, we propose a new version of the minimum-variance theory, which is more realistic for a biological system. For the new version we show numerically that the variance is considerably reduced. (author)

  1. Minimum Wage Policy and Country’s Technical Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Mohd Zaini Abd; Chan, Sok-Gee; Hassan, Sallahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the government has decided that Malaysia would introduce a minimum wage policy. However, some quarters argued against the idea of a nationwide minimum wage asserting that it will lead to an increase in the cost of doing business and thus will hurt Malaysian competitiveness. Although standard economic theory unambiguously implies that wage floors have a negative impact on employment, the existing empirical literature is not so clear. Some studies have found the expected negative impa...

  2. The Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with minimum length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, H. L. C.

    2018-05-01

    We study the Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with the deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimum length, with the intention to find and estimate the corrections in this theory, clarifying whether or not it is possible to obtain, by means of the minimum length, a theory, in D=4, which is causal, unitary and provides a massive graviton. Therefore, we will calculate and analyze the dispersion relationships of the considered theory.

  3. Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.

  4. Candidate Quality Measures for Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Quality measures are tools used by physicians, health care systems, and payers to evaluate performance, monitor the outcomes of interventions, and inform quality improvement efforts. A paucity of quality measures exist that address hand surgery care. We completed a RAND/UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) Delphi Appropriateness process with the goal of developing and evaluating candidate hand surgery quality measures to be used for national quality measure development efforts. A consortium of 9 academic upper limb surgeons completed a RAND/UCLA Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, scientific acceptability, usability, and feasibility of 44 candidate quality measures. These addressed hand problems the panelists felt were most appropriate for quality measure development. Panelists rated the measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 as equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 as valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), the panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more of the panelists' ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range and 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, the panelists were considered to be in disagreement. There was agreement on 43% (19) of the measures as important, 27% (12) as scientifically sound, 48% (21) as usable, and 59% (26) as feasible to complete. Ten measures met all 4 of these criteria and were, therefore, considered valid measurements of quality. Quality measures that were developed address outcomes (patient-reported outcomes for assessment and improvement of function) and processes of care (utilization rates of imaging, antibiotics, occupational therapy, ultrasound, and operative treatment). The consortium developed 10

  5. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  6. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  7. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photon defects in noncommutative standard model candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V.

    2006-06-01

    Restrictions imposed by gauge invariance in noncommutative spaces together with the effects of ultraviolet/infrared mixing lead to strong constraints on possible candidates for a noncommutative extension of the Standard Model. We study a general class of noncommutative models consistent with these restrictions. Specifically we consider models based upon a gauge theory with the gauge group U(N 1 ) x U(N 2 ) x.. x U(N m ) coupled to matter fields transforming in the (anti)-fundamental, bi-fundamental and adjoint representations. We pay particular attention to overall trace-U(1) factors of the gauge group which are affected by the ultraviolet/infrared mixing. Typically, these trace-U(1) gauge fields do not decouple sufficiently fast in the infrared, and lead to sizable Lorentz symmetry violating effects in the low-energy effective theory. In a 4-dimensional theory on a continuous space-time making these effects unobservable would require making the effects of noncommutativity tiny, M NC >> M P . This severely limits the phenomenological prospects of such models. However, adding additional universal extra dimensions the trace-U(1) factors decouple with a power law and the constraint on the noncommutativity scale is weakened considerably. Finally, we briefly mention some interesting properties of the photon that could arise if the noncommutative theory is modified at a high energy scale. (Orig.)

  9. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 5

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  10. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 5th candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate :  Name : Sonnemann  First Name : Florian Since my arrival at CERN in 1997 I have worked in the accelerator and administrative sectors. I have recently been elected as member of the Staff Council and of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association in which I am actively following matters concerning the Pension Fund. My candidature for the Governing Board of the CERN Pension Fund is mainly motivated to add my part in ensuring a solid financial situation of the Pension Fund. The Pension Fund is our only social security system. I wish to play a role in ensuring that the pensions will remain a secure revenue for all staff membe...

  11. Face time: educating face transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.

  12. Virus-like particles as nanovaccine candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, G; Aguilar, J C; Dueñas, S; Hermida, L; Iglesias, E; Penton, E; Lobaina, Y; Lopez, M; Mussachio, A; Falcon, V; Alvarez, L; Martinez, G; Gil, L; Valdes, I; Izquierdo, A; Lazo, L; Marcos, E; Guzman, G; Muzio, V; Herrera, L

    2013-01-01

    The existing vaccines are mainly limited to the microorganisms we are able to culture and produce and/or to those whose killing is mediated by humoral response (antibody mediated). It has been more difficult to develop vaccines capable of inducing a functional cellular response needed to prevent or cure chronic diseases. New strategies should be taken into account in the improvement of cell-based immune responses in order to prevent and control the infections and eventually clear the virus. Preclinical and clinical results with vaccine candidates developed as a vaccine platform based on virus-like particles (VLPs) evidenced their ability to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immunity. Particles based on envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid microbial proteins induce a strong immune response after nasal or parenteral administration in mice, non-human primates and humans. In addition, the immune response obtained was modulated in a Th1 sense. The VLPs were also able to immunoenhance the humoral and cellular immune responses against several viral pathogens. Studies in animals and humans with nasal and systemic formulations evidenced that it is possible to induce functional immune response against HBV, HCV, HIV and dengue virus. (paper)

  13. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  14. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NR 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  15. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND 2nd candidate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : FRANDSEN First Name : Poul Kjaer  I have been member of the staff since 1974, and member of staff council for more than 12 years, and my main motivation has been to work for improving the social conditions of the CERN staff. A very important pillar of this is a sound and healthy pension fund. A capitalised scheme has been and still is the best choice for assuring the benefits for the CERN staff, present and future, this social system being part of the whole necessary to attract the best staff to the future High Energy Physics in Europe. However, even the hypothetic close down of the Organisation should allow the benefits to exi...

  16. Characterisation of a candidate dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, D.; Panizo-Espinar, G.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M.; Heida, M.

    2018-05-01

    We present Chandra and optical observations of a candidate dual AGN discovered serendipitously while searching for recoiling black holes via a cross-correlation between the serendipitous XMM source catalog (2XMMi) and SDSS-DR7 galaxies with a separation no larger than ten times the sum of their Petrosian radii. The system has a stellar mass ratio M1/M2 ≈ 0.7. One of the galaxies (Source 1) shows clear evidence for AGN activity in the form of hard X-ray emission and optical emission-line diagnostics typical of AGN ionisation. The nucleus of the other galaxy (Source 2) has a soft X-ray spectrum, bluer colours, and optical emission line ratios dominated by stellar photoionisation with a "composite" signature, which might indicate the presence of a weak AGN. When plotted on a diagram with X-ray luminosity vs [OIII] luminosity both nuclei fall within the locus defined by local Seyfert galaxies. From the optical spectrum we estimate the electron densities finding n1 active nature of Source 1 can be established with confidence, whether the nucleus of Source 2 is active remains a matter of debate. Evidence that a faint AGN might reside in its nucleus is, however, tantalising.

  17. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND CANDIDATE NO 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARDFirst Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you...

  18. Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana I; Dexter, Franklin; Hindman, Bradley J; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-05-01

    Work habits are non-technical skills that are an important part of job performance. Although non-technical skills are usually evaluated on a relative basis (i.e., "grading on a curve"), validity of evaluation on an absolute basis (i.e., "minimum passing score") needs to be determined. Survey and observational study. None. None. The theme of "work habits" was assessed using a modification of Dannefer et al.'s 6-item scale, with scores ranging from 1 (lowest performance) to 5 (highest performance). E-mail invitations were sent to all consultant and fellow anesthesiologists at Mayo Clinic in Florida, Arizona, and Minnesota. Because work habits expectations can be generational, the survey was designed for adjustment based on all invited (responding or non-responding) anesthesiologists' year of graduation from residency. The overall mean±standard deviation of the score for anesthesiologists' minimum expectations of nurse anesthetists' work habits was 3.64±0.66 (N=48). Minimum acceptable scores were correlated with the year of graduation from anesthesia residency (linear regression P=0.004). Adjusting for survey non-response using all N=207 anesthesiologists, the mean of the minimum acceptable work habits adjusted for year of graduation was 3.69 (standard error 0.02). The minimum expectations for nurse anesthetists' work habits were compared with observational data obtained from the University of Iowa. Among 8940 individual nurse anesthetist work habits scores, only 2.6% were habits scores were significantly greater than the Mayo estimate (3.69) for the minimum expectations; all Phabits of nurse anesthetists within departments should not be compared with an appropriate minimum score (i.e., of 3.69). Instead, work habits scores should be analyzed based on relative reporting among anesthetists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical attractiveness, issue agreement, and assimilation effects in candidate appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, James N; Curran, Margaret Ann; Strungaru, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the cognitive and affective factors of candidate appraisal by manipulating candidate attractiveness and levels of issue agreement with voters. Drawing upon research in evolutionary psychology and cognitive neuroscience, this analysis proposes that automatic processing of physical appearance predisposes affective disposition toward more attractive candidates, thereby influencing cognitive processing of issue information. An experimental design presented attractive and unattractive candidates who were either liberal or conservative in a mock primary election. The data show strong partial effects for appearance on vote intention, an interaction between appearance and issue agreement, and a tendency for voters to assimilate the dissimilar views of attractive candidates. We argue that physical appearance is important in primary elections when the differences in issue positions and ideology between candidates is small.

  20. Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothineni VR

    2016-04-01

    unique compounds, which inhibited >90% of B. ­burgdorferi growth at a concentration of <25 µM. These 150 unique compounds comprise many safe antibiotics, chemical compounds, and also small molecules from plant sources. Of the 150 unique compounds, 101 compounds are FDA approved. We selected the top 20 FDA-approved molecules based on safety and potency and studied their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The promising safe FDA-approved candidates that show low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values can be chosen as lead molecules for further advanced studies. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, BacTiter-Glo assay, high-throughput screening, persisters

  1. Collaborative study to assess the suitability of a candidate International Standard for yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Morag; Heath, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Yellow fever vaccines are routinely assayed by plaque assay. However, the results of these assays are then converted into mouse LD(50) using correlations/conversion factors which, in many cases, were established many years ago. The minimum required potency in WHO Recommendations is 10(3) LD(50)/dose. Thirteen participants from 8 countries participated in a collaborative study whose aim was to assess the suitability of two candidate preparations to serve as an International Standard for yellow fever vaccine. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between the mouse LD(50) test and plaque forming units with a view to updating the WHO recommendations. Plaque assays were more reproducible than mouse assays, as expected. Differences in sensitivities of plaque assays were observed between laboratories but these differences appear to be consistent within a laboratory for all samples and the expression of potency relative to the candidate standard vaccine improved the reproducibility of assays between laboratories. However, the use of potencies had little effect on the between laboratory variability in mouse LD(50) assays. There appears to be a consistent relationship between overall mean LD(50) and plaques titre for all study preparations other than sample E. The slope of the correlation curve is >1 and it would appear that 10(3) LD(50) is approximately equivalent to 10(4) plaque forming units (PFU), based on the overall means of all laboratory results. The First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine, NIBSC Code 99/616, has been established as the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine by the Expert Committee of Biological Standards of the World Health Organisation. The International Standard has been arbitrarily assigned a potency of 10(4.5) International Units (IU) per ampoule. Manufacturers and National Control Laboratories are including the First International Standard for yellow fever vaccine in routine assays so that the minimum

  2. Physical education candidate teachers' beliefs about vocational self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    OZSAKER, Murat; CANPOLAT, A. Meliha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...

  3. Selection of radio pulsar candidates using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eatough, R. P.; Molkenthin, N.; Kramer, M.; Noutsos, A.; Keith, M. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Radio pulsar surveys are producing many more pulsar candidates than can be inspected by human experts in a practical length of time. Here we present a technique to automatically identify credible pulsar candidates from pulsar surveys using an artificial neural network. The technique has been applied to candidates from a recent re-analysis of the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey resulting in the discovery of a previously unidentified pulsar.

  4. Identification Of Protein Vaccine Candidates Using Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohrbough, James G

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation are proteomic analysis studies focused on identifying proteins to be used as vaccine candidates against Coccidioidomycosis, a potentially fatal human pulmonary disease...

  5. UBV photometry of dwarf novae in the brightness minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I.B.; Lyutyj, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric one-night observations of the dwarf novae SS Cyg at minimum light evidence for the existence of eclipses in this system at the moments of conjuctions. The orbital inclination of the system is estimated to be i approximately 70 deg C. The components of this system are low-massive (white and red dwarf stars) and low-luminous objects. As the optical luminosity of the dwarf novae at the minimum light is dependent on the accretion disk and hot spot at its periphery, where the substance jet run out from a nondegenerated component falls, eclipses should be associated with the disk and hot spot. The white dwarf star contributes greatly to the luminosity at the minimum light, but its eclipses are possible only at i approximately 90 deg

  6. CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASING THE MINIMUM WAGE IN UKRAINE TWICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Boreiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the views of scientists on the role of incomes of the poorest people in providing of economic development of the country and consequences of increasing the minimum wage in Ukraine twice are investigated; the dynamics of change in Ukraine minimum wage during a decade are analyzed and decline in living standards of population during this period is shown; measures, which should be taken for non-inflationary growth in incomes of the population, are grounded; it is disclosed that such measures should include unification of income tax for individuals and single social contribution and restoration of a progressive taxation of incomes of the working population. Key words: minimum wage, household income, the poorest part of the population, the economy of country, tax system.

  7. Nursing Minimum Data Set Based on EHR Archetypes Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigolon, Dandara N; Moro, Cláudia M C

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) can facilitate the use of health information systems. The adoption of these sets and represent them based on archetypes are a way of developing and support health systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the definition of a minimum data set for nursing in endometriosis represent with archetypes. The study was divided into two steps: Defining the Nursing Minimum Data Set to endometriosis, and Development archetypes related to the NMDS. The nursing data set to endometriosis was represented in the form of archetype, using the whole perception of the evaluation item, organs and senses. This form of representation is an important tool for semantic interoperability and knowledge representation for health information systems.

  8. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  9. Realistic minimum accident source terms - Evaluation, application, and risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation, application, and risk acceptance for realistic minimum accident source terms can represent a complex and arduous undertaking. This effort poses a very high impact to design, construction cost, operations and maintenance, and integrated safety over the expected facility lifetime. At the 2005 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) Meeting in Knoxville Tenn., two papers were presented mat summarized the Y-12 effort that reduced the number of criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) detectors originally designed for the new Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF) from 258 to an eventual as-built number of 60. Part of that effort relied on determining a realistic minimum accident source term specific to the facility. Since that time, the rationale for an alternate minimum accident has been strengthened by an evaluation process that incorporates realism. A recent update to the HEUMF CAAS technical basis highlights the concepts presented here. (authors)

  10. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  11. Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N

    2005-09-01

    We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.

  12. Optimal heliocentric trajectories for solar sail with minimum area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vyacheslav G.

    2018-05-01

    The fixed-time heliocentric trajectory optimization problem is considered for planar solar sail with minimum area. Necessary optimality conditions are derived, a numerical method for solving the problem is developed, and numerical examples of optimal trajectories to Mars, Venus and Mercury are presented. The dependences of the minimum area of the solar sail from the date of departure from the Earth, the time of flight and the departing hyperbolic excess of velocity are analyzed. In particular, for the rendezvous problem (approaching a target planet with zero relative velocity) with zero departing hyperbolic excess of velocity for a flight duration of 1200 days it was found that the minimum area-to-mass ratio should be about 12 m2/kg for trajectory to Venus, 23.5 m2/kg for the trajectory to Mercury and 25 m2/kg for trajectory to Mars.

  13. On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt

  14. The impact of the minimum wage on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Elena; Ukert, Benjamin

    2018-03-07

    This study evaluates the effect of minimum wage on risky health behaviors, healthcare access, and self-reported health. We use data from the 1993-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and employ a difference-in-differences strategy that utilizes time variation in new minimum wage laws across U.S. states. Results suggest that the minimum wage increases the probability of being obese and decreases daily fruit and vegetable intake, but also decreases days with functional limitations while having no impact on healthcare access. Subsample analyses reveal that the increase in weight and decrease in fruit and vegetable intake are driven by the older population, married, and whites. The improvement in self-reported health is especially strong among non-whites, females, and married.

  15. Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....

  16. Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.; te Heesen, E.; Bruch, U.; Cook, R.; Diehl, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Jakobeit, W.; Penkalla, H.J.; Ullrich, G.

    1984-01-01

    Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 800 0 C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored

  17. Mars ionopause during solar minimum: A lesson from Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, K.K.; Mayr, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The ion densities measured by the Viking landers (Hanson et al., 1977) do not show an abrupt falloff with height, giving the false impression that Mars has no ionopause. On the basis of knowledge gained from the solar wind interaction at Venus during solar minimum, they demonstrate that the observed O 2 + profile above about 160 km on Mars is a distributed photodynamical ionosphere and can produce an ionopause at around 325 km, similar to that observed on Venus during solar minimum. They conclude that the solar wind interacts directly with the Mars ionosphere, suggesting that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field of any consequence

  18. The Minimum Core for Numeracy Audit and Test

    CERN Document Server

    Patmore, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This book supports trainee teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector in the assessment of their numeracy knowledge. A self-audit section is included to help trainees understand their level of competence and confidence in numeracy and will help them identify any gaps in their knowledge and skills. This is followed by exercises and activities to support and enhance learning. The book covers all the content of the LLUK standards for the minimum core for numeracy. Coverage and assessment of the minimum core have to be embedded in all Certificate and Diploma courses leading to QTLS and ATLS status.

  19. The Minimum Core for Language and Literacy Audit and Test

    CERN Document Server

    Machin, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This book supports trainee teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector in the assessment of their literacy knowledge. A self-audit section is included to help trainees understand their level of competence and confidence in literacy and will help them identify any gaps in their knowledge and skills. This is followed by exercises and activities to support and enhance learning. The book covers all the content of the LLUK standards for the minimum core for literacy. Coverage and assessment of the minimum core have to be embedded in all Certificate and Diploma courses leading to QTLS and ATLS status.

  20. Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.

  1. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  2. Minimum load reduction for once-through boiler power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Godina, G.; Manganelli, R.

    2001-01-01

    In Italy the liberalization process of energy market is giving particular importance to the optimization of power plants performances; especially for those that will be called to satisfy grid peak demands. On those plants some techniques have been experimented for the reduction of minimum load; these techniques, investigated and tested by an engineering dynamic simulator, have been sequentially tested on plant. The minimum load for up 320 MW of Tavazzano power plants has been diminished from 140 down to 80 MW without plant modification [it

  3. The minimum measurable dose of the sensitive Harshaw TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1991-01-01

    The TL-dose response was measured for the sensitive Harshaw manufactured phosphors (CaF 2 :Dy and CaF 2 :Tm), taking chips from the same batch and from different batches. The relative standard deviations were fitted to a semiempirical expression, from which the minimum measurable doses were derived and compared to the minimum measurable dose calculated by taking 3 times the standard deviation of unirradiated chips. The contribution of the individual calibration of each TLD chip was checked, as well

  4. UPGMA and the normalized equidistant minimum evolution problem

    OpenAIRE

    Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Wu, Taoyang

    2017-01-01

    UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) is a widely used clustering method. Here we show that UPGMA is a greedy heuristic for the normalized equidistant minimum evolution (NEME) problem, that is, finding a rooted tree that minimizes the minimum evolution score relative to the dissimilarity matrix among all rooted trees with the same leaf-set in which all leaves have the same distance to the root. We prove that the NEME problem is NP-hard. In addition, we present some heurist...

  5. Do Higher Minimum Wages Benefit Health? Evidence From the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Otto

    This study examines the link between minimum wages and health outcomes by using the introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom in 1999 as an exogenous variation of earned income. A test for health effects by using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey for a period of ten years was conducted. It was found that the NMW significantly improved several measures of health, including self-reported health status and the presence of health conditions. When examining potential mechanisms, it was shown that changes in health behaviors, leisure expenditures, and financial stress can explain the observed improvements in health.

  6. 77 FR 5454 - Modifications to Minimum Present Value Requirements for Partial Annuity Distribution Options...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Modifications to Minimum Present Value Requirements for Partial Annuity Distribution Options Under Defined... guidance relating to the minimum present value requirements applicable to certain defined benefit pension plans. These proposed regulations would change the regulations regarding the minimum present value...

  7. 76 FR 4061 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ..., Randolph County, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig El Dorado, KS, Captain Jack Thomas/El Dorado... Minimums and Obstacle DP, Amdt 3 Cook, MN, Cook Muni, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Duluth, MN...

  8. HOT HIGH-MASS ACCRETION DISK CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuther, H.; Walsh, A. J.; Longmore, S. N.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the physical properties of accretion disks in high-mass star formation, we present a study of a dozen high-mass accretion disk candidates observed at high spatial resolution with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in the high-excitation (4,4) and (5,5) lines of NH 3 . All of our originally selected sources were detected in both NH 3 transitions, directly associated with CH 3 OH Class II maser emission and implying that high-excitation NH 3 lines are good tracers of the dense gas components in hot-core-type targets. Only the one source that did not satisfy the initial selection criteria remained undetected. From the 11 mapped sources, six show clear signatures of rotation and/or infall motions. These signatures vary from velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflows, to infall signatures in absorption against ultracompact H II regions, to more spherical infall signatures in emission. Although our spatial resolution is ∼1000 AU, we do not find clear Keplerian signatures in any of the sources. Furthermore, we also do not find flattened structures. In contrast to this, in several of the sources with rotational signatures, the spatial structure is approximately spherical with sizes exceeding 10 4 AU, showing considerable clumpy sub-structure at even smaller scales. This implies that on average typical Keplerian accretion disks-if they exist as expected-should be confined to regions usually smaller than 1000 AU. It is likely that these disks are fed by the larger-scale rotating envelope structure we observe here. Furthermore, we do detect 1.25 cm continuum emission in most fields of view. While in some cases weak cm continuum emission is associated with our targets, more typically larger-scale H II regions are seen offset more than 10'' from our sources. While these H II regions are unlikely to be directly related to the target regions, this spatial association nevertheless additionally stresses that high-mass star formation rarely

  9. Academic Dishonesty Tendencies and Values of Teacher Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül KADI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. The population of this study included teacher candidates who received pedagogic formation education during 2013-2014 academic semester at the Faculty of Education at Ege University. The study was conducted with 244 teacher candidates, who were chosen through convenient sampling method. Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale and Portrait Values Questionnaire were used to collect data. It was a correlational study due to the investigation of the relationship between values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates. It was also a survey study since the academic dishonesty tendencies and values of teacher candidates were examined in relation to demographic variables. The results suggested that there wass a significant difference between the values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates for gender variable. The values and academic dishonesty tendencies of teacher candidates did not differ for different fields of study. There was not a significant relationship between the academic dishonesty tendencies and values of teacher candidates.

  10. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  11. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  12. Measuring College Success for International Baccalaureate Diploma and Certificate Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennifer Coles

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative study was conducted at a private international high school. The study purpose was to investigate United States college trends comparing International Baccalaureate Diploma Program candidates and International Baccalaureate Non-Diploma Program candidates from the same school in Asia. Data was collected for the Classes of 2007-2012…

  13. Assessing Student Teaching Experiences: Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Tice, Kathleen; Collins, Denise; Brown, Amber; Smith, Cleta; Fox, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of student teaching experiences by measuring teacher candidates' perceptions of their preparedness. The participants were 130 teacher candidates who had completed their student teaching as part of a program preparing them to teach children in pre-K through grade 4. Teacher candidates…

  14. Undergraduate Teacher Candidate Perceptions Integrating Technology in Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charlise Askew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze undergraduate teacher candidates' perceptions on integrating technology in the classroom. The study was embedded in the "Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge" theoretical model. A sample of 143 undergraduate teacher candidates participated in the study. They were asked to address items on a…

  15. Elections, Information, and State-Dependent Candidate Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    voters are uncertain about the state. Candidates are fully informed and completely office-motivated. With a reasonable restriction on voters' beliefs, an equilibrium where candidates' positions reveal the true state does not exist. Non-revealing equilibria always exist. Some main findings...

  16. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  17. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  18. 14 CFR 91.321 - Carriage of candidates in elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier or commercial operator; (2) You carry the candidate, agent, or person traveling on behalf of a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of candidates in elections. 91.321 Section 91.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  19. Metaphors of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Aysegül

    2018-01-01

    Democracy is a form of government in which principle of equality is based, human rights and freedoms are protected. In this research, it is aimed to reveal democracy perceptions of social science teacher candidates through metaphors. Towards this aim, 105 social science teacher candidates are consulted about their democracy opinions. Study is a…

  20. Elementary School Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Good Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kyoung-Tae

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a classroom action research activity regarding a group of elementary school teacher candidates' perceptions of good mathematics problems. A questionnaire containing 20 problems was given, and the candidates were asked to rate the quality of each problem on a 5-point scale. The results revealed that the majority of the teacher…

  1. Fostering the Development of Chemistry Teacher Candidates: A Bioecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2012-01-01

    This ongoing research inquiry investigates through the analysis of teacher candidate experiences the factors influencing two groups of chemistry teacher candidates' development during their extended practica in their second and final year of an after-degree bachelor of education at a university in central Canada. The tenets of Bronfenbrenner's…

  2. Web tools for the prioritization of candidate disease genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, M.O.; Ballouz, S.; Wouters, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite increasing sequencing capacity, genetic disease investigation still frequently results in the identification of loci containing multiple candidate disease genes that need to be tested for involvement in the disease. This process can be expedited by prioritizing the candidates prior to

  3. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  4. t Leave Before You Understand': Supporting Masters Candidates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, due to increased enrolments and the 'pile up' effect, South African academics are increasingly burdened with ... postgraduate level. This research study is part of a larger study on candidates' experiences of postgraduate business studies, with the aim of enhancing supervision practices for the benefit of candidates.

  5. Psychometric Personality Differences Between Candidates in Astronaut Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Justin M; Pecena, Yvonne; Oubaid, Viktor; Maschke, Peter

    This paper investigates personality traits as potential factors for success in an astronaut selection by comparing personality profiles of unsuccessful and successful astronaut candidates in different phases of the ESA selection procedure. It is further addressed whether personality traits could predict an overall assessment rating at the end of the selection. In 2008/2009, ESA performed an astronaut selection with 902 candidates who were either psychologically recommended for mission training (N = 46) or failed in basic aptitude (N = 710) or Assessment Center and interview testing (N = 146). Candidates completed the Temperament Structure Scales (TSS) and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R). Those candidates who failed in basic aptitude testing showed higher levels of Neuroticism (M = 49.8) than the candidates who passed that phase (M = 45.4 and M = 41.6). Additionally, candidates who failed in basic testing had lower levels of Agreeableness (M = 132.9) than recommended candidates (M = 138.1). TSS scales for Achievement (r = 0.19) and Vitality (r = 0.18) showed a significant correlation with the overall assessment rating given by a panel board after a final interview. Results indicate that a personality profile similar to Helmreich's "Right Stuff" is beneficial in astronaut selection. Influences of test anxiety on performance are discussed. Mittelstädt JM, Pecena Y, Oubaid V, Maschke P. Psychometric personality differences between candidates in astronaut selection. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):933-939.

  6. Social Studies Teacher Candidates' Views on Historical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Current study aimed to present Social Studies teacher candidates' views on historical thinking skills. Study was conducted using qualitative design and working group was composed of a total of 121 teacher candidates (62 females and 59 males) attending Social Studies Teaching Department of Karadeniz Technical University and Adiyaman University…

  7. Candidate Political Philosophy: Revelations in the 1960 and 1976 Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, Robert G.; Jackson-Beeck, Marilyn

    Since voters rarely have access to a candidate's unexpurgated statements, they rely on political advertising, film footage, and media interpretations. Thus, their expectations of candidates generally reflect selective reporting and self-aggrandizement. A framework for researching the degree of understanding reached between politicians and the…

  8. Teacher Candidate Technology Integration: For Student Learning or Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia; Zhang, Shaoan; Strudler, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of instructional technology knowledge for student-centered learning by teacher candidates is investigated in this study. Using the transfer of learning theoretical framework, a mixed methods research design was employed to investigate whether secondary teacher candidates were able to transfer the instructional technology knowledge for…

  9. Holmes versus Traditional Teacher Candidates: Labor Market Receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; And Others

    1997-01-01

    "Typical" paper credentials were used to create 12 hypothetical teacher candidates. Credential contents were varied to reflect all combinations of college preparatory institutions (Holmes vs. traditional), education degree types, and chronological ages. Randomly selected high school principals then evaluated candidates. Holmes-prepared…

  10. Candidate gene studies and the quest for the entrepreneurial gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); C.A. Rietveld (Niels); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCandidate gene studies of human behavior are gaining interest in economics and entrepreneurship research. Performing and interpreting these studies is not straightforward because the selection of candidates influences the interpretation of the results. As an example, Nicolaou et al.

  11. French presidential election: nuclear energy in candidates' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    Generally right candidates consider nuclear energy as a chance for France because it is an industrial asset for the country, it releases no greenhouse gases and has given France its large energy independence. They are ready to reconsider the limitation imposed on the share of nuclear energy in the future energy mix and they want to reinforce research for next generations of reactors. The far-right candidate wishes to use nuclear energy massively to produce hydrogen in order to reduce by half the consumption of fossil energies in 20 years. Generally left candidates back the law on the energy transition that was passed during last legislature and that limits the nuclear power share to 50% while developing green energies. The far-left candidates wish a progressive and complete abandon of nuclear energy. All candidates wish a greater share of renewable energies in the future energy mix. (A.C.)

  12. An annotated history of container candidate material selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    This paper documents events in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project that have influenced the selection of metals and alloys proposed for fabrication of waste package containers for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The time period from 1981 to 1988 is covered in this annotated history. The history traces the candidate materials that have been considered at different stages of site characterization planning activities. At present, six candidate materials are considered and described in the 1988 Consultation Draft of the NNWSI Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The six materials are grouped into two alloy families, copper-base materials and iron to nickel-base materials with an austenitic structure. The three austenitic candidates resulted from a 1983 survey of a longer list of candidate materials; the other three candidates resulted from a special request from DOE in 1984 to evaluate copper and copper-base alloys. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  14. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...

  15. On (dynamic) range minimum queries in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, L.; Fischer, Johannes; Sanders, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional range minimum query (RMQ) problem in the external memory model. We provide the first space-optimal solution to the batched static version of the problem. On an instance with N elements and Q queries, our solution takes Θ(sort(N + Q)) = Θ( N+QB log M /B N+QB ) I...

  16. 42 CFR 86.31 - Eligibility; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; minimum requirements. 86.31 Section 86.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct...

  17. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  18. On the relationship between stress intensity factor (K) and minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on crack-tip plastic zones are of fundamental importance in describing the process of failure and in formulating various fracture criteria. Minimum plastic zone radius (MPZR) theory is widely used in prediction of crack initiation angle in mixed mode fracture analysis of engineering materials. In this study, shape and ...

  19. Physics at the CERN collider using a ''minimum bias'' trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Bezaguet, A.; Boeck, R.; Calvetti, M.; Carroll, T.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ceradini, F.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; DiBitinto, D.; Ellis, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Jank, W.; Jorat, G.; Kowalski, H.; Kryn, D.; Lacava, F.; Markiewicz, T.; Maurin, G.; Muirhead, H.; Muller, F.; Naumann, L.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, G.; Placci, A.; Revol, J.P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohlf, J.; Rossi, P.; Rubbia, C.; Sadoulet, B.; Schinzel, D.; Tao, C.; Timmer, J.; Meer, S. van der; Vialle, J.P.; Vuillemin, V.; Xie, G.Y.; Zurfluh, E.; Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Rich, J.; Sass, R.; Saudraix, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spiro, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Geer, S.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Orkin-Lecourtois, A.; Sajot, G.; Vrana, J.; Bacci, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Corden, M.; Dallman, D.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Eggert, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Frey, R.; Fruehwirth, R.; Garvey, J.; Giboni, K.L.; Gibson, W.R.; Gutierrez, P.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hodges, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Karimaeki, V.; Keeler, R.; Kenyon, I.; Kernan, A.; Kinnunen, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Lehmann, H.; Leuchs, K.; McMahon, T.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Piano Mortari, G.; Pimiae, M.; Radermacher, E.; Ransdell, J.; Reithler, H.; Salvi, G.; Salvini, G.; Strauss, J.; Sumorok, K.; Szoncso, F.; Smith, D.; Thompson, G.; Tscheslog, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Wahl, H.D.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the physics of the events collected using this ''minimum bias trigger'' is described. After a brief description of the detector, I present results concerning particle production (pseudorapidity distributions, multiplicity and KNO scaling). Transverse energy distributions, long and short range correlations, and finally high psub(t) physics and jets. (orig./HSI)

  20. Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchit Boonthiem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improvement of the Minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, lognormal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PHtransform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the Minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the Minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the Minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged

  1. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and well-being (see subpart C of this part); and (ii) The Act sets an 18-year minimum age with respect... hazardous for the employment of minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being (see subpart... regulation or by order that the employment of employees between the ages of 14 and 16 years in occupations...

  2. Impact of HIPAA's minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J; Jarvik, Gail P

    2018-04-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule's minimum necessary standard, which applies to sharing of genomic data, particularly clinical data, following 2013 Privacy Rule revisions. This research used the Thomson Reuters Westlaw database and law library resources in its legal analysis of the HIPAA privacy tiers and the impact of the minimum necessary standard on genomic data sharing. We considered relevant example cases of genomic data-sharing needs. In a climate of stepped-up HIPAA enforcement, this standard is of concern to laboratories that generate, use, and share genomic information. How data-sharing activities are characterized-whether for research, public health, or clinical interpretation and medical practice support-affects how the minimum necessary standard applies and its overall impact on data access and use. There is no clear regulatory guidance on how to apply HIPAA's minimum necessary standard when considering the sharing of information in the data-rich environment of genomic testing. Laboratories that perform genomic testing should engage with policy makers to foster sound, well-informed policies and appropriate characterization of data-sharing activities to minimize adverse impacts on day-to-day workflows.

  3. Minimum cost dynamic flows: The series-parallel case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic network consists of a directed graph with capacities, costs, and integral transit times on the arcs. In the minimum-cost dynamic flow problem (MCDFP), the goal is to compute, for a given dynamic network with source s, sink t, and two integers v and T, a feasible dynamic flow from s to t of

  4. A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, Sussex University, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Tartaglia, Giangaetano [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy); Tirozzi, Brunello [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2004-04-30

    We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons.

  5. Estimation of Minimum DNBR Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenon of boiling crisis is called a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The DNB phenomena can influence the fuel cladding and fuel pellets. The DNB ratio (DNBR) is defined as the ratio of the expected DNB heat flux to the actual fuel rod heat flux. Since it is very important to monitor and predict the minimum DNBR in a reactor core to prevent the boiling crisis and clad melting, a number of researches have been conducted to predict DNBR values. The aim of this study is to estimate the minimum DNBR in a reactor core using the measured signals of the reactor coolant system (RCS) by applying cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) according to operating conditions. Reactor core monitoring and protection systems require minimum DNBR prediction. The CFNN can be used to optimize the minimum DNBR value through the process of adding fuzzy neural networks (FNN) repeatedly. The proposed algorithm is trained by using the data set prepared for training (development data) and verified by using another data set different (independent) from the development data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the first fuel cycle of OPR1000. The RMS errors are 0.23% and 0.12% for the positive and negative ASI, respectively

  6. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 27.204 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by security issue. (a) Release Chemicals—(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest...

  7. 29 CFR 779.508 - Eighteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eighteen-year minimum. 779.508 Section 779.508 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  8. 29 CFR 779.506 - Sixteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sixteen-year minimum. 779.506 Section 779.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  9. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide... commission on sales. An exempt employee also may receive a percentage of the sales or profits of the employer...

  10. 76 FR 23208 - Alternative to Minimum Days Off Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Language X. Voluntary Consensus Standards XI. Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact XII. Paperwork... the Current Fitness for Duty Requirements On September 3, 2010, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI... to the minimum days off requirements considered the collective advantages and disadvantages of having...

  11. Stellar Spectral Classification with Minimum Within-Class and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the important stellar spectral classification methods, and it is widely used in practice. But its classification efficiencies cannot be greatly improved because it does not take the class distribution into consideration. In view of this, a modified SVM-named Minimum within-class and ...

  12. Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  13. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  14. Oxygen minimum zones harbour novel viral communities with low diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassman, N.; Prieto-Davo, A.; Walsh, K.; Silva, G.G.; Angly, F.; Akhter, S.; Barott, K.; Busch, J.; McDole, T.; Haggerty, J.M.; Willner, D.; Alarcon, G.; Ulloa, O.; DeLong, E.F.; Dutilh, B.E.; Rohwer, F.; Dinsdale, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oceanographic features that affect ocean productivity and biodiversity, and contribute to ocean nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we describe the viral communities associated with the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) OMZ off Iquique, Chile for the

  15. Sanitation in wilderness: Balancing minimum tool policies and wilderness values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Lachapelle

    2000-01-01

    Officials with the four wilderness managing agencies are faced with balancing wilderness preservation values and the minimum tool policies of their respective agencies. One example is the management of sanitation, particularly human waste and the often intrusive infrastructure that accompanies its treatment and disposal. Because the treatment and disposal of human...

  16. Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'chenko, A.A.; Malov, I.F.; Mogil'nitskaya, L.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown

  17. Minimum-link paths among obstacles in the plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, J.S.B.; Rote, G.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Given a set of nonintersecting polygonal obstacles in the plane, thelink distance between two pointss andt is the minimum number of edges required to form a polygonal path connectings tot that avoids all obstacles. We present an algorithm that computes the link distance (and a corresponding

  18. Generating Approximative Minimum Length Paths in 3D for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Flemming; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bisgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We consider the challenge of planning a minimum length path from an initial position to a desired position for a rotorcraft. The path is found in a 3-dimensional Euclidean space containing a geometric obstacle. We base our approach on visibility graphs which have been used extensively for path pl...

  19. Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L...

  20. 49 CFR 236.0 - Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... state law seeking damages for personal injury, death, or property damage alleging that a party has... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties...

  1. Minimum component high frequency current mode rectifier | Sampe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a current mode full wave rectifier circuit is proposed. The current mode rectifier circuit is implemented utilizing a floating current source (FCS) as an active element. The minimum component full wave rectifier utilizes only a single floating current source, two diodes and two grounded resistors. The extremely ...

  2. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  3. Deformed special relativity with an invariant minimum speed and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, according to special relativity (SR), the momentum cannot ... Deformed special relativity with an invariant minimum speed ..... However, we need to show that there is an anti-gravitational interaction between the ordinary proof mass m and the big sphere with a 'dark mass' of vacuum (MΛ), but let us first ...

  4. A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianfeng; Tartaglia, Giangaetano; Tirozzi, Brunello

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons

  5. 14 CFR 91.119 - Minimum safe altitudes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure. (d) Helicopters. Helicopters may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum safe altitudes: General. 91.119 Section 91.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  6. Ant Colony Optimization and the Minimum Cut Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kötzing, Timo; Lehre, Per Kristian; Neumann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a powerful metaheuristic for solving combinatorial optimization problems. With this paper we contribute to the theoretical understanding of this kind of algorithm by investigating the classical minimum cut problem. An ACO algorithm similar to the one that was prov...

  7. Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... Whether minimum wages affect the job market depends a lot on the extent to ... and security) – no significant disemployment effects were reported.” ... Hosting global events is a popular strategy for boosting city profiles and ...

  8. 36 CFR 223.61 - Establishing minimum stumpage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing.... No timber may be sold or cut under timber sale contracts for less than minimum stumpage rates except... amounts of material not meeting utilization standards of the timber sale contract. For any timber sale...

  9. 47 CFR 73.807 - Minimum distance separation between stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and the right-hand column lists (for informational purposes only) the minimum distance necessary for...) Within 320 km of the Mexican border, LP100 stations must meet the following separations with respect to any Mexican stations: Mexican station class Co-channel (km) First-adjacent channel (km) Second-third...

  10. Minimum Requirements for Core Competency in Pediatric Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children.

  11. The"minimum information about an environmental sequence" (MIENS) specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, P.; Kottmann, R.; Field, D.; Knight, R.; Cole, J.R.; Amaral-Zettler, L.; Gilbert, J.A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, I.; Johnston, A.; Cochrane, G.; Vaughan, R.; Hunter, C.; Park, J.; Morrison, N.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sterk, P.; Arumugam, M.; Baumgartner, L.; Birren, B.W.; Blaser, M.J.; Bonazzi, V.; Bork, P.; Buttigieg, P. L.; Chain, P.; Costello, E.K.; Huot-Creasy, H.; Dawyndt, P.; DeSantis, T.; Fierer, N.; Fuhrman, J.; Gallery, R.E.; Gibbs, R.A.; Giglio, M.G.; Gil, I. San; Gonzalez, A.; Gordon, J.I.; Guralnick, R.; Hankeln, W.; Highlander, S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Jansson, J.; Kennedy, J.; Knights, D.; Koren, O.; Kuczynski, J.; Kyrpides, N.; Larsen, R.; Lauber, C.L.; Legg, T.; Ley, R.E.; Lozupone, C.A.; Ludwig, W.; Lyons, D.; Maguire, E.; Methe, B.A.; Meyer, F.; Nakieny, S.; Nelson, K.E.; Nemergut, D.; Neufeld, J.D.; Pace, N.R.; Palanisamy, G.; Peplies, J.; Peterson, J.; Petrosino, J.; Proctor, L.; Raes, J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Ravel, J.; Relman, D.A.; Assunta-Sansone, S.; Schriml, L.; Sodergren, E.; Spor, A.; Stombaugh, J.; Tiedje, J.M.; Ward, D.V.; Weinstock, G.M.; Wendel, D.; White, O.; Wikle, A.; Wortman, J.R.; Glockner, F.O.; Bushman, F.D.; Charlson, E.; Gevers, D.; Kelley, S.T.; Neubold, L.K.; Oliver, A.E.; Pruesse, E.; Quast, C.; Schloss, P.D.; Sinha, R.; Whitely, A.

    2010-10-15

    We present the Genomic Standards Consortium's (GSC) 'Minimum Information about an ENvironmental Sequence' (MIENS) standard for describing marker genes. Adoption of MIENS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity across the Tree of Life as it is currently being documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.

  12. Design of Linear - and Minimum-phase FIR-equalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Jensen, K.J.; Gaunholt, Hans

    1996-01-01

    an error function which is quadratic in the filtercoefficients. The advantage of the quadratic function is the ability to find the optimal coefficients solving a system of linear equations without iterations.The transformation to a minimum-phase equalizer is carried out by homomorphic deconvolution...

  13. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  14. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  15. Interpreting Minimum Wage Effects on Wage Distributions: A Cautionary Tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Flinn

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is tempting to infer the welfare effects of minimum wage changes from empirical observations on pre- and post-change wage distributions, in this exercise we have attempted to point out the hazards of doing so. We have focused on wage distributions in this paper, but this

  16. Researching the Minimum Wage: A Moral Economy for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverow-Turk, Vara

    1991-01-01

    Describes a writing assignment that requires students to research and report on what it would be like to live on minimum wage. Explains that this assignment is not really any different than the traditional assignment, it is simply more obvious about its political content because it involves an inquiry into economics rather than literature or…

  17. Adding Curvature to Minimum Description Length Shape Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling seeks a compact description of a set of shapes in terms of the coordinates of marks on the shapes. It has been shown that the mark positions resulting from this optimisation to a large extent solve the so-called point correspondence...

  18. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  19. PEACE: pulsar evaluation algorithm for candidate extraction - a software package for post-analysis processing of pulsar survey candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.J.; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F.A.; Martinez, J.; Dartez, L.P.; Mata, A.; Lunsford, G.; Cohen, S.; Biwer, C.M.; Rohr, M.; Flanigan, J.; Walker, A.; Banaszak, S.; Allen, B.; Barr, E.D.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R.D.; Freire, P.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kaspi, V.M.; Knispel, B.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.; McLaughlin, M.; Ransom, S.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.; Stairs, I.; Tan, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars.

  20. ASASSN-16dt and ASASSN-16hg: Promising candidate period bouncers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mariko; Isogai, Keisuke; Kato, Taichi; Taguchi, Kenta; Wakamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Myers, Gordon; Dvorak, Shawn; Starr, Peter; Brincat, Stephen M.; de Miguel, Enrique; Ulowetz, Joseph; Itoh, Hiroshi; Stone, Geoff; Nogami, Daisaku

    2018-04-01

    We present optical photometry of superoutbursts that occurred in 2016 of two WZ Sge-type dwarf novae (DNe), ASASSN-16dt and ASASSN-16hg. Their light curves showed a dip in brightness between the first plateau stage with no ordinary superhumps (or early superhumps) and the second plateau stage with ordinary superhumps. We find that the dip is produced by the slow evolution of the 3 : 1 resonance tidal instability and that it would likely be observed in low mass-ratio objects. An estimated mass ratio (q ≡ M2/M1) from the period of developing (stage A) superhumps [0.06420(3) d] was 0.036(2) in ASASSN-16dt. Additionally, its superoutburst has many properties similar to those in other low-q WZ Sge-type DNe: long-lasting stage-A superhumps, small superhump amplitudes, long delay of ordinary-superhump appearances, and a slow decline rate in the plateau stage with superhumps. Its very small mass ratio and observational characteristics suggest that this system is one of the best candidates for a period bouncer—a binary accounting for the missing population of post-period minimum cataclysmic variables. Although it is not clearly verified due to the lack of detection of stage-A superhumps, ASASSN-16hg might be a possible candidate for period bouncers on the basis of the morphology of its light curves and the small superhump amplitudes. Many outburst properties of period bouncer candidates would originate from the small tidal effects of their secondary stars.

  1. Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences--the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environment...

  2. Disease candidate gene identification and prioritization using protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronow Bruce J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most of the current disease candidate gene identification and prioritization methods depend on functional annotations, the coverage of the gene functional annotations is a limiting factor. In the current study, we describe a candidate gene prioritization method that is entirely based on protein-protein interaction network (PPIN analyses. Results For the first time, extended versions of the PageRank and HITS algorithms, and the K-Step Markov method are applied to prioritize disease candidate genes in a training-test schema. Using a list of known disease-related genes from our earlier study as a training set ("seeds", and the rest of the known genes as a test list, we perform large-scale cross validation to rank the candidate genes and also evaluate and compare the performance of our approach. Under appropriate settings – for example, a back probability of 0.3 for PageRank with Priors and HITS with Priors, and step size 6 for K-Step Markov method – the three methods achieved a comparable AUC value, suggesting a similar performance. Conclusion Even though network-based methods are generally not as effective as integrated functional annotation-based methods for disease candidate gene prioritization, in a one-to-one comparison, PPIN-based candidate gene prioritization performs better than all other gene features or annotations. Additionally, we demonstrate that methods used for studying both social and Web networks can be successfully used for disease candidate gene prioritization.

  3. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  4. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy

  5. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: CyberKnife"® robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony"® mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife"®. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony"® mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife"® was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  7. A CATALOG OF MOVING GROUP CANDIDATES IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Gang; Chen Yuqin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the kernel estimator and wavelet technique, we have identified 22 moving group candidates in the solar neighborhood from a sample which includes around 14,000 dwarfs and 6000 giants. Six of them were previously known as the Hercules stream, the Sirus-UMa stream, the Hyades stream, the Caster group, the Pleiades stream, and the IC 2391; five of them have also been reported by other authors. 11 moving group candidates, not previously reported in the literature, show prominent structures in dwarf or giant samples. A catalog of moving group candidates in the solar neighborhood is presented in this work.

  8. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  9. Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.

  10. PORTFOLIO COMPOSITION WITH MINIMUM VARIANCE: COMPARISON WITH MARKET BENCHMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Menezes Cavalcante

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio optimization strategies are advocated as being able to allow the composition of stocks portfolios that provide returns above market benchmarks. This study aims to determine whether, in fact, portfolios based on the minimum variance strategy, optimized by the Modern Portfolio Theory, are able to achieve earnings above market benchmarks in Brazil. Time series of 36 securities traded on the BM&FBOVESPA have been analyzed in a long period of time (1999-2012, with sample windows of 12, 36, 60 and 120 monthly observations. The results indicated that the minimum variance portfolio performance is superior to market benchmarks (CDI and IBOVESPA in terms of return and risk-adjusted return, especially in medium and long-term investment horizons.

  11. Lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter

    , such as the Goppa bound, the Feng-Rao bound and the Kirfel-Pellikaan bound. I will finish my talk by giving several examples. Especially for two-point codes, the generalized order bound is fairly easy to compute. As an illustration, I will indicate how a lower bound can be obtained for the minimum distance of some...... description of these codes in terms of order domains has been found. In my talk I will indicate how one can use the ideas behind the order bound to obtain a lower bound for the minimum distance of any AG-code. After this I will compare this generalized order bound with other known lower bounds...

  12. The Factors that Determine the Minimum Speed of an Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, F H

    1921-01-01

    The author argues that because of a general misunderstanding of the principles of flight at low speed, there are a large number of airplanes that could be made to fly several miles per hour slower than at present by making slight modifications. In order to show how greatly the wing section affects the minimum speed, curves are plotted against various loadings. The disposition of wings on the airplane slightly affects the lift coefficient, and a few such cases are discussed. Another factor that has an effect on minimum speed is the extra lift exerted by the slip stream on the wings. Also discussed are procedures to be followed by the pilot, especially with regard to stick movements during low speed flight. Also covered are stalling, yaw, rolling moments, lateral control, and the effectiveness of ailerons and rudders.

  13. Minimum energy consumption process synthesis for energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ping, Jia [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, Wang; Shu-Guang, Xiang; Xin-Sun, Tan; Fang-Yu, Han [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2008-05-15

    The paper presents a synthesis strategy for the chemical processes with energy saving. The concept of minimum energy consumption process (MECP) is proposed. Three characteristics of MECP are introduced, including thermodynamic minimum energy demand, energy consumption efficiency and integration degree. These characteristics are evaluated according to quantitative thermodynamic analysis and qualitative knowledge rules. The procedure of synthesis strategy is proposed to support the generation of MECP alternatives, which combine flowsheet integration and heat integration. The cases studies will focus on how integration degrees of a process affect the energy-saving results. The separation sequences of the hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) process and ethanol distillation process as case studies are used to illustrate. (author)

  14. Normalized Minimum Error Entropy Algorithm with Recursive Power Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namyong Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimum error entropy (MEE algorithm is known to be superior in signal processing applications under impulsive noise. In this paper, based on the analysis of behavior of the optimum weight and the properties of robustness against impulsive noise, a normalized version of the MEE algorithm is proposed. The step size of the MEE algorithm is normalized with the power of input entropy that is estimated recursively for reducing its computational complexity. The proposed algorithm yields lower minimum MSE (mean squared error and faster convergence speed simultaneously than the original MEE algorithm does in the equalization simulation. On the condition of the same convergence speed, its performance enhancement in steady state MSE is above 3 dB.

  15. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  16. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  17. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  19. Pengoperasian Beban Listrik Fase Tunggal Terkendali Melalui Minimum System Berbasis Mikrokontroler Dan Sensor Voice Recognition (Vr)

    OpenAIRE

    Goeritno, Arief; Ginting, Sandy Ferdiansyah; Yatim, Rakhmad

    2017-01-01

    Minimum system berbasis mikrokontroler dan sensor voice recognition (VR) sebagai pengendali aktuator telah digunakan untuk pengoperasian beban listrik fase tunggal. Minimum system adalah suatu sistem yang tersusun melalui 2 (dua) tahapan, yaitu (a) diagram rangkaian dan bentuk fisis board dan (b) pengawatan terintegrasi terhadap minimum system pada sistem mikrokontroler ATmega16. Keberadaan sistem mikrokontroler pada minimum system perlu program tertanam melalui pemrograman berbasis bahasa ...

  20. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum investment of lessor. 5c.168(f)(8)-4....168(f)(8)-4 Minimum investment of lessor. (a) Minimum investment. Under section 168(f)(8)(B)(ii), an... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the lease...

  1. 29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the minimum...

  2. 41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...

  3. 29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...

  4. Phenomena of nonlinear oscillation and special resonance of a dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure rotary joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Niu, Junyang; McCoul, David; Ren, Zhi; Pei, Qibing

    2015-03-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer, so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Driven with an alternating electric field, the joint deformation vibrational frequency follows the input voltage frequency. However, the authors find that if the rotational inertia increases such that the inertial torque makes the frame deform over a negative angle, then the joint motion will become complicated and the vibrational mode will alter with the change of voltage frequency. The vibration with the largest amplitude does not occur while the voltage frequency is equal to natural response frequency of the joint. Rather, the vibrational amplitude will be quite large over a range of other frequencies at which the vibrational frequency is half of the voltage frequency. This phenomenon was analyzed by a comparison of the timing sequences between voltage and joint vibration. This vibrational mode with the largest amplitude can be applied to the generation lift in a flapping wing actuated by dielectric elastomers.

  5. Survival at the Center - The Stability of Minimum Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hehenkamp , Burkhard; Wambach , Achim

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We model a Hotelling market with multidimensional product differentiation in an evolutionary framework. Both evolutionary stability (in the sense of Schaffer, 1989) and stochastic stability (following Kandori et al., 1993, and Young, 1993) are analysed. It is shown that firms move towards the center in product space, i.e. a "principle of minimum differentiation" on all dimensions of the product space applies.

  6. Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.

  7. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    elements of the US nuclear force gives this debate added meaning and urgency . One alternative currently under discus- sion is minimum deterrence. This...in 2013 illustrates this concept well.55 In this sense , an escalation-deterrence force would supply the tools neces- sary for context-specific...Shaub, “Remembrance of Things Past,” 78–79, 82. 16. Ibid., 80. For further elaboration of this argument, see James Forsyth’s “The Common Sense of

  8. Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. The power of reordering for online minimum makespan scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Matthias; Özmen, Deniz; Westermann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In the classic minimum makespan scheduling problem, we are given an input sequence of jobs with processing times. A scheduling algorithm has to assign the jobs to m parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the makespan, which is the time it takes until all jobs are processed. In this paper, we consider online scheduling algorithms without preemption. However, we do not require that each arriving job has to be assigned immediately to one of the machines. A reordering buffer with limited...

  10. Minimum-domain impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamic force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L. L.; Liu, L. Q.; Su, W. D.; Wu, J. Z.

    2018-01-01

    We extend the impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamics from its classic global form to finite-domain formulation then to minimum-domain form and from incompressible to compressible flows. For incompressible flow, the minimum-domain impulse theory raises the finding of Li and Lu ["Force and power of flapping plates in a fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 712, 598-613 (2012)] to a theorem: The entire force with discrete wake is completely determined by only the time rate of impulse of those vortical structures still connecting to the body, along with the Lamb-vector integral thereof that captures the contribution of all the rest disconnected vortical structures. For compressible flows, we find that the global form in terms of the curl of momentum ∇ × (ρu), obtained by Huang [Unsteady Vortical Aerodynamics (Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 1994)], can be generalized to having an arbitrary finite domain, but the formula is cumbersome and in general ∇ × (ρu) no longer has discrete structures and hence no minimum-domain theory exists. Nevertheless, as the measure of transverse process only, the unsteady field of vorticity ω or ρω may still have a discrete wake. This leads to a minimum-domain compressible vorticity-moment theory in terms of ρω (but it is beyond the classic concept of impulse). These new findings and applications have been confirmed by our numerical experiments. The results not only open an avenue to combine the theory with computation-experiment in wide applications but also reveal a physical truth that it is no longer necessary to account for all wake vortical structures in computing the force and moment.

  11. The Vital Minimum Amount of Drinking Water Required in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez Moscoso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2017, the government of Ecuador established the minimum quantity of water required to be provided for free by drinking water utilities. Ecuador recognized the access to water as a fundamental human right because it guarantees the good living, known as “Sumak kawsay”, an indigenous Andean concept, in the Ecuadorian Constitution. This represents a novel approach to water rights in the world, as it is the first attempt to establish a minimum quantity of water under a constitutional guarantee by legislation, rather than regulation or judicial decision. However, this novel legislative approach raises the question of how this minimum amount of free water will impact the most vulnerable members of the Ecuadorian community. This paper provides the results of the first comprehensive research of the minimum required water provision in Ecuador. In order to measure the impact on the income of households, we built a methodology integrating: doctrinaire analyses, normative studies, and economic analyses. According to the Ecuadorian legislation, over-consumption of raw water generates additional costs that must be paid by water companies to the central government. In that regard, there is an inevitable relationship between the efficiency of the service and those additional costs. Efficiency, on this case, is the capacity of water companies (public or private to provide water services at an adequate price, observing the following parameters: quantity, quality and sufficiency. Our research found that with this legislation in three Ecuadorian local governments (Cuenca, Gualaceo and Suscal, the most vulnerable households (i.e., low-income and/or indigenous households will be affected the most. This means that and those families will spend the most part of their income on water services otherwise they would have to reduce their water consumption.

  12. Detailed spectroscopy in the superdeformed second minimum of 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirolf, P.G.; Gassmann, D.; Habs, D.; Chromik, M.J.; Eisermann, Y.; Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Maier, H.J.; Metz, A.; Reiter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Superdeformed prolate nuclei, having an axis ratio of about 2:1, have first been discovered in fission isomers in the actinide region almost 40 years ago by Polikanov et al.. Their interpretation of being the result of microscopic shell corrections on top of the macroscopic liquid drop potential leading to a second minimum in the nuclear potential energy surface is well established. 240 Pu with its 3.7 ns fission isomer may be regarded as the prototype nucleus for spectroscopic studies of superdeformed actinide nuclei since the identification of the ground state rotational band in conversion electron measurements [1]. Though from the knowledge on excited states in the first minimum and previous measurements in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second well of 240 Pu can be expected, none of them has been experimentally identified so far. Quite surprisingly, no low-lying collective quadrupole excitations could be observed in a recent detailed high-resolution and high-efficiency γ-spectroscopy experiment [2]. Complementary information could be obtained in conversion electron measurements in coincidence with isomeric fission performed at the Garching Accelerator Laboratory, resulting in the first identification of the lowest β-vibrational band [3]. In a combined analysis of the γ-spectroscopic and conversion electron data conversion coefficients α K or limits on α K could be deduced, thus allowing to determine the multipolarities of the transitions. A predominant population of negative parity states in the second well could be observed that can be explained by the filtering function of the inner and outer fission barrier. Complementary transmission resonance measurements have been performed, yielding new information on the fine structure of (β-)vibrational multi-phonon states. A new method could be established to determine the excitation energy of

  13. Designing minimum data sets of health smart card system

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtaram Nematollahi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays different countries benefit from health system based on health cards and projects related to smart cards. Lack of facilities which cover this technology is obvious in our society. This paper aims to design Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card System for Iran. Method: This research was an applied descriptive study. At first, we reviewed the same projects and guidelines of selected countries and the proposed model was designed in accordance to the country’s ...

  14. Minimum deterrence and regional security. Section 2. Other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azikiwe, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Compared to European political and security circumstance, minimum deterrence is less an illusion in other regions where weapon free zones already exist. It will continue to be relevant to the security of other regions. Strategic arms limitation should be pursued vigorously in a constructive and pragmatic manner, bearing in mind the need to readjust to new global challenges. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is the linchpin on which the Non-proliferation Treaty rests

  15. Minimum ionizing particle detection using amorphous silicon diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, J.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Buitrago, R.H. (Glasstech Solar, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (USA)); Oakley, D.; Cumalat, J.P.; Nauenberg, U. (Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics); McNeil, J.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (USA). Dept. of Physics); Anderson, D.F. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon pin diodes have been used to detect minimum ionizing electrons with a pulse height signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 3. A distinct signal was seen for shaping times from 100 to 3000 ns. The devices used had a 54 {mu}m thick intrinsic layer and an active area of 0.1 cm{sup 2}. The maximum signal was 3200 electrons with a noise width of 950 electrons for a shaping time of 250 ns. (orig.).

  16. Microbial metatranscriptomics in a permanent marine oxygen minimum zone

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Frank J.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; DeLong, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous characterization of taxonomic composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) has potential to broaden perspectives on the microbial and biogeochemical dynamics in these environments. Here, we present a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial community metabolism in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific OMZ off northern Chile. Community RNA was sampled in late austral autumn from four depths (50, 85, 110, 200 m) extending across the oxycl...

  17. A Theory of Compliance with Minimum Wage Law

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice; Jellal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. Design/methodology/approach – Theoretical modeling under government compliance policy and wages & employment under non compliance. Findings – The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the governm...

  18. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...... phenomena and proposes performance requirements instead of thickness requirements for hull panels in high-speed craft made of different building materials....

  19. Vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Molecular vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential is treated by means of a quartic model potential, by reference to the tables published by Jaan Laane and the results of harmonic analyses for the stationary points. The inversion vibration of ammonia is treated in detail. - Not...... on the harmonic approximation for polyatomic molecules are appended. - Presented at a NORFA Workshop in Hirtshals, Denmark, August 1997....

  20. Passivity Based Stabilization of Non-minimum Phase Nonlinear Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Travieso-Torres, J.C.; Duarte-Mermoud, M.A.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 417-426 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : nonlinear systems * stabilisation * passivity * state feedback Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-passivity based stabilization of non-minimum phase nonlinear systems.pdf

  1. Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt; Jónsson, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used

  2. Designing minimum data sets of health smart card system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Nematollahi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays different countries benefit from health system based on health cards and projects related to smart cards. Lack of facilities which cover this technology is obvious in our society. This paper aims to design Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card System for Iran. Method: This research was an applied descriptive study. At first, we reviewed the same projects and guidelines of selected countries and the proposed model was designed in accordance to the country’s needs, taking people’s attitude about it by Delphi technique. A data analysis in study stage of MDS(Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card in the selective countries was done by comparative tables and determination of similarities and differences of the MDS. In the stage of gaining credit for model, it was accomplished with descriptive statistics to the extent of absolute and relative frequency through SPSS (version 16. Results: MDS of Health Smart Card for Iran is presented in the patient’s card and health provider’s card on basisof studiesin America, Australia, Turkey and Belgium and needs of our country and after doing Delphi technique with 94 percent agreement confirmed. Conclusion: Minimum Data Sets of Health Smart Card provides continuous care for patients and communication among providers. So, it causes a decrease in the complications of threatening diseases. Collection of MDS of diseases increases the quality of care assessment

  3. Locally Minimum Storage Regenerating Codes in Distributed Cloud Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Wei Luo; Wei Liang; Xiangyang Liu; Xiaodai Dong

    2017-01-01

    In distributed cloud storage sys-tems, inevitably there exist multiple node fail-ures at the same time. The existing methods of regenerating codes, including minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes and mini-mum bandwidth regenerating (MBR) codes, are mainly to repair one single or several failed nodes, unable to meet the repair need of distributed cloud storage systems. In this paper, we present locally minimum storage re-generating (LMSR) codes to recover multiple failed nodes at the same time. Specifically, the nodes in distributed cloud storage systems are divided into multiple local groups, and in each local group (4, 2) or (5, 3) MSR codes are constructed. Moreover, the grouping method of storage nodes and the repairing process of failed nodes in local groups are studied. The-oretical analysis shows that LMSR codes can achieve the same storage overhead as MSR codes. Furthermore, we verify by means of simulation that, compared with MSR codes, LMSR codes can reduce the repair bandwidth and disk I/O overhead effectively.

  4. Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) for binary robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Conn, A T; Rossiter, J

    2015-01-01

    Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) are devices derived from the union of the concepts of dielectric elastomer minimum energy structures and bistable systems. This article presents this novel approach to active, elastic and bistable structures. BiMES are based on dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which act as antagonists and provide the actuation for switching between the two equilibrium positions. A central elastic beam is the backbone of the structure and is buckled into the minimum energy configurations by the action of the two DEAs. The theory and the model of the device are presented, and also its fabrication process. BiMES are considered as fundamental units for more complex structures, which are presented and fabricated as proof of concept. Two different ways of combining the multiple units are proposed: a parallel configuration, to make a simple gripper, and a serial configuration, to generate a binary device. The possibility of using the bistable system as a continuous bender actuator, by modulating the actuation voltage of the two DEAs, was also investigated. (paper)

  5. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  6. The minimum work required for air conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazmy, Majed M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to estimate the minimum work required for the air conditioning process. The air conditioning process for hot and humid climates involves reducing air temperature and humidity. In the present analysis the inlet state is the state of the environment which has also been chosen as the dead state. The final state is the human thermal comfort fixed at 20 o C dry bulb temperature and 60% relative humidity. The general air conditioning process is represented by an equivalent path consisting of an isothermal dehumidification followed by a sensible cooling. An exergy analysis is performed on each process separately. Dehumidification is analyzed as a separation process of an ideal mixture of air and water vapor. The variations of the minimum work required for the air conditioning process with the ambient conditions is estimated and the ratio of the work needed for dehumidification to the total work needed to perform the entire process is presented. The effect of small variations in the final conditions on the minimum required work is evaluated. Tolerating a warmer or more humid final condition can be an easy solution to reduce the energy consumptions during critical load periods

  7. A Minimum Path Algorithm Among 3D-Polyhedral Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeltekin, Aysin

    1989-03-01

    In this work we introduce a minimum path theorem for 3D case. We also develop an algorithm based on the theorem we prove. The algorithm will be implemented on the software package we develop using C language. The theorem we introduce states that; "Given the initial point I, final point F and S be the set of finite number of static obstacles then an optimal path P from I to F, such that PA S = 0 is composed of straight line segments which are perpendicular to the edge segments of the objects." We prove the theorem as well as we develop the following algorithm depending on the theorem to find the minimum path among 3D-polyhedral objects. The algorithm generates the point Qi on edge ei such that at Qi one can find the line which is perpendicular to the edge and the IF line. The algorithm iteratively provides a new set of initial points from Qi and exploits all possible paths. Then the algorithm chooses the minimum path among the possible ones. The flowchart of the program as well as the examination of its numerical properties are included.

  8. Campaigning on the Internet: 2008 Presidential General Election Candidate Webpage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is becoming an increasingly important component of political campaigns. This study employed content analysis to apply Functional Theory and Issue Ownership Theory to Obama’s and McCain’s presidential candidate webpages in the 2008 campaign. Acclaims (92% were more common than attacks (98%; defenses did not occur in this sample. Policy (82% was addressed more than character (18%. When discussing policy, these candidates addressed future plans most frequently, followed by general goals and then past deeds; on character, candidates discussed ideals, then personal qualities, and then leadership ability. This study shows that as candidates use the Internet to reach voters, their webpages conform to theoretical expectations.

  9. Whole genome homology-based identification of candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Erhiakporeh

    2016-07-06

    Jul 6, 2016 ... candidate genes for drought tolerance in sesame. (Sesamum ... Our results provided genomic resources for further functional analysis and genetic engineering .... reverse transcribed using the Reverse Transcription System.

  10. On security arguments of the second round SHA-3 candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2012-01-01

    of which got accepted to the first round. 14 candidates were left in the second round, out of which five candidates have been recently chosen for the final round. An important criterion in the selection process is the SHA-3 hash function security. We identify two important classes of security arguments...... for the new designs: (1) the possible reductions of the hash function security to the security of its underlying building blocks and (2) arguments against differential attack on building blocks. In this paper, we compare the state of the art provable security reductions for the second round candidates...... and review arguments and bounds against classes of differential attacks.We discuss all the SHA-3 candidates at a high functional level, analyze, and summarize the security reduction results and bounds against differential attacks. Additionally, we generalize the well-known proof of collision resistance...

  11. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  12. Human Health Safety Evaluation of Halon Replacement Candidates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodd, D. E; Jepson, G. W; Macko, Jr, J. A

    2000-01-01

    .... The services within the Department of Defense (DoD) are directed to determine and evaluate suitable halon replacement candidates that will optimize performance of mission-essential equipment and operations...

  13. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Improving drought tolerance and productivity is one of the most difficult tasks for ... Keywords. Candidate gene; mapping population; polymerase chain reaction; single marker analysis. .... ple and the mean value computed. 2.4 Isolation of DNA.

  14. Update on the Clinical Development of Candidate Malaria Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballou, W. R; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Carucci, Daniel; Richie, Thomas L; Corradin, Giampietro; Diggs, Carter; Druilhe, Pierre; Giersing, Birgitte K; Saul, Allan; Heppner, D. G

    2004-01-01

    ... powerful driver for stimulating clinical development of candidate vaccines for malaria. This new way forward promises to greatly increase the likelihood of bringing a safe and effective vaccine to licensure...

  15. How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the content characteristics of Twitter during an election campaign, and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates. Thereby, it provides a better

  16. from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2004-10-15

    Oct 15, 2004 ... to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic ... Recent developments in molecular genetics ..... scientists in agriculture, medicine and psychology for test-.

  17. The Influence of Explicit Racial Cues on Candidate Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Joshua Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Since Barack Obama's presidential campaign of 2008, media outlets have changed how race is covered and framed during political campaigns. In the so-called "post-racial" era of American politics when race is supposed to matter less, we are still very much attuned to stories that are framed by racial conflict. When the media wraps a "racial mode of interpretation" around a conflict between two candidates, there are potential electoral penalties involved for either a white or black candidate who...

  18. Campaigning on the Internet: 2008 Presidential General Election Candidate Webpage

    OpenAIRE

    William L. Benoit; Mark Glant; Leslie Rill

    2016-01-01

    The Internet is becoming an increasingly important component of political campaigns. This study employed content analysis to apply Functional Theory and Issue Ownership Theory to Obama’s and McCain’s presidential candidate webpages in the 2008 campaign. Acclaims (92%) were more common than attacks (98%); defenses did not occur in this sample. Policy (82%) was addressed more than character (18%). When discussing policy, these candidates addressed future plans most frequently, followed by gener...

  19. Ensemble candidate classification for the LOTAAS pulsar survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. M.; Lyon, R. J.; Stappers, B. W.; Cooper, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Michilli, D.; Sanidas, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges arising from modern large-scale pulsar surveys is the number of candidates generated. Here, we implemented several improvements to the machine learning (ML) classifier previously used by the LOFAR Tied-Array All-Sky Survey (LOTAAS) to look for new pulsars via filtering the candidates obtained during periodicity searches. To assist the ML algorithm, we have introduced new features which capture the frequency and time evolution of the signal and improved the signal-to-noise calculation accounting for broad profiles. We enhanced the ML classifier by including a third class characterizing RFI instances, allowing candidates arising from RFI to be isolated, reducing the false positive return rate. We also introduced a new training data set used by the ML algorithm that includes a large sample of pulsars misclassified by the previous classifier. Lastly, we developed an ensemble classifier comprised of five different Decision Trees. Taken together these updates improve the pulsar recall rate by 2.5 per cent, while also improving the ability to identify pulsars with wide pulse profiles, often misclassified by the previous classifier. The new ensemble classifier is also able to reduce the percentage of false positive candidates identified from each LOTAAS pointing from 2.5 per cent (˜500 candidates) to 1.1 per cent (˜220 candidates).

  20. Evaluating an australian emergency nurse practitioner candidate training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Sharyn J; Wright, Mary; Hocking, Julia

    2017-11-01

    Nurse Practitioners (NPs) receive core clinical training at master's level, with their employer providing the opportunity to upskill in clinical and procedural competencies. It is increasingly recognised that this generic education requires supplementary training for operating effectively within a specific clinical environment. In this paper we describe a pilot program designed to train Australian NP Candidates to work effectively within the Emergency Department Fast Track model of care. The training program consisted of a 12-month period: four hours in-house training per week over two semesters, running concurrently with the NP candidate's University semesters, and 3 months' clinical practice to consolidate. The training team defined milestones for Semesters one and two, and developed a case review form to assess application of the candidate's knowledge in new clinical situations, as well as check for gaps in understanding. A clinical skills guide was developed for the candidate to work toward, and a comprehensive assessment was carried out at two time points in the training program. Feedback was obtained from the mentors and the candidate at the end point of the training program, and has been used to refine the program for 2017. This in-house training program provided specialised, evidence-based training for the emergency department environment, resulting in development of the nurse practitioner candidate as a high functioning team member. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. All rights reserved.